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Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1128-1136, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345259


Constant fishing industry innovations in response to consumer demands for novel, balanced healthy products exhibiting high nutritional value, as well as easy to prepare and ready to consume, have led to the emergence of new technologies. Among them, the development of products based on ground beef and fish mixtures are noteworthy. In this context, the purpose of this study was to develop products from different ground rainbow trout and tilapia fillet ratios, in the form of meatballs and nuggets, determining their proximate composition and physico-chemical, microbiological and toxicological characteristics. The average dry matter percentage of the developed products was 29.20±2.30%, while mineral content was 1.45±0.55%, lipid pulp content, 3.70±0.30% and crude pulp protein, 16.60±2.04%. Total psychotropic counts remained below 102 CFU/g, for standard counting on aerobic microorganism plates. Histamine and sulfur-based compounds were not detected in any of the prepared samples. The purpose of the work proposal was to develop foods and technologies that can serve as standards, allowing for simple handling products that apply ground meat mixtures from different fish species to maintain adequate nutritional indices after processing.(AU)

A constante inovação da indústria pesqueira, em resposta às demandas dos consumidores por novos produtos saudáveis, com alto valor nutritivo, balanceados, de fácil preparo e prontos para consumo, levou ao surgimento de novas tecnologias, entre elas o desenvolvimento de produtos à base de mistura de carne moída de pescado. Nesse contexto, a proposta deste trabalho é desenvolver produtos a partir de carne moída de pescado de truta-arco-íris e tilápia, confeccionando almôndegas e nuggets em diferentes proporções, com determinação da composição centesimal e de suas características físico-químicas, microbiológicas e toxicológicas. A matéria seca percentual média foi de 29,20±2,30%. Teores de matéria mineral nos produtos estão em 1,45±0,55%. Os teores de lipídeos aferidos na polpa foram de 3,70±0,30%, e os níveis de proteína bruta apresentados na polpa de 16,60±2,04%. A contagem de psicrotróficos totais manteve-se abaixo de 102 CFU/g, para contagem padrão em placas de micro-organismos aeróbicos. Nas amostras, não foram detectados níveis de histamina e de compostos à base de enxofre. A proposta de trabalho objetivou, por fim, desenvolver alimentos e tecnologias que possam servir como padrões, permitindo que produtos de manipulação simples e que utilizem misturas de carne moída de diferentes espécies de pescado mantenham índices nutricionais adequados após o processamento.(AU)

Animals , Fishing Industry , Fish Products , Meat Products , Tilapia , Oncorhynchus mykiss
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 1-7, May. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343303


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore genetic polymorphisms of the CCKAR gene and their relationship with the growth and development of Qinchuan cattle which could be used as molecular markers for the improvement of the breeding of Qinchuan cattle. RESULTS: Here, we have identified seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at loci g. 1463 C>G; g. 1532 T>A; g. 1570 G>A; g. 1594 C>A; g. 1640 T>C; g. 1677 G>C; and g. 1735 C>T in the coding region of the bovine CCKAR gene. The frequencies identified on allelic and genotypic characteristics have shown that all seven SNPs diverged from the Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium. The SNP2, SNP3, SNP6 and SNP7 had the lowest polymorphism information content values, and remaining SNPs were found to be moderate (0.25 < PIC < 0.50). The genotype CG in SNP1 at loci g.1463 C>G had the greatest association with WH, HW, CD and CCF, while the genotype TA at the very same loci was associated with BFT, ULA and IMF content in Qinchuan cattle. The CCKAR gene expression level in adipose tissue, small intestine, liver and skeleton muscle was found to be higher, whereas, the expression level of mRNA in organs of other digestive system including reticulum, abomasum and omasum was moderate. Some expression of CCKAR mRNA was found in the large intestine, kidney and rumen. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our finding suggested that the CCKAR gene could be used as a potential candidate for the improvement of carcass quality and body measurements of Qinchuan cattle.

Animals , Cattle , Cattle/genetics , Receptor, Cholecystokinin A/genetics , Genetic Variation , Linkage Disequilibrium , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Digestive System , Livestock , Genotyping Techniques , Gene Frequency , Meat Products
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 378-383, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878568


In recent years, to solve the increasingly prominent problem of the contradiction between human social development and environmental resources, artificial meat has appeared in public view more and more. Generally speaking, the artificial meat can be divided into vegetable protein meat and cell cultured meat. Among them, vegetable protein meat has gradually begun to be commercialized, and cell cultured meat is cultured with animal cells, which is more similar to the real meat. Based on the analysis of the essence of cell cultured meat, we explore the positive significance of cell cultured meat technology for the meat production industry, consumer groups, and the sustainable development of mankind in the future. From the perspective of bioethics, the research, development and production of cell cultured meat can help ensure the sustainable development of human society, improve animal welfare, reduce resource demand, improve the nutritional function of meat products, and provide new growth points for the development of other industries. In addition, the ethical risks of food safety, technology abuse and technical supervision involved in cell cultured meat production are put forward for deep consideration, hoping to provide reference for the sustainable development of artificial meat industry from the perspective of bioethics.

Animal Welfare , Animals , Food Safety , Humans , Meat , Meat Products
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 424-436, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153346


Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) is one of the food-borne entero-pathogen responsible for yersiniosis in humans. The purpose of this research was to survey the prevalence, virulence-associated genes, and antimicrobial resistance of Y. enterocolitica isolated from meat and meat product samples in Egypt. Forty-one (5.9%) out of 700- samples of chicken meat, beef, ground beef, and sausage were positive Y. enterocolitica with a high prevalence in chicken meat (12%). Five virulence genes (ail, inv, ystA, ystB, and yadA) were characterized among 41 Y. enterocolitica isolates with variable frequencies. Among the strains tested, the ystB gene was detected with a high percentage (78.1%), followed by inv gene (70.7%), ail gene (14.6%), ystA gene (12.2%), and yadA gene (2.4%). A high resistance rate was estimated to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (100%), followed by cefazolin (95%), ampicillin (65.9%), and doxycycline (51.2%), whilst a high sensitivity rate was observed to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin (97.6% each). Interestingly, the multidrug resistance was specified in the 70.7% of strains and showing 13 resistance patterns. Based on nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16s rRNA gene, the phylogenetic tree showed the genetic relatedness amongst Y. enterocolitica isolates. These findings highlighted the emergence of virulent and multidrug-resistant pathogenic Y. entrocolitica in retailed meat and meat products in Egypt.

A Yersinia enterocolitica patogênica (Y. enterocolitica) é um dos enteropatógenos de origem alimentar responsáveis pela yersiniose no ser humano. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a prevalência, genes associados à virulência e resistência antimicrobiana de Y. enterocolitica isolada de amostras de carne e produtos à base de carne no Egito. Quarenta e um (5,9%) de 700 amostras de carne de frango, carne bovina, moída e linguiça foram Y. enterocolitica positivas, com alta prevalência em carne de frango (12%). Cinco genes de virulência (ail, inv, ystA, ystB e yadA) foram caracterizados entre 41 isolados de Y. enterocolitica com frequências variáveis. Entre as cepas testadas, o gene ystB foi detectado com uma alta porcentagem (78,1%), seguido pelo gene inv (70,7%), ail genes (14,6%), gene ystA (12,2%) e gene yadA (2,4%). Foi estimada uma alta taxa de resistência ao ácido amoxicilina-clavulânico (100%), seguida de cefazolina (95%), ampicilina (65,9%) e doxiciclina (51,2%), enquanto uma alta taxa de sensibilidade foi observada para gentamicina e ciprofloxacina (97,6% cada). Curiosamente, a resistência a múltiplas drogas foi especificada em 70,7% das cepas e mostrando 13 padrões de resistência. Com base na análise da sequência nucleotídica do gene rRNA 16s, a árvore filogenética mostrou a relação genética entre isolados de Y. enterocolitica. Esses achados destacaram o surgimento de Y. entrocolitica patogênica virulenta e multirresistente em carnes e produtos à base de carne no Egito.

Humans , Yersinia enterocolitica/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Meat/microbiology , Meat Products/microbiology , Phylogeny , Virulence/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Egypt , Genotype , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00212020, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349023


The consumption of meat and meat products can pose consumers into risk due to the presence of biological hazards that can cause foodborne diseases. Thus, this study aimed to compare the microbiological quality of illegal and inspected salami sold in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. For this purpose, 80 salami samples (40 illegal and 40 inspected) were purchased and their microbiological quality was assessed according to the protocol established by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. All samples were considered as acceptable for consumption according to the Brazilian law. However, the samples of illegal salami were significantly higher contaminated with bacteria belonging to the genus Staphylococcus (p = 0.002) and had a higher trend to be contaminated with total coliforms (p = 0.08) and thermotolerant ones (p = 0.07) compared to inspected salami. Salmonella spp. and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus were not detected. In conclusion, although all samples were considered as safe for consumption, illegal salami had a worse microbiological quality when compared to inspected ones.

Humans , Animals , Staphylococcus/pathogenicity , Meat/microbiology , Meat Products , Salmonella , Bacteria , Health Surveillance , Food Quality , Public Health , Commerce , Food Safety , Foodborne Diseases
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 463-469, jun. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126145


The addition of soy proteins, currently classified as a food allergen, into meat products is a commonly used practice due to its functional properties and low cost. Its addition to meat products can cause health problems for individuals allergic to these proteins. Allergic individuals can be affected by the ingestion of low amounts of the allergen. In Brazil, limits are set for the addition of soy proteins in meat products in order to avoide fraud. Starting in 2015 reporting the name of the added component became mandatory for all food labelling. Some studies have reported that food processing can reduce the allergenicity, either by irreversible removal of allergens or by modifying the allergen structure. However, the technological approach to decrease allergenicity has largely been empirical. This review describes the use of soy protein in meat products and the health risk for allergic individuals and consumers of these products. Finally, appropriate methodologies for the detection and quantification of these proteins must be further explored and established to avoid fraud and to preserve consumer health.

La adición de proteínas de soya, actualmente clasificadas como alergeno alimentario, en los productos cárnicos es una práctica comúnmente utilizada debido a sus propiedades funcionales y bajo costo. Su adición en productos cárnicos puede causar problemas de salud en personas alérgicas a estas proteínas. Las personas alérgicas pueden verse afectadas por la ingestión de cantidades diminutas de alérgeno. En Brasil, se establecen límites para la adición de proteínas de soya en los productos cárnicos con el objetivo de evitar el fraude. Solo en 2015 se hizo obligatoria la declaración en la etiqueta de todos los alimentos que indicaban la presencia de sustancias alérgicas, así como el nombre del componente. Algunos estudios se refieren al procesamiento de alimentos para reducir la alergenicidad, ya sea mediante la eliminación irreversible de alergenos o modificando la estructura del alergeno; sin embargo, el enfoque tecnológico hasta ahora para disminuir la alergenicidad ha sido en gran medida empírico. Esta revisión describe el uso de proteína de soya en los productos cárnicos y el riesgo que puede causar para la salud de las personas alérgicas y a los consumidores de estos productos. Finalmente, las metodologías apropiadas para la detección y cuantificación de estas proteínas deben explorarse en profundidad y establecerse para evitar el fraude y preservar la salud de los consumidores.

Humans , Plant Proteins, Dietary/adverse effects , Soybean Proteins/adverse effects , Food Hypersensitivity/etiology , Meat Products , Allergens , Health Risk , Food Hypersensitivity/prevention & control , Epitopes
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 411-422, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126139


RESUMEN Se estableció la caracterización de salchichas secas tipo cabanossi con carne de llama, cerdo y muestras comerciales mediante un análisis proximal (contenidos de grasa: 18,6 a 29,6% y proteína: 19,4 a 36,2%), color (C*: 15,8 a 33,7), actividad de agua (0,770 a 0,960), pH (5,2 a 6,5) y propiedades mecánicas como dureza (47,8 a 124 N) y masticabilidad (9,4 a 33,2 N). Se obtuvieron 19 descriptores a partir de la opinión de 83 consumidores; luego, se empleó el método CATA (Check-all-that-apply) para describir las características sensoriales del cabanossi empleando 55 consumidores. Se evidenció que el cabanossi con carne de llama presentó el menor contenido de grasa total y ácidos grasos saturados, y mayor contenido de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados en comparación a las otras muestras. Los descriptores más utilizados fueron: olor característico/embutido, sabor a especias/condimentos, picante y sensación residual picante. Los consumidores indicaron como atributos relevantes para la aceptabilidad al color rojo claro, blando/suave, masticable y picante. La utilización de carne de llama constituye una alternativa en el desarrollo de nuevos productos cárnicos basados sobre las características presentadas.

ABSTRACT The chemical and physical characterization of cabanossi-type dry sausages made with lama meat, pork and commercial samples were performed. Remarkable differences were found in terms of fat (18.6 to 29.6%), color (15.8 to 33.7), water activity (0.770 to 0.960), pH (5.6 to 6.5), hardness (47.8 to 124 N) and chewiness (9.4 to 33.2 N). Nineteen descriptive terms based on the opinions of 83 consumers were used. Then, 55 consumers used the CATA (Check-all-that-apply) method to describe the sensory traits of cabanossi . Sausage from lama meat had the lowest total fat and saturated fatty acid content, and the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid content in comparison to the other samples. The most utilized sensory terms were: characteristic odor/smell of sausage, spicy flavor and spicy after taste. For sensory acceptability, consumers selected light red color, soft/tender, chewable and spicy as the most relevant traits. The application of lama meat represents an alternative to new meat products developed based on the characteristics studied.

Animals , Meat Products/analysis , Swine , Taste , Camelids, New World , Proteins/analysis , Fats/analysis
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 231-237, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115493


El uso de microondas está muy extendido a nivel doméstico gracias a su rapidez y facilidad de uso. El objetivo del presente trabajo es comparar el efecto de cocción de hamburguesas de distintos tipos de carne, en microondas y en horno convencional, sobre la pérdida de peso y estabilidad oxidativa. Además, determinar si existen diferencias desde el punto de vista sensorial aplicando una prueba triangular, comparando 2 productos presentados en tríos, uno que corresponde a hamburguesa cocida en microondas y otro a hamburguesa cocida en horno convencional. Se adquirieron hamburguesas de pollo, pavo, cerdo y vacuno en el comercio, se cocinaron en horno convencional y en microondas. Se calculó pérdida por cocción, se evaluó la rancidez y diferencias sensoriales entre hamburguesas del mismo tipo de carne, cocidas en distinto tipo de horno. La pérdida por cocción fue menor en hamburguesas cocidas en microondas. La acidez e índice de peróxido aumentaron en las muestras cocidas en ambos tipos de hornos respecto a hamburguesas crudas. La acidez fue mayor en hamburguesas cocidas en horno convencional, y el índice de peróxido fue mayor en hamburguesas cocidas en microondas, llegando a 10,6 meq O2/kg. En el análisis sensorial se encontraron diferencias significativas (p<0,05) entre las hamburguesas cocidas en horno convencional y en microondas. Resulta mejor opción cocinar hamburguesas en horno convencional, ya que el índice de peróxidos es menor que al cocinar en microondas; dentro del tipo de hamburguesas, son más estables las de vacuno y cerdo frente a la oxidación.

The use of microwaves is very widespread at the domestic level thanks to its speed and ease of use. The aim of this study was to compare cooking loss, rancidity and sensory differences for hamburger patties cooked in conventional versus microwave ovens. We also determined sensorial differences with the triangular test, comparing two products presented in threesomes, one that corresponded to a patty cooked in the microwave and the other in a conventional oven. Chicken, turkey, pork and beef patties were purchased commercially, cooked in a conventional oven and in microwaves. Cooking loss was calculated, rancidity and sensory differences were evaluated between patties of the same type of meat and cooked in the different oven types. Cooking loss was lower in patties cooked in microwaves compared to those cooked in conventional ovens. For both oven types, acidity and peroxide index increased with respect to raw ones. Acidity was higher in hamburgers cooked in conventional ovens and the peroxide index was higher in burgers cooked in microwaves, reaching 10.6 meq O2/kg. In sensory analysis, significant differences were found (p<0.05) between patties cooked in a conventional oven and in microwaves. It is a better option to cook patties in a conventional oven, because the peroxide index is smaller than in microwaves; and within types of patties, beef and pork are more stable against oxidation.

Furnaces , Cooking/methods , Meat Products/analysis , Microwaves , Peroxides/analysis , Taste , Acidity
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 79: 1-10, 31 mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1293176


Focus Group é uma técnica sensorial qualitativa baseada no comportamento de um grupo de pessoas quanto aos atributos sensoriais. É conduzida por um moderador que garante a interação para discussão diante às percepções. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar carne de sol a partir de análises sensoriais, associando-as com resultados obtidos por análises físico-químicas. Para tanto, quatro amostras foram coletadas de comércio varejista na cidade de João Pessoa, PB, sendo caracterizadas quanto à composição centesimal, atividade de água, pH e capacidade de retenção de água (CRA). Os participantes foram recrutados conforme hábitos de consumo e as amostras foram preparadas a partir do dessalgue e cocção em forno elétrico, sendo mantidas em banho-maria até o momento da avaliação sensorial. Com as respostas obtidas, observou-se que além da aparência, o teor de umidade e a CRA são considerados parâmetros que influenciam diretamente nos atributos sensoriais. O estudo qualitativo exploratório - Focus Group, em associação aos parâmetros físico-químicos, representaram métodos confiáveis para a interpretação do perfil de consumo da carne de sol. Conclui-se que por meio de critérios específicos, os fatores de qualidade foram melhor interpretados, definindo as preferências de um consumidor cada dia mais exigente quanto às características de seu alimento. (AU)

Focus Group is a qualitative sensory technique, based on the behavior of a group of people, regarding the attributes of a product. It is conducted by a moderator who ensures an interaction for discussion in the face of perceptions. The aim of this study was to evaluated dried meat by sensory analysis associating the evaluation with results obtained by physicochemical analysis. Therefore, four samples were collected from the retail trade in the city of João Pessoa, PB, which were then characterized for chemical composition, water activity, pH and water holding capacity (WHC). Participants were recruited according to consumer habits and the samples were prepared by desalting and cooking in an electric oven, and kept in a water bath until the time for sensory analysis. With the answers obtained, in addition to appearance, the moisture content and the WHC are considered parameters that directly influence the sensory attributes. The qualitative exploratory study - Focus Group, in association with physical-chemical methods, represented methods used for the interpretation of the consumption profile of sun dread meat. Thus, conclude what is the use of specific criteria, the quality factors that were evaluated, defining the preferences of consumers who are increasingly demanding as to the characteristics of their food. (AU)

Focus Groups , Consumer Behavior , Food Composition , Chemical Phenomena , Meat , Meat Products
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 148-152, feb. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092755


Algunos profesionales de la salud desaconsejan el consumo del yogur por el riesgo de provocar Síndrome Urémico Hemolítico, una enfermedad grave causada por cepas de E. coli productor de toxina Shiga (STEC por sus siglas en inglés). Estas bacterias pueden pasar del intestino del ganado vacuno a la carne o a la leche en condiciones inadecuadas de trabajo en frigoríficos o establecimientos productores de leche, respectivamente, siendo las hamburguesas insuficientemente cocidas el principal vector de la enfermedad y la leche cruda sin pasteurizar o los productos lácteos elaborados con ésta, otro factor de riesgo. En la industria láctea, el yogur se elabora con leche que es sometida a un doble tratamiento térmico. En la bibliografía moderna reportes de la presencia de STEC en yogures industriales, y los trabajos de revisión y meta-análisis no incluyen al yogur, pero sí a la leche sin pasteurizar, como vectores de trasmisión de STEC. En este contexto, y dada la evidencia científica disponible actualmente en relación a E. coli productor de toxina Shiga, el SUH y el yogur, parecería que estamos ante la presencia de una correlación espuria, la asociación de dos hechos que no tienen relación causal entre sí, más que a un hecho científico del cual uno (el yogur) es el responsable del otro (SUH).

Some health professionals discourage yogurt because of the risk of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), a serious disease caused by strains of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). These bacteria can pass from the intestine of cattle to meat or milk under inadequate working conditions in slaughterhouses or milking plants. Undercooked hamburgers the main is vector of disease and unpasteurized raw milk or dairy products made with it, are another risk factors. In the dairy industry, yoghurt is made from milk that undergoes a double heat treatment. There are no reports of the presence of STEC in industrial yogurts in the modern bibliography, and reviews and meta-analysis do not point to yogurt as a risk factor for STEC, but rather unpasteurized milk. In this context, and given the scientific evidence currently available regarding STEC, HUS and yogurt, it would seem that we are in the presence of a spurious correlation, the association between two facts that have no causal relationship between them, rather than a scientific fact for which one (yogurt) may be responsible for the other (HUS).

Humans , Yogurt/adverse effects , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/etiology , Yogurt/microbiology , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Meat Products/adverse effects , Meat Products/microbiology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816636


Coccidiosis-causing Eimeria species are transmitted in poultry via the oral-fecal route and can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea and mortality. This results in enormous economic losses in the poultry industry. Furthermore, its resistance to some currently used antibiotics is increasing. This has prompted the development of new alternative drug therapies that address the issue of chemical-free meat production. Effective management of infectious diseases in veterinary practice includes the induction of protective and adaptive immunity by treatment with an alternative agent. In this study, we evaluated the anticoccidial effects of dietary supplementation of Chosun University (CS) 32 compounds (0.1% and 1.0%) against Eimeria tenella, which was isolated and purified from the supernatant of culture broth of Bacillus strain (KCTC18250P), as well as its effect on the growth rate and feed efficiency in chickens. Overall, we observed a decrease in lesion scores and oocyte output in CS 32 compounds-treated chickens. We concluded that 0.1% CS 32 compounds displayed anticoccidial effects against E. tenella infection.

Adaptive Immunity , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacillus , Chickens , Communicable Diseases , Diarrhea , Dietary Supplements , Drug Therapy , Eimeria tenella , Eimeria , Meat Products , Mortality , Oocytes , Poultry
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190759, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132246


Abstract Animal products are sources of microbiological contamination when the process has hygienic-sanitary control fails. Therefore, this work aims the evaluation of the pathogenic microorganisms presented in samples from the Brazil southern region of yogurt (N = 101), stretched curd cheese (N = 31), fresh sausage (N = 22) and processing water (N = 63). Analyses of coliforms at 45 °C, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli were performed. Analysis indicated processing water is an important contamination source to be monitored, because the majority of samples presented results above the regulation limits. Thermal treatment and fermentation such as stretched curd cheese and yogurt appeared to be more stable against contamination during processing. In this study, for coliforms at 45 °C, only one cheese sample and 12% of total yogurt samples exceeded the Brazilian legislation limit. None of sausage samples presented any contamination. On the other hand, values found in both processing water and dairy products indicated failures in application and monitoring of good manufactured practices.

Animals , Water Microbiology , Yogurt/microbiology , Cheese/microbiology , Food Microbiology , Meat Products/microbiology , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Brazil , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Coliforms
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1985-1992, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055127


Para avaliar as condições higiênico-sanitárias e tecnológicas (HST) de produção e comercialização da carne de sol no município de Salinas, na região Norte do estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas 40 amostras no comércio local para a realização de análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas. A carne de sol é produzida artesanalmente em estabelecimentos comerciais e considerada uma tradição da região. Nas análises físico-químicas de umidade, proteína, gordura, cinzas, cloretos e pH, foram encontrados valores médios de 70,13%, 22,35%, 2,25%, 5,09%, 3,63% e 5,8, respectivamente. Duas amostras (5%) foram positivas para Salmonella spp. e 16 (40%) apresentaram contagens de S. aureus superiores a 103UFC/g. Os valores encontrados nas análises de mesófilos aeróbicos, bolores e leveduras e coliformes totais e termotolerantes foram de 2,50x107 UFC/g, 1,73x104 UFC/g, 9,1NMP/g e 4,3NMP/g, respectivamente. A carne de sol produzida em Salinas é um produto artesanal, portanto heterogêneo quanto às características de produção, comercialização e de qualidade microbiológica e físico-química. A importância socioeconômica da carne de sol na região é considerável, o que justifica a necessidade de se conhecer melhor suas características para auxiliar no desenvolvimento de eventuais políticas públicas regionais visando ao controle sanitário desse produto.(AU)

In order to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary and technological conditions (HST) of production and commercialization of sun-dried meat, in the city of Salinas, in the North of Minas Gerais, 40 samples of the product were collected in the local commerce for carrying out physicochemical and microbiological analyses. The sun-dried meat is produced in the commercial establishments and considered a tradition of the region. In the physicochemical analyzes of moisture, protein, fat, ash content, chlorides and pH were found values of 70.13%, 22.35%, 2.25%, 5.09%, 3.63% and 5.8, respectively. Two samples (5%) were positive for Salmonella spp. and 16 (40%) had Staphylococcus aureus counts higher than 10 3 CFU/g. The values found for the analyses of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, yeasts and molds and total and thermotolerant coliforms were 2.50 x 10 7 CFU/g, 1.73 x 10 4 CFU/g, 9.1MPN/g and 4.3MPN/g, respectively. The sun-dried meat from Salinas is a handmade product, therefore heterogeneous in terms of production, and physicochemical and microbiological quality. The socioeconomic importance of the sun-dried-meat in the region is considerable, which justifies the need to know its characteristics better to help in the development of regional public policies aiming at sanitary control of the product.(AU)

Food Quality , Food Hygiene , Chemical Phenomena , Meat Products/microbiology
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 22-29, July. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053216


Background: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) contains active substances that have desirable properties for industrial and herbal medicine applications, e.g., essential oils (1.5­2.5%), tannins, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, resins, phytosterols, rosmarinic acid and many others. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of rosemary extract and 20% rapeseed oil substitution for animal fat on storage changes and inhibition of cholinesterases in liver pâté. Results: Preliminary research showed that rosemary extract exhibited antioxidative activity in the system of accelerated Rancimat and Oxidograph tests. Then, rosemary extract was used as an ingredient in liver pâté. During the experiment, meat samples were refrigerated and tested on days 1, 5, 8, 12 and 15 after production. The study proved that the substitution of 20% of animal fat with rapeseed oil decreased the content of saturated acids and increased the content of monoenic fatty acids by approximately 5% and polyene fatty acids by 40%. Conclusions: In addition to antioxidative activity, the rosemary extract affected the health-promoting value of the samples, which inhibited cholinesterase activity during the entire storage period. The extract inhibited AChE more than BChE.

Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Meat Products , Antioxidants/chemistry , Peroxides , Oils, Volatile , Fat Substitutes , Principal Component Analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Liver , Meat Products/microbiology
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(2): 181-189, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003692


RESUMEN Las algas marinas constituyen un valioso recurso para el desarrollo de productos alimenticios gracias a su composición nutricional, contienen alta concentración de proteínas, vitaminas, minerales y fibra dietética, que en el caso de las algas es particularmente rica en fracción soluble. Las algas además contienen componentes beneficiosos para la salud, como ácidos grasos ω-3 y moléculas bioactivas, con actividad antioxidante, antiinflamatoria, anticancerígena y antidiabética. Además, poseen propiedades tecnológicas, por lo que su incorporación en alimentos procesados y especialmente productos cárnicos como salchichas, hamburguesas, emulsiones cárnicas y otras, resulta beneficioso desde el punto de vista tecnológico y sensorial, siempre que se incorpore en una concentración adecuada.

ABSTRACT Seaweed is a valuable resource for food development due to its nutritional composition. It is high in protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber, and particularly rich in soluble fiber. Seaweed also contains components beneficial to health such as ω-3 PUFAs, bioactive molecules with antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antidiabetic activity. It also has technological properties, so its incorporation in processed foods and especially meat products such as sausages, hamburgers, meat emulsions and others would be beneficial from the technological and sensorial point of view, if it is incorporated in an adequate concentration.

Seaweed , Food Ingredients , Meat Products , Nutritive Value
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e0652018, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1046017


The aim of this study was to investigate Listeria monocytogenes in ham sliced in supermarkets in Recife city, Pernambuco state. In total, 40 samples of sliced ham were collected, and 25 g of ham was added to 225 mL of Demi Fraser broth. After incubation, 0.1 mL was inoculated in Fraser broth and, subsequently, sown in supplemented Listeria Selective Agar, based on Otaviani and Agosti. The following tests were carried out for confirmation purposes: Gram stain, motility test, catalase test and cAMP test. There was L. monocytogenes in 25% (10/40) of the samples. The presence of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food, such as sliced ham, is likely related to lack of proper equipment-cleaning in supermarkets, a fact that poses great risk to public health.(AU)

Objetivou-se com esse estudo realizar a pesquisa de Listeria monocytogenes em presuntos fatiados em supermercados da cidade de Recife, Pernambuco. Foram adquiridas 40 amostras de presuntos fatiados. Para o isolamento, foram utilizados 25 g do alimento para 225 mL do caldo Demi Fraser, após incubação, inoculou-se 0,1mL em caldo Fraser e posteriormente realizou-se a semeadura em Agar seletivo suplementado para Listeria de acordo com Otaviani e Agosti. Como testes confirmatórios, foram realizados a coloração de Gram, teste de motilidade, teste da catalase e teste de cAMP. Identificou-se a presença de L. monocytogenes em 25% (10/40) das amostras. A presença da L. monocytogenes em alimentos prontos para consumo, como o presunto fatiado, é de grande risco à saúde pública e pode estar relacionada à ocorrência de falhas na higienização dos equipamentos nos supermercados.(AU)

Humans , Animals , Listeria , Meat Products , Food Hygiene , Food Inspection , Industrialized Foods
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758925


African Swine Fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly viral disease affecting both domestic pig and wild boar populations. Once introduced, it is a terrible disease that can devastate the swine industry in many countries. ASF has spread most recently beyond China to Southeast Asia, and parts of the Korean Peninsula. The majority of Asian countries consume pork as the primary source of meat compared to all other meat products. Particular emphasis is on the spread of ASF within North Korea and on future perspectives including protective guidelines. Thus far, the Korean peninsula has endured an extensive history of diseases, most notably from foot and mouth disease. For this reason, the Korean swine industries are familiar with the detrimental impacts of such a disease. On the other hand, exposure to a disease like ASF will decimate the swine industry even further. Therefore, it is crucial to bring urgent awareness to the spread of ASF.

African Swine Fever , Animals , Asia, Southeastern , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , China , Democratic People's Republic of Korea , Epidemiology , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Hand , Humans , Meat , Meat Products , Red Meat , Sus scrofa , Swine , Virus Diseases
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 21(4): 139-140, out-dez. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-986986


Antioxidantes são substâncias utilizadas para preservar alimentos por meio do retardamento da deterioração, da rancidez e descolorações decorrentes da oxidação. Os antioxidantes disponíveis incluem os sintéticos e os naturais, no entanto, devido à possibilidade de efeitos carcinogênicos e mutagênicos, cada vez mais, existe uma busca pelo uso de antioxidantes naturais. A CMS (Carne Mecanicamente Separada) origina-se do processamento da carne, sendo formado pelo dorso, pescoço e da desossa da ave após processamento da carne para formação dos cortes. A legislação brasileira recomenda no máximo até 30% de CMS na produção de hambúrgueres, demonstrando a possibilidade de seu aproveitamento em um produto de maior valor comercial. Além disso, por ser uma carne extremamente processada está mais sujeita à oxidação, o que faz com que seja necessário o uso de antioxidantes visando, principalmente, aumentar o tempo de prateleira. Dessa forma, fazem-se necessárias pesquisas avaliando o uso de antioxidantes naturais, tais como os óleos essenciais. Em pesquisa recente desenvolvida por nosso grupo de pesquisa foi avaliado a produção de hambúrgueres elaborados com CMS de aves (frangos e galinhas) e adicionado de óleo essencial de hortelã ou orégano como antioxidante em diferentes níveis (0,04; 0,06 e 0,08%) e resultados prévios demonstraram uma boa aceitabilidade no teste de preferência para qualquer um dos níveis utilizados. No entanto, os resultados da avaliação da capacidade antioxidante e análise microbiológica devem ser avaliados para se definir o melhor nível de uso dos óleos essenciais de orégano ou hortelã como antioxidante natural em produtos elaborados com CMS de aves.(AU)

Antioxidants are used to preserve food by delaying deterioration, rancidity and discoloration caused by oxidation. Antioxidants can be either synthetic or natural; however, due to the possibility of carcinogenic and mutagenic effects, there has been an increasing search for the use of natural antioxidants. Mechanically separated meat (MSM) originates from the meat processing, being formed by the back, neck and the deboning process of poultry, and the subsequent processing of the meat to form the cuts. The Brazilian legislation recommends a maximum of 30% of MSM in the production of hamburgers, demonstrating the possibility of its use in a product with greater commercial value. Moreover, since this is an extremely processed meat, it is more prone to oxidation, requiring the use of antioxidants to increase shelf life. Thus, research is needed to evaluate the use of natural antioxidants such as essential oils. In recent research developed by this research group, the production of hamburgers made with MSM from poultry and the addition of mint or oregano essential oil as antioxidant at different levels (0.04, 0.06, and 0.08%), with prior results showing good acceptability in the preference test for all the levels used. However, the antioxidant capacity assessment and microbiological analysis must be evaluated in order to determine the optimal usage level of oregano or mint essential oils as natural antioxidants in products made with poultry MSM.(AU)

Los antioxidantes son sustancias utilizadas para preservar los alimentos por medio de retraso del deterioro, de la rancidez y de las decoloraciones resultantes de la oxidación. Los antioxidantes disponibles incluyen los sintéticos y los naturales, sin embargo, debido a la posibilidad de efectos carcinogénicos y mutagénicos, cada vez más existen búsquedas por el uso de antioxidantes naturales. La CMS (carne mecánicamente separada) se origina del procesamiento de la carne, siendo formado por el dorso, el cuello y el deshuesado del ave después del procesamiento de la carne para la formación de los cortes. La legislación brasileña recomienda al máximo hasta un 30% de CMS en la producción de hamburguesas, demostrando la posibilidad de su aprovechamiento en un producto de mayor valor comercial. Además, por ser una carne extremadamente procesada está más sujeta a la oxidación, lo que hace que es necesario el uso de antioxidantes, buscando principalmente aumentar el tiempo de estantería. De esa forma, se hacen necesarias investigaciones evaluando el uso de antioxidantes naturales, tales como los aceites esenciales. En investigación reciente desarrollada por nuestro grupo de investigadores se evaluó la producción de hamburguesas elaboradas con CMS de aves (pollos y gallinas), agregado de aceite esencial de menta u orégano como antioxidante en diferentes niveles (0,04, 0,06 y 0, 08%), resultados previos demostraron una buena aceptación en la prueba de preferencia para cualquiera de los niveles utilizados. Sin embargo, los resultados de la evaluación de capacidad antioxidante y el análisis microbiológico deben ser evaluados para definir el mejor nivel de uso de los aceites esenciales de orégano o menta como antioxidante natural en productos elaborados con CMS de aves.(AU)

Animals , Meat Products/analysis , Antioxidants , Oils, Volatile , Mentha , Origanum
Hig. aliment ; 32(282/283): 91-96, jul.-ago. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916638


Salmonella spp. está entre os principais agentes causadores de doenças de origem alimentar no mundo, representando um sério problema para saúde pública, portanto, a fiscalização de alimentos deve contar com métodos sensíveis e eficientes para detecção deste micro-organismo. O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar uma análise comparativa entre o isolamento microbiológico convencional e Reação em Cadeia Polimerase (PCR) para detecção de Salmonella spp. em produtos cárneos. Foram analisadas 22 amostras recebidas pela Agência Estadual de Defesa Sanitária Animal e Vegetal de Mato Grosso do Sul, sendo duas amostras de carne in natura resfriada, duas de charque, duas de mortadela, duas de salsichão e 14 de linguiça frescal. O cultivo microbiológico foi realizado conforme as normas vigentes no Brasil e para a PCR foram utilizados 1,5mL de solução salina peptonada tamponada a 1% e 1,5mL dos caldos Rappaport Vassiliadis (RSV) e Selenito Cistina (SC) de cada amostra. No método convencional não foram detectadas amostras positivas, enquanto na PCR, das 22 amostras, 13 foram positivas (59,1%). O caldo SC e solução salina permitiram melhor detecção do DNA de Salmonella spp., principalmente para as amostras de linguiça frescal, que apresentaram maior número de positivos. As duas amostras de salsichão e mortadela provenientes do caldo Rappaport Vassiliadis e uma de salsichão do caldo SC tiveram o DNA degradado, não sendo possível determinar se realmente estavam contaminadas pela bactéria. Não foi observada correlação entre a data de fabricação dos produtos e a data do início dos testes para detecção de Salmonella spp. De acordo com os resultados obtidos a PCR foi superior ao método microbiológico convencional para detecção de Salmonella spp. em produtos cárneos, apesar do protocolo de extração de DNA escolhido não ter sido eficiente para algumas amostras de salsichão e mortadela.

Salmonella spp. is one of the main agents causing foodborne diseases in the world and represents a serious problem for public health. Therefore, food control must have sensitive and efficient methods to detect this microorganism. The objective of the present study was to perform a comparative analysis between conventional microbiological isolation and PCR for the detection of Salmonella spp. in meat products. Twenty-two samples received from the State Agency for Animal and Plant Health Protection of Mato Grosso do Sul were analyzed, two samples of fresh meat, two of beef jerky, two of mortadella, two of sausage and 14 of fresh sausage. Microbiological culture was carried out according to the Brazilian norms, and 1.5mL of buffered peptone saline solution at 1% and 1.5mL of the Rappaport Vassiliadis (RVS) and Selenito Cistina (SC) broths of each sample were used for PCR. In the conventional method, no positive samples were detected, while for PCR, of the 22 samples, 13 were positive (59.1%). The SC broth and saline solution allowed a better detection of Salmonella spp. DNA, especially for the fresh sausage samples, which presented a higher number of positives. The two samples of sausage and mortadella from the RVS and one from SC had the DNA degraded and it was not possible to determine if these meat products were actually contaminated by the bacteria. No correlation was observed between the date of manufacture of the products and the start date of the tests for Salmonella spp. According to the results, PCR was superior to the conventional microbiological method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in meat products, although the chosen DNA extraction protocol was not efficient for some samples of sausage and mortadella.

Salmonella , Microbiological Techniques , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Surveillance , Meat Products , Chemical Phenomena , Food Industry , Public Health , Diagnosis