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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921816

ABSTRACT

In this study, the evidence mapping methodology was used to systematically retrieve and sort out the clinical research evidence of Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of tension-type headache(TTH), and to understand the distribution of evidence in this field and the basis and quality of evidence. Chinese and English articles on the 28 Chinese patent medicines for TTH, which were recorded in National Essential Medicines List(2018), Medicine Catalogue for National Basic Medical Insurance, Work Injury Insurance, and Maternity Insurance(2020), and Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020), were retrieved from China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI), Wanfang, VIP, China Biology Medicine disc(CBMdisc), PubMed, EMbase, and Cochrane Library from the establishment to June 2021, followed by descriptive analysis. Then, tables and bubble charts were plotted to analyze the distribution characteristics of evidence. A total of 129 eligible articles were yielded: 126 randomized/non-randomized controlled trials, and 3 systematic reviews. The functions, indications, and composition of the 28 medicines, as well as the proportion of related articles, publication trends, intervention measures, and outcome indicators were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the 28 Chinese patent medicines, composed of 128 Chinese medicinals, can be classified into six categories in terms of function: reinforcing healthy Qi, tranquilizing mind, dispelling stasis, regulating Qi, treating wind, and resuscitating. There are ongoing efforts to study the treatment of TTH with Chinese patent medicine in China, despite of little evidence. The clinical positioning of Chinese patent medicine for TTH is not clear, and clinical research fails to highlight the advantages of Chinese medicine. In addition, the outcome indicators have not been standardized and unified, and there is a lack of evidence on the long-term efficacy of Chinese patent medicine for TTH. This study is the first exploratory application of evidence maps to compare the characteristics and clinical research progress of 28 Chinese patent medicines for TTH, which can provide a reference for research on the optimization of Chinese medicine strategies for TTH.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs , Pregnancy , Tension-Type Headache
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921687

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of insomnia by frequency network Meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials of Chinese patent medicines for insomnia were retrieved from CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, EMbase and Cochrane Library databases from the time of database establishment to October 2020. The quality of the included RCTs was evaluated according to the Cochrane bias risk standard, and the data was analyzed by RevMan 5.3 and Stata/MP 15.1. A total of 11 kinds of Chinese patent medicines in 27 RCTs were included. According to Meta-analysis, in term of the effective rate, Tianmeng Liquid, Zaoren Anshen Capsules, Shumian Capsules, Shensong Yangxin Capsules, Shenqi Wuweizi Tablets, Shugan Jieyu Capsules, Anshen Bunao Liquid and Qiye Anshen Tablets combined with nonbenzodiazepine drugs(NBZDs) were superior to NBZDs alone. In term of the improvement of Pittsburg sleeping quality index(PSQI) score, Tianmeng Liquid, Shumian Capsules, Shensong Yangxin Capsules, Bailemian Capsules, Shenqi Wuweizi Tablets, Shugan Jieyu Capsules, Yangxue Qingnao Granules and Yindan Xinnaotong Capsules combined with NBZDs were superior to NBZDs alone. In terms of the safety, Shumian Capsules, Shensong Yangxin Capsules, Shenqi Wuweizi Tablets and Qiye Anshen Tablets combined with NBZDs were superior to NBZDs alone. In terms of the avoidance of dizziness and headache, Qiye Anshen Tablets combined with NBZDs were superior to NBZDs alone. The results of Network Meta-analysis indicated that in term of the effective rate, top three optimal medication regimens were NBZDs combined with Shugan Jieyu Capsules, combined with Zaoren Anshen Capsules and combined with Shensong Yangxin Capsules in the order from high to low. With the respect of improvement of PSQI score, top three optimal medication regimens were NBZDs combined with Yangxue Qingnao Granules, combined with Tianmeng Liquid and combined with Yindan Xinnaotong Capsules in the order from high to low. In terms of the safety, top three optimal medication regimens were NBZDs combined with Qiye Anshen Tablets, combined with Shensong Yangxin Capsules and combined with Shenqi Wuweizi Tablets in the order from high to low. In terms of the avoidance of dizziness and headache, top three optimal medication regimens were NBZDs combined with Qiye Anshen Tablets, combined with Zaoren Anshen Capsules and combined with Shumian Capsules in the order from high to low. In terms of the avoidance of fatigue, top three optimal medication regimens were NBZDs combined with Shensong Yangxin Capsules, combined with Shumian Capsules and combined with Qiye Anshen Tablets in the order from high to low. In conclusion, Chinese patent medicines combined with NBZDs can effectively alleviate the symptoms of insomnia with a high safety. However, the conclusion of this study needs to be verified by more high-quality studies because of the low methodological quality of the included studies.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Network Meta-Analysis , Nonprescription Drugs , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921627

ABSTRACT

Platelet function tests have been increasingly used to assist in the diagnosis of platelet disorders and prethrombotic state, monitoring of the efficacy of antiplatelet therapies, and personalized treatment. On the basis of light transmission aggregometry, new methods for platelet function test have been developed successively. At present, the research and development of platelet function detector is in its infancy in China. The active constituents of antiplatelet Chinese medicines can be classified into terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, organic acids, lignans, diketones, volatile oils, and stilbenes. The results of dose-antiplatelet effect relationship of Chinese medicines and the active constituents showed that the effective concentration of the extracts or monomers of Chinese medicines was at micromolar level(μmol·L~(-1)), among which salvianolic acid B and ginkgolide K, ginkgolide B, and ginkgolide A had the strongest antiplatelet effect. These results suggest that the antiplatelet effect of Chinese medicine may be weaker than that of chemical drugs and biological products. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the structure-activity relationship of the active constituents in existing Chinese medicines and further improve their efficacy through structure modification. The antiplatelet effect of Chinese medicines and the constituents involves multiple pathways and multiple targets. These research results provide a reference for clinical application of them. However, there is still a lack of large-scale multi-center clinical trials to confirm the efficacy and safety of them. The regularity of the relationship between the structures of various constituents and their corresponding functions is still unknown and the relevant signal transduction pathways and structure-activity relationship need to be further studied. This paper summarized and analyzed the determination methods of platelet functions and the research results of antiplatelet Chinese medicines, which is of reference value for the research of effective and safe antiplatelet Chinese medicines.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , China , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Platelet Function Tests
4.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1183-1190, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921030

ABSTRACT

The exploration and representative achievements of Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences are reviewed during the past 70 years since its foundation in the basic research field, e.g. theoretic innovation, literature research, cultural relic study and museum construction, as well as acupuncture-moxibustion standardization. Besides, the analysis is conducted on the relevant aspects that needs to be improved or enhanced. Facing the future and reviewing the original aspiration, the approaches to the new journey of inheritance and innovation in Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion have been explored, i.e. discovering rules, creating innovation methods, constructing platform and refining essence.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Therapy , China , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Moxibustion
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878897

ABSTRACT

Network Meta-analysis was used to compare the efficacy and safety of Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of unstable angina pectoris. PubMed, Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP and other databases were retrieved by computers from the establishment of the databases to June 2020. Randomized controlled trials(RCTs) of Chinese patent medicines for the treatment of unstable angina pectoris were collected. Two investigators independently screened out the literatures, and extracted data according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of the included RCTs was evaluated according to the bias risk assessment tool recommended by the Cochrane System Reviewer Manual, and the Stata 13.0 software was used for data analysis and mapping. Through screening, 28 eligible studies were finally included, with the sample size of 2 885 cases, involving 8 Chinese patent medicines. The results of the network Meta-analysis showed that in terms of total effective rate for angina symptom improvement, the order was as follows: Shenshao Capsules > Naoxintong Capsules > Ginkgo Ketone Ester Dripping Pills > Compound Danshen Dripping Pills > Ginkgo Leaf Tablets > Shexiang Baoxin Pills > Tongxinluo Capsules > Yindan Xinnaotong Soft Capsules; in terms of total effective rate for ECG curative effect, the order was as follows: Ginkgo Ketone Ester Dripping Pills>Compound Danshen Dripping Pills > Tongxinluo Capsules > Shenshao Capsules > Shexiang Baoxin Pills > Yindan Xinnaotong Soft Capsules; in terms of hypersensitivity-C-reactive protein curative effect, the order was as follows: Tongxinluo Capsules > Shenshao Capsules > Ginkgo Leaf Tablets>Compound Danshen Dropping Pills> Shexiang Baoxin Pills > Naoxintong Capsules > Yindan Xinnaotong Soft Capsules > Ginkgo Ketone Ester Dropping Pills. Chinese patent medicine combined with conventional therapy can improve the clinical efficacy of unstable angina pectoris. Due to the differences in the quantity and quality of the included studies, the order results of Chinese patent medicines need to be further verified.


Subject(s)
Angina, Unstable/drug therapy , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Network Meta-Analysis , Nonprescription Drugs
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888037

ABSTRACT

The effect of oral or nasal feeding with Chinese patent medicine on hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage was systematically evaluated by using the method of network Meta-analysis. Four Chinese databases(CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, CBM), three English databases(Medline, EMbase, Cochrane Library) and ClinicalTrials.gov were retrieved through computers. According to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, randomized controlled trials(RCTs) of Chinese patent medicine combined with Western medicine in the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage were screened out according to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. The Cochrane bias risk assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies, and Stata 16.0 software was used to analyze the outcome indicators. A total of 3 888 literatures were retrieved, and 30 studies involving 6 kinds of Chinese patent medicines were finally included. The total sample size was 2 758 cases, including 1 401 cases in the treatment group and 1 357 cases in the control group. According to the results of network Meta-analysis,(1)in terms of improving the degree of nerve function defect, the order of Chinese patent medicines was conventional Western medicine combined with Xiaoyukang Capsules>combined with Tongxinluo Capsules>combined with Naoxuekang Oral Liquid>combined with Naoxueshu Oral Liquid>combined with Angong Niuhuang Pills>conventional Western medicine;(2)in terms of reducing the amount of residual cerebral hematoma, the order of Chinese patent medicines was conventional Western medicine combined with Naoxueshu Oral Liquid>combined Xiaoyukang Capsules>combined Naoxuekang Oral Liquid>conventional Western medicine;(3)in terms of improving ability of daily living, the order of Chinese patent medicines was conventional Western medicine combined with Shenzhi Huoxue Capsules>combined with Angong Niuhuang Pills>combined with Naoxueshu Oral Liquid>conventional Western medicine;(4)in terms of improving total effective rate, the order of Chinese patent medicines was conventional Western medicine combined with Naoxueshu Oral Liquid>combined with Xiaoyukang Capsules>combined with Angong Niuhuang Pills=combined with Naoxuekang Oral Liquid>combined Tongxinluo Capsules>conventional Western medicine treatment. The results showed that in addition to conventional Western medicine therapy, the combined use with Chinese patent medicine can improve the clinical efficacy in the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. However, due to the differences in the number and quality of various Chinese patent medicines included in the studies, and the lack of direct comparison of Chinese patent medicines, the ranking results still need to be verified by multi center, large-sample-size randomized double-blind trials in the future, so as to provide more reliable evidence support for clinical drug use.


Subject(s)
China , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Network Meta-Analysis , Nonprescription Drugs , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878795

ABSTRACT

To systemically assess the clinical efficacy of oral Chinese patent medicine for migraine by using network Meta-analysis. Four Chinese databases(CNKI, VIP, WanFang, CBM), three English databases(Medline, EMbase, Cochrane Library) and ClinicalTrials.gov were systematically and comprehensively retrieved from the establishment of each database to April 24, 2020. Rando-mized controlled trial(RCT) on oral Chinese patent medicine combined with Flunarizine for migraine were screened out according to inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. Literature screening and data extraction were conducted independently by 2 researchers. The included studies were evaluated with the Cochrane bias risk assessment tool. Data analysis was conducted by using Stata 16.0 software. Finally, a total of 52 RCTs were included, involving 11 kinds of oral Chinese patent medicines. The results of the network Meta-analysis showed that in terms of headache frequency, the order of efficacy was: Flunarizine combined with Tongtian Oral Liquid>combined with Zhengtian Pills>combined with Toutongning Capsules>combined with Yangxue Qingnao Granules>combined with Tianshu Capsules>combined with Xuefu Zhuyu Capsules>combined with Danzhen Toutong Capsules>combined with Chuanxiong Qingnao Granules>combined with Songling Xuemaikang Capsules. In terms of headache intensity, the order of efficacy was: Flunarizine combined with Tongtian Oral Liquid>combined with Zhengtian Pills>combined with Danzhen Toutong Capsules>combined with Tianshu Capsules>combined with Toutongning Capsules>combined with Chuanxiong Qingnao Granules>combined with Yuntongding Capsules>combined with Yang-xue Qingnao Granules>combined with Danqi Soft Capsules. In terms of headache lasting time, the order of efficacy was: Flunarizine combined with Tongtian Oral Liquid>combined with Yangxue Qingnao Granules>combined with Toutongning Capsules>combined with Zhengtian Pills>combined with Danzhen Toutong Capsules>combined with Tianshu Capsules>combined with Xuefu Zhuyu Capsules>combined with Yuntongding Capsules>combined with Chuanxiong Qingnao Granules>combined with Songling Xuemaikang Capsules. The results showed that oral Chinese patent medicines combined with Flunarizine were effective in improving the clinical efficacy for migraine. Due to the differences in the number and quality of studies included in studies of different Chinese patent medicines, and the lack of direct comparison of Chinese patent medicines, the results of the above order of Chinese patent medicines need to be demonstrated in future multi-center, large-sample, and double-blind randomized trial.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Migraine Disorders/drug therapy , Network Meta-Analysis , Nonprescription Drugs
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828074

ABSTRACT

Pre-formulation physicochemical properties of the component-based Chinese medicine of Qinqi Fengshi Fang were investigated to provide a research basis for the design of the dosage form for component-based Chinese medicine of Qinqi Fengshi Fang. The macroporous resin adsorption and refining technology was used to prepare the total glycosides extract of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix, Panacis Majoris Rhizome and Corni Fructus respectively in the prescription of Qinqi Fengshi Fang. Their physicochemical properties were investigated, including solubility, wettability, hygroscopicity, equilibrium solubility, oil-water partition coefficient, and stability. The results showed that the total glycosides of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix, Panacis Majoris Rhizome and Corni Fructus all had good solubility and wettability. The solubility index of each total glycoside component was greater than 85%, and the water absorption index was greater than 50%. In the range of pH 2.0-7.4, the equilibrium solubility of three kinds of total glycosides all increased with the increase of pH, showing a consistent change trend of solubility. The hydrophilicity was also suitable and similar. Overall, three kinds of total glycosides showed good stability, but strong hygroscopicity. The degree of hygroscopicity was as follows: total glycosides of Gen-tianae Macrophyllae Radix > total glycosides of Corni Fructus > total glycosides of Panacis Majoris Rhizome. Therefore, the hygroscopi-city needed to be considered in the preparation of the component-based Chinese medicine of Qinqi Fengshi Fang. The excipients and packaging materials can be properly selected to reduce the hygroscopicity of the preparation. This study provides a reference for the dosage form design of the component-based Chinese medicine of Qinqi Fengshi Fang.


Subject(s)
Cornus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycosides , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Rhizome
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828413

ABSTRACT

Lanqin Oral Liquid is a Chinese patent medicine which contains Isatidis Radix, Scutellariae Radix, Gardeniae Fructus, Phellodendri Chinensis Cordex and Sterculiae Lychophorae Semen. It is known for the pharmaceutical effect on the upper respiratory tract infection as it is beneficial for relieving the swelling of pharyngeal. In terms of Chinese medicine, it offers a clearing action on heat and toxic materials. According to the principle of Chinese medicine, different diseases can be treated by the same therapy as long as they have the same syndrome. Based on this unique diagnosis and treatment approach, Lanqin Oral Liquid was applicable to diseases with syndrome of excessive heat in lung and stomach. It was therefore commonly be used in the therapeutic approach towards hand, foot and mouth disease as well. However, no systematic evaluation had yet been done to verify this Chinese patent medicine on the efficacy and clinical safety for the disease. In order to achieve the manner of evidence-based medicine, this study had adopted a systematic review and Meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Lanqin Oral Liquid in the treatment of hand, foot and mouth disease. All related randomized controlled trials(RCT) were searched in the following data bases: CNKI, WanFang, VIP, SinoMed, Cochrane Library and PubMed. Based on the method provided by the Cochrane collaboration, the study assessed the quality of papers selected and RevMan 5.3 software was used to perform Meta-analysis. Totally 24 studies were included with 3 491 sample size, which 1 826 cases were treatment group and 1 665 cases were control group. From the results of Meta-analysis, the total effective rate of combination of Lanqin Oral Liquid and Western medicines shown better than Western medicine alone in the treatment for hand, foot and mouth di-sease, but mild adverse event were also found(RR=1.20,95%CI[1.16,1.23],P<0.000 01). Incidence of adverse reaction between experimental and control group was statistically insignificant(RR=1.16, 95%CI[0.79, 1.70], P=0.45). No conclusion was able to made in terms of the remission time of clinical symptoms, as the studies included were not qualified for Meta-analysis. As a matter of fact, the number of existing studies related to the Lanqin Oral Liquid were limited with poor quality as well. In other words, high quality studies were essential to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of Lanqin Oral Liquid.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Humans , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs , Research Design
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765985

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Aster glehnii (AG) and Aster yomena (AY) are medicinal plants that belong to the family Compositea and grow widely in Korea. Plants in the genus Aster have been used to treat snakebite wounds or bruises in oriental medicine. This study compared the effects of anti-oxidants and anti-adipocyte differentiation according to the species (the aerial parts of AG and AY). METHODS: AG and AY were extracted using 70% ethanol (−E) and water (−W) at room temperature. The anti-oxidant activities were measured by total phenol contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), DPPH and ABTS+ assay. In addition, correlation analysis was performed for the anti-oxidant compounds and effect. The level of anti-adipocyte differentiation was assessed using an oil red O assay on pre-adipocytes. RESULTS: AG-W showed higher TPC (6.92 µg/mL) and AG-E presented higher TFC (8.22 µg/mL) than the other extracts. Furthermore, AG-E exhibited higher radical scavenging activity in the DPPH and ABTS+ assay (IC50: 104.88 and 30.06 µg/mL). In the cytotoxicity assay, AG and AY extracts at concentrations less than 100µg/mL were non toxic. AG-W reduced the lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells significantly after differentiation (70.49%) compared to the other extracts. CONCLUSION: These results show that the water extract of AG has anti-oxidant effects and reduces the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Therefore, AG has utility as a functional food material for its anti-oxidant activities and ability to prevent lipid accumulation.


Subject(s)
3T3-L1 Cells , Adipocytes , Antioxidants , Contusions , Ethanol , Functional Food , Humans , Korea , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Phenol , Plants, Medicinal , Snake Bites , Water , Wounds and Injuries
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775890

ABSTRACT

The National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (NCCAOM) is the only national institution for the accreditation of clinical practice of acupuncture and Oriental (Chinese) Medicine in the United States. Its qualification certificate or examination certificate is a mandatory document for 47 states and Washington, D.C. to issue the practice license. According to the latest information of the NCCAOM official website, this paper introduced the preceptor qualifications of the apprenticeship, studying hours, quality control, and the evaluation at the end of apprenticeship. The paper also discussed the enlightening and referential effects of the American system to apprenticeship policy in China.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Certification , China , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Moxibustion , United States
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759912

ABSTRACT

How do classical texts, such as Hwangdi Neijing and Shanghanlun, continuously play significant roles in medical practices in the history of East Asian medicine? Although this is a significant question in interpreting the position of written texts in the medical history and even for understanding the structure of East Asian medical knowledge, it has been conspicuously underexamined in the studies of East Asian medicine. In order to explore this underrepresented question, this study focuses on currents of tradition in contemporary South Korea. Drawing on anthropological fieldwork at three Donguibogam (Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine) currents, it delves into the interaction of text and practice in East Asian medicine. Even though all three currents (Hyun-dong, Byeong-in, Hyung-sang) are based on Donguibogam, their ways of reading the text and organizing clinical practices are diverse. Each current sets up a keyword, such as pulse diagnosis, cause of disease, and appearance-image, and attempts to penetrate the entire Donguibogam through the keyword. This means that the classical medical text is open to plural approaches. This study found that there is a visible gap between a medical text and the reader of the text in East Asia. Masters and currents of tradition are the actors who fill up the gap, continuously interpreting and reinterpreting classical texts, and guiding medical practices of new readers. Adding the history of practice to the body of literature that have focused on the history of written texts, this study will contribute to the history of East Asian medicine.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Diagnosis , Far East , Humans , Korea , Medicine, East Asian Traditional
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759911

ABSTRACT

The Emergency Medicine Recipes in Local Medicinals (鄕藥救急方, Hyang'yak Kugŭpbang) (c. 14th century) is known to be one of the oldest Korean medical textbooks that exists in its entirety. This study challenges conventional perceptions that have interpreted this text by using modern concepts, and it seeks to position the medical activities of the late Koryŏ Dynasty 高麗 (918–1392) to the early Chosŏn Dynasty 朝鮮 (1392–1910) in medical history with a focus on this text. According to existing studies, Emergency Medicine Recipes in Local Medicinals is a strategic compromise of the Korean elite in response to the influx of Chinese medical texts and thus a medical text from a “periphery” of the Sinitic world. Other studies have evaluated this text as a medieval publication demonstrating stages of transition to systematic and rational medicine and, as such, a formulary book 方書 that includes primitive elements. By examining past medicine practices through “modern” concepts based on a dichotomous framework of analysis — i.e., modernity vs. tradition, center vs. periphery, science vs. culture — such conventional perceptions have relegated Emergency Medicine Recipes in Local Medicinals to the position of a transitional medieval publication meaningful only for research on hyangchal 鄕札 (Chinese character-based writing system used to record Korean during the Silla Dynasty 新羅 [57 BC–935 AD] to the Koryŏ Dynasty). It is necessary to overcome this dichotomous framework in order to understand the characteristics of East Asian medicine. As such, this study first defines “medicine 醫”, an object of research on medical history, as a “special form of problem-solving activities” and seeks to highlight the problematics and independent medical activities of the relevant actors. Through this strategy (i.e., texts as solutions to problems), this study analyzes Emergency Medicine Recipes in Local Medicinals to determine its characteristics and significance. Ultimately, this study argues that Emergency Medicine Recipes in Local Medicinals was a problem-solving method for the scholar-gentry 士人層 from the late Koryŏ Dynasty to the early Chosŏn Dynasty, who had adopted a new cultural identity, to perform certain roles on the level of medical governance and constitute medical praxis that reflected views of both the body and materials and an orientation distinguished from those of the so-called medicine of Confucian physicians 儒醫, which was the mainstream medicine of the center. Intertwined at the cultural basis of the treatments and medical recipes included in Emergency Medicine Recipes in Local Medicinals were aspects such as correlative thinking, ecological circulation of life force, transformation of materiality through contact, appropriation of analogies, and reasoning of sympathy. Because “local medicinals 鄕藥” is understood in Emergency Medicine Recipes in Local Medicinals as referring to objects easily available from one's surroundings, it signifies locality referring to the ease of acquisition in local areas rather than to the identity of the state of Koryŏ or Chosŏn. As for characteristics revealed by this text's methods of implementing medicine, Korean medicine in terms of this text consisted largely of single-ingredient formulas using diverse medicinal ingredients easily obtainable from one's surroundings rather than making use of general drugs as represented by materia medica 本草 or of multiple-ingredient formulas. In addition, accessible tools, full awareness of the procedures and processes of the guidelines, procedural rituals, and acts of emergency treatment (first aid) were more important than the study of the medical classics, moral cultivation, and coherent explanations emphasized in categorical medical texts. Though Emergency Medicine Recipes in Local Medicinals can be seen as an origin of the tradition of emergency medicine in Korea, it differs from medical texts that followed which specializing in emergency medicine to the extent that it places toxicosis 中毒 before the six climatic factors 六氣 in its classification of diseases.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Ceremonial Behavior , Classification , Emergencies , Emergency Medicine , Emergency Treatment , Far East , Humans , Korea , Materia Medica , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Methods , Publications , Thinking , Writing
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786168

ABSTRACT

This study is to evaluate the effectiveness of oriental medicine-based infertility treatment and to examine the validity of the oriental medicine-based infertility treatment program through a systematic review. The literature search database included not only PubMed, DBpia, and RISS (Research Information Sharing Service) but also OASIS (Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System) and Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal. Among 575 articles that searched, only three papers were randomized controlled trials and could be included for the evaluation of the effects of oriental medicine-based infertility treatment. There was no study showing the effectiveness of oriental medicine-based infertility treatment alone. Among 5,165 articles that searched, only 15 studies could be included for the evaluation of the natural pregnancy rate of infertile patients. These studies reported the natural pregnancy rates from 20.3% to 41.9%. As pregnancy rates ranged from 23.8% to 27.6% after the oriental medicine-based infertility treatment supporting programs, we cannot conclude that pregnancy rates for infertile patients might increase by this project. Therefore, there is a need to reconsider whether the oriental medicine-based infertility treatment program should continue in the future.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Humans , Infertility , Information Dissemination , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Pregnancy Rate , Pregnancy
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764046

ABSTRACT

Piperlongumine (PL) is a natural product found in long pepper (Piper longum). The pharmacological effects of PL are well known, and it has been used for pain, hepatoprotection, and asthma in Oriental medicine. No studies have examined the effects of PL on bone tissue or bone-related diseases, including osteoporosis. The current study investigated for the first time the inhibitory effects of PL on osteoclast differentiation, bone resorption, and osteoclastogenesis-related factors in RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by the receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). Cytotoxicity was examined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and pit formation analysis. Osteoclast differentiation factors were confirmed by western blotting. PL exhibited toxicity in RAW264.7 macrophages, inhibiting osteoclast formation and bone resorption, in addition to inhibiting the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related factors, such as tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), c-Fos, and NFATc1, in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. These findings suggest that PL is suitable for the treatment of osteoporosis, and it serves as a potential therapeutic agent for various bone diseases.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Asthma , Blotting, Western , Bone and Bones , Bone Diseases , Bone Resorption , Macrophages , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Osteoclasts , Osteoporosis , Piper , RANK Ligand , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713586

ABSTRACT

Liquiritigenin (LQ) is a flavonoid that can be isolated from Glycyrrhiza radix. It is frequently used as a tranditional oriental medicine herbal treatment for swelling and injury and for detoxification. However, the effects of LQ on cognitive function have not been fully explored. In this study, we evaluated the memory-enhancing effects of LQ and the underlying mechanisms with a focus on the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) in mice. Learning and memory ability were evaluated with the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests following administration of LQ. In addition, the expression of NMDAR subunits 1, 2A, and 2B; postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95); phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII); phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2); and phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) proteins were examined by Western blot. In vivo, we found that treatment with LQ significantly improved memory performance in both behavioral tests. In vitro, LQ significantly increased NMDARs in the hippocampus. Furthermore, LQ significantly increased PSD-95 expression as well as CaMKII, ERK, and CREB phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Taken together, our results suggest that LQ has cognition enhancing activities and that these effects are mediated, in part, by activation of the NMDAR and CREB signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior Rating Scale , Blotting, Western , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 , Cognition , Glycyrrhiza , Hippocampus , In Vitro Techniques , Learning , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Memory , Mice , N-Methylaspartate , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Response Elements
17.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 181-188, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741620

ABSTRACT

Caryopteris incana (Verbenaceae) has been used to treat cough, arthritis, and eczema in Oriental medicine. The two fractions (CHCl₃- and BuOH fractions) and the essential oil of the plant material were subjected to the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) assay. The IC₅₀ of the CHCl₃ fraction and the essential oil on LPS-induced macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were 16.4 µg/mL and 23.08 µg/mL, respectively. On gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectroscopy (MS) analysis, twenty-five components representing 85.5% amount of total essential oil were identified. On the chromatogram, three main substances, trans-pinocarveol, cis-citral, and pinocarvone, occupied 18.8%, 13.5% and 18.37% of total peak area. Furthermore, by HPLC-UV analysis, six compounds including one iridoid (8-O-acetylharpagide)- and five phenylethanoid glycosides (caryopteroside, acteoside, phlinoside A, 6-O-caffeoylphlinoside, and leucosceptoside A) isolated from the BuOH fraction were quantified. The content of six compounds were shown as the following order: caryopteroside (162.35 mg/g) > 8-O-acetylharpagide (93.28 mg/g) > 6-O-caffeoylphlinoside (28.15mg/g) > phlinoside (22.60mg/g) > leucosceptoside A (16.87 mg) > acteoside (7.05 mg/g).


Subject(s)
Arthritis , Chromatography, Gas , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cough , Eczema , Glycosides , Macrophages , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Nitric Oxide , Plants , Spectrum Analysis , Verbenaceae
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740070

ABSTRACT

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot is an edible green seaweed that belong to the Codiaceae family and has been used in Oriental medicine for the treatment of enterobiasis, dropsy, and dysuria. Methanol extract of codium fragile has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, although the anti-cancer effect on oral cancer has not yet been reported. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer activity and the mechanism of cell death by methanol extracts of Codium fragile (MeCF) on human FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells. Our data showed that MeCF inhibits cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, and markedly induced apoptosis, as determined by the MTT assay, Live/Dead assay, and DAPI stain. In addition, MeCF induced the proteolytic cleavage of procaspase −3, −7, −9 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase(PARP), and upregulated or downregulated the expression of mitochondrial-apoptosis factor, Bax(pro-apoptotic factor), and Bcl-2(anti-apoptotic factor), . Futhermore, MeCF induced a cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase through suppressing the expression of the cell cycle cascade proteins, p21, CDK4, CyclinD1, and phospho-Rb. Taken together, these results indicated that MeCF inhibits cell growth, and this inhibition is mediated by caspase- and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathways through cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase in human FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells. Therefore, methanol extracts of Codium fragile can be provided as a novel chemotherapeutic drug due to its growth inhibition effects and induction of apoptosis in human oral cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Cycle , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Dysuria , Edema , Enterobiasis , Humans , Hypopharynx , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Methanol , Mouth Neoplasms , Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose , Seaweed
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740036

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Purpose of this study was to analyze research on the service design process applied to domestic medical service areas. METHODS: A review was made through domestic databases including RISS, KISS, DBpia, and NDSL and for the analysis framework: a medical service classification code which integrated the medical service area and the design fields. RESULTS: In the healthcare service field there were 9 studies (69.2%) in the medical area, 1 study (7.7%) each in nursing and oriental medicine, and 2 studies (15.4%) in healthcare. According to analysis results based on the medical service classification code, there were 5 studies in prevention and management, 6 studies in curative care, 1 each in rehabilitation and ancillary care. Double diamond process was used in 8 studies. CONCLUSION: Service design was applied mainly to the curative care in the domestic medical settings but little research on service design in the long-term nursing care area was identified. As a strategy to improve the quality of nursing service, it is necessary to adopt the service design process for various nursing service areas in Korea.


Subject(s)
Classification , Delivery of Health Care , Diamond , Korea , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Nursing , Nursing Care , Nursing Services , Patient-Centered Care , Quality Improvement , Rehabilitation
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The true incidence of aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) is thought to be underestimated because numerous ingredients known or suspected to contain aristolochic acid (AA) are used in traditional medicine in Korea. METHODS: We collected data on cases of AAN since 1996 via a database in Korea. We evaluated the year of AAN development, route to obtaining AA-containing herbal medicine, gender, reason for taking AA-containing herbal medicine, clinical manifestations, histological findings, phytochemical analysis, and prognosis of patients with AAN. RESULTS: Data on 16 cases of AAN were collected. Thirteen cases developed AAN before and three cases after the prohibition of AA-containing herbal medicine by the Korea Food and Drug Administration. Patients were prescribed AA-containing herbal medicine from oriental clinics or had purchased it from traditional markets. AAN was distributed in all age groups. Young females were most commonly exposed to AA-containing herbal medicine for slimming purposes and postpartum health promotion, while older adults took AA-containing compounds for the treatment of chronic diseases. The most common symptoms presented at hospitalization were nausea and vomiting, and acute kidney injury was accompanied by Fanconi syndrome in almost half of the patients. Phytochemical analysis of AA in herbal medicine was available in six cases. Progression to end stage renal disease (ESRD) was observed in seven patients (43.8%), and five patients (31.3%) had progressed to ESRD within 6 months of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our report shows that patients were still exposed to AA-containing herbal medicine and that there is a possibility of underdiagnosis of AAN in Korea. A stronger national supervision system of herbal ingredients and remedies in oriental medicine is needed to prevent AAN.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Adult , Chronic Disease , Diagnosis , Fanconi Syndrome , Female , Health Promotion , Herbal Medicine , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Korea , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Medicine, Traditional , Nausea , Organization and Administration , Postpartum Period , Prognosis , United States Food and Drug Administration , Vomiting
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