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Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 103-114, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878240


Natural killer (NK) cells are the main immune cells at the maternal-fetal interface and accumulate in the uterine decidua in early pregnancy. Many studies have shown that NK cells at the maternal-fetal interface have unique phenotypes and play critical roles in various processes, including immune tolerance during pregnancy, decidualization, invasion of trophoblasts, remodeling of the uterine spiral artery, formation of the placenta and growth of embryo. However, specific functions of NK cells and their mechanism remain to be fully elucidated. This review summarizes the research progress of NK cells at the maternal-fetal interface and their roles in the pregnancy-related disorders in recent years. The aims of this review are to gain deep insight of the function of NK cells at the maternal-fetal interface and provide new ideas for intervention of pregnancy-related diseases.

Decidua , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Placenta , Pregnancy , Trophoblasts , Uterus
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 89-95, Jan.-Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088770


ABSTRACT Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism are the most common hormonal dysfunctions during pregnancy. Insufficient maternal thyroid hormones (THs) in the early stages of pregnancy can lead to severe impairments in the development of the central nervous system because THs are critical to central nervous system development. In the fetus and after birth, THs participate in neurogenic processes, cell differentiation, neuronal activation, axonal growth, dendritic arborization, synaptogenesis and myelination. Although treatment is simple and effective, approximately 30% of pregnant women in Brazil with access to prenatal care have their first consultation after the first trimester of pregnancy, and any delay in diagnosis and resulting treatment delay may lead to cognitive impairment in children. This review summarizes the effects of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism on fetal neurodevelopment, behavior and cognition in humans and rodents. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):89-95

Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Pregnancy Complications/physiopathology , Brain/embryology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Hypothyroidism/complications , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/physiology , Pregnancy Complications/blood , Pregnancy Trimesters , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Brain/physiopathology , Pregnancy Outcome
Rev. Hosp. Niños B.Aires ; 62(278): 136-143, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344050


Actualmente, la transmisión transplacentaria es la vía más frecuente de infección por Trypanosoma cruzi. El diagnóstico y tratamiento temprano de hijos infectados evita el riesgo de desarrollar miocardiopatía y las niñas dejan de ser potenciales fuentes de transmisión congénita. En este estudio se evaluó el seguimiento de hijos de mujeres infectadas por T. cruzi en Centros de Salud de la provincia de Santa Fe. Se estudiaron 19 madres y sus 51 hijos. 45% (23/51) de los hijos no habían sido estudiados previamente, y de éstos 21/23 resultaron negativos mientras que dos niñas de 3 y 7 años estaban infectadas. Los 28 niños restantes ya habían sido estudiados en los Centros de Salud, siendo positivas dos gemelas de 22 meses y una niña de 9 años; los otros 25/28 hijos no estaban infectados. Un 47% (9/19) de las madres tenían como único antecedente la serología materna positiva, y de las 4 mujeres que transmitieron la infección, tres pertenecían a este grupo. La edad promedio de diagnóstico fue: 20±6 años en las madres y 7,4±6,7 años en los hijos. Se requieren estrategias sanitarias que favorezcan el estudio para la infección por T. cruzi en mujeres antes del embarazo y el seguimiento de todos los hijos para no perder la oportunidad de tratamiento

Transplacental transmission is currently the most frequent route of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected children avoids the risk of developing cardiomyopathy, and girls are no longer potential sources of congenital transmission. This study evaluated the follow-up of children of women infected with T. cruzi in Primary Care Centres of the province of Santa Fe. Nineteen mothers and their 51 children were studied. Among the 51 children, 23 had no previous diagnosis (45%). Of these, 21 were negative while 2 girls, ages 3 and 7, were infected. The remaining 28 children already had a diagnosis at the Health Centres, with 2 twins of 22 months and a 9-year-old girl who were positive; the other 25 children were not infected. Among the 19 mothers, 9 (47%) had the positive maternal serology as the only antecedent. Of the 4 women who transmitted the infection, 3 belonged to this group. The average age of diagnosis was: 20 ± 6 years in mothers and 7.4 ± 6.7 years in children. Health strategies are required to promote the detection of infected women before pregnancy and the monitoring of all children so as not to miss the opportunity for treatment

Female , Trypanocidal Agents , Chagas Disease , Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777605


BACKGROUND@#The effects of prenatal exposure to toxic elements on birth outcomes and child development have been an area of concern. This study aimed to assess the profile of prenatal exposure to toxic elements, arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi), cadmium (Cd), mercury (total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MHg), inorganic mercury (IHg)), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and tin (Sn), and essential trace elements, copper (Cu), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), using the maternal blood, cord blood and placenta in the Tohoku Study of Child Development of Japan (N = 594-650).@*METHODS@#Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of these elements (except mercury). Levels of THg and MeHg were measured using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry and a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Median concentrations (25th-75th) of As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn and THg in the maternal blood were 4.06 (2.68-6.81), 1.18 (0.74-1.79), 10.8 (8.65-13.5), 0.2 (0.06-0.40) and 0.2 (0.1-0.38) ng mL and 5.42 (3.89-7.59) ng g, respectively. Median concentrations (25th-75th) of As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn and THg in the cord blood were 3.68 (2.58-5.25), 0.53 (0.10-1.25), 9.89 (8.02-12.5), 0.39 (0.06-0.92) and 0.2 (0.2-0.38) ng mL and 9.96 (7.05-13.8) ng g, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#THg and Sb levels in the cord blood were twofold higher than those in the maternal blood. Cord blood to maternal blood ratios for As, Cd and Sb widely varied between individuals. To understand the effects of prenatal exposure, further research regarding the variations of placental transfer of elements is necessary.

Adult , Female , Fetal Blood , Chemistry , Humans , Japan , Maternal Exposure , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Metals , Blood , Placenta , Chemistry , Pregnancy , Blood , Trace Elements , Blood , Urban Health
Rev. patol. trop ; 47(3): 133-144, set. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-946895


The present article looks at the association between the epidemiological history of women infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and the risk of vertical transmission. Eighty-three chronically infected mothers and their 237 children were studied, using a cohort design. All patients reside in Santa Fe city, Argentina. Twenty-five women transmitted the infection to 38 children. The potential risk factors evaluated in the mothers were exposure to vector transmission, blood transfusion history, maternal seropositivity, parasitemia and age at birth of the child. 72% (18/25) of the mothers who transmitted the infection to their children, had little or no contact with the vector, while only 28% (7/25) of the mothers presented a history of medium or high risk of vector infection. The differences were significant (p < 0.05). Forty-one percent of the women who presented maternal history as the probable route of infection, transmitted the parasite to more than one child (1.86 ± 0.33; CI95% = 1.03-2.68). In addition, the most frequent history, among the women who transmitted the disease to their children, was the absence of exposure to vector transmission and transfusion with unknown maternal serology. The route of infection was probably transplacental. These observations suggest that there are family genetic characteristics involved in vertical transmission. The parasite was found in 71% of the mothers who transmitted the infection to their children and were able to perform xenodiagnoses. After controlling for the other variables, the logistic regression analysis showed that xenodiagnosis (+) is a risk factor for congenital transmission; the relative risk was 12.2 (95% confidence interval: 2.9 - 50.1). No differences were found when analyzing the mother's age and transfusion history. The highest risk of congenital transmission was associated with detectable parasitemia and less maternal exposure to the vector.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Risk Factors , Chagas Disease/transmission , Trypanosoma cruzi , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(3): 608-616, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954055


ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the fetal stem cell (FSC) response to maternal renal injury with emphasis on renal integrity improvement and Y chromosome detection in damaged maternal kidney. Materials and Methods: Eight non-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic Sprague-Dawley rats were mated with GFP-positive transgenic male rats. Renal damage was induced on the right kidney at gestational day 11. The same procedure was performed in eight non-pregnant rats as control group. Three months after delivery, right ne- phrectomy was performed in order to evaluate the injured kidney. The fresh perfused kidneys were stained with anti-GFP antibody. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was also performed for the Y chromosome detection. Cell culture was performed to detect the GFP-positive cells. Technetium-99m-DMSA renal scan and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed after renal damage induction and 3 months later to evaluate the improvement of renal integrity. Results: The presence of FSCs was confirmed by immune histochemical staining as well as immunofluorescent imaging of the damaged part. Gradient PCR of female rat purified DNA demonstrated the presence of Y-chromosome in the damaged maternal kidney. Moreover, the culture of kidney cells showed GPF- positive cells by immuno- fluorescence microscopy. The acute renal scar was repaired and the integrity of dam- aged kidney reached to near normal levels in experimental group as shown in DMSA scan. However, no significant improvement was observed in control group. Conclusion: FSC seems to be the main mechanism in repairing of the maternal renal injury during pregnancy as indicated by Y chromosome and GFP-positive cells in the sub-cultured medium.

Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Wound Healing/physiology , Chimerism , Fetal Stem Cells/physiology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/physiology , Time Factors , Y Chromosome , Immunohistochemistry , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Cells, Cultured , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Radiopharmaceuticals , Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid , Disease Models, Animal , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Kidney Diseases/diagnostic imaging
Medisan ; 22(2)feb. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894684


Se realizó un estudio analítico, observacional, de casos y controles, en niños de los círculos infantiles Pétalos de Rosa y La Espiguita, pertenecientes al área de salud del Policlínico Docente Armando García Aspurú de Santiago de Cuba, durante el período de febrero de 2015 a marzo de 2016, con vistas a determinar los factores maternos y neonatales asociados al retraso en la aparición de dientes temporales. La población quedó conformada por 150 niños de 2do a 4to años de vida, de los cuales se tomaron 2 controles (N=100) por cada caso (N=50). En la serie se obtuvo asociación estadísticamente significativa de las variables estado nutricional de la madre, ganancia de peso de la madre, enfermedades maternas, lactancia materna y peso del niño al nacer, con la alteración del brote dentario temporal en los niños. Se recomendó realizar intervenciones educativas en los círculos infantiles y las comunidades para apoyar el trabajo del médico de la familia

An analytic, observational, of cases and controls study, in children from Pétalos de Rosa and La Espiguita day care centers, belonging to the health area of Armando García Aspurú Teaching Polyclinic was carried out in Santiago de Cuba, during February, 2015 to March, 2016, aimed at determining the maternal and neonatal factors associated with the delay in the emergence of the temporary teeth. The population was conformed by 150 children from 2nd to 4th years of life, from whom 2 controls were taken (N=100) for each case (N=50). In the series a statistically significant association of the variables mother's nutritional state, mother's weight gain, maternal diseases, breast feeding and child birth weight was obtained, with the disorder of the temporary teething eruption in the children. It was suggested to carry out educational interventions in the day care centers and communities to support the family doctor's work

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Tooth, Deciduous/physiopathology , Tooth Eruption/physiology , Risk Factors , Maternal-Fetal Relations/physiology , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/physiology , Tooth, Deciduous/abnormalities , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/genetics
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(6): 1376-1384, nov.-dez. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-909699


Placentas from pregnant cows with different gestation periods were used. Placental fragments of all groups were processed and evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. After fragment analysis, bovine placenta was observed to be epitheliochorial type in early pregnancy, becoming progressively sinepiteliocorial at the beginning of the second trimester. There are no ultrastructural evidences of inflammation in the region of caruncles throughout gestation, despite the invasion of caruncle proper lamina by trophoblast cells. However, throughout pregnancy and especially at the end, there were evident signs of cell degeneration in both trophoblast and the uterine epithelium. The active trophoblast cells intensely phagocytize cellular debris. There are complex interdigitations between the surface of the trophoblast and the uterine epithelium, which is related to the increase of the exchange surface between mother and fetus. At the end of pregnancy, interdigitations disappear, favoring the detachment and expulsion of the placenta after birth.(AU)

Foram utilizadas placentas de vacas abatidas em frigorífico com diversos tempos gestacionais. Fragmentos de placentomo de todos os grupos foram processados e avaliados em microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. Após análise dos fragmentos, observou-se que a placenta bovina é do tipo epiteliocorial no início da gestação, tornando-se sinepiteliocorial progressivamente a partir do início do segundo mês de gestação. Não existem evidências ultraestruturais de inflamação na região das carúnculas durante toda a gestação, apesar da invasão da lâmina própria caruncular por células trofoblásticas. No entanto, durante toda a gestação e em especial ao seu final, foram observados sinais evidentes de degeneração celular, tanto do trofoblasto como do epitélio uterino. As células trofoblásticas ativas fagocitam intensamente os debris celulares originados dessas degenerações. Existem complexas interdigitações entre a superfície do trofoblasto e do epitélio uterino, o que estaria relacionado com o aumento da superfície de troca entre mãe e feto. Ao final da gestação, praticamente desaparecem essas interdigitações, favorecendo o descolamento e a expulsão da placenta após o parto.(AU)

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Cattle , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/physiology , Placenta/physiology , Placenta/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/veterinary
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(2): 130-137, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782160


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate, in rat offspring, bone changes induced by excess maternal thyroxin during pregnancy and lactation, and to assess the reversibility of these changes after weaning. Material and methods Twenty Wistar rats were distributed in two groups, hyperthyroid and control, that were treated daily with L-thyroxin (50 mcg/animal) and placebo, respectively. The treatment was initiated seven days before mating and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. From every female of each of the two groups, two offspring were euthanized after birth, two at 21 days of age (weaning), and two at 42 days of age (21 days after weaning). In newborns, the length of pelvic and thoracic limbs were measured, and in the other animals, the length and width of the femur and humerus were measured. Bones were dissected, decalcified, embedded in paraffin, and analyzed histomorphometrically. Results Excess maternal thyroxin significantly reduced the length of the pelvic limb in neonates. In 21-day-old individuals, excess maternal thyroxine reduced the length and the width of the femur and the humerus. It also increased thickness of the epiphyseal plate and the percentage of trabecular bone tissue. In 42-day-old individuals, there were no significant differences between groups in relation to the parameters evaluated in the previous periods. Conclusion Excess maternal thyroxine reduced growth in suckling rats both at birth and at weaning, and it also increased the percentage of trabecular bone tissue in 21-day-old animals. These changes, however, were reversible at 42 days, i.e., 21 days after weaning. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2016;60(2):130-7.

Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Thyroxine/pharmacology , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Bone and Bones/pathology , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Thyroxine/metabolism , Time Factors , Weaning , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Lactation/drug effects , Age Factors , Rats, Wistar , Animals, Newborn/growth & development
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(2): 271-275, mar.-abr. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779800


The aim of this study was to examine the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens, determining the number of foals with detectable concentrations of antibodies against these agents in the serum, before colostrum ingestion and collect data about exposure of horses to the parasite. Serum samples were collected from 195 thoroughbred mares and their newborns in two farms from southern Brazil. Parasite specific antibody responses to Sarcocystis antigens were detected using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and immunoblot analysis. In 84.1% (159/189) of the pregnant mares and in 7.4% (14/189) of foals we detected antibodies anti-Sarcocystis spp. by IFAT. All samples seropositive from foals were also positive in their respective mares. Serum samples of seropositive foals by IFAT, showed no reactivity on the immunoblot, having as antigens S. neurona merozoites. In conclusion, the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens in horses was demonstrated, with occurrence not only in mares, but also in their foals, before colostrum ingestion these occurrences were reduced.

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a exposição intrauterina ao Sarcocystis spp., para determinar o número de potros que possuem concentrações detectáveis de anticorpos contra esses agentes no soro, antes da ingestão do colostro, por meio da coleta de dados sobre a exposição a esses protozoários nos equinos. Amostras de soro foram coletadas de 195 éguas puro-sangue e seus respectivos potros recém-nascidos, em duas fazendas localizadas na região Sul do Brasil. Os testes utilizados na detecção de anticorpos específicos para o Sarcocystis foram a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI) e análise por meio de immunoblot. Pela RIFI, em 84,1% (159/189) das éguas e em 7,4% (14/189) dos potros foram detectados anticorpos anti-Sarcocystis spp. Todas as amostras soropositivas dos potros também foram positivas para suas respectivas mães. As amostras de soro dos potros soropositivos na RIFI, não apresentaram reatividade no immunoblot, tendo como antígenos merozoítos de S. neurona. Em conclusão, foi demonstrada a exposição intrauterina de Sarcocystis spp. em equinos, com ocorrência em éguas, porém, em seus respectivos potros, antes da ingestão de colostro a ocorrência foi reduzida.

Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Horses/parasitology , Prenatal Diagnosis/veterinary , Sarcocystis/pathogenicity , Encephalomyelitis/veterinary , Immunoblotting , Immunoblotting/veterinary , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Seroepidemiologic Studies
Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2016; 9 (3): 240-250
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178943


Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda and control and eradication efforts have aimed at its vectors [Aedes mosquitoes] in Latin America in the 1950s, an absolute neglect of Zika programs and interventions has been documented in Aedes endemic and epidemic-prone countries. The current unprecedented Zika viral epidemics and rapid spread in the Western hemisphere pose a substantial global threat, with associated anxiety and consequences. The lack of safe and effective drugs and vaccines against Zika or dengue epidemics further buttresses the realization from the West Africa Ebola outbreak that most emerging disease-prone countries are still poorly prepared for an emergency response. This paper examines knowledge gaps in both emerging and neglected arthropod-borne flavivirus infectious diseases associated with poverty and their implications for fostering local, national and regional emerging disease preparedness, effective and robust surveillance-response systems, sustained control and eventual elimination. Strengthening the regional and Global Health Flavivirus Surveillance-Response Network [GHFV-SRN] with other models of socio-economic, climatic, environmental and ecological mitigation and adaptation strategies will be necessary to improve evidence-based national and global maternal-child health agenda and action plans

Humans , Flavivirus , Flavivirus Infections , Dengue Virus , Maternal-Fetal Relations , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Epidemics
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 26(supl. 2): 7-16, 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-882360


Introdução: as infecções congênitas são resultantes da transmissão vertical de microrganismos de gestantes infectadas para seus conceptos. Apesar dessas infecções, em geral, cursarem com pouca ou nenhuma manifestação clínica nas gestantes, a infecção fetal pode trazer morbimortalidade perinatal e na infância. Objetivo: identificar a prevalência das infecções congênitas encaminhadas ao Centro de Referência e Treinamento em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias Orestes Diniz (CTR/DIP Orestes Diniz) e avaliar os métodos laboratoriais usados para o diagnóstico. Métodos: estudo transversal realizado em ambulatório de referência em doenças infecciosas, a partir de coleta de dados de prontuários de crianças com diagnóstico suspeito de infecção congênita. A confirmação diagnóstica baseou-se em testes sorológicos ou de biologia molecular, além de descrição de sintomatologia da criança. Resultados: um total de 513 crianças foram identificadas, sendo que 41,3% tiveram o diagnóstico confirmado, a maioria foi de toxoplasmose (45,35%) e sífilis (15,98%). Entre as crianças com diagnóstico confirmado, 28,85% apresentaram manifestações clínicas, enquanto que no grupo com diagnóstico indeterminado ou suspeito o percentual foi de 16,38%. As principais manifestações identificadas foram acometimento do sistema nervoso central (n=39) e alterações visuais (n=30). Conclusão: a confirmação de infecção foi definida em aproximadamente metade dos pacientes avaliados e a maioria das crianças foi assintomática ao nascimento. O pré-natal de qualidade e a propedêutica e tratamento precoce das crianças identificadas podem reduzir o impacto dessas infecções no nosso meio.(AU)

Introduction: congenital infections are results of microorganisms transmitted to the fetus by the infected pregnant. Most newborn infants infected during pregnancy or labor have no sings of congenital disease. However, these infections may cause perinatal and infancy morbidity and mortality. Objective: to determine the prevalence of congenital infections in newborns and infants attended at the CTR/DIP Orestes Diniz (Centro de Treinamento e Referência em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias Orestes Diniz) and to analyse the laboratorial methods used for diagnosis of congenital disease of assisted children. Methods: cross-sectional study conducted in an Infectious Diseases Reference Center where it was evaluated the charts of infants with suspected congenital infection. Diagnosis confirmation was based on serological tests, molecular biology and signs and symptoms described in the charts. Results: A total of 41,3% of the 513 children identified have had a defined diagnosis. Most of them had toxoplasmosis (45,35%) and syphilis (15,98%). Clinical manifestations was observed in 28,85% of children with defined diagnosis of congenital infection, and in 16,38% of children with uncertain diagnosis. Central Nervous System (n=39) and ocular (n=30) manifestations were the most frequent findings. Conclusions: Defined diagnosis was possible in about half of cases and most of them were asymptomatic at birth. An appropriate prenatal care and early diagnosis and treatment of congenital infections may reduce the impact of disease in the population.(AU)

Humans , Syphilis, Congenital , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital , Dengue/congenital , Hepatitis B/congenital , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Chikungunya Fever/congenital , Zika Virus Infection/congenital , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
Clin. biomed. res ; 36(4): 179-186, 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-831517


Caffeine consumption during pregnancy has been shown in the scientific literature to be associated with teratogenicity such as low birth weight, fetal malformations, and miscarriage. However, the morphological alterations of the offspring of dams exposed during pregnancy have not been consistently described, and the mechanisms why they occur remain elusive. Thus, we aimed to characterize the offspring malformations induced by moderate and high doses of caffeine during pregnancy. Dams were divided into three groups: control, moderate (0.3 g/L), and high dose (1.0 g/L) of caffeine, which was provided in the drinking water beginning on gestational day 1 and continuing throughout the entire gestation. At moderate doses, only one of the dams had stillborn pups, although no macroscopic malformations were observed. High doses of caffeine induced significantly more malformations (P<0.001) and early death (before P4). The malformations observed were related to fetal development and cardiovascular alterations, namely bruises, macrocephaly with short limbs, abnormal development (or absence) of head structures and limbs, labial malformations, hydrops fetalis, and poor placental formation. We discussed the proposed mechanisms by which caffeine might induce these phenotypes, which may involve down-regulation of adenosine A1 receptors, and increased mothers' catecholamines. Our findings further confirm the evidence of the teratogenic effects of high doses of caffeine administered during pregnancy. These findings support the recommendation to avoid caffeine exposure during pregnancy (AU)

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Caffeine/toxicity , Congenital Abnormalities , Heart Defects, Congenital/chemically induced , Pregnancy , Caffeine/administration & dosage , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/drug effects , Receptor, Adenosine A1
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(10): 2073-2092, Out. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770606


Abstract This study reviewed the evidence that assessed the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and/or gestational weight gain and offspring body composition in childhood. A systematic review was conducted. Cohort studies, case-control studies and randomized controlled trials measuring offspring body composition by indirect methods were included. Meta-analyses of the effect of pre-pregnancy BMI on offspring fat-free mass, body fat percent, and fat mass were conducted through random-effects models. 20 studies were included, most of which reported a positive association of pre-pregnancy BMI with offspring body fat. Standardized mean differences in body fat percent, fat mass and fat-free mass between infants of women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI and those of overweight/obese women were 0.31 percent points (95%CI: 0.19; 0.42), 0.38kg (95%CI: 0.26; 0.50), and 0.18kg (95%CI: -0.07; 0.42), respectively. Evidence so far suggests that pre-pregnancy maternal overweight is associated with higher offspring adiposity.

Resumen Esta revisión evaluó la asociación entre el índice de masa corporal (IMC) pregestacional y/o el aumento de peso gestacional con la composición corporal de los hijos en la infancia. Se realizó una revisión sistemática. Se incluyeron estudios de cohorte, caso-control y ensayos randomizados, que determinaron la composición corporal de los hijos mediante métodos indirectos. Se realizaron metaanálisis del efecto del IMC pregestacional sobre la masa libre de grasa, porcentaje de grasa corporal y masa de grasa. Se incluyeron 18 estudios, la mayoría de los cuales reportó asociación positiva entre el IMC materno pregestacional y la adiposidad de los hijos. Las diferencias de medias padronizadas de porcentaje de grasa corporal, masa de grasa y masa libre de grasa entre hijos de mujeres con IMC pregestacional normal, en comparación con los de mujeres con sobrepeso/obesidad fueron: 0,31 puntos porcentuales (IC95%: 0,19; 0,42), 0,38kg (IC95%: 0,26; 0,50) y 0,18kg (IC95%: -0,07; 0,42), respectivamente. Esta evidencia sugiere que el sobrepeso materno pregestacional se asocia con una elevada adiposidad en sus hijos.

Resumo Esta revisão avaliou a associação entre o índice de massa corporal (IMC) pré-gestacional e/ou ganho de peso gestacional com a composição corporal dos filhos na infância. Uma revisão sistemática foi realizada. Estudos de coorte, caso-controle e ensaios randomizados, que determinaram a composição corporal dos filhos mediante métodos indiretos, foram incluídos. Meta-análises do efeito do IMC pré-gestacional sobre a massa livre de gordura, percentual de gordura corporal e massa gorda foram realizados. Incluiu-se 18 estudos, a maioria dos quais reportou associação positiva entre o IMC materno pré-gestacional e adiposidade dos filhos. As diferenças de médias padronizadas de percentual de gordura corporal, massa gorda e massa livre de gordura entre filhos de mulheres com IMC pré-gestacional normal em comparação com os de mulheres com sobrepeso/obesidade foram: 0,31 pontos percentuais (IC95%: 0,19; 0,42), 0,38kg (IC95%: 0,26; 0,50) e 0,18kg (IC95%: -0,07; 0,42), respectivamente. Esta evidência sugere que o sobrepeso materno pré-gestacional está associado com a elevada adiposidade em seus filhos.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Body Composition/genetics , Overweight/physiopathology , Weight Gain/genetics , Adiposity , Birth Weight , Body Mass Index , Brazil , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology , Overweight/metabolism
Rev. méd. panacea ; 5(2): 52-56, mayo-ago. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023013


Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y asociación entre exposición a plaguicidas antes y durante el primer trimestre de la gestación y el riesgo de malformación congénita. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional, transversal retrospectivo, analítico de casos y controles. Los casos (n = 57) se seleccionaron por muestreo no probabilístico y los controles (n= 114) por muestreo aleatorio simple de una población hospitalaria de la Región Ica, durante el periodo de 3 años comprendido entre el 1 de enero del 2005 al 31 de diciembre del 2007. Los casos, se definieron como neonatos con malformaciones congénitas y los controles, recién nacidos sin malformaciones. Se consideró exposición a cualquier contacto con plaguicidas. Se evaluaron otros factores de riesgo conocidos para malformación congénita: in gesta de medicamentos, drogadicción, alcoholismo y anemia materna severa, como factores de confusión. Resultados: Se reportaron 26 malformaciones de la cara, boca y paladar, 11 del sistema cardiovascular, 11 de las extremidades, 7 del sistema genitourinario, 6 del sistema nervioso central y 12 otras malformaciones. Las gestantes expuestas tuvieron un alto riesgo de procrear hijos malformados OR 2,85 (IC 95% 1,46 ­ 5,54 p < 0,05). Los riesgos más elevados a malformaciones fueron: exposición por acudir a campos fumigados OR: 3,82 (IC 95% 1,92 ­ 7,60 p< 0,05) y vivir cerca de campos fumigados OR: 3,07 (IC 95% 1,59 ­ 5,92 p < 0.05) . Conclusiones: Se muestra evidencia epidemiológica de la relación causal entre exposición a plaguicidas y malformaciones congénitas en una muestra de mujeres gestantes en el hospital regional de Ica. (AU)

Objective: To determine the prevalence and association between pesticide exposure before and during the first trimester of pregnancy and the risk of congenital malformation in the systems: cardiovascular, genitourinary, central nervous malformations of the face, mouth, palate and limbs. . Materials and Methods: Observational, transversal retrospective analytical case-control study. The cases (n = 57) were selected by non-probability sampling and controls (n = 114) by simple random sampling from a hospital population of Ica region during the three years period from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2007. The cases were defined as infants with congenital malformations and controls infants without malformations. Exposures to any contact with pesticides are considered. In quest of drugs, drug addiction, alcoholism and severe maternal anemia, as confounding factors: other known risk factors for congenital malformation they were evaluated. Results: 26 were reported defects of the face, mouth and palate, cardiovascular system 11, 11 of the limbs 7 of the genitourinary system, central nervous system 6 and 12 other malformations. Exposed pregnant women had a higher risk of bearing children malformed OR 2,85 (95% CI 1,46 to 5,54 p < 0,05). The highest risk of malformations were fumigated exposure attend camps OR : 3,82 ( 95% CI 1,92 to 7,60 p < 0,05 ), living near sprayed fields OR : 3,07 ( IC 95 % 1,59 to 5,92 p < 0,05) and living with a spouse working in fields sprayed OR: 2,40 (95% CI 1,21 to 4,78 p<0,05). Conclusions: Epidemiological evidence of a causal relationship between pesticide exposure and birth defects. (AU)

Humans , Female , Pesticide Synergists , Risk Management , Congenital Abnormalities , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
Gac. méd. espirit ; 17(2): 81-91, mayo.-ago. 2015. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-759140


Fundamento: El condiloma acuminata prevalece en la población mundial elevando su incidencia en los últimos años; afectando proporcionalmente a la población gestante. Un número elevado de embarazadas son sometidas a la operación cesárea por esta causa, elevando los riesgos de morbimortalidad perinatal. El conocimiento del modo de trasmisión durante el embarazo, las consecuencias para la descendencia y la conducta a seguir ante las verrugas genitales durante la gestación, pueden contribuir a modificar el manejo de esta enfermedad durante la atención prenatal. Objetivo: Analizar algunas evidencias necesarias para un adecuado seguimiento prenatal en las gestantes que padecen de condiloma verrucoso genital. Desarrollo: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica exhaustiva y actualizada acerca de las vías de trasmisión de la madre al hijo y la conducta obstétrica en las gestantes afectadas por condilomas acuminados. Conclusiones: Las evidencias científicas que se sintetizan en la revisión nos muestran que la condilomatosis genital durante el embarazo puede ser trasmitida de la madre al hijo por diferentes vías; no evitando la cesárea electiva la infección viral al recién nacido. Diversos tratamientos aplicados de forma adecuada durante la atención prenatal pueden disminuir este riesgo.

Background: The Condyloma acuminatun prevails in the world population increasing its incidence in the last few years and affecting proportionally to the population in the gestation period. A high number of pregnant women are submissive to a caesarean operation for this cause, increasing the risk of perinatal morbimortality. The knowledge of the way of transmission during the pregnancy, the consequences for the descent and the conduct to follow in the presence of genitals wart during the gestation, can contribute to modify the management of this disease during the prenatal attention. Objective: Analyze some evidences needed for an adequate prenatal pursuit in women that suffer condyloma acuminatum in the gestation period. Development: An exhausted and actual bibliography study was done about the way of transmission from the mother to her child and the obstetric conduct in women in the gestation period affected by the condyloma acuminatum. Conclusions: The scientific evidence summarized in the study showed us that genital condylomatosis during pregnancy can be transmitted from the mother to her child by different ways, not only avoiding the elected caesarean operation the viral infection to the newborn. Different treatments applied correctly during the prenatal attention can decrease this risk.

Humans , Condylomata Acuminata/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Risk Factors
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 52(3): 195-204, 20150000. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-774220


This study describes the placental morphology and fetal-maternal interface regarding macroscopic and microscopic aspects from Pêga Jennies at end of pregnancy. Eleven placentas were evaluated after delivery, and four fragments from each placenta were taken in duplicate corresponding to the pregnant uterine horn and non-pregnant horn. Fragments from fetal-maternal interface were obtained from one Jennie at C- section. All fragments were submitted to light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Regarding the macroscopic aspect of the placenta, microcotyledons were observed at the endometrial interface, characterized by the diffuse aspect of the placenta. Light microscopy revealed villous type chorion at the chorioallantoic membrane, which were organized in agglomeration villi, presenting a connective tissue stroma and trophoblastic cells. At the fetal-maternal interface, micro placentation, which were composed by inter digitations of agglomeration of villi, limited by maternal crypts, circled by arcades, composed by a fetal trophoblast and an internal portion. In addition, endometrial glands opening were observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the chorioallantoic membranes were covered by villi agglomerations. At the top of those fetal villi we observed cell protrusions from trophoblast cells, which carried debris from maternal tissues. A transversal section from the fetal- maternal interface represented an intricate villi interdigitation with thin maternal caruncle structures, which consist in micro placentation. Macro and microscopic aspects of Jennies placenta, as well as the fetalmaternal interface presented similarities with the observed in mares.

O presente trabalho descreveu a morfologia placentária e a interface materno-fetal de jumentas da raça Pêga, quanto aos aspectos macroscópicos e microscópicos ao final da gestação. Foram avaliadas onze placentas, colhendo-se quatro fragmentos por placenta em duplicata, correspondentes ao corno uterino prenhe e ao corno uterino não prenhe. Fragmentos da interface materno-fetal, oriundos de uma jumenta com gestação a termo, foram obtidos durante o procedimento de cesariana. Os fragmentos foram examinados por microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Na macroscopia, foi observado microcotilédone na interface com o endométrio caracterizando placentação difusa. À microscopia de luz na membrana corioalantoide foi observado o córion do tipo viloso, com vilos organizados em tufos vilosos, estroma de tecido conjuntivo e células trofoblásticas. Na interface materno-fetal, microplacentônios, formados pela interdigitação dos tufos vilosos, limitados pelas criptas maternas, circundados pelas arcadas, compostos por uma parte fetal trofoblástica e uma parte interna, observando-se a abertura de glândulas endometriais. À microscopia eletrônica de varredura, foi constatado que a membrana corioalantoide se encontrava coberta por tufos vilosos. Nos ápices dos vilos fetais, foram observadas protrusões de células do trofoblasto, carreando debris de tecidos maternos. Em corte transversal da interface materno-fetal, foi verificada a intrincada interdigitação dos vilos com as finas estruturas das carúnculas maternas, formando os microplacentônios. Os aspectos macro e microscópicos da placenta da jumenta, assim como as descrições da interface materno-fetal apresentaram similaridades com os observados na égua.

Animals , Equidae/physiology , Placenta/anatomy & histology , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/physiology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/veterinary , Pregnancy, Animal