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Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 27(1): e222098, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1364784


ABSTRACT Introduction: Orthodontic mini-implants (MI) are a reliable alternative to provide temporary orthodontic anchorage. Prior to miniscrew insertion, the best approach would be to evaluate each possible insertion site and measure the cortical bone thickness, and verify whether it would provide adequate primary stability. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the difference in cortical bone thickness in areas of mini-implants insertion in patients of different ages, by means of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: The sample of this retrospective study was composed of 123 CBCT scans, which were used to measure cortical bone thickness in the buccal and palatal inter-radicular space in the mesial region of the first permanent molars. These measures were compared by using the Student's t-test, ANOVA/Tukey tests, and Linear regression between male and female subjects, from 12 to 30 years old. Results: No significant difference was found in cortical bone thickness between sex, race and sagittal facial patterns. Significantly higher measurement values were observed in patients older than 12 years of age at all sites evaluated. The coefficient β at the adjusted linear regression analysis showed that at each increment in age, mean cortical thickness values increased by 0.06mm in the mandible, 0.03mm in the buccal region and 0.02mm in the palatal region of the maxilla. Conclusions: The increase in cortical bone thickness was positively associated with age; that is, the more advanced the patient's age was, the less chance there was of failure due to primary stability.

RESUMO Introdução: Os mini-implantes ortodônticos (MI) são uma alternativa confiável para fornecer ancoragem esquelética temporária. Antes da inserção do mini-implante, a melhor abordagem seria avaliar cada local de inserção possível, medir a espessura do osso cortical e verificar se proporcionaria uma adequada estabilidade primária. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a diferença na espessura do osso cortical em áreas de inserção dos mini-implantes em pacientes de diferentes idades, por meio da tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico. Métodos: A amostra desse estudo retrospectivo foi composta por 123 tomografias computadorizadas de feixe cônico, que foram utilizadas para medir a espessura do osso cortical nos espaços inter-radiculares vestibular e palatino na região mesial dos primeiros molares permanentes. Essas medidas foram comparadas por meio dos testes t de Student, ANOVA/Tukey e regressão linear entre os sexos masculino e feminino, de 12 a 30 anos. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na espessura cortical, quando comparados sexo, cor da pele e padrão facial sagital. Foram verificadas medidas significativamente maiores em pacientes com idade superior a 12 anos em todos os sítios avaliados. O coeficiente β da análise de regressão linear ajustada mostrou que, a cada incremento da idade, os valores médios da espessura cortical aumentaram 0,06 mm na mandíbula, 0,03 mm na região vestibular e 0,02 mm na região palatina da maxila. Conclusão: O aumento da espessura do osso cortical teve associação positiva com a idade, ou seja, quanto mais avançada a idade do paciente, menor a chance de falha, devido à estabilidade primária.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Dental Implants , Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures/methods , Retrospective Studies , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Cortical Bone/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/surgery , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e060, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249378


Abstract: This study aimed to describe the morphometric relationship of root canal orifices on the pulp floor in the presence/absence of mesiobuccal second canal (MB2) in the maxillary first molars and other aspects of its internal anatomy. Sixty-two maxillary first molars were scanned by micro-CT. The presence of the MB2 canal was verified. The distance between the center points of the MB1, MB2, distobuccal (DB), and palatal (P) canal orifices on the pulp floor were measured (MB1-MB2, MB1-DB, MB2-DB, MB1-P, and DB-P). The MB1-P to DB-P ratio was calculated. The distances between the anatomic apex and the MB1 and MB2 apical foramina were measured. The length of the band-shaped isthmus was also measured. Student's t-test was applied to verify the association between the presence of an MB2 canal, the interorifice distances, and the ratio of the MB1-P to DB-P distance (α = 5%). The MB2 canal was present in 43 roots (69.35%). Statistics showed significant differences when MB2 was present for the largest MB1-P distance (p < 0.05) and higher values for the MB1-P to DB-P ratio (p < 0.05). A band-shaped isthmus was detected in 25.8% of MB roots. The mean distance from the apical foramen to the isthmus floor ranged from 1.74 for MB1 canals to 1.42 for MB2 canals. Canal orifice distances on the pulp floor may predict the presence of MB2 canals. There was a high incidence of isthmus, accessory canals, and apical delta in the critical apical zone in MB roots of maxillary first molars.

Tooth Root/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , X-Ray Microtomography , Molar/diagnostic imaging
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180860


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the gonial angle characteristics in class III skeletal malocclusion in Javanese ethnic. Material and Methods: Pretreatment lateral cephalometric radiographs of 43 Javanese ethnic patients were measured: upper (Go1) and lower gonial angle (Go2), anterior (AFH) and posterior face height ratio (PFH), maxilla-mandibular length difference, mandibular plane angle (FMA), Y axis, ramus position, ANB angle, posterior cranial base/ramus height and mandibular body length/anterior cranial base. The relation between Go1, Go2 and other variables were analysed using correlation and regression analysis. Results: The total gonial angle is within normal range, but Go1 is below normal and Go2 is above normal. There is no difference between male and female gonial angle measurements (p=0.939 and p=0.861, respectively). Ramus position is positively correlated to Go1 (p=0.003), while AFH (p=0.000), maxilla-mandibular length difference (p=0.000), FMA (p=0.000), Y axis (p=0.000), and posterior cranial base/ramus height (p=0.018) are positively correlated to Go2. PFH is negatively correlated to Go2 (p=0.018). Conclusion: The upper gonial angle is influenced by the position of mandibular ramus, while the lower gonial angle is affected by the posterior and anterior lower facial height and mandibular size and rotation. Javanese with class III malocclusion tends to have hypodivergent facial type, with more posteriorly located mandibular ramus and excess mandibular length.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Orthodontics , Cephalometry/methods , Indonesia/epidemiology , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/therapy , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Regression Analysis , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(3): e2119389, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1286216


ABSTRACT Objective: The current study investigated the correlation between pulpal sensitivity to the electric pulp tester (EPT) and external apical root resorption (EARR) in four types of maxillary anterior teeth of fixed orthodontic treatment patients. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 232 anterior teeth of 58 patients (mean age 18.96 ± 6.13 years) treated with fixed orthodontic treatment were examined. The EPT readings were recorded at twelve time points immediately before archwire insertion. Root resorption of four maxillary incisors were measured by means of parallel periapical radiographs at three time intervals (six months interval from the start) through design-to-purpose software to optimize data collection. A multiple linear regression model and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to assess the association of EPT values and observed EARR (p< 0.05). Results: The highest level of EPT measurement was recorded at initial visit, and then there was a decreasing trend in EPT level during treatment for the next six and twelve months. There was another increasing trend after six months till the finishing time of the treatment. There was a significant correlation between changes in root length and time of recording the root length (p< 0.001). There was significant positive correlation between changes in EPT level and amount of observed root resorption (p< 0.001). Conclusion: The relative decrease in electric pulp test level could be a diagnostic sign of root resorption during orthodontic treatment. Further studies with longer follow up are needed to confirm the current results.

RESUMO Objetivo: O presente estudo investigou a correlação entre a sensibilidade pulpar ao teste pulpar elétrico (TPE) e a reabsorção radicular apical externa (RRAE) nos quatro dentes anteriores superiores de pacientes em tratamento ortodôntico com aparelho fixo. Métodos: Nesse estudo de coorte prospectivo, foram avaliados 232 dentes anteriores de 58 pacientes (idade média 18,96 ± 6,13 anos) tratados com aparelho ortodôntico fixo. As leituras do TPE foram registradas em doze tempos de avaliação, imediatamente antes da inserção dos arcos. As reabsorções radiculares dos quatro incisivos superiores foram aferidas por meio da média das radiografias periapicais, em três intervalos de tempo (em intervalos de seis meses desde o início) por um software desenvolvido para essa finalidade, com o intuito de otimizar a coleta de dados. Para aferir a associação entre os valores de TPE e as RRAE observadas (p< 0,05), foram utilizados o modelo de regressão linear múltiplo e o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. Resultados: O nível mais alto das medidas do TPE foi registrado na primeira visita e, daí em diante, houve uma tendência de diminuição no nível do TPE durante o tratamento, nos seis a doze meses seguintes. Houve, também, outra tendência de aumento após os seis meses até o término do tratamento, além de uma correlação significativa entre as mudanças no comprimento radicular e o tempo de registro do comprimento radicular (p< 0,001), bem como uma correlação positiva significativa entre as mudanças no nível do TPE e a quantidade de reabsorção radicular observada (p< 0,001). Conclusão: Uma diminuição relativa no nível de sensibilidade ao teste pulpar elétrico pode ser um sinal diagnóstico de reabsorção radicular durante o tratamento ortodôntico. Estudos futuros com acompanhamentos mais longos são necessários para confirmar os presentes resultados.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Root Resorption/etiology , Root Resorption/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Dental Pulp/diagnostic imaging , Incisor/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(3): e2119300, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1286207


ABSTRACT Introduction: In Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics, the timing of treatment onset may be critical and individual analysis should be applied to promote a favorable treatment planning. In this study, individual analysis of midpalatal suture (MS) and palatal measurements were performed in teenagers and young adult patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Description: Twenty-six patients submitted to RME with a tooth-supported appliance (Hyrax) were evaluated. The inclusion criteria were: minimum age of 14 years, presenting all posterior teeth, diagnosed with transverse maxillary discrepancy, and with a clinical indication for maxillary expansion. The pretreatment CBCT scans of these patients were assessed to obtain the stages of MS maturation (MSM); density ratio (MSD); and palatal length, thickness (anterior, intermediate and posterior) and sagittal area. Results: The maturation stages present were C, D or E; the density ranged from 0.6 to 1, and lower density (MSD < 0.75) and higher density (MSD ≥ 0.75) groups were determined. Individuals with higher MSD presented smaller sagittal area, compared to the lower density group. Individuals in D and E MSM stages presented smaller sagittal area and intermediate thickness, compared to stage C. Conclusions: Smaller palatal sagittal area was observed in the high MSD groups and in the stages D and E of MSM.

RESUMO Introdução: Em Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial, o momento de início do tratamento pode ser crítico, e uma análise individual deve ser aplicada para promover um planejamento de tratamento favorável. No presente estudo, foram realizadas a avaliação individualizada da sutura palatina mediana (SPM) e medições no palato de adolescentes e adultos jovens tratados com expansão rápida da maxila (ERM). Descrição: Foram avaliados vinte e seis pacientes submetidos à ERM com aparelho dentossuportado (Hyrax). Os critérios de inclusão foram: idade mínima de 14 anos, apresentando todos os dentes posteriores, diagnosticado com discrepância transversa da maxila e com uma indicação clínica para expansão maxilar. A tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC) pré-tratamento desses pacientes foi avaliada para obter os estágios de maturação da SPM (MSPM), densidade da SPM (DSPM), comprimento do palato, espessura (anterior, intermediária e posterior) e área sagital. Resultados: Os estágios de maturação presentes foram C, D ou E; a densidade variou de 0,6 a 1, e foram determinados grupos de baixa (DSPM < 0,75) e alta densidade (DSPM ≥ 0,75). Indivíduos com maior DSPM apresentaram menor área sagital, em comparação com o grupo de densidade mais baixa. Indivíduos nos estágios D e E de MSPM apresentaram menor área sagital e espessura intermediária, comparados aos indivíduos no estágio C. Conclusão: Uma menor área sagital palatina foi observada nos grupos de alta DSPM e nos estágios D e E de MSPM.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Palatal Expansion Technique , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sutures , Homosexuality, Male , Cranial Sutures/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Maxilla/surgery , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(3): e2119234, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1286212


ABSTRACT Objective: This study aims at identifying anatomical dimensions of dental arches, based on landmarks currently used in the lingual orthodontic technique, and create an archwire form template to be used in orthodontic clinics. Methods: Maxillary and mandibular dental casts of 140 Caucasian individuals with natural and normal occlusion were digitized (3D), and the images were analyzed with Delcam Power ShapeTM 2010 software. The dental arch shapes and sizes were obtained from 14 landmarks selected on the lingual surface of the teeth. Points and segments defined by the software were used to create an archwire form template. Results: Various dental arch patterns were found for both maxilla and mandible. The smallest sizes were found in females, and the largest were found in male subjects. Six categories were defined for each gender, three for the maxilla and three for the mandible (Small, Medium and Large). A template was created with eighteen anatomic lingual archwire designs, nine for the maxilla and nine for the mandible, for both genders. Conclusions: Landmarks evaluated in this study showed dental arch differences between genders. This information enables making orthodontic lingual archwires that are more compatible with the anatomical forms and sizes of the maxilla and mandible. The findings also allowed the creation of a template for an anatomic lingual metallic archwire form to be used in the lingual technique.

RESUMO Objetivo: O presente estudo tem como objetivo encontrar as formas anatômicas e dimensões das arcadas dentárias com base em pontos de referência utilizados na técnica ortodôntica lingual, e criar um diagrama com um maior número de arcos metálicos para serem utilizados na clínica ortodôntica. Métodos: 140 modelos de indivíduos caucasianos com oclusão normal e natural foram digitalizados (3D) e as imagens, analisadas com o software Delcam Power ShapeTM 2010. A determinação das formas e tamanhos das arcadas dentárias foi obtida a partir de 14 pontos selecionados na superfície lingual dos dentes. Outros pontos e segmentos foram utilizados, com o auxílio do software, para definir um diagrama. Resultados: Foram encontrados diferentes tamanhos de arcadas dentárias linguais, tanto para a maxila quanto para a mandíbula. Os menores tamanhos foram os femininos, e os maiores, os masculinos. Definiram-se seis tamanhos para cada sexo, sendo três para a maxila e três para a mandíbula, nomeados como P, M e G. Foi criado um diagrama com dezoito desenhos de arcos linguais anatômicos, nove para a maxila e nove para a mandíbula, para ambos os sexos. Conclusões: A posição dos pontos de referência nesse estudo evidenciou diferenças entre os sexos, o que permitiu a criação de arcos mais compatíveis com as formas e dimensões anatômicas da maxila e mandíbula. A diferença entre os tamanhos das arcadas dentárias linguais possibilitou a criação de um diagrama com formas de arcos metálicos linguais anatômicos para serem utilizados na técnica lingual, para auxiliar o profissional a criar os seus próprios arcos.

Humans , Male , Female , Orthodontic Wires , Dental Arch/diagnostic imaging , Technology , Orthodontic Appliance Design , Dental Models , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(3): e2119288, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1286209


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics of African-Brazilians young adults with excellent dental occlusion, including bimaxillary protrusion; compare them to European-American Caucasian standards, and determine whether there is sexual dimorphism in the display of this phenotype. Methods: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained from 43 African-Brazilians within military personnel (28 males and 15 females, average age 22.4 ± 3.4 years) with normal occlusion, selected from a group of 394 volunteers. Thirty-one angular and linear measurements were evaluated. Student's t-test for independent samples was used to compare results with those established by European-American standards, previously described in the literature. Results: Considering the dentoalveolar pattern, seven angular and six linear measurements showed statistically significant differences (p< 0.001) when compared to Caucasian cephalometric standards. African-Brazilians' subjects showed lower cranial base angle (SNAr = 119.87 ± 5.66º) and anterior cranial base length (SN-distance = 68.63 ± 4.50 mm) (p< 0.001). The maxilla (SNA = 88.51 ± 3.23º) and the mandible (SNB = 85.06 ± 3.24º) were protruded in relation to the SN line (p< 0.001). Sexual dimorphism was significant for L1.NB (degrees) (p< 0.01), and interincisal angle (U1.L1) (p< 0.05). Conclusion: African-Brazilian young adults presented differences regarding dental and craniofacial characteristics, when compared to European-American norms. It can be stated that Caucasian cephalometric norms should not be applied to African-Brazilian faces.

RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar características de jovens adultos afro-brasileiros com oclusão excelente, incluindo protrusão bimaxilar, e compará-los com os padrões caucasianos europeu-americanos, para determinar se há dimorfismo sexual na exibição desse fenótipo. Métodos: Radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram obtidas de 43 afro-brasileiros militares (28 homens e 15 mulheres, idade média de 22,4 ± 3,4 anos) com oclusão normal, selecionados de um grupo de 394 voluntários. Foram avaliadas 31 medidas angulares e lineares. O teste t de Student para amostras independentes foi utilizado para comparar os resultados com os estabelecidos pelos padrões caucasianos europeu-americanos, descrito previamente na literatura. Resultados: Considerando o padrão dentoalveolar, sete medidas angulares e seis lineares apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p< 0,001) quando comparadas aos padrões cefalométricos caucasianos. Sujeitos afro-brasileiros apresentaram menor ângulo da base do crânio (SNAr = 119,87 ± 5,66º) e comprimento da base craniana anterior (distância SN = 68,63 ± 4,50 mm) (p< 0,001). A maxila (SNA = 88,51 ± 3,23º) e a mandíbula (SNB = 85,06 ± 3,24º) estavam protruídas em relação à linha SN (p< 0,001). O dimorfismo de sexo foi significativo para L1.NB (graus) (p< 0,01) e ângulo interincisal (U1.L1) (p< 0,05). Conclusão: Jovens adultos afro-brasileiros apresentaram diferenças em relação às características dentárias e craniofaciais, quando comparados às normas europeias-americanas. Pode-se afirmar que as normas cefalométricas caucasianas não devem ser aplicadas às faces de indivíduos afro-brasileiros.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Brazil , Cephalometry , Prospective Studies
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(2): e2119187, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249699


ABSTRACT Introduction: A side effect observed in cases treated with extractions is the instability of orthodontic space closure. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gingival invagination, presence of third molars and facial pattern, on the stability of orthodontic space-closure in the maxillary arch. Methods: Ninety-nine subjects (41 male and 58 female) with Class I malocclusion treated with four premolars extraction were evaluated. Extraction sites reopening and gingival invaginations were evaluated in scanned dental models in the posttreatment and 1-year posttreatment stages (mean age 16.1 years). Third molars presence was evaluated at 1-year posttreatment panoramic radiographs, and the facial pattern (SN.GoGn) was evaluated in the initial lateral headfilms. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the aforementioned independent variables on the frequency of extraction space reopening. Results: Space reopening was observed in 20.20% of the subjects 1-year post-debonding. Gingival invaginations were present in 25.73% of quadrants after debonding and in 22.80% 1-year posttreatment. The mean pre-treatment SN.GoGn was 35.64 degrees (SD=5.26). No significant influence was observed of the three independent variables on the instability of extraction site closure. Conclusions: The presence of gingival invaginations, third molars and facial growth pattern do not seem to influence maxillary extraction sites reopening.

RESUMO Introdução: Um efeito colateral observado nos casos tratados com extrações é a instabilidade do fechamento ortodôntico do espaço. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a influência da invaginação gengival, da presença de terceiros molares e do padrão facial na estabilidade do fechamento ortodôntico dos locais de extração na arcada superior. Métodos: Noventa e nove indivíduos (41 homens e 58 mulheres) com má oclusão de Classe I tratados com extração de quatro pré-molares foram avaliados. A reabertura dos locais de extração e as invaginações gengivais foram avaliadas nos modelos dentários digitalizados nos estágios pós-tratamento e um ano pós-tratamento (idade média de 16,1 anos). A presença dos terceiros molares foi avaliada em radiografias panorâmicas de um ano pós-tratamento, e o padrão facial (SN.GoGn) foi avaliado nas radiografias laterais iniciais. Análise de regressão logística múltipla foi utilizada para estimar a influência das variáveis independentes citadas na frequência de reabertura do espaço de extração. Resultados: A reabertura do espaço foi observada em 20,20% dos sujeitos um ano após a remoção do aparelho. Invaginações gengivais estiveram presentes em 25,73% dos quadrantes após a remoção do aparelho e em 22,80% após um ano pós-tratamento. O SN.GoGn pré-tratamento médio foi de 35,64 graus (DP = 5,26). Não foi observada influência significativa das três variáveis independentes sobre a instabilidade do fechamento do local de extração. Conclusões: A presença de invaginações gengivais, terceiros molares e padrão de crescimento facial não parece influenciar na reabertura dos locais de extração maxilar.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Tooth Extraction , Malocclusion, Angle Class I , Tooth Extraction/adverse effects , Bicuspid/surgery , Bicuspid/diagnostic imaging , Orthodontic Space Closure , Malocclusion, Angle Class I/therapy , Malocclusion, Angle Class I/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/surgery , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(1): e211965, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154060


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the thickness of the zygomatic-maxillary cortical bone using computed tomography in different skeletal patterns. Methods: A total of 54 patients of both sexes, divided into three groups according to the vertical skeletal pattern, were evaluated for cortical bone thickness of the anterior slope of the zygomatic process of the maxilla, using cone beam computed tomography. Measurements were made at 2mm, 4mm, 6mm, 8mm and 10mm above from first molar mesial root apex. Vertical skeletal pattern was determined by Frankfurt mandibular angle (FMA). Results: The hyperdivergent pattern had the lowest cortical thickness value, nevertheless, no patient in the hyperdivergent group presented cortical thickness exceeding 2mm, and no patient in the hypodivergent group presented cortical thickness less than 1mm. However, the correlation between cortical thickness and mandibular plane angle was weak and not significant. Conclusion: Although higher prevalence of thick cortical was observed in the hypodivergent patients, and thin cortical groups in the hyperdivergent group, the vertical skeletal pattern could not be used as determinant of the zygomatic-maxillary cortical thickness.

RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a espessura da cortical óssea zigomático-maxilar por meio de tomografia computadorizada em diferentes padrões esqueléticos. Métodos: Um total de 54 pacientes de ambos os sexos, divididos em três grupos, de acordo com o padrão esquelético vertical, foi avaliado quanto à espessura da cortical óssea na vertente anterior do processo zigomático da maxila, por meio de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico. As medidas foram feitas a 2mm, 4mm, 6mm, 8mm e 10mm acima do ápice da raiz mesial do primeiro molar. O padrão esquelético vertical foi determinado pelo Ângulo do Plano Mandibular (FMA). Resultados: O padrão hiperdivergente apresentou o menor valor de espessura de cortical. No entanto, nenhum paciente do grupo hiperdivergente apresentou espessura cortical superior a 2mm e nenhum paciente do grupo hipodivergente apresentou espessura cortical inferior a 1mm. No entanto, a correlação entre a espessura da cortical e o ângulo do plano mandibular foi fraca e não significativa. Conclusão: Embora tenha havido uma maior prevalência de cortical espessa no grupo hipodivergente e cortical fina no grupo hiperdivergente, o padrão esquelético vertical não pode ser utilizado como determinante da espessura cortical zigomático-maxilar.

Humans , Male , Female , Cephalometry , Mandible , Maxilla , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Cortical Bone/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 25(6): 33-42, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154050


ABSTRACT Introduction: Controversial reports suggest a relationship between growth pattern and cortical alveolar bone thickness, and its effect in the use of mini-implants. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the growth pattern on the cortical alveolar bone thickness and on the stability and success rate of mini-implants. Methods: Fifty-six mini-implants were inserted in the buccal region of the maxilla of 30 patients. These patients were allocated into two groups, based on their growth pattern (horizontal group [HG] and vertical group [VG]). Cortical thickness was measured using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Stability of mini-implants, soft tissue in the insertion site, sensitivity during loading and plaque around the mini-implants were evaluated once a month. Intergroup comparisons were performed using t tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and Fisher exact tests. Correlations were evaluated with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The cortical bone thickness was significantly greater in the HG at the maxillary labial anterior region and at the mandibular buccal posterior and labial anterior regions. There was a significant negative correlation between Frankfort-mandibular plane angle (FMA) and the labial cortical thickness of the maxilla, and with the labial and lingual cortical bone thicknesses of the mandible. No significant intergroup difference was found for mini-implant mobility and success rate. No associated factor influenced stability of the mini-implants. Conclusions: Growth pattern affects the alveolar bone cortical thickness in specific areas of the maxilla and mandible, with horizontal patients presenting greater cortical bone thickness. However, this fact may have no influence on the stability and success rate of mini-implants in the maxillary buccal posterior region.

RESUMO Introdução: Relatos controversos sugerem uma relação entre o padrão de crescimento e a espessura do osso alveolar cortical e seu efeito no uso de mini-implantes. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do padrão de crescimento na espessura do osso cortical alveolar e na estabilidade e taxa de sucesso dos mini-implantes. Métodos: Cinquenta e seis mini-implantes foram inseridos na região vestibular da maxila de trinta pacientes. Esses pacientes foram alocados em dois grupos, com base em seu padrão de crescimento (grupo horizontal [GH] e grupo vertical [GV]). As espessuras corticais foram medidas por meio de tomografias computadorizadas de feixe cônico. A estabilidade dos mini-implantes, tecido mole no local de inserção, sensibilidade durante a carga e o acúmulo de placa ao redor dos mini-implantes foram avaliados uma vez por mês. As comparações intergrupos foram realizadas por testes t de Student, testes de Mann-Whitney e testes exatos de Fisher. As correlações foram avaliadas com o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. Resultados: A espessura do osso cortical foi significativamente maior no GH na região vestibular anterior da maxila e nas regiões vestibulares posterior e anterior da mandíbula. Houve uma correlação negativa significativa entre o ângulo do plano mandibular (FMA) e a espessura da cortical vestibular da maxila, e com a espessura das corticais vestibular e lingual da mandíbula. Nenhuma diferença significativa entre os grupos foi encontrada com relação à mobilidade do mini-implante e taxa de sucesso. Nenhum fator associado influenciou a estabilidade dos mini-implantes. Conclusões: O padrão de crescimento afeta a espessura da cortical óssea alveolar em áreas específicas da maxila e mandíbula, com pacientes horizontais apresentando maior espessura da cortical óssea. No entanto, esse fato pode não ter influência na estabilidade e na taxa de sucesso dos mini-implantes na região vestibular posterior da maxila.

Humans , Dental Implants , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Cortical Bone/diagnostic imaging , Mandible , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 25(6): 49-58, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154049


ABSTRACT Introduction: Invasive cervical resorption (ICR) is a relatively rare type of ERR (External Root Resorption), in which a localized resorption begins in the cervical area of the tooth, below the epithelial junction and above the ridge crest. Objective: Describe the clinical case of an 11-year-old boy with no dental trauma history, presenting moderate crowding and ectopic eruption of the maxillary right central incisor. He had been undergoing orthodontic treatment elsewhere, and his family was dissatisfied with the results. Description: A new treatment was indicated, which included rapid maxillary expansion followed by extraction of four premolars. During routine panoramic evaluation, a radiolucid image was detected and a periapical radiograph was requested. At this point, an ICR of the maxillary right central incisor was found. The treatment was cautiously finalized and despite the use of light forces, central incisor was severally compromised by ICR and was therefore extracted. Conclusion: This clinical example discusses the importance of routine radiographs for the early diagnoses of ICR.

RESUMO Introdução: A reabsorção cervical invasiva (RCI) é um tipo relativamente raro de reabsorção radicular externa (RRE), no qual uma reabsorção localizada começa na região cervical do dente, abaixo da junção epitelial e acima da crista marginal. Objetivo: Descrever o caso clínico de um menino com 11 anos de idade, sem histórico de trauma dentário, apresentando apinhamento moderado e erupção ectópica do incisivo central superior. Ele realizava tratamento ortodôntico em outro local, mas sua família estava insatisfeita com os resultados. Descrição: Foi iniciado um novo tratamento, que incluiu a expansão rápida da maxila, seguida pela extração de quatro pré-molares. Durante a avaliação de rotina da radiografia panorâmica, uma imagem radiolúcida foi detectada, e uma radiografia periapical da região foi solicitada, sendo encontrada uma RCI no incisivo central superior direito. O tratamento foi finalizado com cautela e, apesar do uso de forças leves, o incisivo central estava seriamente comprometido pela RCI e, portanto, precisou ser extraído. Conclusão: Esse exemplo clínico discute a importância das radiografias de rotina para o diagnóstico precoce da RCI.

Humans , Male , Child , Root Resorption , Incisor , Root Resorption/etiology , Root Resorption/diagnostic imaging , Bicuspid , Cuspid , Incisor/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1266-1270, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134435


SUMMARY: The root canal system of the maxillary first premolar (MFP), present a high rate of variation, especially at apical level. This complicates the action of antiseptic solutions and endodontic instruments at this level. The object of this in vivo study was to analyse by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) the radicular and canalicular morphology of MFP in a Chilean sub-population. We carried out a cross sectional, descriptive and observational in vivo study with CBCT examinations of 70 MFP, both left and right. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics (mean (M), standard deviation (SD), with a confidence interval of 95 %), and one-factor ANOVA was used to relate the sections observed. Tooth 1.4 presented one root in 64.86 % of cases and two roots in 35.15 %. Tooth 2.4 presented one root in 66.67 % of cases and two roots in 33.33 %. The frequency of one and two canals was observed to be 30 % and 70% respectively. The walls with the smallest cementodentinal thickness were the mesial (1.11±0.55) and distal (1.08±0.52). The thickest dentinal wall was the palatine (2.07±1.29), followed by the buccal (1.6±1.0). No statistical differences between males and females were found in the thickness of the root wall, nor in the location of the premolar in the maxilla (p>0.05). In conclusion, the root morphology of the MFP is highly variable. Care must be taken not to over-instrument the proximal walls to avoid perforations or fractures. CBCT has proved to be a useful and effective diagnostic tool for in vivo study of dental morphology.

RESUMEN: El sistema de canal radicular del primer premolar maxilar (MFP) presenta una alta tasa de variación, especialmente a nivel apical. Esto complica la acción de las soluciones antisépticas y los instrumentos endodónticos a este nivel. El objetivo de este estudio in vivo fue analizar mediante tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (CBCT) la morfología radicular y canalicular de la MFP en una subpoblación chilena. Realizamos un estudio transversal, descriptivo y observacional in vivo con exámenes CBCT de 70 MFP, tanto a la izquierda como a la derecha. Los datos se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva (media (M), desviación estándar (DE), con un intervalo de confianza del 95 %) y se utilizó ANOVA de un factor para relacionar las secciones observadas. El diente 1.4 presentó una raíz en el 64,86% de los casos y dos raíces en el 35,15 %. El diente 2.4 presentó una raíz en el 66,67 % de los casos y dos raíces en el 33,33 %. Se observó que la frecuencia de uno y dos canales era del 30 % y 70%, respectivamente. Las paredes con el espesor cementodentinal más pequeño fueron mesial (1,11 ± 0,55) y distal (1,08 ± 0,52). La pared dentinaria más gruesa fue la palatina (2,07 ± 1,29), seguida de la vestibular (1,6 ± 1,0). No se encontraron diferencias estadísticas entre machos y hembras en el grosor de la pared de la raíz, ni en la ubicación del premolar en el maxilar (p> 0,05). En conclusión, la morfología de la raíz de la MFP es muy variable. Se debe tener cuidado de no sobre-instrumentar las paredes proximales para evitar perforaciones o fracturas. CBCT ha demostrado ser una herramienta de diagnóstico útil y efectiva para el estudio in vivo de la morfología dental.

Humans , Male , Female , Bicuspid/diagnostic imaging , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Bicuspid/anatomy & histology , Confidence Intervals , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analysis of Variance , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Maxilla/anatomy & histology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1426-1433, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134459


SUMMARY: Bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) is a powerful osteo-inductive growth factor widely used in bone reconstruction and both the vehicle used to administer it and the scaffold substrate could determine its success in clinical situations. The aim was to analyse the clinical behaviour of dental implants placed in single alveolar ridges with a horizontal deficiency in the maxillary anterior region that were reconstructed horizontally with rhBMP-2 and porous hydroxyapatite (HA). Inclusion criteria were both males and females, between the ages of 18 and 29 with single tooth loss of one upper incisor. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) was used to take measurements prior to bone augmentation and again prior to the implant insertion. Surgery was carried out under local anaesthetic. In the primary procedure, bone substitute was introduced using porous HA and rhBMP-2; after 4 to 5 months, dental implant surgery was carried out and the implant placed; after 3 months of consolidation the provisional prosthesis was placed and then a definitive restoration was placed. Variables were analysed using the t-test with a p-value of < 0.05 in order to assess statistical significance. Thirteen subjects were included (6 females and 7 males). Bone augmentation resulted in a bone gain of 4.15mm (p=0.023), which was shown to be statistically significant. All of the grafts placed were successful and 13 implants were placed, using torques between 30 and 70N, without complications. For the final prostheses, 11 were screw retained and 2 were cemented in place. The horizontal bone augmentation using HA and rhBMP-2 is an efficient technique for single bone defects in the anterior maxillary area; clinical trials on a larger scale are needed to confirm these results.

RESUMEN: La proteína ósea morfogenética (BMP-2) es un potente osteoinductor utilizado ampliamente en técnicas reconstructivas; el vehículo de instalación es determinante en su evolución. El objetivo fue analizar el comportamiento clínico de implantes dentales instalados en rebordes alveolares únicos con deficiencia horizontal del sector anterior reconstruida horizontalmente con BMP-2 e hidroxiapatita (HA) porosa. Fueron incluidos sujetos de ambos sexos de entre 18 y 29 años, con pérdida dentaria unitaria a nivel de incisivos superiores. Se utilizó tomografía computadorizada para realizar mediciones en las etapas previa a la instalación del injerto y previo a la instalación del implante. Las cirugías fueron realizadas bajo anestesia local. En la primera intervención se realizó la instalación del injerto óseo utilizando HA porosa y BMP-2; después de 4 a 5 meses se realizó la instalación del implante dental; 3 meses después se realizó la conexión protésica y rehabilitación final. Las variables fueron estudiadas con la prueba t test considerando el valor de p< 0,05 para considerar significancia estadística. Trece sujetos fueron incluidos (6 mujeres y 7 hombres); con la reconstrucción ósea se obtuvo una ganancia ósea de 4,15mm (p=0.023) que fue estadísticamente significativo. No existió pérdida en ningún injerto realizado; se instalaron 13 implantes con torques entre 30 y 70N sin complicaciones; se realizaron prótesis fijas atornilladas en 11 casos y cementadas en 2 casos. La técnica con HA y BMP- 2 es eficiente para reconstruir defectos horizontales en perdidas unitarias del sector anterior maxilar; ensayos clínicos de mayor escala son necesarios para confirmar estos resultados.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/therapeutic use , Alveolar Ridge Augmentation/methods , Hydroxyapatites/therapeutic use , Maxilla/surgery , Bone Regeneration , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Dental Implants , Longitudinal Studies , Bone Transplantation/methods , Bone Substitutes , Alveolar Process/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 25(4): 23e1-23e7, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1133677


ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to compare the root length of maxillary and mandibular incisors between individuals with open bite versus matched individuals with adequate overbite. Methods: This comparative, matched and retrospective study included 48 cone beam computed tomographies (CBCTs) obtained at a university radiological center. Scans belonged to 24 individuals with open bite (overbite ≤ 0 mm) and 24 individuals with adequate overbite (controls). Both groups were matched by age, sex, malocclusion classification and skeletal characteristics (ANB and FMA angles). Root length of each maxillary and mandibular incisor was measured in millimeters (mm) in a sagittal section from a perpendicular line to the enamel cement junction until the root apex (384 length measurements were made). The means of root length in both groups were compared using t-tests. In addition, correlations between variables were evaluated with the Pearson correlation coefficient (α = 0.05). Results: In both groups, the root length of the upper central incisors was approximately 12 mm and the root length of the maxillary lateral incisors was approximately 13 mm (p˃ 0.05). Likewise, the root length of lower central incisors in both groups measured approximately 12 mm (p˃ 0.05). However, the mandibular lateral incisor roots of open bite patients were significantly longer than in the normal overbite patients (approximately 1 mm, p= 0.012 right side, p= 0.001 left side). Conclusions: Root length of maxillary incisors and central mandibular incisor is similar in individuals with or without open bite, but the mandibular lateral incisor roots in open bite patients were significantly longer than in the normal overbite patients.

RESUMO Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar o comprimento radicular de incisivos superiores e inferiores em indivíduos com mordida aberta versus indivíduos com sobremordida normal. Método: Esse estudo comparativo e retrospectivo incluiu 48 tomografias computadorizadas de feixe cônico (TCFC) obtidas em um centro radiológico universitário. As tomografias foram realizadas em 24 indivíduos com mordida aberta (sobremordida ≤ 0 mm) e 24 indivíduos com sobremordida normal (controle). Ambos os grupos foram compatibilizados de acordo com a idade, sexo, má oclusão e padrão esquelético (ângulos ANB e FMA). O comprimento radicular de todos os incisivos superiores e inferiores foi medido em milímetros (mm) em um corte sagital, de uma linha perpendicular à junção cemento-esmalte até o ápice radicular (384 medidas de comprimento foram realizadas). A média de comprimento radicular em ambos os grupos foi comparada utilizando-se o teste t. Adicionalmente, correlações entre as variáveis foram avaliadas usando o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson (α = 0,05). Resultados: Em ambos os grupos, o comprimento radicular dos incisivos centrais superiores foi de, aproximadamente, 12 mm, e o comprimento radicular dos incisivos laterais superiores foi de, aproximadamente, 13 mm (p˃ 0,05). Da mesma forma, o comprimento radicular dos incisivos centrais inferiores, em ambos os grupos, obteve a medida de aproximadamente 12 mm (p>0,05). No entanto, o comprimento radicular dos incisivos laterais inferiores em indivíduos com mordida aberta foi significativamente maior em comparação aos pacientes com sobremordida normal (aproximadamente 1 mm, p=0,012 do lado direito, p=0,001 do lado esquerdo). Conclusões: O comprimento radicular de incisivos superiores e incisivos centrais inferiores foi similar em indivíduos com ou sem mordida aberta, mas o comprimento radicular de incisivos laterais inferiores em indivíduos com mordida aberta foi significativamente maior em comparação a pacientes com sobremordida normal.

Humans , Open Bite/diagnostic imaging , Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Cephalometry , Retrospective Studies , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Incisor/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880605


OBJECTIVES@#To compare the root length of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth between open bite patients and normal overbite patients via cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as well as the root length of anterior teeth in different degree of open bite patients, and to analyze the correlation between the degree of open bite and root length.@*METHODS@#A total of 106 untreated patients were enrolled retrospectively (53 anterior open bite patients and 53 normal overbite patients).Three-dimensional position of the CBCT image for the patient's teeth was performed using Dolphin software. The median sagittal plane of the tooth was used as the measurement plane, and the line connecting the apical point and the midpoint between the labial and lingual cementoenamel junctions was defined as the root length. Independent @*RESULTS@#Significant differences were found in the root length of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth between the open bite group and the normal overbite group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The root length of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth in the open bite patients is shorter than that in the normal overbite patients, and the severer the degree of open bite, the shorter the root length of the mandibular central incisor tends to be. There is a certain relationship between maxillary anterior teeth and the root length of anterior teeth.

Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Humans , Incisor/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Open Bite/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190148, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056580


Abstract The site of the sinus tract depends on the rate of resistance against abscess exudate drainage, bone morphology, and distance from the root apex to the outer cortical bone. Objective To assess apical bone thickness in buccal and palatal/lingual aspects of maxillary and mandibular teeth, using a high-resolution cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system. Methodology In total, 422 CBCT examinations were included in the study, resulting in a sample of 1400 teeth. The scans were acquired by PreXion 3D, with a high-resolution protocol. The bone thickness was taken as the distance between the center of the apical foramen and the buccal and lingual/palatal cortical bone. The quantitative variables were expressed as mean values±standard deviation. The independent samples were analyzed using the t-test or the Mann-Whitney test (p<0.05). Results The lowest mean value of bone thickness was observed in the buccal cortical bone of the upper canines (1.49 mm±0.86) and in the upper central incisors (1.59 mm±0.67). In premolar teeth, the lowest values were found in the buccal cortical bone of upper first premolars (1.13 mm±0.68). In the posterior teeth, the lowest values were found in the buccal cortical bone of upper first molars (1.98 mm±1.33). In the lower second molar region, the buccal cortical bone (8.36 mm±1.84) was thicker than the lingual cortical bone (2.95 mm±1.16) (p<0.05). Conclusions The lowest mean values of bone thickness are in the buccal cortical bone of the maxillary teeth. In the mandible, bone thickness is thinner in the buccal bone around the anterior and premolar teeth, and in the lingual aspect of mandibular molars. All these anatomic characteristics could make the occurrence of the sinus tract more susceptible in these specific regions of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar bone.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tooth/anatomy & histology , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Maxilla/anatomy & histology , Reference Values , Tooth/diagnostic imaging , Statistics, Nonparametric , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Odontometry/methods
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190103, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056583


Abstract Objective This study aimed to assess the association between tooth size and root canal morphology by using CBCT analysis. Methodology In this retrospective study, tooth anatomic lengths (crown and root lengths, buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions) of 384 patients were assessed and correlated with Vertucci's root canal morphology classification. Data was analyzed for gender-related differences using the independent sample t-test, ANOVA, and the Pearson's correlation for a possible relation between anatomic lengths and canal morphology. Results The maxillary first and second premolars showed a greater predilection for Type IV and II variants, respectively, while the mandibular first premolar showed a greater predilection for Type II canal system. The root canal system of the mandibular second premolar showed maximal diversity (47% Type I, 30% Type II, and 20% Type III). The dimensions were greater in men regardless of tooth type. The most significant relation (p<0.05) between the anatomic size and canal morphology was observed in the maxillary first premolars, followed by the mandibular canines (buccolingual dimension) and the lower second premolars (crown length). Negative correlations existed between the crown length and the patient's age for the anterior teeth and mandibular second premolar (r=−0.2, p<0.01). Conclusions The most common canal formation for anterior teeth was the Type I. The anatomic lengths had the strongest influence on the canal configuration of the maxillary first premolar, with Type IV being the most common root canal system. The mandibular second premolars showed maximal diversity in the canal classification terms and had a significant correlation with their crown lengths. Clinical Relevance The complex relationship between the canal morphology and anatomic tooth sizes need meticulous awareness and recognition during endodontic procedures, in conjunction with the demographic variabilities.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tooth/diagnostic imaging , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Reference Values , Tooth/anatomy & histology , United States , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/anatomy & histology , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Odontometry/methods
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190393, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056585


Abstract Objectives This study assessed the incidence and variability features of root canals system (RCS) and their ramifications according to Pucci & Reig (PR) (1944) and the American Association of Endodontists (AAE) (2017) by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Methodology 500 representative extracted human teeth of each tooth group (n=50) (maxillary/mandibular central and lateral incisors, canines, first and second premolars and molars) were scanned by μCT with a resolution of 26.70 μm. The reconstructed cross-sections images and the visualization of the continuous slices in the transversal axis were performed using DataViewer software. RCS were classified according to Pucci & Reig (main canal, collateral canal, lateral canal, secondary canal, accessory canal, intercanal, recurrent canal) and AAE (main canal, accessory canal, lateral canal). The apical deltas were assessed for both classifications. The prevalence of apical deltas was evaluated using the Chi-squared test (p<0.05). Results According to PR, a higher incidence of lateral canals was observed in maxillary canines (10%), central incisors (8%) and first premolars (6%). Using AAE, the highest incidence of lateral canals was observed in the mandibular first premolars (85%), first and second molars (84%), lateral incisors (67%), canines (59%), and in maxillary first premolars (52%). Regarding accessory canals, the PR showed a frequency in 2% of the maxillary lateral incisors and maxillary and mandibular first premolars and 3% of mandibular first and second molars. On the other hand, the AAE showed the highest incidence of accessory canals in 86% of the maxillary first premolars, 71% in mandibular lateral incisors, 69% in mandibular first premolars, 65% in mandibular canines, and 56% in maxillary canines. The PR showed the lowest incidence of apical deltas for all dental groups when compared with AAE (p=0.004). Interestingly, distal canals in maxillary molars showed a significant discrepancy between classifications (p=0.027). Conclusions μCT enabled accurately describing the RC system and related ramifications, adding to the PR and AAE classifications, with some discrepancies reported for maxillary molars. Clinical Relevance This μCT study enabled a thorough description of the variability among root canals and their ramifications, including clinically relevant details on the presence and location of lateral canals and accessories in all human tooth groups, beyond the currently existing classification systems.

Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , X-Ray Microtomography/methods , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tooth Apex/anatomy & histology , Tooth Apex/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/anatomy & histology , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 852-857, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012364


The aim of this paper was to determine the frequency of Canalis Sinuosus (CS) and its anatomic variations. A total of 236 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were studied. Characteristics of the canal such as its form, pathway and diameter were analyzed. The CS was clearly visualized in 100 % of the images with variations in the canal observed in up to 46 % of the cases. In 79 % of the cases the variation was found to be bilateral. The most common variation was an increase in the diameter (> 1mm) of the CS. Considering that the anterior region of the middle third of the face is a common place for clinical interventions, this study supports the need to perform a thorough evaluation of the maxillary region prior to clinical interventions in order to prevent complications such as direct or indirect injury to the anterior superior alveolar neurovascular bundle contained within the CS.

El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la frecuencia de Canalis Sinuosus (CS) y sus variaciones anatómicas. Se estudiaron un total de 236 imágenes de tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (CBCT). Se analizaron las características del canal, como su forma, vía y diámetro. El CS se visualizó claramente en el 100 % de las imágenes, observándose variaciones en el canal en hasta el 46 % de los casos. En el 79 % de los casos la variación fue bilateral. La variación más común fue un aumento en el diámetro (> 1 mm) de la CS. Teniendo en cuenta que la región anterior del tercio medio de la cara es un lugar común para las intervenciones clínicas, este estudio apoya la necesidad de realizar una evaluación exhaustiva de la región maxilar antes de las intervenciones clínicas para prevenir complicaciones como lesiones directas o indirectas a el haz neurovascular alveolar superior anterior contenido dentro de la CS.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Anatomic Variation , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Age and Sex Distribution , Maxilla/innervation , Maxillary Nerve/anatomy & histology , Maxillary Nerve/diagnostic imaging
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 48: e20190034, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1014402


Abstract Introduction Pneumatization of the maxillary sinus may make it impossible to insert implants directly in the posterior region of the maxilla, and in these cases, the solution is to submit the patient to maxillary sinus floor augmentation surgery. The most common complication of this surgery is sinus membrane perforation. Anatomical variations of the internal space of the sinus, such as the bone septa, may further hamper detachment of this membrane. Objective To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of sinus septa in patients from the Zona da Mata Mineira (Minas Gerais, Brazil), to offer relevant information for a safer planning of surgeries involving this region. Material and method A total of 120 patients (240 sinuses) were analyzed using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, verifying the presence of sinus septa and classifying them for size and anteroposterior location. Result Of the 120 patients analyzed, 45 (37.50%) had sinus septa, 66 septa in total. Of these, 33 (50%) were present in the middle region of the maxillary sinus and the mean septum size was 7.23 mm. There was no significant difference in the septum size between the genders or between the right and left sides. Conclusion The high rates of incidence of sinus septa justify their study, which should be based mainly on accurate exams, such as CBCT, since they represent one of the most relevant anatomical variations for the cases of sinus surgeries.

Resumo Introdução A pneumatização do seio maxilar pode impossibilitar a instalação direta de implantes na região posterior da maxila, e a solução nesses casos é submeter o paciente a uma cirurgia de levantamento do assoalho do seio maxilar. A complicação mais comum dessa cirurgia é a perfuração da membrana sinusal. Variações anatômicas no interior do seio como, por exemplo, os septos ósseos, podem dificultar ainda mais o descolamento dessa membrana. Objetivo Avaliar a prevalência e as características dos septos sinusais em pacientes da Zona da Mata Mineira (Minas Gerais, Brasil), oferecendo informações relevantes para um planejamento mais seguro das cirurgias envolvendo essa região. Material e método Um total de 240 seios (120 pacientes) foram analisados, por meio de imagens de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC), verificando-se a presença de septos sinusais e classificando-os quanto ao tamanho e à localização anteroposterior. Resultado Dos 120 pacientes analisados, 45 (37,50%) apresentaram septos sinusais, sendo 66 septos no total. Destes, 33 (50%) estavam presentes na região média do seio maxilar e o tamanho médio dos septos foi de 7,23 mm. Não existiu diferença significativa no tamanho dos septos entre os sexos ou entre os lados direito e esquerdo. Conclusão As elevadas taxas de incidência dos septos sinusais justificam o seu estudo, que deve ser baseado principalmente em exames acurados, como a TCFC, uma vez que representam uma das variações anatômicas mais relevantes para os casos de cirurgias de levantamentos de seio.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Sinus Floor Augmentation , Maxillary Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging