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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928167

ABSTRACT

Through literature research and standard retrieval, Corydalis-derived medicinal materials, the origins, and related standards were summarized. Finally, 27 medicinal materials were screened out, involving 71 species(varieties). Among them, only 11 are recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020), National Standard for Chinese Patent Drugs·Tibetan Medicine, Tibetan Medicine Standards, and other local standards, including Corydalis Bungeanae Herba and Corydalis Herba. The names and original plants of the medicinal materials are different in different standards, and the phenomena of "same medicinal material with different names" and "same name for different medicinal materials" are prominent. Most standards only include the traits, microscopic identification, and physico-chemical property identification, with unsound quality criteria. Thus, efforts should be made to strengthen the sorting of Corydalis medicinal plants, herbal textual research, and investigation of the resources and utilization. Moreover, via modern techniques, the chemical components and medicinal material basis of different original plants should be explored and sound quality standards should be established to improve the safety and quality of Corydalis-derived medicinal materials. Summarizing Corydalis medicinal plants, Corydalis-derived medicinal materials, and related standards, this study is expected to provide a reference for the standard formulation, quality evaluation, expansion of drug sources, and rational development and utilization of Corydalis resources.


Subject(s)
Corydalis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Reference Standards
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928148

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the mechanism of the Tibetan medicine Ershiwuwei Shanhu Pills(ESP) in improving scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment in mice based on Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. ICR mice were randomized into blank group, model group, low-dose(200 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-dose(400 mg·kg~(-1)), and high-dose(800 mg·kg~(-1)) ESP groups, and donepezil hydrochloride group. The learning and memory impairment was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of scopola-mine. The learning and memory abilities of mice were detected by Morris water maze test, and the damage of hippocampal neurons and cortical neurons was detected based on Nissl staining. The expression of neuron specific nuclear protein(NeuN) in hippocampus and cortex of mice was determined by immunofluorescence assay, and the content of acetylcholine(Ach) and the activity of acetylcholines-terase(AchE) in hippocampus of mice by kits. Moreover, the content of superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA), catalase(CAT), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in serum of mice was detected. The content of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2), and heme oxygenase 1(HO-1) in hippocampus was determined by Western blot. The results showed that there were significant differences in the trajectory map of mice among different groups in the behavioral experiment. Moreover, the latency of ESP groups decreased significantly compared with that in the model group. The hippocampal neurons in the high-dose ESP group were significantly more than those in the model group and the cortical neurons in the high-dose and medium-dose ESP groups were significantly more than those in the model group. The expression of NeuN in the model group was significantly decreased compared with that in the blank group, and the expression in the ESP groups was significantly higher than that in the model group. The AchE activity and MDA level were significantly decreased, and Ach content and levels of SOD, CAT, and T-AOC in the ESP groups were significantly increased in the ESP groups compared with those in the model group. The expression of Keap1 in the model group was significantly increased compared with that in the blank group, and the Keap1 expression increased insignificantly in ESP groups compared with that in the model group. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was significantly lower in the model group than in the blank group, and the expression was significantly higher in the medium-dose ESP group than in the model group. In conclusion, ESP protected mice against the scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment by regulating the Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts , Scopolamine/adverse effects , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928145

ABSTRACT

A chronic cholestasis model was induced in mice by feeding a diet containing 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine(DDC). The effects of Ershiwuwei Songshi Pills(ESP) on endogenous metabolites in mice with chronic cholestasis were investigated by metabolomics analysis based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS). The results showed that ESP was effective in improving pathological injury and reducing serum levels of alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphatase(ALP), and total bile acid in the model mice. Meanwhile, 13 common differential metabolites were revealed in metabolomic screening between the model/control group and the model/ESP group, including uric acid, glycolaldehyde, kynurenine, flavin adenine dinucleotide, L-3-phenyllactic acid, I-urobilin, leukotriene D4(LTD4), taurocholic acid, trioxilin A3, D-inositol-1,4-diphosphate, PC [16:0/20:2(11Z,14Z)], PC[14:0/22:2(13Z,16Z)], and PC[20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)/20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)]. After ESP intervention, the levels of all 13 differential metabolites were significantly retraced, and pathway analysis showed that ESP achieved its therapeutic effect mainly by affecting arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and primary bile acid biosynthesis. This study elucidated the mechanism of action of ESP against chronic cholestasis based on metabolites.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Acids and Salts , Cholestasis/drug therapy , Chromatography, Liquid , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Metabolomics , Mice
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928144

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the mechanism of the Tibetan medicine Ershiwuwei Songshi Pills(ESP) against the liver injury induced by acetaminophen(APAP) in mice based on the kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1)/nuclear transcription factor E2 related factor 2(Nrf2) and Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB) p65 signaling pathways. Kunming mice were randomly divided into a blank control group, a model group, an N-acetyl-L-cysteine(NAC) group, and high-(400 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-(200 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-dose(100 mg·kg~(-1)) ESP groups. After 14 days of continuous administration, except for those in the control group, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 200 mg·kg~(-1) APAP. After 12 h, the serum and liver tissues of mice were collected. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed on pathological sections of the liver, and the levels of aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) in the serum and the levels of glutathione(GSH), malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), myeloperoxidase(MPO), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in liver tissue homogenate were detected to observe and analyze the protective effect of ESP on APAP-induced liver injury in mice. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta(IL-1β), and interleukin-6(IL-6) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The protein expression of Nrf2, Keap1, TLR4, and NF-κB p65 in the liver was determined by Western blot. Quantitative real-time was used to determine the mRNA expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit(GCLC), glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit(GCLM), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1(NQO-1) in the liver to explore the mechanism of ESP in improving APAP-induced liver damage in mice. As revealed by results, compared with the model group, the ESP groups showed improved liver pathological damage, decreased ALT and AST levels in the serum and MDA and MPO content in the liver, increased GSH, SOD, CAT, and T-AOC in the liver, reduced TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the serum, down-regulated expression of Keap1 in the liver cytoplasm and NF-κB p65 in the liver nucleus, up-regulated expression of Nrf2 in the liver nucleus, insignificant change in TLR4 expression, and elevated relative mRNA expression levels of antioxidant genes GCLC, GCLM, HO-1, and NQO-1. ESP can reduce the oxidative damage and inflammation caused by APAP, and the mechanism may be related to the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway and the signal transduction factors on the TLR4/NF-κB p65 pathway.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/toxicity , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase/pharmacology , Glutathione , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Liver , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928143

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect of Tibetan medicine Ershiwuwei Songshi Pills(ESP) on the intestinal flora of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH) mice. Forty-eight male C57 BL/6 mice were randomly divided into the control group, model(methionine-choline-deficient, MCD) group, high-(0.8 g·kg~(-1)), medium-(0.4 g·kg~(-1)), and low-dose(0.2 g·kg~(-1)) ESP groups, and pioglitazone(PGZ, 10 mg·kg~(-1)) group, with eight mice in each group. Mice in the control group were fed with normal diet, while those in the remaining five groups with MCD diet for five weeks for inducing NASH. During modeling, they were gavaged with the corresponding drugs. The changes in body mass, daily water intake, and daily food intake were recorded. At the end of the experiment, the liver tissues were collected and stained with hematoxylin-eosin(HE) for observing the pathological changes, followed by oil red O staining for observing fat accumulation in the liver. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and triglyceride(TG) in liver tissue were measured. The changes in intestinal flora of mice were determined using 16 S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that compared with the model group, the high-, medium-and low-dose ESP groups and the PGZ group exhibited significantly lowered AST and ALT in serum and TG in liver tissues and alleviated hepatocellular steatosis and fat accumulation in the liver. As demonstrated by 16 S rRNA sequencing, the abundance index and diversity of intestinal flora decreased in the model group, while those increased in the ESP groups. Besides, the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio decreased at the phylum level. In the alteration of the composition of intestinal flora, ESP reduced the abundance of Erysipelotrichia and Faecalibaculum but increased the abundance of Desulfovibrionaceae, Rikenellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. This study has revealed that ESP has a protective effect against NASH induced by MCD diet, which may be related to its regulation of the changes in intestinal flora, alteration of the composition of intestinal flora, and inhibition of the intestinal dysbiosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Liver , Male , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928142

ABSTRACT

Precious Tibetan medicine formula is a characteristic type of medicine commonly used in the clinical treatment of central nervous system diseases. Through the summary of modern research on the precious Tibetan medicine formulas such as Ratnasampil, Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills, Ershiwewei Shanhu Pills, and Ruyi Zhenbao Pills, it is found that they have obvious advantages in the treatment of stroke, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, angioneurotic headache, and vascular dementia. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that the mechanisms of precious Tibetan medicine formulas in improving central nervous system diseases are that they promote microcirculation of brain tissue, regulate the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, alleviate inflammation, relieve oxidative stress damage, and inhibit nerve cell apoptosis. This review summarizes the clinical and pharmacological studies on precious Tibetan medicine formulas in prevention and treatment of central nervous system diseases, aiming to provide a reference for future in-depth research and innovative discovery of Tibetan medicine against central nervous diseases.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Central Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Stroke/drug therapy
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928067

ABSTRACT

Baimai is a complex of structure and function with the characteristics of wide distribution, complex structure, and multi-dimensional functions. Baimai, consisting of the channels in brain, the internal hidden channels connecting the viscera, and the external channels linking the limbs, governs the sensory, motor, and information transmission functions of human. According to Tibetan medicine, Baimai functions via "Long"(Qi) which moves in Baimai. "Long" is rough, light, cold, tiny, hard, and dynamic. The dysfunction of Baimai is manifested as numbness, swelling and pain, stiffness, atrophy, contracture, disability, hyperactivity, etc. The clinical manifestations of Baimai disease are facial paralysis, limb numbness, hemiplegia, contracture and rigidity, pain, opistho-tonos, paralysis, unconsciousness, head tremor, aphasia and tongue stiffness, and other abnormalities in facial consciousness, limb movement, and tactile sensation. Baimai Ointment for external use is used for the treatment of Baimai disease. It is mainly composed of medicinals which are spicy and bitter, warm, soft, mild, heavy, moist, and stable, and thus it is effective for the rough, light, cold, tiny, hard, and dynamic "Long" of Baimai disease. In clinical practice, it is mainly used for musculoskeletal diseases, such as osteoarthritis, scapulohumeral periarthritis, cervical spondylosis, low back pain, myofascitis, and tenosynovitis, nervous system diseases, such as paralysis and shoulder-hand syndrome, and limb stiffness caused by stroke, spastic cerebral palsy, trigeminal neuralgia, and facial neuritis, and limb motor and sensory dysfunction caused by trauma. According to the main symptoms of Baimai disease such as stiffness, rigidity, contraction, numbness, sensory disturbance and pain, clinicians should apply the Baimai Ointment via the inunction treatment of Tibetan medicine and in combination with Huo'ermai therapy and physiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Edema , Humans , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Pain
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928019

ABSTRACT

Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was used to investigate the effect of Pterocephalus hookeri on serum metabolism of adjuvant arthritis(AA) model rats induced by complete Freund's adjuvant. After the AA model was properly induced, the serum of rats was collected 30 days after treatment. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS chromatograms were collected and analyzed by principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA). The results revealed that compared with the control group, the model group showed increased content of 12 biomarkers in the serum(P<0.05) and reduced content of the other nine biomarkers(P<0.05). P. hookeri extract could recover the above-mentioned 19 biomarkers to a certain range. Pathway enrichment showed that these markers mainly involved eight metabolic pathways, including valine, leucine, and isoleucine degradation, arachidonic acid metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, glycerol phospholipid metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, bile acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. The findings of this study demonstrate that P. hookeri extract can regulate metabolic disorders and promote the regression of metabolic phenotype to the normal level to exert the therapeutic effect on AA rats. This study is expected to provide a certain scientific basis for the biological research on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by P. hookeri.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Metabolomics , Rats
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921735

ABSTRACT

Phyllanthi Fructus, a unique Chinese and Tibetan medicinal plant with both edible and medical values, has high potential of cultivation and development. The resources of Phyllanthi Fructus in China are rich, mainly distributed in Yunnan, Sichuan, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, etc. Phyllanthi Fructus is widely used in the clinical practice of Chinese medicine and plays an important role in Tibetan medicine, Uyghur medicine, Yi medicine, and Mongolian medicine. Phyllanthi Fructus mainly contains phenolic acids,tannins, terpenes, sterols, fatty acids, flavonoids, amino acids and other compounds. Modern pharmacological studies show that Phyllanthi Fructus has antioxidant, anticancer, blood lipid-lowering, liver protective, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immune regulatory activities. In this paper, the research status of Phyllanthi Fructus was reviewed from the aspects of herbal textual research,chemical composition, and pharmacological action. The quality markers(Q-markers) of Phyllanthi Fructus were predicted and analyzed from the aspects of biogenic pathway, specificity and measurability of chemical components, efficacy, properties, new clinical uses, drug-food homology, and transformation of polyphenols. The results will provide a scientific basis for the quality control, quality evaluation, and standard formulation of Phyllanthi Fructus.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Quality Control
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921654

ABSTRACT

Due to the profound theoretical rationale, perfect diagnosis and treatment system, and characteristic medicinal resources, Tibetan medicine has been passed down to the present day as one of the four traditional medicine systems all over the world. With the development of modern society and the change in people's concept of seeking medical services, Tibetan medicine has gradually attracted wide attention by virtue of its natural, green and safe diagnosis and treatment characteristics, which enables it to be vigo-rously developed and inherited. There are numerous ancient books on Tibetan medicine, covering a large number of ancient prescriptions, which has laid a solid foundation for later scholars to thoroughly investigate the diagnosis and treatment rules in Tibetan medicine and apply them to modern clinical practice. Screening the classic prescriptions that meet modern clinical needs from those numerous ancient books is a new direction in the inheritance and development of Tibetan medicine. On the basis of historical origin and current application status of ancient prescriptions in Tibetan medicine, this paper preliminarily elaborated the definition of classic prescriptions of Tibetan medicine and their general screening principles and precautions, and also discussed the modern inheritance paths of classic prescriptions in Tibetan medicine from basic research, post-marketing evaluation, and the development of novel preparations. Considering the shortcomings in the present study, the key technical issues mentioned need to be more deeply explored and analyzed in future studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Medicine, Traditional , Prescriptions
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921653

ABSTRACT

The systematic collation and mining of ethnic medicine literature is the key to the screening and textual research of classic prescriptions. This study focused on the textual research of such key issues as the source of prescriptions, the translation of minority languages into Chinese characters and their corresponding medical terms, the original plants of drugs, and the standard dosage. It is believed that the methods and experience of textual research of classic prescriptions in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) can be utilized by the ethnic medicine. At the same time, the prominent problems unique to ethnic medicine cannot be neglected.(1)Attention should be paid to extraterritorial traditional medical literature in the textual research of the source of prescriptions. For instance, Indian medical literature is the source of many classic prescriptions in Tibetan medicine, Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine the source of those in Uygur and Hui medicine, and ancient Indian Buddhist classics the source of those in Dai medicine.(2)The translation and comparison of medical terms in different language systems requires the cooperation of linguists, historians, and medical experts, the combination of historical research, historical linguistics and clinical research methods, and the use of cross-language comparison. In recent years, the related research achievements like multiple translated and annotated versions of classical literature in ethnic medicine and their respective terminology standards have been constantly emerging.(3)In textual research of the original plants of drugs, the following two points deserve attention: one is that the same drug is used in different ethnic medical systems, but there are differences in the understanding of drug properties and active parts; the other is that the original plants of the same drug vary in different ethnic medical systems.(4)The derivation of some classic prescriptions in ethnic medicine from foreign classics results in the difference among measurement systems. In addition, the detailed dosage fails to be covered in some ethnic literature, so the dosage standard should be determined depending on clinical practice and expert consensus.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Prescriptions , Publications
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888044

ABSTRACT

In this study, the compound search was completed through SciFinder and CNKI databases, and the drug-like properties were screened in FAFdrugs4 and SEA Search Server databases. In addition, based on the target sets related to acute myocardial ischemia(AMI) searched in disease target databases such as OMIM database, GeneCards database and DrugBank, a network diagram of chemical component-target-pathway-disease was established via Cytoscape to predict the potential active components of Corydalis Herba, a traditional Tibetan herbal medicine which derived from the aerial parts of Corydalis hendersonii and C. mucronifera against AMI. A protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed through the STRING database and the core targets in the network were predicted. And the enrichment analyses of core targets were completed by DAVID database and R software. Furthermore, a molecular docking method was used to verify the binding of the components with core targets using softwares such as Autodock Vina. The present results showed that there were 60 compounds related to AMI in Corydalis Herba, involving 73 potential targets. The GO functional enrichment analysis obtained 282 biological processes(BP), 49 cell components(CC) and 78 molecular functions(MF). KEGG was enriched into 85 pathways, including alcoholism pathway, endocrine resistance pathway, calcium signaling pathway, cAMP signaling pathway, vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway and adrenergic signaling transduction pathway of myocardial cells. The results of network topology analysis showed that the key components of anti-AMI of Corydalis Herba might be tetrahydropalmatine, etrahydrocolumbamine, N-trans-feruloyloctopamine, N-cis-p-coumaroyloctopamine, N-trans-p-coumaroylnoradrenline and N-trans-p-coumaroyloctopamine, and their core targets might be CDH23, SCN4 B and NFASC. The results of molecular docking showed that the key components of Corydalis Herba had stable binding activity with the core targets. This study provides reference for further elucidation of the pharmacological effects of Corydalis Herba against AMI, subsequent clinical application, and development.


Subject(s)
Corydalis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Myocardial Ischemia/drug therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879182

ABSTRACT

To establish a quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker(QAMS) method for five flavonoids in Rhododendron anthopogonoides and verify its feasibility and applicability in the medicinal materials of R. anthopogonoides. With hyperoside as the internal reference, relative correction factors(RCF) of rutin, quercetin, quercitrin and kaempferol were established by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) analysis. RCFs were used to calculate the content of each component, system durability and relative retention time. Simultaneously, QAMS and external standard method(ESM) were used to determine the content of five flavonoids in 12 batches of R. anthopogonoides from different origins. The results were statistically analyzed to verify the accuracy and feasibility. The fingerprints and cluster analysis data of R. anthopogonoides analyzed and discussed differences among the batches. According to the results, the RCFs of rutin, quercetin, quercetin and kaempferol in R. anthopogonoides were 1.242 6, 0.990 5, 0.535 0, and 0.781 3, respectively. The RCFs represented a good reproducibility under different experimental conditions. Besides, there was no significant difference between QAMS and ESM. Besides, the fingerprint and cluster analysis data showed the consistency between the classification and with the origin distribution of the herbs. In conclusion, the QAMS method shows a good stability and accuracy in the quality control of R. anthopogonoides.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavonoids , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Reproducibility of Results , Rhododendron
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878997

ABSTRACT

On the basis of literatures and standards relating to Tibetan medicine, the varieties, origin, standards and efficacy of Saxifragaceae plant used in Tibetan medicine were summarized. According to the findings, 75 species(including varieties) in 8 genera of Saxifragaceae plants, involving 21 varieties, are used in Tibetan medicine. Among them, 9 commonly used varieties, namely Songdi, Sedi, Yajima, Aoledansaierbao, Jiansidawu, Saiguo, Katuer, Sangdi, Maoqinghong, are recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Ministry Standards for Tibetan Medicine, Tibetan Medicine Standards and other local standards, accounting for 42.9% of the total number of varieties. Tibetan names, Tibetan translation of Chinese names, as well as original plant of Tibetan medicine varieties are quite different in relevant Tibetan medicine standards and literatures, which resulted in common phenomena of synonym and homonym. The standards of most varieties only involve characters, and microscopic, physical and chemical identification, with low quality standards. Based on the results of the analysis, this paper suggests strengthening surveys on herbal textual research, resources and current utilization of Saxifragaceae plants used in Tibetan medicine, summarizing the varieties, establishing improved quality standards, and perfor-ming a comparative study on therapeutic material basis and biological activity of different original plants, in order to promote rational use of these medicinal plant resources, and ensuring the accuracy, safety, and effectiveness of clinical medication.


Subject(s)
Asians , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Reference Standards , Saxifragaceae
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828404

ABSTRACT

Zha-xun is widely used in Tibetan medicine and is also an international traditional medicine. This study believes that the black organic matter constituting Zha-xun is mainly stored in the rocks. The exudation points of Zha-xun mostly distribute on the cliffs of high mountains, which makes it difficult to evaluate its resource distribution and storage area. This paper was aimed at the exudation environment of Tibetan medicine Zha-xun in Sichuan province and 6 ecological environmental factors of the Zha-xun were determined via the field investigation. Combining with these 6 factors as well as the GIS data of Sichuan province, ArcGIS software was used to extract ideal environmental factors which are suitable for exudation of Zha-xun, including geology types, geomorphological types, altitude, slope, vegetation types, and mean annual temperature. The spatial overlay analyses on the extracted environmental factors were carried out to predict the distribution area of Zha-xun in Sichuan province. Afterwards, field investigation was conducted to verify the prediction. The prediction showed that the exudation spots of Zha-xun in Sichuan province mainly located in 29 counties including 12 in Aba Prefecture, 15 in Ganzi Prefecture, and Muli County and Dechang County in Liangshan Prefecture. The deposit areas of Zha-xun were located in the Triassic, Devonian and Silurian strata and were basically distributed in 9 basins, including Dingqu River, Yalong River, Xianshui River, Dadu River, Suomo River, Minjiang River and Baishui River, characterized by a fragmented patch-like distribution along the mountain ranges, and the exudation spots of Zha-xun were mainly scattered among the rain-free cliffs' concavities of river valleys at a certain altitude. The prediction was consistent with the field investigation results, which suggested that it is possible and feasible to predict distribution of Zha-xun resources based on GIS-analysis. The study may provide a scientific basis for comprehensive investigations into Zha-xun's distribution and formation mechanism, thus promoting rational development and utilization of Zha-xun resources.


Subject(s)
China , Geographic Information Systems , Geology , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Medicine, Traditional , Temperature
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828027

ABSTRACT

Appropriate producing areas can guarantee the quality of Tibetan medicine, but research on the suitable ecological factors and suitable producing areas of Tibetan medicinal plants is scarce. This paper used the Geographic Information System for Global Medicinal Plants(GMPGIS) to analyze the ecological suitability of Tibetan medicinal plants nationwide. For the first time, the range of ecological factors and main soil types of Tibetan medicinal plants were extracted, such as the average annual temperature-19.4-24.2 ℃, annual average precipitation 17-4 088 mm, annual average sunshine 124.2-171.6 W·m~(-2). The main soil types were black calcareous soil, thin layer soil, chestnut soil and so on. Based on 337 sampling points, the largest ecological similarity area of Tibetan medicine across the country was obtained through ecological similarity analysis. In addition to Tibet and Qinghai provinces and Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures in Sichuan, Gansu, and Yunnan provinces, Jiuquan city and Linxia county in Gansu province, Panzhihua and Ya'an in Sichuan province, and Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Shanxi provinces also had larger suitable cultivation areas. In addition, by analyzing the current situation of Tibetan medicine industry, the research pointed out that there were some problems such as unreasonable development and utilization of resources, lack of standards and norms, weak basic research and imperfect industrial system, and made corresponding countermeasures for sustainable development of resources, formulation of standards and specifications, promotion of medicine through science and technology, expansion of domestic and foreign markets, etc. This study provided the basis for guiding the rational layout of production bases, introduction and breeding of plant Tibetan medicine nationwide, laying the foundation for the scientific and standardized production of high-quality Tibetan medicine, clarifying the development direction of Tibetan medicine industry, and providing ideas for the development strategy of Tibetan medicine and other national medicine industry.


Subject(s)
China , Industrial Development , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Soil , Tibet
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827978

ABSTRACT

Bawei Chenxiang Powder is a traditional Tibetan folk medicine formula, consisting of resinous wood of Aquilaria sinensis, kernel of Myristica fragrans, fruit of Choerospondias axillaris, travertine, resin of Boswellia carterii or B. bhaw-dajiana, stem of Aucklandia lappa, fruit of Terminalia chebula(roasted), and flower of Gossampinus malabarica. It has the function of clearing heart heat, nourishing heart, tranquilizing mind, and inducing resuscitation, which has been used for the treatment of coronary heart disease and angina pectoris. Modern research shows that the medicine materials of this formula mainly contain terpenoids like sesquiterpenes and triterpenes and polyphenols like flavonoids, lignans, and tannins, displaying some pharmacological activities such as anti-myocardial ischemia, anti-cerebral ischemia, and spatial learning and memory promotion. This review summaries the traditional uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities research progress, hopefully to provide a reference for clarification of its pharmacological active ingredients.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavonoids , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Terminalia , Tibet
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878773

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is a kind of chronic cardiovascular system disease caused by a series of factors and carriers dysfunction, which belongs to the category of Tibetan medicine "Chalong disease", and has a high rate of disability and mortality. Zuomua Decoction is a classical Tibetan medicine for Chalong disease, but its mechanism is not clear. Therefore, in this paper we explored the multi-components, multi-targets and multi-channels mechanism of Zuomua Decoction in the treatment of hypertension based on network pharmacology and molecular docking technology. First of all, the chemical components of Zuomua Decoction were obtained in the retrieval of traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database(TCMSP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI) and Wanfang database. The potential targets of Zuomua Decoction were predicted by BATMAN-TCM database, and the targets of hypertension were obtained by using DisGeNET database. The intersection of these two targets set was taken to obtain the potential targets of Zuomua Decoction in the treatment of hypertension, and then the chemical compositions-targets network was constructed. Secondly, the intersection targets were imported into STRING database to obtain the interaction relationship of intersection targets, and the protein interaction network of Zuomua Decoction in the treatment of hypertension was constructed in Cytoscape. Topological, GO, and KEGG enrichment analysis were used to construct the key targets-signal pathways-biological processes network diagram and explore the mechanism of Zuomua Decoction in the treatment of hypertension. Finally, the key targets were selected to construct the pharmacodynamic identification models to verify the effect mode of Zomua Decoction in treating hypertension. The results showed that there were 61 chemical components and 90 potential targets in the compounds-targets network. We obtained 21 key targets, 154 signal pathways, and 382 biological processes in topological, GO, and KEGG enrichment analysis of the protein interaction network, and in the comprehensive analysis, it was found that Zuomua Decoction could reduce blood pressure by regulating renin angiotension aldosterone system, balancing the concentration of intracellular calcium and sodium ions and regulating vasoconstriction and relaxation. ACE, AGTR1, and ADRB2 were used as the carriers for molecular docking study on the components of Zuoma Decoction, and the results showed that the chemical components of Zuomua Decoction had a good binding activity with key targets. The purpose of this study is to provide ideas for the in-depth study of Zuoma Decoction in the treatment of hypertension, and provide scientific basis for its clinical rational application.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Technology
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777517

ABSTRACT

Chrysosplenium nudicaule,Tibetan name " Yajima",is recorded as an effective medicine for the treatment of liver and gallbladder diseases by Tibetan Pharmacopoeia published in the past dynasties,but its traditional efficacy has not yet been investigated by means of modern pharmacological research methods. In this paper,the protective effect of extract of C. nudicaule(ECN) on liver injury in mice was observed by using the mice model of intrahepatic cholestasis(IC) induced by α-naphthyl isothiocyanate(ANIT) and the possible mechanism by which ECN work as the therapeutic agent was discussed. The results showed that the serum levels of AST,ALT,ALP,DBIL,TBIL and TBA of the model mice were notably reduced in dose-dependent manner(P<0. 01,P<0. 05). The activity of SOD and GSH-Px in the liver homogenate of mice was increased,while the content of MDA was decreased(P<0. 01,P<0. 05).Pathological examination of liver in mice showed that ECN could improve the pathological changes of liver tissue in mice. The mRNA expression level of genes related to bile acid metabolism were detected by RT-PCR and the results suggested that ECN could significantly increase the expression of genes such as BSEP,FXR and MRP2(P<0. 01,P<0. 05),meanwhile significantly reduce the expression of CYP7 A1(P<0. 01,P<0. 05). These results confirmed the protective effect of ECN on intrahepatic cholestasis-induced liver injury in mice,and indicated that the mechanism may be related to activating FXR and its target genes,reducing bile acid synthesis and increasing bile acid excretion. This study provides a modern pharmacological basis for the clinical application of Yajima in Tibetan medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic , Drug Therapy , Liver , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Mice , Plant Preparations , Pharmacology , Saxifragaceae , Chemistry
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773741

ABSTRACT

This research is launched to look for the medication rules and characteristics of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of gZav-Grib( apoplexy sequelae). HIS records of gZav-Grib patients were selected from the Tibetan Hospital of Tibet Autonomous Region and Tibetan Hospital of the city of Naqu. SPSS Modeler,Gephi and other data mining and visualization software were used to study the actual law of drug use in the treatment of gZav-Grib in Tibetan medicine. Finally,479 cases of gZav-Grib patients in Tibetan medicine were included. Their average age is 63 and average hospital stay was 32 days. In total,82 Tibetan medicine prescriptions were used for treating gZav-Grib. The frequency in the front is Twenty-flavor Chenxiang Pills( 338 times),Ruyi Zhenbao Pills( 322 times),and Seventy-flavor Zhenzhu Pills( 315 times). According to the regularity of Tebitan medicine,they were applied in different time periods including the early morning,morning,noon,and evening,for example,in the early morning: Seventy-flavor Zhenzhu Pills,morning: Ruyi Zhenbao Pills,noon: Eighteen-flavor Dujuan Pills,evening: Twenty-flavor Chenxiang Pills. In the clinical joint,18 groups were found in the 10% support and 70% confidence. There are two prescriptions confidence more than 80% which nature focus on Gan,Ruan,Xi,Liang,Dun,Han,Wen. gZav-Grib of Tibetan medicine can be divided into two types: r Lung-Grib type and k Hrag-Grib type,in which the medicine of r Lung-Grib type takes Seventy-flavor Zhenzhu Pills as the core prescription,while the medicine of k Hrag-Grib type takes Ruyi Zhenbao Pills as the core prescription. It is found that the treatment of gZav-Grib by Tibetan medicine is mainly dominated by the treatment idea about " Therapeutic r Lung and blood,Consideration of venous diseases". Treatment functions is promoting the circulation of Qi,clearing blood heat and getting rid of bad blood,achieving the purpose of treating both principal secondary aspect of gZav-Grib. The research methods based on the HIS can't only optimize the Tibetan treating gZav-Grib sequela treatment plan and rule of medication,but also provide the scientific basis for Tibetan medicine treat gZav-Grib.


Subject(s)
Data Mining , Humans , Medical Records , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Software , Stroke , Drug Therapy , Tibet
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