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1.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e190578, fev. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1380248

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated (a) the efficacy of an association between injectable antibiotic therapy and sealant (ATBS) on milk yield (MY), somatic cell count (SCC), and prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI); and (b) the efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on follicular cyst (FCs) resolution (cyclicity at the 45th day in milk; DIM) and cumulative pregnancy rate (CPR) in heifers submitted to a lactation induction protocol (LIP). A total of 114 crossbred (Holstein × Jersey) heifers, with 34.7 ± 4.8 months and 439 ± 56.35 kg were submitted to LIP. On the 5th day of the LIP, the heifers were assigned to (i) ATBS (n = 57) with 7 mg/kg of norfloxacin associated with sealant and (ii) Control 1 (n = 57; CONT1) with no treatments. Lactation began on the 21st day of LIP and the 15th DIM, FCs were diagnosed and 106 heifers were randomized into two treatment groups with 53 heifers each: (i) GnRH (5 mL injectable GnRH) and (ii) Control 2 (CONT2; no treatment). Of the 114 heifers initially induced, 83.33% (n = 95) responded to LIP with an average MY of 15.19 kg/milk/day during 22 weeks of lactation. In the first 14 DIM, the IMI prevalence was 18% and 28% for heifers ATBS and CONT1 treated, respectively. Additionally, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most frequently isolated group of pathogens. Mammary quarters that received ATBS treatment had a lower risk of IMI and SCC than CONT1. The cyclicity at 45 DIM was 68% (ATBS) and 35% (CONT1), and 57% and 46% for animals in the GnRH and CONT2. CPR was 60% in the ATBS group and 89% in CONT1, but GnRH treatment did not affect the CPR. In conclusion, LIP was effective in stimulating MY in heifers, and the IMI prevalence decreased with ATBS treatment. Also, the use of GnRH did not affect the FC regression, cyclicity at 45 DIM, and CPR.(AU)


Este estudo avaliou a (i) eficácia da associação entre antibioticoterapia injetável e selante interno de tetos (ATBS) na produção de leite (PL), contagem de células somáticas (CCS), e prevalência de infecções intramamárias (IIM); e (ii) eficácia do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH) na resolução de cistos foliculares (CFs), ciclicidade ao 45º dia em lactação (DEL) e taxa de prenhez cumulativa (TPC) em novilhas submetidas a um protocolo de indução de lactação (PIL). Um total de 114 novilhas mestiças (Holandês × Jersey), com 34,7 ± 4,8 meses e 439 ± 56,35 kg foram submetidas ao PIL. No 5º dia do PIL, as novilhas receberam: (i) ATBS (n = 57) com 7 mg/kg de norfloxacina associada ao selante interno de tetos e (ii) Controle 1 (n = 57; CONT1) sem tratamento. A lactação teve início no 21º dia do PIL e no 15º DEL, foram diagnosticados CFs e 106 novilhas foram agrupadas em dois grupos de tratamento com 53 novilhas em cada: (i) GnRH (5 mL de GnRH injetável) e (ii) Controle 2 (CONT2; sem tratamento). Das 114 novilhas inicialmente induzidas, 83,33% (n = 95) responderam ao PIL com PL média de 15,19 kg/leite/d durante 22 semanas de lactação. Nos primeiros 14 DEL a prevalência de IIM foi de 18% e 28% para as novilhas tratadas com ATBS e CONT1, respectivamente. Além disso, estafilococos coagulase negativa foram o grupo de patógenos mais frequentemente isolados. Quartos mamários tratados com ATBS tiveram menor risco (0,56) de IIM e menor CCS do que CONT1. A ciclicidade a 45 DEL foi de 68% (ATBS) e 35% (CONT1), e 57% e 46% para os animais no GnRH e CONT2. A TPC foi de 60% no grupo ATBS e 89% no CONT1, porém o tratamento com GnRH não afetou a TPC. Em conclusão, o PIL foi eficaz em estimular a PL em novilhas tardias e a prevalência de IIM diminiuiu com o tratamento ATBS. Além disso, o uso de GnRH não afetou a regressão de CF, ciclicidade em 45 DEL e a TPC.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pregnancy , Lactation/physiology , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/pharmacology , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Follicular Cyst/diagnosis , Cattle/physiology , Norfloxacin/administration & dosage , Cell Count/veterinary , Milk/physiology
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(11): 2029-2036, Nov. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976405

ABSTRACT

The present study determined the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus virulence genes in 2,253 milk samples of cows (n=1000) and goats (n=1253) raised in three different geographical regions of the state Pernambuco, Brazil. The presence of genes of virulence factors associated to adhesion to host cells (fnbA, fnbB, clfA and clfB), toxinosis (sea, seb, sec, sed, seg, seh, sei, tsst, hla and hlb), and capsular polysaccharide (cap5 and cap8) was evaluated by PCR. A total of 123 and 27 S. aureus strains were isolated from cows' and goats' milk, respectively. The sec and tsst genes were detected exclusively in goats' isolates, while the seh gene was only identified in cows' isolates. The number of toxin genes per strain showed that goats' isolates are likely more toxic than bovines' isolates. The cap5 genotype predominated in both host species, especially in strains collected from cows raised in the Agreste region. The cap8 genotype is likely more virulent due to the number of virulence genes per strain. The results of the present study demonstrate that S. aureus may pose a potential threat to human health in Brazil, and, therefore, these results should support actions related to mastitis control programs.(AU)


O presente estudo determinou a frequência de genes de virulência de Staphylococcus aureus em 2253 amostras de leite, sendo de vacas n=1000 e de cabras n=1253, procedentes das três regiões geográficas do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. A presença de genes de fatores de virulência associados à adesão às células hospedeiras (fnbA, fnbB, clfA e clfB), toxinosis (sea, seb, sec, sed, seg, seh, sei, tsst, hla e hlb) e polissacarídeo capsular (cap5 e cap8) foram avaliadas por PCR. Um total de 123 e 27 cepas de S. aureus foram isoladas do leite de vacas e cabras, respectivamente. Os genes sec e tsst foram detectados exclusivamente em isolados de cabras, enquanto o gene seh foi identificado apenas em isolados de vaca. O número de genes de toxina por cepa mostrou que os isolados de cabras são potencialmente mais tóxicos do que os isolados obtidos de bovinos. O genótipo cap5 predominou em ambas as espécies hospedeiras, especialmente em cepas coletadas de vacas criadas na região Agreste. O genótipo cap8 é potencialmente mais virulento devido ao número de genes de virulência por isolado. Os resultados do presente estudo demonstram que S. aureus pode representar uma ameaça potencial para a saúde humana no Brasil e, portanto, estes resultados devem subsidiar ações relacionadas aos programas de controle de mastite.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Cattle/microbiology , Goats/microbiology , Mastitis/microbiology , Mastitis/epidemiology , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Virulence , Dairying , Milk/microbiology
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(2): 223-228, fev. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895566

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus spp. são os micro-organismos mais relacionados a casos de mastite bovina. Algumas cepas destes micro-organismos têm apresentado fatores de virulência como genes de resistência a antimicrobianos com destaque para a resistência à meticilina que é um problema de saúde pública. Esta revisão de literatura tem o objetivo de compilar dados sobre a mastite bovina causada por Staphylococcus spp. resistente à meticilina (MRS). Apesar desse antimicrobiano não ser comumente utilizado no tratamento das mastites, a frequência de casos de infecção da glândula mamária causada por MRS tem variado entre 1,34 a 47,6%. Acredita-se que o contato dos humanos com animais positivos para MRS e vice-versa favoreça a transmissão deste patógeno entre as espécies, contribuindo para a variação nas taxas de infecção. A detecção de MRS pode ser realizada por meio de provas fenotípicas, moleculares ou sorológicas e as medidas de controle devem contemplar a identificação dos casos, segregação dos animais, estudo epidemiológico da fonte de infecção do rebanho, além da constante limpeza e higienização do ambiente de confinamento, equipamentos e utensílios de ordenha. Casos de mastite ocasionados por esse patógeno assumem relevância para a saúde pública, pois a ingestão de leite e/ou derivados contaminados podem desencadear a transferência de MRS para seres humanos. Com isso, é necessário um alerta constante quanto à vigilância epidemiológica em fazendas leiteiras.(AU)


The most related microorganism in cases of bovine mastitis are Staphylococcus spp. Some strains of these microorganisms have shown virulence factors like antibiotic resistance genes, such as the resistance to methicillin, which represents a public health problem. This literature review aims to compile data related to bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp. Methicillin-resistant (MRS). Despite this antimicrobial not be commonly used in the treatment of mastitis, the frequency of cases of infection of the mammary gland caused by MRS has ranged from 1.34 to 47.6%. It is believed that the contact of humans with animals positive for MRS and vice versa favors the transmission of this pathogen among species, contributing to the variation in infection rates. MRS detection can be performed by phenotypic tests, molecular tests or serological tests and control measures must be taken such as the identification of cases, animal segregation, epidemiological study of the infection source of herd and the constant cleanliness and hygiene of the confined environment, equipment and milking utensils. Mastitis cases caused by this pathogen are of great relevance to public health because the ingestion of contaminated and/or derived from milk may trigger the transfer of MRS for human. Thus, a constant warning is required on the epidemiological surveillance in dairy farms.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Mastitis, Bovine/immunology , Methicillin Resistance , Staphylococcus/immunology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 551-559, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889129

ABSTRACT

Abstract Streptococcus agalactiae is one of the most common pathogens leading to mastitis in dairy herds worldwide; consequently, the pathogen causes major economic losses for affected farmers. In this study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), genotypic capsular typing by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and virulence gene detection were performed to address the molecular epidemiology of 59 bovine (mastitis) S. agalactiae isolates from 36 dairy farms located in the largest milk-producing mesoregions in Brazil (Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, and Pernambuco). We screened for the virulence genes bac, bca, bibA, cfb, hylB, fbsA, fbsB, PI-1, PI-2a, and PI-2b, which are associated with adhesion, invasion, tissue damage, and/or immune evasion. Furthermore, five capsular types were identified (Ia, Ib, II, III, and IV), and a few isolates were classified as non-typeable (NT). MLST revealed the following eight sequence types (STs): ST-61, ST-67, ST-103, ST-146, ST-226, ST-314, and ST-570, which were clustered in five clonal complexes (CC64, CC67, CC103, CC17, and CC314), and one singleton, ST-91. Among the virulence genes screened in this study, PI-2b, fbsB, cfb, and hylB appear to be the most important during mastitis development in cattle. Collectively, these results establish the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae isolated from cows in Brazilian herds. We believe that the data presented here provide a foundation for future research aimed at developing and implementing new preventative and treatment options for mastitis caused by S. agalactiae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Streptococcal Infections/veterinary , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus agalactiae/classification , Streptococcus agalactiae/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Brazil/epidemiology , Molecular Epidemiology , Virulence Factors/genetics , Virulence Factors/metabolism , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(7): 565-573, jul. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-794769

ABSTRACT

A mastite é uma doença complexa e considerada uma das principais causas de perdas à indústria leiteira mundial. Objetivou-se com esta revisão compilar informações dos últimos dez anos sobre a mastite em ruminantes no Brasil. A prevalência da mastite subclínica chega a 48,64% na espécie bovina, 30,7% na espécie caprina, 31,45% na espécie ovina e 42,2% na espécie bubalina, destacando-se a etiologia por Staphylococcus spp. Os fatores de risco associados à ocorrência de mastite estão relacionados a problemas no saneamento ambiental e ao manejo dos animais. As bactérias isoladas do leite mastítico apresentam maior percentual de resistência a penicilina, ampicilina, amoxicilina e neomicina e a utilização de técnicas moleculares no diagnóstico dos agentes causadores de mastites no país, ainda é escassa o que dificulta a obtenção de um diagnóstico mais rápido, sensível e específico.(AU)


Mastitis is a complex disease and is considered one of the main causes of losses to the global dairy industry. The objective of this review was to compile information for the last ten years of mastitis in ruminants in Brazil. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 48.64% in cattle, 30.7% in goats, 31.45% in sheep and 42.2% in the buffalo species, with especial participation of Staphylococcus spp. in the etiology. Risk factors associated with the occurrence of mastitis were related to problems in environmental sanitation and handling of animals. The largest percentage of resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobials was for penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin and neomycin. The use of molecular tools for diagnosis of mastitis-causing agents in the country is still scarce, making it difficult to obtain a faster, sensitive and specific diagnosis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Brazil/epidemiology , Buffaloes/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Mastitis, Bovine/etiology , Mastitis/veterinary , Sheep/microbiology , Ampicillin Resistance , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Penicillin Resistance , Ruminants/microbiology
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(6): 518-524, June 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-766189

ABSTRACT

A mastite é a principal afecção do gado destinado à produção leiteira, que impacta significativamente a cadeia produtiva do leite, com reflexos ainda para a saúde pública. Estudou-se aspectos relacionados à etiologia, celularidade e de contagem bacteriana em 10 propriedades leiteiras, localizadas no Estado de São Paulo. Foram examinadas 1148 vacas em lactação, totalizando 4584 glândulas mamárias. Foram considerados os casos, em que houve isolamento de estafilococos coagulase positiva (SCP) e estafilococos coagulase negativa (SCN). Os resultados revelaram microbiota com vários patógenos e diferentes espécies de SCN (128 casos) e SCP (45), Staphylococcus aureus(90), Streptococcus agalactiae(70), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (69), Streptococcus uberis(29), Corynebacteriumspp. (230), Klebsiella pneumoniae(28), Klebsiella oxytoca(2), Escherichia coli(15), Enterobactersp. (3). Os resultados de contagem de células somáticas (CCS) relacionados aos SCP e SCN não mostraram diferenças entre as propriedades avaliadas, entretanto com diferenças significantes ao se avaliar a CCS entre os dois grupos de estafilococos, como pode ser evidenciado ao comparar SCN Discreto e SCP exuberante (P<0,01), SCP Discreto e SCP exuberante (P<0,001) e SCN moderado e SCP exuberante (P<0,01). A avaliação da CCS relacionada à intensidade da infecção, considerando-se como crescimento discreto o isolamento de até nove colônias, moderado de dez a 29 colônias e exuberante, com 30 ou mais colônias, revelou para ambos os grupos de estafilococos que quanto maior o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC), a CCS é mais elevada, sendo sempre maior nos casos de SCP. Conclui-se que quando há maior número de UFC, há concomitantemente maior CCS/mL de leite, no caso dos SCP e SCN...


Mastitis is the main affection of cattle intended for dairy production, which significantly impacts the milk production chain, with consequences yet to public health. It was studied aspects related to etiology, cellularity and bacterial count in 10 dairy farms, in the State of São Paulo. There were examined 1148 milking cows, totaling 4584 mammary glands. Cases in which there was isolation coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were considered. The results showed microbiota with various different pathogens and CNS (128 cases) and CPS (45), Staphylococcus aureus (90), Streptococcus agalactiae (70), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (69), Streptococcus uberis (29), Corynebacterium spp . (230), Klebsiella pneumoniae (28), Klebsiella oxytoca (2), Escherichia coli (15), Enterobacter spp. (3). The somatic cell count (SCC) related to CPS and CNS showed no differences among the evaluated properties, although with significant differences when evaluating the SCC between both groups of staphylococci, as evidenced by comparing discreet CNS and exuberant CPS (P <0.01), discreet CPS and exuberant CPS (P <0.001) and moderate SCN and exuberant SCP (P <0.01). The evaluation of SCC was related to the intensity of infection, considering how slight growth isolation of up to nine colonies, moderate ten to 29 colonies and lush, with 30 or more colonies, revealed for both groups of staphylococci that the higher the number of colony forming units (CFU), SCC is higher being larger in cases of CPS. The results indicate that the importance of both CPS and CNS when considering the high occurrence of the evaluated properties and the fact that it raises the SCC, which compromises the quality of milk. We conclude that when there is a larger number of CFU, is concomitantly higher SCC/ml of milk, in the case of CPS and CNS...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Breast-Milk Substitutes , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Mastitis, Bovine/prevention & control , Quality Control , Staphylococcus , Animal Husbandry/methods , Disease Prevention , Proteolysis , Stem Cells
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(5): 391-395, maio 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-626477

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se com este estudo analisar os fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina na microrregião de Garanhuns, Pernambuco. Para isso, foram submetidas ao exame microbiológico 1260 amostras de leite e em cada propriedade foi aplicado um questionário contendo informações relacionadas às características raciais dos animais, dados gerais sobre as propriedades, manejo do rebanho e higiênico-sanitário durante a ordenha. Para a análise dos fatores de risco foi realizada uma regressão logística considerando como variável dependente o exame microbiológico. Ao exame microbiológico observou-se 477 (37,9%) amostras positivas e 783 (62,1%) negativas. Os fatores de risco associados à mastite foram: sistema de criação semi-intensivo (OR=2,3; p<0,0001), alimentação dos animais durante a ordenha (OR=1,3; p=0,0101), rodízio de antimicrobianos (OR=1,3; p=0,0077) e o uso da terapia da vaca seca (OR=1,5; p=0,0013). Os resultados obtidos demonstram que os principais fatores de risco associados à mastite estão relacionados ao manejo higiênico-sanitário ao qual o rebanho é submetido. O conhecimento desses fatores fornece subsídios para a elaboração de medidas de prevenção e controle para a enfermidade em questão, melhorando a produtividade dos animais e, consequentemente, a lucratividade do sistema de produção.


The objective of this study was to analyze the risk factors for bovine mastitis in the micro-region of Garanhuns, Pernambuco, Brazil. For this, was submitted for microbiologic exam 1260 milk samples and on each farm was applied a questionnaire about characteristics of animal breeds, general data from the farm, handling of cattle and sanitary measures for milking. To analyze the risk factors, a logistic regression was made as a dependent variable of the microbiologic exam. The microbiologic exams showed 477 (37.9%) positive samples and 783 (62.1%) negatives ones. The risk factors for bovine mastitis were: the semi-intensive breeding system (OR=2.3, p<0.0001), feeding during milking (OR=1.3, p=0.0101), antimicrobial shift (OR=1.3, p=0.00770), and dry cow therapy (OR=1.5; p=0.0013). The results show that the main risk factors are associated with handling to which the cattle is submitted. The knowledge of these factors allow to adopt prevention and control measures to avoid mastitis to improve animal productivity and gain within the production system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Milk/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Mastitis, Bovine/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Risk Factors
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174789

ABSTRACT

Sensitivity to commercial teat dips (nonoxinol-9 iodine complex and chlorhexidine digluconate) of 56 Staphylococcus (S.) aureus strains isolated from quarter milk samples of various German dairy herds treated with different teat dipping schemes was investigated in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using a broth macrodilution method according to the German Veterinary Association guidelines. The main objective of the current study was to induce in vitro resistance induction of S. aureus to chemical disinfectants. Ten different strains were repeatedly passed ten times in growth media with sub-lethal concentrations of disinfectants. Nine strains showed a significant reduction in susceptibility to the nonoxinol-9 iodine complex but only one strain developed resistance to chlorhexidine digluconate. Stability of the acquired resistance was observed in all S. aureus strains adapted to the nonoxinol-9 iodine complex and chlorhexidine digluconate. In contrast, simultaneous resistance to different antibiotics was not observed in any of the ten investigated S. aureus strains. However, the isolates exhibited a high degree of resistance to penicillin G. Based on these results, resistance of S. aureus to chemical disinfectants may be more likely to develop if the chemicals are used at concentrations lower than that required for an optimal biocidal effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cattle , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Iodine/chemistry , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Nonoxynol/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/classification
9.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 43(3): 212-217, jun.-set. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-634694

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Streptococcus uberis isolated from subclinical mastitis (SCM) cases, and to examine the possible association between both characteristics. A total of 32 S. uberis were isolated from 772 quarter milk samples (SCM > 250,000 cells/ml) collected from 195 cows selected randomly from 18 dairy farms located in Argentina. The S. uberis strains were characterized phenotypically by the presence of virulence factors as plasminogen activator factor (PAF), hyaluronidase (HYA), capsule (CAP) and CAMP factor, and were further characterized genotypically by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). S. uberis strains expressed plasminogen activator factor, hyaluronidase or capsule (65.5 %, 56.3 %, 59.4 %, respectively), but only 25 % of isolates were CAMP factor positive. Thirteen different virulence profiles were identified on the basis of the combination of virulence factors. Eighteen PFGE patterns with 90% of similarity were identified among 32 S. uberis. A great diversity of virulence profiles and PFGE patterns were present among dairy farms. S. uberis strains with the same PFGE pattern showed different virulence profiles. Bovine S. uberis strains causing SCM included in the present study showed heterogeneity in regard to their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and the PFGE patterns are not associated with the virulence profiles.


Caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de Streptococcus uberis aislados de mastitis bovina subclínica en tambos de Argentina. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar las características fenotípicas y genotípicas de Streptococcus uberis aislados de casos de mastitis subclínica (MSC) y examinar la posible asociación entre ambas características. Un total de 32 cepas de S. uberis fueron aisladas de 772 muestras de leche de cuartos mamarios (MSC > 25 0000 células/ml) colectadas de 195 vacas seleccionadas al azar pertenecientes a 18 tambos lecheros localizados en Argentina. Las cepas de S. uberis fueron caracterizadas fenotípicamente sobre la base de la presencia de factores de virulencia tales como el factor activador del plasminógeno (FAP), la hialuronidasa (HIA), la cápsula (CAP) y el factor CAMP. Además, fueron caracterizadas genotípicamente por electroforesis de campos pulsados (PFGE). Las cepas de S. uberis expresaron el factor activador del plasminógeno, la hialuronidasa o la cápsula (65,5 %, 56,3 % y 59,4 %, respectivamente), pero solo el 25 % fueron CAMP positivas. Sobre la base de la combinación de los factores de virulencia se identificaron 13 perfiles de virulencia diferentes. Asimismo, se identificaron 18 patrones de PFGE con un 90 % de similitud entre las 32 cepas de S. uberis. Se presentó una gran diversidad de perfiles de virulencia y patrones de PFGE entre los tambos. Cepas con el mismo patrón de PFGE presentaron perfiles de virulencia diferentes. Las cepas de S. uberis causantes de MSC en bovinos incluidas en el presente estudio mostraron heterogeneidad con respecto a sus características fenotípicas y genotípicas, y los patrones de PFGE no estuvieron asociados con los perfiles de virulencia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Female , Animal Husbandry , Dairying , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/veterinary , Streptococcus/isolation & purification , Asymptomatic Infections , Argentina/epidemiology , Bacterial Capsules/analysis , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genotype , Hemolysin Proteins/analysis , Hyaluronoglucosaminidase/analysis , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Phenotype , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus/chemistry , Streptococcus/classification , Streptococcus/genetics , Streptococcus/pathogenicity , Virulence
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17401

ABSTRACT

The present study determined the genetic relationships between 41 Staphyloccocus (S.) aureus isolates from bovines, humans, and food using a single enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. We evaluated the prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes and other virulence gene determinants by PCR. The identification of S. aureus was based on culturing and biochemical tests, and by amplifying a specific section of the 23S rRNA gene. PCR amplification of the SE genes (sea, seb, sec, see, seg, seh, and sei) singly or in combination was observed. Most isolates of bovine origin harbored hla (84%) and cap5 (74%), while most isolates from humans harbored hla (73%), cap8 (91%), and fnbA (100%). Strains from food sources were positive for hla (100%), cap5 (100%), and cap8 (64%) unlike isolates from humans or bovines. A single enzyme AFLP analysis revealed a correlation between AFLP clusters of some strains and the source of the isolates The genotypic results of the present study might help to better understand the distribution of prevalent S. aureus clones among humans, bovines, and food and will help control S. aureus infections in Indonesia.


Subject(s)
Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis , Animals , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Cattle , Female , Food Microbiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221270

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiological pathogen of bovine mastitis, which triggers significant economic losses in dairy herds worldwide. In this study, S. aureus strains isolated from the milk of cows suffering from mastitis in Korea were investigated by spa typing and staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) gene profiling. Forty-four S. aureus strains were isolated from 26 farms in five provinces. All isolates grouped into five clusters and two singletons based on 14 spa types. Cluster 1 and 2 isolates comprised 38.6% and 36.4% of total isolates, respectively, which were distributed in more than four provinces. SE and SE-like toxin genes were detected in 34 (77.3%) isolates and the most frequently detected SE gene profile was seg, sei, selm, seln, and selo genes (16 isolates, 36.3%), which was comparable to one of the genomic islands, Type I nuSabeta. This is a first report of spa types and the prevalence of the recently described SE and SE-like toxin genes among S. aureus isolates from bovine raw milk in Korea. Two predominant spa groups were distributed widely and recently described SE and SE-like toxin genes were detected frequently.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , Enterotoxins/chemistry , Female , Genotype , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Microsatellite Repeats , Milk/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/classification
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 61(3): 745-748, jun. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-519470

ABSTRACT

Uncommon outbreak of mastitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in 19 cows was reported.Enrofloxacin (73.7%) and danofloxacin were in vitro effective against those strains. In vitro multipledrug resistance of the isolated bacteria was observed to five or more conventional antimicrobials usedfor mammary therapy, including ampicillin (100.0%), cefalexin (100.0%), cloxacillin (100.0%),gentamicin (100.0%), penicillin/novobiocin (100.0%), cefoperazone (52.6%), tetracycline (100.0%),florfenicol (94.7%), and neomycin (73.7%). Epidemiological findings, clinical signs, in vitrosusceptibility profile, control measures, and public health risks were discussed in cows infected by P. aeruginosa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/classification , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Cattle
13.
Ciênc. rural ; 38(7): 1938-1942, out. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-495104

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a freqüência de infecções intramamárias ocasionadas por leveduras a partir de amostras de leite (n=1710) coletadas em 40 rebanhos leiteiros do Estado de Minas Gerais. Cinqüenta e seis estirpes de leveduras do gênero Candida e uma linhagem de Trichosporon loubieri foram isoladas. Candida albicans foi a espécie dominante (28,1 por cento das cepas), seguida por Candida parapsilosis (19,3 por cento), Candida catenulata (14,0 por cento), Candida glabrata (14,0 por cento) e Candida tropicalis (8,8 por cento). Infecções mistas foram detectadas em 29,8 por cento das vacas levedura-positivas. Amostras positivas para leveduras foram predominantemente obtidas (84 por cento) de vacas com mastite subclínica. A baixa taxa de isolamento de leveduras sugere que estes microrganismos não são relevantes para mastite bovina na região estudada.


The objective of this study was to report the frequency of intramammary infections by yeasts, in Minas Gerais State, from milk samples (n = 1710) collected in 40 dairy herds. Fifty six yeast strains of the genus Candida and one strain of Trichosporon loubieri were isolated. Candida albicans was the dominant species (28.1 percent of the strains), followed by Candida parapsilosis (19.3 percent), Candida catenulata (14.0 percent), Candida glabrata (14.0 percent), Candida tropicalis (8.8 percent). Mixed infections were detected in 29.8 percent of yeast-positive cows. The yeast infection was more frequent (84 percent) in cows with subclinical mastitis. The low rate of isolation of yeasts suggests that these microorganisms are not relevant to bovine mastitis in the studied region.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Candida/pathogenicity , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Mastitis, Bovine/etiology
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 60(1): 19-24, fev. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-483252

ABSTRACT

Verificaram-se a ocorrência de mastite subclínica em animais da raça Holandesa e a relação entre a contagem de células somáticas com a ordem de lactação e com a produção e a composição química do leite. O estudo foi realizado em propriedades integrantes do programa de controle leiteiro da Associação de Criadores de Gado Holandês de Minas Gerais. As variáveis estudadas foram: ordem de lactação, ocorrência de mastite subclínica, contagem de células somáticas (CCS), produção de leite e porcentagens de gordura e de proteína total. A correlação entre CCS e produção de leite foi negativa e entre CCS e porcentagens de gordura e de proteína, positivas. Animais com maior número de lactações apresentaram maior CCS, e com CCS acima de 100.000 cels/ml menor produção de leite.


The subclinical mastitis occurrence and the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC) with parity, milk yield and milk chemical composition, were studied in Holstein cows. The study was carried out in farms belonging to the milk control program of the Associação de Criadores de Gado Holandês de Minas Gerais. Data on lactation order, subclinical mastitis, SCC, milk production, fat contents and total protein contents were analyzed. There was a negative correlation between SCC and milk production and, correlations between SCC and percentage of fat and protein were positive. Higher lactation order cows showed higher SCC, and cows with SCC higher than 100,000 cels/ml showed less milk production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cell Count/veterinary , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology
15.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 39(2): 84-89, abr.-jun. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-634544

ABSTRACT

Prevalence of intramammary infections at prepartum and postpartum in primigravid heifers from five dairy herds located in the central dairy area of Argentina was determined. Mammary secretion samples from 140 heifers (560 mammary quarters) were obtained 14 days prior to the expected calving day and within 7 days after parturition and subjected to bacteriological analysis. No clinical mastitis cases were detected during the study. The number of infected heifers in at least one mammary quarter at pre and postpartum was 87 (62.2%) and 53 (37.8%), respectively. The most prevalent mastitis pathogens at prepartum among samples yielding a positive bacteriological culture were coagulasenegative staphylococci (69.07%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.71%) and Streptococcus uberis (4.42%). A decrease on isolation frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci (53.41%) and S. uberis (2.27%) was observed at postpartum, while that of S. aureus showed an increase (21.59%). Presence of intramammary infections appeared to be associated with some management conditions. These results highlighted the need to improve diagnosis and control measures in replacement heifers.


Se determinó la prevalencia al preparto y posparto de infecciones intramamarias causadas por organismos patógenos de mastitis en vaquillonas primíparas de cinco establecimientos lecheros ubicados en la cuenca central santafesina. Se tomaron muestras de secreción mamaria de 140 vaquillonas (560 cuartos mamarios) aproximadamente 14 días antes de la fecha probable de parto y dentro de los 7 días posparto, y se procesaron bacteriológicamente. No se detectaron casos de mastitis clínicas durante el estudio. El número de vaquillonas infectadas en al menos un cuarto mamario al preparto y posparto fue de 87 (62,2%) y 53 (37,8%), respectivamente. Los organismos patógenos más prevalentes al preparto entre las muestras con cultivo bacteriológico positivo fueron estafilococos coagulasa negativos (69,07%), Staphylococcus aureus (12,7%) y Streptococcus uberis (4,42%). Al posparto se observó un descenso en la frecuencia de aislamiento de estafilococos coagulasa negativos (53,41%) y S. uberis (2,27%), mientras que la de S. aureus mostró un aumento (21,59%). La presencia de infecciones intramamarias pareció estar asociada con algunas prácticas de manejo. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto la importancia de hacer extensivo el diagnóstico y control de la enfermedad a las vaquillonas de reemplazo antes de su ingreso al rodeo en ordeño.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Female , Pregnancy , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/veterinary , Puerperal Infection/veterinary , Animal Husbandry/methods , Argentina/epidemiology , Coagulase/analysis , Colostrum/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Prevalence , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Puerperal Infection/epidemiology , Puerperal Infection/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/veterinary , Staphylococcus aureus/enzymology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/veterinary , Streptococcus/isolation & purification
16.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 43(2): 280-282, 2006.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-454658

ABSTRACT

Trichosporon beigelii was isolated from four and three Holstein heifers with clinical and subclinical mastitis respectively, during the extension activities of Nucleus of Mastitis Research - NUPEMAS - FMVZ-UNESP - BOTUCATU - BRAZIL This fungus is considered extremely important because it is responsible for superficial skin infections, known as "white piedra". According with literature, there is no record of isolation of this agent fram mastitis in Brazil. This fact confirms the importance of microbiological studies to lead the treatment correctly to prevent the increase of bacterial resistance and secondary fungal infections that uses the inefficient antimicrobial as substratum for its development.


Durante as atividades de extensão rural, desenvolvidas pelo Núcleo de Pesquisa em Mastites - NUPEMAS, do Departamento de Higiene Veterinária e Saúde Pública, da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade Estadual Paulista - Botucatu - São Paulo - Brasil, no ano de 2002, foi isolado de uma propriedade leiteira do interior do estado, o fungo Trichosporon beigelii, em quatro animais com mastite clínica, e em três com mastite subclínica. Este fungo é de grande importância, pois é responsável pelo desenvolvimento de quadros de micose superficial, conhecidos como piedra branca. No Brasil, até o presente momento, não há relato de isolamento de Trichosporon beigelii, como agente causador de mastites. Este fato confirma a importância do exame microbiológico para o monitoramento das mastites, pois permite a identificação de patógenos tanto nas infecções intramamárias subclínicas camo clínicas, evitando-se o tratamento com antimicrobianos, que nestes casos em particular, além de não exercer seu efeito terapêutica, pode predispor a infecções mistas por outros agentes fúngicos, na medida em que os antimicrobianos fornecem substrato para o desenvolvimento e manutenção destes.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Mastitis, Bovine/diagnosis , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Trichosporon/isolation & purification
17.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 43(6): 717-722, 2006. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-463902

ABSTRACT

O selênio e a vitamina E são antioxidantes importantes na defesa de células e tecidos e atuam diretamente na manutenção da saúde do úbere, influenciando a contagem de células somáticas, indicador da mastite. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do selênio e da vitamina E sobre a contagem de células somáticas no leite de vacas da raça holandesa, durante o período das águas. Oitenta animais foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos: controle; suplementação com 2,5 mg Se/dia; suplementação com 1000 UI vit. E/dia e suplementação com 2,5 mg Se + 1000 UI vit. E/dia. A suplementação foi iniciada 30 dias antes da provável data de parição, prolongando-se até o parto. Amostras do volumoso e do concentrado foram colhidas, quinzenalmente, para análise bromatológica completa e levantamento dos níveis de selênio. O sangue foi colhido antes do início da suplementação, no parto, 30 e 60 dias após o parto, para determinação dos níveis de Se no soro sangüíneo das vacas. O leite foi colhido semanalmente, para determinação da contagem de células somáticas (CCS). O período de colheita iniciou-se logo após o período colostral, prolongando-se até a décima segunda semana de lactação. Um mês após a suplementação, as vacas que receberam selênio apresentaram níveis séricos superiores (P<0,05) ao grupo controle. O selênio e a vitamina E não afetaram (P>0,05) a CCS nas doze primeiras semanas de lactação e não foi encontrado efeito de interação entre os dois elementos.


Selenium and vitamin E are important antioxidants for cells and tissues protection acting directly as a support for the udder health. This experiment was designed to evaluate the influence of prepartum selenium and vitamin E supplementation on milk somatic cell counts of Holstein cows during summer period. Eighty animals were allocated into four treatments: control; supplementation with 2.5 mg Se/day; supplementation with 1000 IU vitamin E/day and supplementation with 2.5 mg Se/day + 1000 IU vitamin E/ day. The supplementation started thirty days prior to probable parturition date until parturition. Forage and concentrate samples were taken every fifteen days for chemical and selenium analyses. B1ood samples were taken before starting supplementation, right after parturition, thirty and sixty days after it to determine the selenium serum levels. Milk samples were taken to determine SCC. Selenium supplemented cows had higher serum selenium concentration compared with control group (P<0.05). The selenium and vitamin E do not decrease (P>0.05) see up to 12th week of lactation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Blood Cell Count/methods , Milk/adverse effects , Mastitis, Bovine/diagnosis , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Selenium/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Vitamin E/therapeutic use
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128176

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of mastitis, milk quality and health risks associated with milk consumption were investigated on 96 randomly selected traditional herds in Dodoma rural and Mvomero districts of Tanzania. Mastitis was investigated based on clinical signs, microbiology and California mastitis test (CMT), while milk quality was evaluated using total viable count (TVC)and total coliform count (TCC). Animals were tested for tuberculosis using a single comparative intradermal tuberculin test. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis based on CMT was low (8.3%). The major isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (35.3%), other staphylococci (20.8%), coliforms (27.7%), microcci (5.8%) and streptococci (9.8%). The average TVC of milk in Dodoma rural district (1.0 x10(7)+/-3.4 x10(7))was significantly higher than that in Mvomero district (8.9x10(5) 3.5x10(6)) (p<0.001)and the proportion of TCC-positive samples in Dodoma (70.7%)were significantly higher (p<0.001) than that of Mvomero sample(20.8%). Whereas no tuberculin reactor animal was detected in the study animals, atypical mycobacteria were isolated from milk and one sample from Dodoma had Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Knowledge on health risks associated with milk consumption was low (20.8%). It is concluded that lack of awareness on health risks associated with milk consumption amongst rural communities needs to be addressed in order to safeguard their health.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Female , Humans , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Milk/microbiology , Prevalence , Public Health , Tanzania/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Bovine/epidemiology
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 24(4): 173-177, out.-dez. 2004. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-395085

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a eficiência do processo de desinfecção de teteiras por imersão em solução desinfetante utilizando duas fontes de cloro, hipoclorito de sódio e cloro orgânico, a dinâmica de cloro residual nesses dois tipos de soluções, ao longo do processo de ordenha, e a eficiência de três métodos de desinfecção: imersão, spray e esponja na remoção de microrganismos dos tetos de vacas em lactação, utilizando o cloro como desinfetante. Foram determinados os números de coliformes totais, coliformes fecais, Staphylococcus sp e microrganismos mesófilos nas amostras colhidas das teteiras, dos tetos e da solução desinfetante. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a prática da desinfecção de teteiras entre vacas, utilizando-se hipoclorito de sódio ou dicloroisocianurato de sódio como fontes de cloro, na concentração em torno de 150ppm não foi eficiente na redução dos microrganismos presentes nas teteiras. A solução desinfetante a base de dicloroisocianurato de sódio apresentou maior estabilidade. Os métodos de desinfecção dos tetos proporcionaram redução nos números de microrganismos pesquisados, em todos os tratamentos utilizados, mostrando ser uma ferramenta simples para minimizar o risco de transmissão de patógenos durante a ordenha e aumentar a qualidade microbiológica do leite produzido.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Disinfection/methods , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology
20.
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences [AJVS]. 1994; 10 (1): 11-19
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-31497

ABSTRACT

A survey was done in Enjela Dairy Farm, to find out the association between foot rot and clinical mastitic cases and other factors involved. High incidence of foot rot and clinical mastitis was noticed during the winter period. Average incidence of foot rot and clinical mastitis was 2.16% and 3.86%, respectively. Lameness was highly reported in the period after parturition. There was a high significant [P <0.01] correlation between foot rot, mastitis, rainfall, and maximum temperature. Also, there was a highly significant [P <0.01] correlation between foot rot, mastitis, rainfall, and humidity. Trials of treatment were also done


Subject(s)
Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Cattle
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