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Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(1): 100-105, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055084


Abstract Background: The emergence of coronary heart disease is increased with menopause, physical inactivity and with dyslipidemia. Physical training is known to promote the improvement of cardiovascular functions. Objective: To investigate the effects of aerobic physical training on the left ventricle in ovariectomized LDL knockout mice. Methods: Thirty animals were divided into 6 groups (n = 5): Sedentary non-ovariectomized control; Sedentary ovariectomized control; Trained ovariectomized control; Sedentary non-ovariectomized LDL-knockout, sedentary ovariectomized LDL-knockout and trained ovariectomized LDL-knockout. We analyzed the average parameters of apparent density of collagen fibers types I and III, and metalloproteinase type 2 and type 9, were considered significant p < 0.05. Results: The results showed that the proposed exercise protocol altered the volume of type I collagen fibers, altered collagen remodeling parameters (MMP-2), and also reduced the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) oxidative stress parameter. Conclusion: Moderate intensity aerobic training acts on collagen fiber volume, on collagen remodeling with the reduction of oxidative stress in the left ventricles of ovariectomized LDL-knockout mice.

Resumo Fundamento: O surgimento da doença cardíaca coronariana aumenta com a menopausa, inatividade física e dislipidemia. Sabe-se que o treinamento físico promove a melhora das funções cardiovasculares Objectivo: Investigar os efeitos do treinamento físico aeróbico sobre o ventrículo esquerdo em camundongos LDL knockout ovariectomizadas. Métodos: Trinta animais foram divididos em 6 grupos (n = 5): controle sedentário não ovariectomizado, controle sedentário ovariectomizado, controle treinado ovariectomizado, sedentário LDL-knockout não ovariectomizado, sedentário LDL-knockout ovariectomizado e treinado LDL-knockout ovariectomizado. Analisamos os parâmetros médios da densidade de volume de fibras colágenas tipo I e III, e metaloproteinases 2 e 9. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: Os resultados mostram que o protocolo de exercício proposto alterou o volume de fibras colágenas do tipo I e os parâmetros de remodelamento do colágeno (MMP-2), e ainda reduziu o parâmetro de estresse oxidativo do 8-hidroxi-2'-deoxiganosina (8-OhdG). Conclusão: O treinamento aeróbico de intensidade moderada age sobre o volume das fibras colágenas e sobre o remodelamento de colágeno, com redução do estresse oxidativo em ventrículos esquerdos de camundongos ovariectomizados LDLr Knockout.

Animals , Female , Rats , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Collagen Type III/metabolism , Inflammation/physiopathology , Myocardium/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Immunohistochemistry , Ovariectomy , Mice, Knockout , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Models, Animal
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878866


Epithelial-mesenchymal transformation(EMT) exists in embryonic development and is closely related to cell migration and invasion. The increased EMT level in tumors showed that E-cadherin was replaced by N-cadherin, and the expression of interstitial markers such as α-SMA and vimentin was up-regulated. It has been reported that lupeol can reduce the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9(MMP-9) and N-cadherin to inhibit the metastasis of osteoma cells. However lupeol has been less studied in liver cancer. Therefore, this paper investigated the effect of lupanol on invasion and metastasis of human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and SK-HEP-1 and its possible mechanism. MTT assay and Annexin V/PI double staining were used to investigate the effect of lupeol on activity and apoptosis of HepG2 cells and SK-HEP-1 cells. Moreover, the effect of lupeol on the invasion of HepG2 cells and SK-HEP-1 cells were evaluated by Transwell assay. The expressions of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, α-SMA, vimentin and MMP-9 were measured by Western blot. The model of subcutaneous transplantation of nude mice and the lung metastasis model of H22 hepatocellular carcinoma cells were established to evaluate the efficacy of lupeol in vivo on tumor growth and lung metastasis by HE staining combined with immunohistochemical assay. The results showed that lupeol inhibited the activity and invasion of HepG2 cells and SK-HEP-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis. Western blot showed that the expression of E-cadherin, a landmark protein for EMT, was induced by lupeol, and the expressions of N-cadherin, α-SMA, vimentin and MMP-9 were decreased. In vivo experiments showed that lupeol inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing xenograft. In addition, immunohistochemical experiments confirmed that lupeol could up-regulate the expression of E-cadherin in tumor tissues of nude mice, reduce the expression of N-cadherin, and inhibit the metastasis of liver cancer H22 cells in the lungs of mice. The above results indicated that the mechanism of lupeol inhibiting the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells may be related to the regulation of EMT process.

Animals , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Pentacyclic Triterpenes
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(7): 449-453, July 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020606


Abstract Objective To analyze the effects of estrogen alone or in combination with progestogens and tibolone (TIB) on the expression of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), of perlecan, and of heparanase (HPSE) of the vascular walls of the carotid arteries. Methods A total of 30 250-day-old ovariectomized Wistar rats were orally treated for 5 weeks with: a) 1 mg/kg of estradiol benzoate (EB); b) EB + 0.2 mg/kg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA); c) EB + 0.2mg/kg of norethisterone acetate (NETA); d) EB + 2 mg/kg of dydrogesterone (DI); e) 1 mg/kg of TIB; f) placebo (CTR). Following treatment, the expression of mRNA for MMP-2, MMP-9, and HPSE was analyzed by realtime polymerase chain-reaction (PCR), and the expression of MMP-2, of MMP-9, of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), and of perlecan was quantified by immunohistochemistry in the carotid arteries. Results The groups showed significant differences on mRNA HPSE expression (p = 0.048), which was higher in the EB, EB + MPA, and TIB groups. There was no statistically significant difference in mRNA MMP-2 or MMP-9 expression. The immunohistochemical expression of MMP-2, of TIMP-2, of MMP-9, of HPSE, and of perlecan showed no differences between groups. Conclusion Estradiol alone or associated with MPA and TIB treatment can increase mRNA HSPE expression of the walls of the carotid arteries in ovariectomized rats.

Resumo Objetivo Analisar os efeitos do estrogênio isolado ou em combinação com progestogênios e tibolona (TIB) na expressão das metaloproteinases 2 e 9 da matriz extracelular (MMP-2 e MMP-9), da perlecan e da heparanase (HPSE) das paredes vasculares das artérias carótidas. Métodos Trinta ratas Wistar ovariectomizadas com 250 dias de idade foram tratadas oralmente por 5 semanas com: a) 1 mg/kg de benzoato de estradiol (EB); b) EB + 0,2 mg/kg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MPA); c) EB + 0,2mg/kg de acetato de noretisterona (NETA); d) EB + 2 mg/kg de didrogesterona (DI); e) 1 mg/kg de TIB; f) placebo (CTR). Após o tratamento, a expressão de mRNA para MMP-2, MMP- 9, e HPSE foi analisada por reação em cadeia da polimerase (RCP) em tempo real, e a expressão de MMP-2, MMP-9, inibidor tecidual de metaloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), e de perlecan foi quantificado por imunohistoquímica em artérias carótidas. Resultados Os grupos apresentaram diferenças significativas na expressão do mRNA HPSE (p = 0,048), sendo maiores nos grupos EB, EB + MPA e TIB. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa nas expressões de mRNA MMP-2 ou MMP-9. A expressão imunohistoquímica de MMP-2, TIMP-2, MMP-9, HPSE e perlecan não mostrou diferenças entre os grupos. Conclusão O estradiol isolado ou associado ao tratamento com MPA e TIB pode aumentar a expressão de mRNA HSPE nas paredes das artérias carótidas em ratas ovariectomizadas.

Animals , Female , Rats , Progestins/pharmacology , Carotid Arteries/enzymology , Heparin Lyase/drug effects , Estradiol/analogs & derivatives , Contraceptive Agents, Hormonal/pharmacology , Norpregnenes/pharmacology , Progestins/administration & dosage , Ovariectomy , Carotid Arteries/drug effects , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Rats, Wistar , Heparin Lyase/genetics , Heparin Lyase/metabolism , Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/genetics , Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Models, Animal , Estradiol/administration & dosage , Estradiol/pharmacology , Contraceptive Agents, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Norpregnenes/administration & dosage
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(1): e7567, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974265


Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women around the world. However, the underlying mechanism involved in cervical cancer progression is incompletely known. In the present study, we determined the role of glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) in tumorigenesis of cervical cancer. According to the GEO database, we found that GPNMB expression was significantly higher in cervical cancer than in normal cervix epithelium. A similar pattern was observed in GPNMB expression in cultured cervical cancer cells and normal cervical epithelial cells. Compared with the control, GPNMB knockdown significantly decreased the proliferation and migration capacity, but enhanced the apoptosis capacity of SiHa and HeLa cells. Additionally, the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were aberrantly increased in SiHa and HeLa cells compared with normal cervical epithelial cells, whereas their activities were strongly inhibited by GPNMB siRNA. Furthermore, Wnt/β-catenin signaling was activated by GPNMB in SiHa and HeLa cells. Increased MMP-2/MMP-9 expression was suppressed by Dkk-1, inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, while it was enhanced by stimulator BIO. The proliferation, migration, and apoptosis capacity of HeLa cells were found to be affected by Dkk-1 and BIO to different extents. In conclusion, we demonstrated that GPNMB contributed to the tumorigenesis of cervical cancer, at least in part, by regulating MMP-2/MMP-9 activity in tumor cells via activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. This might be a potential therapeutic target for treating human cervical cancer.

Humans , Female , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/metabolism , beta Catenin/metabolism , Wnt Signaling Pathway/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Cell Movement , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/genetics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , beta Catenin/genetics
Braz. dent. j ; 29(3): 301-308, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951549


Abstract There are few studies on the clinical and immunological periodontal status of intensive care unit (ICU) in-patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the periodontal condition among ICU in-patients through clinical and immunological periodontal parameters. From the sample of 373 hospitalized ICU patients, 182 were submitted' to a thorough clinical periodontal and immunological evaluation. Data on bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were collected and gingival sulcular fluid samples were quantified through ELISA on IL-1, IL-6, and MMP-2 for immunological evaluation. Data was statistically analyzed by Chi-square, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney tests, and Sperman's correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis. A high dental plaque index and a high prevalence of periodontitis (48.3%), mostly in moderate and localized chronic form, were observed. Individuals with periodontitis presented higher levels of IL-1 and MMP-2, while individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and individuals with two or more systemic diseases (MSD) presented higher levels of IL-1; diabetes mellitus (DM) and MSD individuals presented higher levels of IL-6. A positive association was found between the severity of periodontitis and CVD (OR 2.2; CI = 1.11-4.42). This study reported a 48.3% of the prevalence of periodontitis in ICU patients and a positive association between the severity of periodontitis and CVD. Additionally, higher levels of IL-1 and MMP-2 were found in individuals with periodontitis, higher levels of IL-6 were found in individuals with DM, and higher levels of IL-1 were found in individuals with CVD.

Resumo Existem poucos estudos sobre o estado clínico periodontal e imunológico de pacientes em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI). O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a condição periodontal entre os pacientes internados na UTI através de parâmetros clínicos periodontais e imunológicos. De uma amostra inicial de 373 pacientes internados em UTI, 183 foram submetidos a exame periodontal completo e análise imunológica. Os dados sobre o sangramento na sondagem (BOP), profundidade de sondagem (PD) e nível clínico de inserção (CAL) foram coletados e as amostras de fluido sulcular gengival foram quantificadas para avaliação imunológica através de ELISA para IL-1, IL-6 e MMP-2. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelos testes de Qui-quadrado, exato de Fischer, Mann-Whitney, correlação de Sperman e análise de regressão logística multivariada. Foi observado um alto índice de placa dental e uma alta prevalência de periodontite (48,3%), principalmente na forma crônica moderada e localizada. Os indivíduos com periodontite apresentaram níveis mais altos de IL-1 e MMP-2, enquanto indivíduos com doença cardiovascular (CVD) e com mais de duas doenças sistêmicas (MSD) apresentaram níveis mais altos de IL-1 e os com diabetes mellitus (DM) e MSD apresentaram níveis mais elevados de IL-6. Foi encontrada associação positiva entre a gravidade da periodontite e CVD (OR 2.2; IC = 1,11-4,42). Este estudo reportou uma prevalência de periodontite em 48.3% dos pacientes em UTI e uma associação positiva entre ocorrência de periodontite e CVD. Além disso, níveis mais elevados de IL-1 e MMP-2 foram encontrados em indivíduos com periodontite, de IL-6 em indivíduos com DM e de IL-1 em indivíduos com CVD.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Periodontal Diseases/complications , Periodontal Diseases/immunology , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Periodontal Diseases/pathology , Periodontal Pocket/immunology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Periodontal Index , Dental Plaque Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gingival Crevicular Fluid/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-1/metabolism , Periodontal Attachment Loss/immunology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Diabetes Complications
Braz. dent. j ; 29(1): 43-47, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888722


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 during apical periodontitis (AP) progression in TLR2 (TLR2 KO) and in MyD88 (MyD88 KO) knockout mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. AP was induced in mandibular first molars of TLR2 KO (n= 18), MyD88 KO (n= 18), and WT mice (n= 18). After 7, 21, and 42 days, the animals were euthanized and the jaws were dissected and subjected to histotechnical processing. Subsequent sections were stained by immunohistochemistry and evaluated for detection of MMP2 and MMP9. Statistical analysis of the semi-quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry was performed using chi-square test (α = 0.05). In the initial periods of AP progression, an increased expression of MMP9 in the TLR2 KO and MyD88 KO mice was observed. In the final periods of AP progression, a reduction of MMP2 expression and an increase of MMP9 expression in the TLR2 KO mice were observed. MMP2 and MMP9 production was modulated for TLR2 and MyD88 during apical periodontitis progression.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a expressão de MMP2 e MMP9 durante a progressão da periodontite apical (AP) em camundongos knockout para TLR2 (TLR2 KO) e MyD88 (MyD88 KO) comparados aos camundongos wild type (WT). A AP foi induzida nos primeiros molares inferiores dos camundongos TLR2 KO (n = 18), MyD88 KO (n = 18) e WT (n = 18). Após 7, 21 e 42 dias, os animais foram eutanaziados e as mandíbulas foram dissecadas e submetidas a processamento histotécnico. As lâminas foram coradas por imuno-histoquímica e analisadas para a detecção de MMP2 e MMP9. A análise estatística semi-quantitativa da imuno-histoquímica foi realizada pelo teste qui-quadrado (α = 0,05). Nos períodos iniciais de progressão AP, foi observada uma expressão aumentada de MMP9 nos camundongos TLR2 KO e MyD88 KO. Nos períodos finais de progressão AP, observou-se uma redução da expressão de MMP2 e um aumento da expressão de MMP9 nos camundongos TLR2 KO. A produção de MMP2 e MMP9 foi modulada por TLR2 e MyD88 durante a progressão da periodontite apical.

Animals , Mice , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/physiology , Periapical Periodontitis/enzymology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/physiology , Disease Progression , Immunohistochemistry , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , Periapical Periodontitis/metabolism , Periapical Periodontitis/pathology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(12): e7862, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974259


Although the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on diverse cell types have been fully studied, the functional role of LIPUS in keratinocytes remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LIPUS on proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells as well as the regulatory mechanisms associated with signaling pathways. Human HaCaT cells were exposed or not to LIPUS, and cell proliferation and migration were measured by BrdU incorporation assay and Transwell assay, respectively. Expression of proteins associated with proliferation and migration was evaluated by western blot analysis. Expression of key kinases in the PI3K/AKT and JNK pathways was also evaluated by western blot analysis. Effects of LIPUS on the PI3K/AKT and JNK pathways, and whether LIPUS affected HaCaT cells via these two pathways were finally explored. When the parameter of LIPUS (number of cycles) was set at 300, cell viability was the highest after LIPUS stimulation. We then found that the percentage of BrdU positive cells was enhanced by LIPUS, along with up-regulation of cyclinD1, CDK6, CDK4, and VEGF. LIPUS promoted migration, as well as up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Phosphorylation levels of key kinases in the PI3K/AKT and JNK pathways were increased by LIPUS. Inhibition of either PI3K/AKT pathway or JNK pathway attenuated effects of LIPUS on HaCaT cells, and co-inhibition of these two pathways showed augmented effects. LIPUS promoted proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells through activating the PI3K/AKT and JNK pathways.

Keratinocytes/radiation effects , Cell Movement/radiation effects , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/radiation effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System/radiation effects , Cell Proliferation/radiation effects , Ultrasonic Waves , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Line, Transformed , Signal Transduction/radiation effects , Keratinocytes/metabolism , Up-Regulation , Cell Survival/radiation effects , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(1): 78-84, Jan. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842523


Summary Zinc is the catalytic component of proteins that regulate responses to DNA damage, intracellular signaling enzymes, and matrix metalloproteinases, which are important proteins in carcinogenesis. The objective of this review is to bring current information on the participation of zinc and matrix metalloproteinases types 2 and 9 in mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. We conducted a literature review, in consultation with the PubMed, Lilacs, and Scielo databases. The zinc and cysteine residues are structural elements shared by all members of the family of matrix metalloproteinases, and these proteins appear to be involved in the propagation of various types of neoplasms, including breast cancer. Moreover, transported zinc is likely to be used for the metalation of the catalytic domain of the newly synthesized metalloproteinases before the latter are secreted. Accordingly, increase in zinc concentrations in cellular compartments and the reduction of this trace element in the blood of patients with breast cancer appear to alter the activity of metalloproteinases 2 and 9, contributing to the occurrence of malignancy. Thus, it is necessary to carry out further studies with a view to clarify the role of zinc and metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.

Resumo O zinco é componente catalítico de proteínas que regulam respostas a danos no DNA, enzimas de sinalização intracelular e metaloproteinases de matriz, proteínas importantes na carcinogênese. O objetivo desta revisão é trazer informações atualizadas sobre a participação do zinco e das metaloproteinases de matriz dos tipos 2 e 9 em mecanismos envolvidos na patogênese do câncer de mama. Realizou-se um levantamento bibliográfico, mediante consulta às bases de dados PubMed, Scielo e Lilacs. O zinco e os resíduos de cisteína são elementos estruturais compartilhados por todos os membros da família das metaloproteinases de matriz, as quais parecem estar envolvidas na propagação de vários tipos de neoplasias, incluindo o câncer de mama. Além disso, é provável que o zinco transportado seja utilizado para metalação do domínio catalítico das metaloproteinases recentemente sintetizadas antes de serem segregadas. Nesse sentido, o aumento das concentrações de zinco em compartimentos celulares e a redução desse oligoelemento no sangue de pacientes com câncer de mama parecem alterar a atividade das metaloproteinases 2 e 9, contribuindo para a ocorrência de tumor maligno. Assim, faz-se necessária a realização de novos estudos na perspectiva de esclarecer o papel do zinco e das metaloproteinases 2 e 9 na patogênese do câncer de mama.

Humans , Female , Zinc/physiology , Breast Neoplasms/etiology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/physiology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/physiology , Zinc/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/enzymology , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(3): 585-593, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785738


ABSTRACT Objectives To describe acute and sub acute aspects of histological and immunohistochemical response to PP implant in a rat subcutaneous model based on objective methods. Materials and Methods Thirty rats had a PP mesh subcutaneously implanted and the same dissection on the other side of abdomen but without mesh (sham). The animals were euthanized after 4 and 30 days. Six slides were prepared using the tissue removed: one stained with hematoxylin-eosin (inflammation assessment); one unstained (birefringence evaluation) and four slides for immunohistochemical processing: IL-1 and TNF-α (pro-inflammatory cytokines), MMP-2 (collagen metabolism) and CD-31 (angiogenesis). The area of inflammation, the birefringence index, the area of immunoreactivity and the number of vessels were objectively measured. Results A larger area of inflammatory reaction was observed in PP compared to sham on the 4th and on the 30th day (p=0.0002). After 4 days, PP presented higher TNF (p=0.0001) immunoreactivity than sham and no differences were observed in MMP-2 (p=0.06) and IL-1 (p=0.08). After 30 days, a reduction of IL-1 (p=0.010) and TNF (p=0.016) for PP and of IL-1 (p=0.010) for sham were observed. Moreover, area of MMP-2 immunoreactivity decreased over time for PP group (p=0.018). Birefringence index and vessel counting showed no differences between PP and sham (p=0.27 and p=0.58, respectively). Conclusions The implantation of monofilament and macroporous polypropylene in the subcutaneous of rats resulted in increased inflammatory activity and higher TNF production in the early post implant phase. After 30 days, PP has similar cytokines immunoreactivity, vessel density and extracellular matrix organization.

Animals , Female , Polypropylenes/adverse effects , Surgical Mesh/adverse effects , Foreign-Body Reaction/etiology , Foreign-Body Reaction/chemically induced , Foreign-Body Reaction/pathology , Subcutaneous Tissue/pathology , Time Factors , Biocompatible Materials/adverse effects , Birefringence , Materials Testing , Immunohistochemistry , Cellulitis/etiology , Cellulitis/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Collagen/analysis , Collagen/metabolism , Interleukin-1/analysis , Interleukin-1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism
Int. j. morphol ; 33(1): 85-88, Mar. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-743768


Dithiocarbamate propinebs are organometal fungicides that are widely used for the control of diseases in plants. In this study, pregnant female rats received 400 ppm propineb concentrations in 5 ml distilled water for 16 days of gestation, and then infant rats were obtained by cesarean section. In the histological analysis on the frontal sections, the use of propineb was found effective on odontoblast cell hyperplasia, cell infiltration in the dental papilla, and degeneration in the mesenchymal cells of the outer enamel. The expression of MMP-2 (Matrix Metalloproteinase-2) and VEGF (Endothelial cell growth factor) in the connective tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The drinking water given to the mothers in propineb tooth bud, enamel and dentin, resulted in morphological changes suggestive of a delay in formation, which cross the placental barrier and possibly affect the tooth development.

Los ditiocarbamatos (Propineb) son fungicidas organometálicos que son ampliamente utilizados para el control de enfermedades en las plantas. En este estudio, ratas hembras preñadas recibieron concentraciones de 4000 ppm de propineb en 5 ml de agua destilada durante 16 días de su gestación. Luego, las crías de las ratas fueron obtenidas mediante cesárea para su estudio estudio histológico. En el análisis histológico de las secciones frontales, el uso de propineb fue positivo para la hiperplasia de las células odontoblástica, infiltración de células en la papila dental, y la degeneración en las células mesenquimales del epitelio externo del esmalte. La expresión de MMP-2 (metaloproteinasa de la matriz 2) y VEGF (factor de crecimiento de células endoteliales) en el tejido conectivo se evaluó por inmunohistoquímica. El agua potable con propineb dada a las madres actuó sobre el brote dentario, esmalte y dentina; se tradujo en cambios morfológicos indicativos de un retraso en la formación. Por tanto, el propineb atraviesa la barrera placentaria y posiblemente afecten el desarrollo de los dientes.

Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Fungicides, Industrial/toxicity , Odontogenesis/drug effects , Zineb/analogs & derivatives , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Tooth Germ/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Zineb/toxicity
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162078


Introduction: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a pivotal role in cell invasion. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated as the key players in cancer cell invasion. Hence, the role of FAK in MMP regulation is very important in understanding tumor progression. Materials and Methods: Here, we studied the role of FAK, its association with other signaling kinases and involvement in the α5β1 integrin receptor-mediated regulation of MMP-2 activity and expression in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Results: Immuno blot analysis revealed that FN treatment causes phosphorylation of FAK and FAK gets localized at the cell attachment focal point of MCF-7 cells. FN treatment did not change the mRNA status of FAK but enhanced mRNA level of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP, also caused downregulation of TIMP-2. Co-imunoprecipitation and inhibitor studies revealed the association of FAK with α5β1, Paxillin, PI3K and ERK. siRNA studies revealed that FAK is critical in regulation of activity and expression of MMP-2 and downstream signaling kinases. Conclusion: Th e interaction of α5β1 integrin with FN initiates a signaling cascade with FAK as its central player. FAK gets phosphorylated and in turn associates with tyrosine kinases like PI3K and ERK. FAK also activates PI3K and ERK that serve as very crucial mediators of the signaling pathway leading to induction of MMP-2 activity and resulting invasion of breast cancer cell, MCF-7.

Breast Neoplasms/cytology , Breast Neoplasms/physiology , Female , Focal Adhesion Kinase 1/physiology , Focal Adhesion Kinase 2/physiology , Humans , Integrins/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/physiology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Signal Transduction
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-8, 2015. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950824


BACKGROUND: The aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been found in various types of cancer. miR-205 was reported to be upregulated in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) tissues, however, the mechanisms by which miR-205 functions as a regulator of LSCC are largely unknown. RESULTS: In this study, Real-time qPCR and Western blot assay showed that expression of miR-205 was upregulated and expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 (CDK2AP1) was downregulated in LSCC tissues. The expression levels of miR-205 were negatively related to those of CDK2AP1 in LSCC tissues and cell lines. Moreover, we found that miR-205 was the upstream regulator of CDK2AP1 and could suppress the CDK2AP1 expression in LSCC cells. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazal-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays and transwell invasion assay were performed to test the proliferation and invasion of LSCC cells. Gelatin zymography was used to detect the activity of MMP2 and MMP9. CDK2AP1, c-Myc and CyclinD1 expression in cells was assessed with Western blotting. We found that miR-205 was the upstream regulator of CDK2AP1 and could suppress the expression of CDK2AP1 in LSCC cells. In addition, miR-205 significantly induced cell proliferation and invasion by suppressing CDK2AP1 expression. Consistent with miR-205 inhibitors, overexpressed CDK2AP1 suppressed the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 and c-Myc and CyclinD1 expression in LSCC cells. CONCLUSION: These findings help us to better elucidate the molecular mechanisms of LSCC progression and provide a new theoretical basis to further investigate miR-205 as a potential biomarker and a promising approach for LSCC treatment.

Humans , Suppression, Genetic/genetics , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/enzymology , Biomarkers, Tumor , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Blotting, Western , Genes, myc/genetics , Cyclin D1/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Hep G2 Cells , Primary Cell Culture , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Neoplasm Invasiveness/genetics
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-13, 2015. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950793


BACKGROUND: Leptin, the cytokine produced by white adipose tissue is known to regulate food energy homeostasis through its hypothalamic receptor. In vitro studies have demonstrated that leptin plays a major role in angiogenesis through binding to the receptor Ob-R present on ECs by stimulating and initiating new capillary like structures from ECs. Various in vivo studies indicate that leptin has diverse effect on angiogenesis. A few reports have showed that leptin exerts pro angiogenic effects while some suggested that it has antiangiogenic potential. It is theoretically highly important to understand the effect of leptin on angiogenesis to use as a therapeutic molecule in various angiogenesis related pathological conditions. Chicken chorio allantoic membrane (CAM) on 9th day of incubation was incubated with 1, 3 and 5 µg concentration of HRL for 72 h using gelatin sponge. Images where taken after every 24 h of incubation and analysed with Angioguant software. The treated area was observed under microscope and histological evaluation was performed for the same. Tissue thickness was calculated morphometrically from haematoxylin and eosin stained cross sections. Reverse transcriptase PCR and immunohistochemistry were also performed to study the gene and protein level expression of angiogenic molecules. RESULTS: HRL has the ability to induce new vessel formation at the treated area and growth of the newly formed vessels and cellular morphological changes occur in a dose dependent manner. Increase in the tissue thickness at the treated area is suggestive of initiation of new capillary like structures. Elevated mRNA and protein level expression of VEGF165 and MMP2 along with the activation of ECs as demonstrated by the presence of CD34 expression supports the neovascularization potential of HRL. CONCLUSION: Angiogenic potential of HRL depends on the concentration and time of incubation and is involved in the activation of ECs along with the major interaction of VEGF 165 and MMP2. It is also observed that 3 µg of HRL exhibits maximum angiogenic potential at 72 h of incubation. Thus our data suggest that dose dependent angiogenic potential HRL could provide a novel role in angiogenic dependent therapeutics such as ischemia and wound healing conditions.

Humans , Animals , Chick Embryo , Zygote , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Leptin/administration & dosage , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Angiogenesis Inducing Agents/administration & dosage , Chorioallantoic Membrane/drug effects , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Gelatinases/metabolism , Antigens, CD34/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Chorioallantoic Membrane/enzymology , Chorioallantoic Membrane/blood supply , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Microscopy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99850


Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) causes right ventricular failure due to a gradual increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. The purposes of this study were to confirm the engraftment of human umbilical cord blood-mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) placed in the correct place in the lung and research on changes of hemodynamics, pulmonary pathology, immunomodulation and several gene expressions in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rat models after hUCB-MSCs transfusion. The rats were grouped as follows: the control (C) group; the M group (MCT 60 mg/kg); the U group (hUCB-MSCs transfusion). They received transfusions via the external jugular vein a week after MCT injection. The mean right ventricular pressure (RVP) was significantly reduced in the U group after the 2 week. The indicators of RV hypertrophy were significantly reduced in the U group at week 4. Reduced medial wall thickness in the pulmonary arteriole was noted in the U group at week 4. Reduced number of intra-acinar muscular pulmonary arteries was observed in the U group after 2 week. Protein expressions such as endothelin (ET)-1, endothelin receptor A (ERA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 significantly decreased at week 4. The decreased levels of ERA, eNOS and MMP-2 immunoreactivity were noted by immnohistochemical staining. After hUCB-MSCs were administered, there were the improvement of RVH and mean RVP. Reductions in several protein expressions and immunomodulation were also detected. It is suggested that hUCB-MSCs may be a promising therapeutic option for PAH.

Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelin-1/metabolism , Fetal Blood/cytology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/chemically induced , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular/physiopathology , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/metabolism , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Monocrotaline/toxicity , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, Endothelin A/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199829


Activated protein C (APC) is a cytoprotective anticoagulant that can promote cutaneous healing. We examined the effect of APC on viability and differentiation of the osteoblastic line, MG63, in the presence and absence of bisphosphonates (BPs). Osteoblasts were cultured and treated for 24 or 48 h with Alendronate (Aln), Zoledronate (Zol) or Pamidronate (Pam) at concentrations ranging from 10-4 to 10-6 M. Cell differentiation was measured using type 1 collagen production, Alizarin red staining and alkaline phosphatase activity, whereas cell viability was assessed using MTT and crystal violet assays. All three BPs induced MG63 cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pam- and Zol-related cell death was prevented by APC treatment; however, cell death induced by Aln was accelerated by APC. APC induced MG63 cell differentiation that was enhanced by Aln, but inhibited by Pam or Zol. Endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) was expressed by MG63 cells and mediated the protective effect of APC on Zol-induced viability. In summary, we have demonstrated that (1) APC favorably regulates MG63 viability and differentiation toward bone growth, (2) APC differentially regulates the effects of specific BPs and (3) at least part of the effects of APC is mediated through EPCR. These findings highlight the potential importance of the PC pathway in bone physiology and provide strong evidence that APC may influence bone cells and has potential to be a therapeutic drug for bone regeneration, depending on concurrent BP treatment.

Antigens, CD/metabolism , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Osteoblasts/cytology , Protein C/pharmacology , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Up-Regulation/drug effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100572


Keloids are pathologic proliferations of the dermal layer of the skin resulting from excessive collagen production and deposition. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) increases the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and suppresses collagen synthesis to modulate extracellular matrix turnover. To investigate the anti-fibrotic effects of HGF, we examine the mRNA expression of collagen types I and III and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, MMP-3) on human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell lines and keloid fibroblasts (KFs, n = 5) after adding various amount of HGF protein. We also evaluated the enzymatic activity of MMP-2, MMP-9 by zymograghy. In HDFs treated with TGF-beta1 and HGF protein simultaneously, both type I and III collagen mRNA expression significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 mRNA also decreased. However, the mRNA expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 significantly increased in KFs with increasing amount of HGF in dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). The enzymatic activities of MMP-2 increased with increasing HGF protein in a dose-dependent manner. However, the enzymatic activity of MMP-9 did not change. These results suggest that the anti-fibrotic effects of HGF may have therapeutic effects on keloids by reversing pathologic fibrosis.

Cells, Cultured , Collagen Type I/genetics , Collagen Type III/genetics , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Hepatocyte Growth Factor/pharmacology , Humans , Keloid/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/pharmacology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104280


Cholesterol is one of major components of cell membrane and plays a role in vesicular trafficking and cellular signaling. We investigated the effects of cholesterol on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activation in human dermal fibroblasts. We found that tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) expression and active form MMP-2 (64 kD) were dose-dependently increased by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD), a cholesterol depletion agent. In contrast, cholesterol depletion-induced TIMP-2 expression and MMP-2 activation were suppressed by cholesterol repletion. Then we investigated the regulatory mechanism of TIMP-2 expression by cholesterol depletion. We found that the phosphorylation of JNK as well as ERK was significantly increased by cholesterol depletion. Moreover, cholesterol depletion-induced TIMP-2 expression and MMP-2 activation was significantly decreased by MEK inhibitor U0126, and JNK inhibitor SP600125, respectively. While a low dose of recombinant TIMP-2 (100 ng/ml) increased the level of active MMP-2 (64 kD), the high dose of TIMP-2 (> or = 200 ng/ml) decreased the level of active MMP-2 (64 kD). Taken together, we suggest that the induction of TIMP-2 by cholesterol depletion leads to the conversion of proMMP-2 (72 kD) into active MMP-2 (64 kD) in human dermal fibroblasts.

Anthracenes/pharmacology , Butadienes/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Child , Child, Preschool , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cyclodextrins/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Humans , Immunoblotting , Immunoprecipitation , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nitriles/pharmacology , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2/metabolism
Indian J Cancer ; 2009 Jul-Sept; 46(3): 194-202
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144238


Background: Invasion and metastasis are the most strenuous problems in the management of breast cancer. These events require diverse proteolytic enzymes, among which MMP-2 and MMP-9 play a significant role in degradation of type IV collagen, the major component of the basement membrane. Therefore, the major objective of the study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of MMP-2 and MMP-9 with respect to malignant tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis in breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Gelatin zymography was performed on 157 tissue extracts of malignant and adjacent normal breast tissues as well as negative and positive lymph nodes from 49 breast cancer patients. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS statistical software (version 10). Results: ProMMP-2 levels were significantly higher in adjacent normal tissues. Active MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were higher in malignant breast tissues. Activation ratios of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were significantly higher in malignant breast tissues and in patients with lymph node metastasis. ProMMP-2, active MMP-2, and active MMP-9 could significantly discriminate between malignant and adjacent normal breast tissues. The MMP-2 activation ratio showed significant discriminatory efficacy between patients with and without lymph node metastasis and significant association with increased risk of lymph node metastasis in node-negative patients. Conclusion: The results indicate significant clinical utility of these proteolytic enzymes in malignant tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis in breast cancer.

Adult , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/enzymology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/enzymology , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/secondary , Female , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Lymphatic Metastasis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 68-77, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83529


PURPOSE: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. To understand the role of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in pulmonary fibrosis, we evaluated the sequential dynamic change and different cellular sources of the 2 MMPs along the time course and their differential expression in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and in the lung parenchyma of the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis models in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The level of MMPs in BAL fluid of 54 bleomycin-treated rats was assessed by zymography from 1 to 28 days after intratracheal bleomycin instillation. The level of MMPs in lung parenchyma was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: MMP-2 and MMP-9 were markedly increased in both the BAL fluid and in the lung parenchyma of the bleomycin-treated rats, especially in the early phase with the peak on the 4th day. The levels of both MMPs in the BAL fluid correlated generally well to those in lung parenchyma, although the level of MMP-9 in BAL fluid was higher than MMP-2. In the lung parenchyma, the 2 MMPs, in early stage, were predominantly expressed in the inflammatory cells. In late stage, type II pneumocytes and alveolar epithelial cells at the periphery of the fibrotic foci retained MMP expression, which was more prominent in the cells showing features of cellular injury and/or repair. CONCLUSION: In bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, MMP-2 and MMP-9 may play important roles, especially in the early phase. In the late stage, the MMP-2 and MMP-9 may play a role in the process of repair.

Animals , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/toxicity , Bleomycin/toxicity , Bronchioles/enzymology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme Activation , Gelatin , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Neutrophils/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69281


BACKGROUND: One of the characteristics of spinal stenosis is elastin degradation and fibrosis of the extracellular matrix of the ligamentum flavum. However, there have been no investigations to determine which biochemical factors cause these histologic changes. So we performed the current study to investigate the hypothesis that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which possess the ability to cause extracellular matrix remodeling, may play a role as a mediator for this malady in the ligamentum flavum. METHODS: The ligamentum flavum specimens were surgically obtained from thirty patients with spinal stenosis, as well as from 30 control patients with a disc herniation. The extents of ligamentum flavum elastin degradation and fibrosis were graded (grade 0-4) with performing hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson's trichrome staining, respectively. The localization of MMP-2 (gelatinase), MMP-3 (stromelysin) and MMP-13 (collagenase) within the ligamentum flavum tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. The expressions of the active forms of MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-13 were determined by western blot analysis, and the blots were quantified using an imaging densitometer. The histologic and biochemical results were compared between the two conditions. RESULTS: Elastin degradation and fibrosis of the ligamentum flavum were significantly more severe in the spinal stenosis samples than that in the disc herniation samples (3.14 +/- 0.50 vs. 0.55 +/- 0.60, p < 0.001; 3.10 +/- 0.57 vs. 0.76 +/- 0.52, p < 0.001, respectively). The expressions of the active form of MMPs were identified in all the ligamentum flavums of the spinal stenosis and disc herniation patients. The expressions of active MMP-2 and MMP-13 were significantly higher in the spinal stenosis samples than that in the disc herniation samples (both p < 0.05). The expression of active MMP-3 was slightly higher in the spinal stenosis samples than that in the disc herniation samples, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.131). MMP-2, -3, and -13 were positively stained on the ligamentum flavum fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: The current results suggest that the increased expression of active MMPs by the ligamentum flavum fibroblasts might be related to the elastin degradation and fibrosis of the ligamentum flavum in the patients who suffer with lumbar spinal stenosis.

Aged , Blotting, Western , Elastin/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Female , Fibrosis , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Ligamentum Flavum/metabolism , Lumbar Vertebrae , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 13/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Middle Aged , Spinal Stenosis/metabolism