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1.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(1): 23-28, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359362

ABSTRACT

Históricamente la sociedad ha rechazado el abuso sexual de menores de 13 años, dictándose leyes al respecto. La justicia luego de un debido proceso condenaba al victimario con reclusión incluso hasta la década del 70-80, con orquiectomía. Los adelantos en neurobiología, endocrinología, sicofarmacología y sicología se consideraron las bases para tratar al pedófilo y someterlo a libertad condicional, ahorrándose el costo financiero de la reclusión de por vida. Diversos países dictaron leyes contra la conducta pedófila. En dicha legislación ejerció gran influencia la promulgación en EE.UU. (estado de Washington "sobre el ofensor sexual" y el dictamen de la Corte Suprema en 1997 en el juicio de Kansas vs Hendricks). En Chile en los 90 el caso del pedófilo apodado "Zacarach" sacó a la luz pública el tema que no se quería ver. En esa fecha se presentó al parlamento un proyecto de Ley para "curar" la pedofilia con acetato de Medroxiprogesterona imitando legislación de EE.UU. Causó sorpresa en el medio endocrinológico que se usara terapia hormonal como "cura" de la pedofilia. Se ha utilizado en varios países la castración química producida por gestágenos o agonístas del GnRH más antiandrógenos (acetato de Ciproterona), para inhibir la secreción y acción de la testosterona disminuyendo líbido y erección. No se ha demostrado que exista curación de la orientación pedófila y existen dudas de la prevención primaria y secundaria de la pedofilia. Pese al adelanto tecnológico en neurociencias para estudio de las zonas vinculadas a la sexualidad, aún no existen marcadores que permitan diagnosticar o pronosticar futuros resultados de la terapia. El tratamiento médico de la pedofilia no garantiza curación ni prevención del delito pedofílico.


Historically, society has rejected sexual abuse of children under 13, with there having been laws enacted in this regard. The judicial system, after a due process, condemned the perpetrator with reclusion and even up until the decades of the 70s and 80s with orchiectomy. Advances in neurobiology, endocrinology, psychopharmacology and psychology were considered the basis for treating the pedophile and putting them on probation, saving the financial cost of imprisonment for life. Multiple countries have enacted laws against pedophilic behaviour. Such legislation was greatly influenced by the enactment in the USA (state of Washington "on the sex offender" and the ruling of the Supreme Court in 1997 in the trial of Kansas against Hendricks). In Chile in the 90s, the case of a pedophile nicknamed "Zacarach" brought to light an issue that nobody wanted to see. Around that time, a bill was presented to Parliament to try and "cure" pedophilia with Medroxyprogesterone acetate, imitating US legislation. It was a surprise in the endocrinological world that hormonal therapy would be used as a "cure" for pedophilia. Chemical castration produced by gestagens or GnRH agonists plus antiandrogens (Cyproterone acetate) has been used in several countries to inhibit the secretion and action of testosterone, reducing libido and erection. It has not been proven that there is a cure for pedophile orientation and there are doubts about the primary and secondary prevention of pedophilia. Despite technological advances in neurosciences for the study of the zones pertaining to sexuality, there are still no indicators that allow for diagnosis or prediction of future results of therapy. The medical treatment of pedophilia does not guarantee cure or prevention of pedophilic crime.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pedophilia/drug therapy , Castration/methods , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Pedophilia/diagnosis , Pedophilia/etiology , Pedophilia/therapy , Sex Offenses/legislation & jurisprudence , Testis/drug effects , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/agonists , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/therapeutic use , Cyproterone Acetate/therapeutic use
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 134-140, Feb. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098442

ABSTRACT

Inadequate exposure of the female reproductive system to steroids in uterine developmental periods can partially inhibit the development of endometrial glands in dogs. However, the effects of steroids on the formed glands functionality remain unknown, as well as the possible occurrence of endometrial fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate the secretory activity of endometrial glands in prebubertal female dogs submitted to a protocol of partial ablation of the uterine adenogenesis. Sixteen females of non-specific breed were distributed into two groups; MPA (n=8), females that received applications of medroxyprogesterone acetate every 3 weeks; and C (n=8) untreated control females. Ovariohysterectomy was performed in all animals at the age of 6 months and evaluated the uterine horns by histological and histochemistry exams. The secretion intensity (degrees 1-4) was evaluated using periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and alcian blue (AB) pH 2.5. Histological evaluation was performed using Masson's trichrome and toluidine blue. Only degree 1 and 2 marks for PAS were observed in both groups, with no difference of uterine secretion intensity between the groups regarding the degrees found. However, the MPA group revealed higher intensity of uterine secretion compared to group C (p<0.05). Staining with AB pH 2.5 also revealed only degree 1 and 2 marks in both groups, with no statistically significance between them. Masson's trichrome staining revealed no marks in the periglandular region in both groups. A higher among of mast cells was observed in the myometrial region of the uterus in both groups. Prepubertal female dogs with partial ablation of the uterine adenogenesis present minimal uterine secretory activity, absence of periglandular fibrosis and increased presence of mast cells in the myometrium compared to endometrium.(AU)


A exposição inadequada do sistema reprodutor feminino a esteróides em períodos do desenvolvimento uterino pode inibir parcialmente o desenvolvimento das glândulas endometriais em cães. Entretanto, não se conhece os efeitos dos esteróides sobre a funcionalidade das glândulas formadas, bem como a possível ocorrência de fibrose endometrial. Objetivou-se avaliar a atividade secretória das glândulas endometriais de cadelas pré-púberes submetidas a protocolo de ablação parcial da adenogênese uterina. Foram utilizadas 16 fêmeas, sem-raça-definida, distribuídas nos grupos MPA (n=8), fêmeas que receberam aplicações de acetato de medroxiprogesterona a cada 3 semanas, e C (n=8), fêmeas controle não tratadas. Aos seis meses de idade, foi realizada ovariohisterectomia em todos os animais, e avaliados os cornos uterinos pelo exame histológico e de histoquímica. Para avaliar a intensidade de secreção (graus 1-4), foram utilizadas periodic acid-Schiff e alcian blue (AB) pH 2,5. Para a avaliação histológica foram utilizados tricrômico de Masson e azul de toluidina. Apenas marcações graus 1 e 2 foram observadas para PAS em ambos os grupos, sem diferença na intensidade de secreção uterina entre grupos com relação aos graus encontrados. Entretanto, o grupo MPA apresentou maior intensidade de secreção uterina em relação ao grupo C (p<0,05). Com relação ao AB pH 2,5, em ambos os grupos também foram encontradas apenas marcações de graus 1 e 2, sem diferença estatística entre grupos. Não foram observadas marcações para a coloração de tricrômico de Masson na região periglandular, em ambos os grupos. Foi observada maior quantidade de mastócitos presentes no útero na região do miométrio, em ambos os grupos. Conclui-se que cadelas pré-púberes com ablação parcial da adenogênese uterina apresentam mínima atividade secretória uterina, ausência de fibrose periglandular e maior presença de mastócitos no miométrio em relação ao endométrio.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Sterilization, Reproductive/veterinary , Uterus/anatomy & histology , Uterus/physiology , Cervix Mucus , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate , Dogs/physiology , Endometrial Ablation Techniques/veterinary , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Models, Animal , Hysterectomy/veterinary
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(4): e201900405, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001089

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of the nutraceuticals omega-6/3 and omega-9/6 on endometriosis-associated infertility and pain. Methods: Controlled experimental study, with each group composed of eight female rats. Fertility groups: sham-operated control (0.9% saline solution); control with endometriosis (0.9% saline); omega-6/3 (1.2 g/kg/day); omega-9/6 (1.2 g/kg/day); and meloxicam (0.8 mg/kg/day). Pain groups: sham-operated control (0.9% saline); control with endometriosis (0.9% saline); omega-6/3 (1.2 g/kg/day); omega-9/6 (1.2 g/kg/day); medroxyprogesterone acetate (5 mg/kg/every 3 days); and meloxicam (0.8 mg/kg/day). Peritoneal endometriosis was surgically induced. Pain was evaluated with the writhing test. Fertility was evaluated by counting the number of embryos in the left hemi-uterus. Results: The mean number of writhings was as follows: sham-operated, 11.1 ± 2.9; control with endometriosis, 49.3 ± 4.4; omega-6/3, 31.5 ± 2.7; omega-9/6, 34.1 ± 4.5; medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.1 ± 0.8; meloxicam, 1 ± 0.3. There was a significant difference between both controls and all drugs used for treatment. Regarding fertility, the mean values were as follows: sham-operated, 6.8 ± 0.6; control with endometriosis, 4.2 ± 0.7; omega-6/3, 4.7 ± 1; omega-9/6, 3.8 ± 0.9; and meloxicam, 1.8 ± 0.9. Conclusions: The omega-6/3 and omega-9/6 nutraceuticals decreased pain compared to the controls. There was no improvement in fertility in any of the tested groups.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Pain/drug therapy , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/administration & dosage , Endometriosis/drug therapy , Fertility/drug effects , Meloxicam/administration & dosage , Peritoneum/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Endometriosis/pathology
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated long-term outcomes of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) plus metformin therapy in terms of control of atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and endometrial cancer (EC), and post-treatment conception. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 63 patients (42 with EC; 21 with AEH) who underwent fertility-sparing management using MPA plus metformin. MPA (400 mg/day) and metformin (750–2,250 mg/day) were administered to achieve complete response (CR). Metformin was administered until conception, even after MPA discontinuation. RESULTS: Of the total patients, 48 (76%) had a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m² and 43 (68%) showed insulin resistance. Sixty-one patients (97%) achieved CR within 18 months. CR rates at 6, 8–9, and 12 months were 60%, 84%, and 90%, respectively. During a median follow-up period of 57 months (range, 13–115 months), relapse occurred in 8 of 61 patients (13.1%) who had achieved CR. Relapse-free survival (RFS) in all patients at 5 years was 84.8%. Upon univariate analysis, patients with BMI ≥25 kg/m² had significantly better prognoses than did those with BMI <25 kg/m2 (odds ratio=0.19; 95% confidence interval=0.05–0.66; p=0.009). Overall pregnancy and live birth rates per patient were 61% (19/31) and 45% (14/31), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: MPA plus metformin is efficacious in terms of RFS and post treatment conception. Moreover, metformin may be more efficacious for patients with BMI ≥25 kg/m².


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Endometrial Hyperplasia , Endometrial Neoplasms , Female , Fertility Preservation , Fertilization , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Live Birth , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate , Metformin , Pregnancy , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766572

ABSTRACT

Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) was widely used to improve quality of life by controlling menopausal symptoms, including vasomotor symptoms and urogenital atrophy. Furthermore, observational studies consistently reported beneficial effects of MHT on late problems of menopause, such as osteoporosis, coronary heart disease (CHD), and possibly dementia. However, circumstances changed abruptly after the 2002 publication of the first findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study, which was conducted in postmenopausal women (average age, 63 years) using conventional doses of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate. CEE with medroxyprogesterone acetate increased the risk of breast cancer and did not prevent CHD. However, CEE alone showed a tendency to decrease the risk of both breast cancer and CHD, with significant differences between the two therapies. A subgroup analysis by age and years since menopause led to a timing hypothesis regarding the effects of MHT on CHD. Indeed, CEE alone in women aged 50 to 59 significantly reduced CHD risk by 35% after 13 years of follow-up. In 2015, a Cochrane meta-analysis of MHT trials reported a 48% reduction in CHD, no change in stroke, and most importantly, a 30% decrease in total mortality in women with less than 10 years since menopause. Long-term follow-up of WHI participants confirmed beneficial impacts of CEE on breast cancer incidence and mortality. Further, fracture reduction in women with osteopenia was observed during the intervention phase of the WHI study. If initiated early after menopause, MHT could again be considered to improve menopause-related quality of life and decrease all-cause mortality.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Breast Neoplasms , Coronary Disease , Dementia , Estrogens , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate , Menopause , Mortality , Osteoporosis , Publications , Quality of Life , Risk Assessment , Stroke , Women's Health
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760725

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fracture (FF) have high heritability, but few data exist on impact of other factors on families with fracture history. We aimed to evaluate predictors of FF and low BMD, in patients with family history of FF. METHODS: This was a retrospective study on patients undergoing dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at a district general hospital (DGH), 2004–2016. Parameters recorded (in addition to standard dual energy X-ray absorptiometry parameters): age, smoking, alcohol, corticosteroids, aromatase inhibitors, Depo-Provera, hormone replacement therapy, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, breast or prostate cancer, coeliac disease, and fracture site. Logistic regression was used to model fracture risk and site, and linear regression for impact of factors on L1–4 and femoral BMD. Factor analyses with polychoric correlation matrices and calculation of Eigenvalues were applied to determine association between fracture sites and associated risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 6053 patients were included, 91.1% female. 2094 had sustained at least one FF. Smoking, alcoholism, increased age, height, and fat mass increased FF risk. Sites analysed: femur, tibia/fibula, humerus, forearm, ribs, and vertebrae. Alcoholism, and increasing tissue thickness and fat mass significantly increased FF risk. Decreased right femoral and vertebral BMD increased overall FF risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the effect of certain factors on vertebral BMD, but suggests a differential effect on the upper and lower spine, as well as in the dominant and nondominant hip. Different sites of fracture are associated with different risk factors, the most common sites of fracture being the peripheral long bones and vertebrae.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Alcoholism , Aromatase Inhibitors , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Bone Density , Breast , Female , Femur , Forearm , Hip , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Hospitals, General , Humans , Humerus , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate , Osteoporosis , Parents , Polymyalgia Rheumatica , Prostatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Ribs , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Spine
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of combined oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)/levonorgestrel-intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) treatment and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of endometrial aspiration biopsy with dilatation & curettage (D&C) in young women with early-stage endometrial cancer (EC) who wished to preserve their fertility. METHODS: A prospective phase II multicenter study was conducted from January 2012 to January 2017. Patients with grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma confined to the endometrium were treated with combined oral MPA (500 mg/day)/LNG-IUS. At 3 and 6 months of treatment, the histologic change of the endometrial tissue was assessed. The regression rate at 6 months treatment and the consistency of the histologic results between the aspiration biopsy and the D&C were evaluated. RESULTS: Forty-four patients were enrolled. Nine voluntarily withdrew and 35 patients completed the protocol treatment. The complete regression (CR) rate at 6 months was 37.1% (13/35). Partial response was shown in 25.7% of cases (9/35). There were no cases of progressive disease and no treatment-related complications. A comparison of the pathologic results from aspiration biopsy and D&C was carried out for 33 cases. Fifteen cases were diagnosed as “EC” by D&C. Among these, only 8 were diagnosed with EC from aspiration biopsy, yielding a diagnostic concordance of 53.3% (ĸ=0.55). CONCLUSION: Combined oral MPA/LNG-IUS treatment for EC showed 37.1% of CR rate at 6 months. Considering the short treatment periods, CR rate may be much higher if the treatment continued to 9 or 12 months. So, this treatment is still a viable treatment option for young women of early-stage EC. Endometrial aspiration biopsy with the LNG-IUS in place is less accurate than D&C for follow-up evaluation of patients undergoing this treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01594879


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Needle , Carcinoma, Endometrioid , Dilatation and Curettage , Endometrial Neoplasms , Endometrium , Female , Fertility , Fertility Preservation , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Levonorgestrel , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate , Prospective Studies
9.
Campinas; s.n; 2018. 121 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916143

ABSTRACT

Resumo: As doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) estão entre as principais causas de mortalidade global. Nos Estados Unidos as taxas de mortalidade por DCV em mulheres nas faixas de idade de 35-54 anos não têm mostrado a redução esperada. O numero de mulheres nos estudos ainda é pequeno e falta conhecimento sobre o impacto na saúde cardiovascular dos ciclos gestacionais e do uso de compostos hormonais para contracepção/terapias por períodos longos. Objetivos: avaliar o metabolismo de carboidratos e marcadores de DCV em mulheres não obesas saudáveis durante o primeiro ano de uso do contraceptivo de acetato de medroxiprogesterona de depósito (AMPD). Métodos: estudo prospectivo não randomizado, comparativo, conduzido no Ambulatório de Planejamento Familiar e no Serviço de Ecografia do Departamento de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas/UNICAMP, entre 02/2011 e 02/2013. Mulheres com 18-40 anos e índice de massa corporal (IMC) <30 kg/m2, recrutadas a partir de Unidades Básicas de Saúde, realizaram teste de pós-carga com 75 mg glicose via oral (OGTT). Foram incluídas aquelas que apresentaram OGTT normal e assinaram Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Os critérios de exclusão foram diagnóstico/antecedente de Diabete Melittus, período de aleitamento, hipertensão arterial, hiper/hipotiroidismo, insuficiência renal crônica, hirsutismo/hiperandrogenismo, Síndrome do Ovário Policístico, uso crônico de corticosteróides, antipsicóticos, tiazídicos e estatinas, antecedente de transplante de órgão, cirurgia bariátrica e omentectomia. As mulheres puderam escolher utilizar o AMPD ou o dispositivo intrauterino com cobre (DIU) e compuseram dois grupos pareados por idade (±1) e IMC (±1), seguidos durante 12 meses. Realizou-se avaliação de peso, IMC, composição corporal por densitometria (DXA), medidas da cintura, pressão arterial e ultrassonográficas da espessura da intima-media da artéria carótida e dos compartimentos de gordura abdominal (GA), dosagens séricas dos perfis glicêmico e lipídico, ácidos graxos livres, apolipoproteínas A1 e B-100, adipocinas IL-6, TN-alfa, leptina, adiponectina, PCR e cálculo do índice HOMA. Resultados: Apresentaram-se 290 mulheres, 72 com critérios para inclusão e 56 (31 grupo AMPD e 25 DIU) foram analisadas com relação ao metabolismo de carboidratos, semestralmente. O grupo AMPD mostrou elevação nos níveis séricos de insulina, HOMA, circunferência da cintura e IMC, quando comparado ao grupo DIU. Analisando-se as 30 mulheres sem resistência insulínica, o grupo AMPD mostrou aumento de triglicérides aos 12 meses em relação ao grupo DIU. Entre 37 mulheres, as medidas ultrassonográficas de GA, realizadas no basal e aos 12 meses, apresentaram forte correlação com as medidas de composição corporal e antropométricas, e com as concentrações séricas de colesterol total, LDL colesterol, APO B-100 e PCR. Conclusões: Não foram observados efeitos cardiovasculares significativos no primeiro ano de uso do AMPD nesta amostra; o aumento de triglicérides foi interpretado como variação provocada por alterações no metabolismo da glicose. HOMA, peso corporal e circunferência da cintura foram parâmetros clínicos importantes para o monitoramento das usuárias de AMPD. A ultrassonografia poderá ser ferramenta viável para identificar indivíduos com aumento de gordura corporal e risco cardiovascular; sendo necessários estudos futuros para confirmação desses resultados, padronização de locais de aferição e pontos de corte relacionados ao possível risco para DCV(AU)


Abstract: One of the main causes of global death is cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the United State of America the mortality rates have not decreased as expected in women between 35 and 54 years old. In general, the studies are performed with a small number of women in the sample composition and lack knowledge about specifically female characteristics and their interaction in cardiovascular health, such as the use of hormonal contraceptives for a prolonged time. Objectives: To evaluate carbohydrate metabolism and markers of CVD in the first year of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) for contraceptive use. Methods: Prospective, not randomized comparative study conducted in the Family Planning Clinic and Ultrasound Unit of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Campinas Medical School, between 02/2011-02/2013. Women aged 18-40 years and body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m2, recruited from Basic Health Units, performed a post-load test with 75 mg oral glucose (OGTT). Those that presented normal OGTT and agreed to participate were included in the study. The exclusion criteria were diagnosis/history of diabetes mellitus, lactation period, hypertension, hyper/hypothyroidism, chronic renal failure, hirsutism/hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovarian syndrome, chronic use of corticosteroids, antipsychotics, thiazides and statins, history of organ transplantation, bariatric surgery and omentectomy. Women were able to choose to use the DMPA or copper intrauterine device (IUD) and composed two matched groups by age (±1) and BMI (±1), followed for 12 months. Were evaluated weight, BMI, body composition (BC), waist circumference, blood pressure and ultrasound measurements of the carotid intimal medial thickness and abdominal fat compartments (AF), serum levels of lipid and glycemic profiles, free fatty acids, apolipoproteins A-1 and B-100, adipokines IL-6, TN-alpha, leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and HOMA index, at baseline and 12 months. Results: 290 women were enrolled, of which 72 met the criteria for inclusion and only 56 women (31-DMPA group and 25-IUD group) were analyzed with regard to carbohydrate metabolism at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. The DMPA group showed elevated serum levels of insulin, HOMA, waist circumference and BMI when compared to the IUD group. The analysis of 30 women without insulin resistance, diagnosed by hyperinsulemic euglycemic clamp, the DMPA group showed increase of triglycerides at 12 months when compared to the IUD group. Among 37 women, ultrasonography measurements of AF at baseline and 12 months showed a strong correlation with BC and anthropometric measurements, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL- chol, APO B-100 and CRP. Conclusions: No significant cardiovascular effects were observed in the first year of DMPA use in this sample; the increase in triglycerides was interpreted as a variation caused by changes in glucose metabolism. HOMA, body weight and waist circumference were important clinical parameters for the monitoring of DMPA users. Ultrasonography may be a viable tool to identify individuals with increased body fat and cardiovascular risk and future studies are required to confirm these results, to standardize measurement sites and cut-off points related to the possible risk for CVD(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases , Contraception , Body Fat Distribution , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Contraceptive Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin Resistance , Intrauterine Devices , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7575, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889102

ABSTRACT

Because of weight gain, women often discontinue hormonal contraception, especially depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of studies describing dietary intake or eating behavior in DMPA users to understand whether the use of DMPA is associated with changes in dietary habits and behaviors leading to weight gain. We searched the PubMed, POPLINE, CENTRAL Cochrane, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases for reports published in English between 1980 and 2017 examining dietary intake or eating behavior in healthy women in reproductive age and adolescents using DMPA (150 mg/mL). Of the 749 publications screened, we excluded 742 due to duplicates (96), not addressing the key research question (638), not reporting dietary intake data (4), and not evaluating the relationship of body weight and dietary or eating behaviors (4). We identified seven relevant studies, including one randomized placebo-controlled trial, one non-randomized paired clinical trial, and five cohort studies. The randomized trial found no association and the other reports were inconsistent. Findings varied from no change in dietary intake or eating behavior with DMPA use to increased appetite in the first six months of DMPA use. Few studies report dietary intake and eating behavior in DMPA users and the available data are insufficient to conclude whether DMPA use is associated with changes in dietary habits or behavior leading to weight gain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Energy Intake/drug effects , Weight Gain/drug effects , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/adverse effects , Contraceptive Agents, Female/adverse effects , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , Body Mass Index , Clinical Trials as Topic
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713640

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Reports on the repeated administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) for intrauterine recurrence after fertility-preserving therapy for atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and early grade 1 endometrioid carcinoma (G1) are lacking. We aimed to clarify the outcomes of repeated MPA therapy in cases of intrauterine recurrence after fertility-preserving therapy with MPA against AEH/early G1. METHODS: Patients with AEH or stage IA well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma without myometrial invasion who underwent first-line MPA therapy for primary lesions or intrauterine recurrence were divided into initial treatment and repeated treatment groups (162 and 82 patients, respectively). Oral MPA administration (400−600 mg/day) was continued until pathological tumor disappearance. Data regarding clinicopathological factors, adverse events, and outcomes following the initial and repeated hormonal treatments were extracted from medical records and analyzed. RESULTS: Complete response rates in the initial and repeated treatment groups were 98.5% and 96.4%, respectively, among patients with AEH, and were 90.7% and 98.1%, respectively, among patients with G1. In the initial treatment group, 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 53.7% and 33.2% among patients with AEH and G1, respectively. In the repeated treatment group, RFS rates were 14.0% and 11.2% among patients with AEH and G1, respectively. Among patients with AEH, the pregnancy rate tended to be lower in the repeated treatment group than in the initial treatment group (11.1% vs. 29.2%; p=0.107), while no significant group difference was observed among patients with G1 (20.8% vs. 22.7%). CONCLUSION: Repeated treatment is sufficiently effective for intrauterine recurrence after hormonal therapy for AEH/early G1.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Endometrioid , Endometrial Hyperplasia , Endometrial Neoplasms , Female , Fertility Preservation , Fertility , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Humans , Medical Records , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate , Medroxyprogesterone , Pregnancy Rate , Recurrence
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 157-161, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840947

ABSTRACT

Collagen is the most abundant structural protein found in organs and is responsible for providing tissues with structure and function. In order to investigate in canine uteri the potential effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on the changes in collagen deposition were grouped as nulliparous (n=11), multiparous (n=11) and treated with MPA (n=11; nulliparous with two treatments; 5 mg/kg; i.m.). The amount of collagen was studied in the fold and basal regions of the endometrium and myometrium using second harmonic generation with a two-photon spectral confocal microscope, quantified using ImageJ software with a color segmentation plugin, was expressed as fraction area (%) and analyzed by ANOVA (p<0,05). No differences were observed between groups in the fold (p=0,3995) or base (p=0,7392) of the endometrium and myometrium (p=0,1781). In conclusion, our data demonstrate that two doses of MPA (5 mg/kg; i.m.) do not affect the total collagen deposition in canine uteri undergoing contraceptive treatment.


El colágeno es la proteína estructural más abundante presente en órganos y es responsable de proporcionar la sostén y función a los tejidos. Para investigar en caninos el efecto potencial del acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MPA) sobre cambios en el depósito de colágeno en útero, éstos fueron agrupados como nulíparos (n = 11), multíparos (n = 11) y tratados con MPA (n = 11, nulíparos con dos tratamientos 5 mg/kg, im). El colágeno fue evaluado en el pliegue y regiones basales del endometrio y en miometrio utilizando la Generación de un Segundo Harmónico con un microscopio confocal espectral y dos fotones y cuantificado utilizando el software ImageJ a partir de la segmentación de colores. Los resultados fueron expresados y analizados como fracción de área (%; ANOVA; p<0,05). No se observaron diferencias entre los grupos en el pliegue (p = 0,3995) y base (p=0,7392) del endometrio y tampoco en miometrio (p=0,1781). En conclusión, nuestra evidencia demuestra que dos dosis de MPA (5 mg/kg, i.m.) no afectan el depósito total de colágeno en úteros caninos expuestos a tratamiento anticonceptivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs/anatomy & histology , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/pharmacology , Uterus/drug effects , Uterus/ultrastructure , Fibrillar Collagens/drug effects , Fibrillar Collagens/ultrastructure , Microscopy/methods
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(1): 70-75, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838419

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate for 12 months the changes of body weight using Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) and if these changes are related to inflammatory markers. Subjects and methods Twenty women of childbearing age who chose the DMPA, without previous use of this method, BMI < 30 kg/m2, and 17 women using IUD TCu 380A, participated in the study. At the baseline and after one year, changes in weight gain, body composition by the bioimpedance electric method, resting energy expenditure (REE) by the indirect calorimetry method, inflammatory markers and HOMA-IR were assessed. Results After 12 months of evaluation, we could observe a significant increase in the DMPA group in weight (3,01 kg) and BMI, while the IUD group’s only significant increase was observed in the BMI. Relative to REE there was an increase of basal metabolic rate (BMR) in both groups after one year. The sub-group DMPA that gained < 3 kg had increased significant weight, BMI and body surface (BS) with respiratory quotient (RQ) reduction, while the sub-group that gained ≥ 3 kg had a significant increase in weight, BMI, BS, fat-free mass, fat mass, BMR, Leptin, HOMA-IR and waist circumference, with RQ significantly reduced. Conclusion Our study found significant changes in weight, body composition and metabolic profile of the population studied in the first 12 months of contraceptive use. These changes mainly increased body weight, leptin levels and HOMA-IR which can contribute to the development of some chronic complications, including obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Body Composition/drug effects , Biomarkers/blood , Weight Gain/drug effects , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/pharmacology , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Basal Metabolism/drug effects , Calorimetry, Indirect , Body Mass Index , Follow-Up Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/blood , Glucose/analysis , Insulin/blood
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-633541

ABSTRACT

A case of a 17-year-old nulligravid with onset of seizure episodes since menarcheis reported. She was diagnosed with Seizure Disorder treated with Phenobarbital and was seizure free for 2 years. Two years prior to consult, seizure recurrences were noted to coincide with menstruation, hence, was diagnosed with Catamenial Epilepsy. Patient was shifted to Lamotrigine but seizure exacerbations were still observed, prompting referral to the Reproductive Medicine service for adjunctive hormonal therapy. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate was added to the antiepileptic drug which provided seizure control. Adjunctive hormonal therapy proved to be helpful in the management of intractable seizures in this patient. The report aims to give a better understanding of the neuroactive properties of estrogen and progesterone and its role in the development of Catamenial Epilepsy. Gender-related and psychosocial issues in the treatment of Epilepsy in the child-bearing years up to the menopause are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Anticonvulsants , Seizures , Progesterone , Lamotrigine , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate , Menstruation , Epilepsy , Triazines , Phenobarbital , Menopause , Estrogens , Reproductive Medicine
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13189

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether less invasive endometrial (EM) aspiration biopsy is adequately accurate for evaluating treatment outcomes compared to the dilatation and curettage (D&C) biopsy in early-stage endometrial cancer (EC) patients treated with high dose oral progestin and levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study with patients younger than 40 years who were diagnosed with clinical stage IA, The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade 1 or 2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma and sought to maintain their fertility. The patients were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate 500 mg/day and LNG-IUS. Treatment responses were evaluated every 3 months. EM aspiration biopsy was conducted after LNG-IUS removal followed D&C. The tissue samples were histologically compared. The diagnostic concordance rate of the two tests was examined with κ statistics. RESULTS: Twenty-eight pairs of EM samples were obtained from five patients. The diagnostic concordance rate of D&C and EM aspiration biopsy was 39.3% (κ value=0.26). Of the seven samples diagnosed as normal with D&C, three (42.8%) were diagnosed as normal by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the eight samples diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma by using D&C, three (37.5%) were diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the 13 complex EM hyperplasia samples diagnosed with the D&C, five (38.5%) were diagnosed with EM hyperplasia by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the samples obtained through EM aspiration, 46.4% were insufficient for histological evaluation. CONCLUSION: To evaluate the treatment responses of patients with early-stage EC treated with high dose oral progestin and LNG-IUS, D&C should be conducted after LNG-IUS removal.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Biopsy, Needle , Carcinoma, Endometrioid , Dilatation and Curettage , Dilatation , Endometrial Neoplasms , Female , Fertility , Gynecology , Humans , Hyperplasia , Levonorgestrel , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate , Observational Study , Obstetrics , Progesterone , Prospective Studies
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(12): 1221-1226, Dec. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-842029

ABSTRACT

Collagen plays essential roles in remodeling uterine tissue during decidualization, implantation, pregnancy and involution. To understand whether the progestational agent medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) can modify the organization and deposit of collagen in the uteri of normal bitches (Canis Tlupus familiaris), we assessed uterine tissues by histochemistry. Uteri were grouped as: nulliparous (n=11), multiparous (n=11) and treated with MPA (n=11; nulliparous with two treatments; 5mg/kg; i.m.). The amount, location and birefringence of interstitial collagen types I and III in the fold and base of the endometrial stroma and the myometrial muscular layers were studied on sections stained with Picrosirius Red by polarized light microscopy and evaluated by ANOVA. No differences were observed in the endometrium. In the myometrium, differences were observed in collagen type I between MPA-treated and nulliparous uteri vs. multiparous (p<0.05), and differences in collagen type III between nulliparous and multiparous uteri vs. MPA-treated (p=0.0001). In conclusion, two doses of MPA had no significant effect on the investigated collagens in the extracellular matrix.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Collagen Type III/drug effects , Collagen Type I/drug effects , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/adverse effects , Uterus/anatomy & histology , Contraceptive Agents/analysis , Fibrillar Collagens
18.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 38(11): 545-551, Nov. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843880

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To determine methods of contraception used by adolescents before and after pregnancy. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, and data were collected from medical records of all teens in puerperal consultation at the Hospital da Mulher - José Aristodemo Pinotti (Caism), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CAISM), São Paulo, Brazil, between July 2011 and September 2013. The inclusion criterionwas being 10 to 19 years old, and the exclusion criterion was having a first consultation 90 days after childbirth. Statistical analyseswere performed with averages, standard deviations, percentages, correlations and Fisher's exact tests using the SAS program, version 9.4. Results A total of 196 adolescents in postpartum consultation were included (44 days after childbirth on average). The majority was older than 14 years (89%), with an average age of 16.2 years, and the most were exclusively breast-feeding (70%). Before pregnancy, the use of any contraceptive methods was mentioned by 74% adolescents; the most frequent use was combined oral contraceptive followed by condom. The main reason for abandoning the use of contraception was the occurrence of an unintended pregnancy (41%), followed by reports of side effects (22%), behavior issues (18%) and desire for pregnancy (16%). A positive correlation was found between the age of the adolescent at the moment of childbirth, the age of menarche (r = 0.3), and the first sexual intercourse (r = 0.419). Vaginal delivery occurred in 76% of the cases. After birth, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) was the contraception method most frequently used (71%), followed by oral contraceptives (11.8%) and intrauterine devices (IUDs, 11.2%). Conclusions The most prescribed contraceptive method before pregnancy in adolescents who had childbirth was combined oral contraceptives. Many of the study participants had an unintended pregnancy. After childbirth, the most used contraceptive method was DMPA. To improve contraception and reduce the chance of unintended pregnancies among adolescents, we should promote the use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCS).


Resumo Objetivo Conhecer os métodos contraceptivos utilizados por adolescentes antes e após a gravidez. Métodos Estudo transversal, os dados foram coletados de prontuários médicos de todas as adolescentes em consulta puerperal do Hospital da Mulher - José Aristodemo Pinotti (CAISM), Unicamp, São Paulo, Brasil, entre julho de 2011 e setembro de 2013. O critério de inclusão foi idade entre 10 e 19 anos, e o critério de exclusão foi primeira consulta com mais de 90 dias após o parto. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas com médias, desvios-padrão, porcentagens, correlações e teste exato de Fisher utilizando o pro grama SAS, versão 9.4. Resultados Um total de 196 adolescentes em consulta pós-parto foram incluídas (em média 44 dias após o parto). A maioria tinha mais do que 14 anos (89%), com idade média de 16,2 anos, e estava em aleitamento exclusivo (70%). Antes da gravidez, o uso de quaisquer métodos anticoncepcionais foi mencionado por 74% das adolescentes; o mais frequente foi contraceptivo oral combinado seguido de preservativo. A principal razão para abandonar o uso de contracepção foi a ocorrência de gravidez indesejada (41%), seguido por relatos de efeitos colaterais (22%), problemas comportamentais (18%) e desejo de gravidez (16%). Uma correlação positiva foi encontrada entre a idade da adolescente no momento do parto, a idade da menarca (r = 0,3), e a primeira relação sexual (r = 0,419). O parto vaginal ocorreu em 76% dos casos. Após o nascimento, acetato de medroxiprogesterona de depósito (DMPA) foi o método de contracepção mais utilizado (71%), seguido do contraceptivo oral (11,8%) e do dispositivo intrauterino (DIU) (11,2%). Conclusões O método anticoncepcional mais prescrito antes da gravidez em adolescentes que tiveram parto no serviço foi contraceptivo combinado oral. Muitas participantes do estudo tiveram uma gravidez indesejada. Após o parto, o método contraceptivomais utilizado foi DMPA. Paramelhor contracepção e reduzir a chance de gravidez indesejada entre adolescentes, devemos promover e estimular o uso de contraceptivos reversíveis longa ação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Choice Behavior , Contraception , Contraception Behavior , Contraception/trends , Contraceptive Agents, Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Forecasting , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate , Postpartum Period
19.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 38(5): 210-217, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787656

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Women require effective contraception until they reach menopause. The long acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) and the depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, Depo-Provera(r), Pfizer, Puurs, Belgium) are great options and can replace possible sterilizations. Purpose To assess the relationship between the use of LARCs and DMPA and terminations ascribed to menopause and sterilizations in a Brazilian clinic. Methods We reviewed the records of women between 12 and 50 years of age attending the clinic that chose to use a LARC method or DMPA. Cumulative termination rates due to sterilization or because the woman had reached menopause were computed using single decrement life-table analysis over 32 years. We also examined all records of surgical sterilization at our hospital between the years 1980-2012. Results Three hundred thirty-two women had continuously used the same contraceptive until menopause, and 555 women had discontinued the method because they or their partners underwent sterilization. From year 20 to year 30 of use, levonorgestrel intrauterine-releasing system (LNG-IUS - Mirena(r), Bayer Oy, Turku, Finland; available since 1980), copper intrauterine device (IUD - available since 1980) and DMPA users showed a trend of cumulative higher discontinuation rates due to menopause when compared with the discontinuation rates due to sterilization. Over the study period, a steep decline in the use of sterilization occurred. Conclusion Over the past 15 years of research we have observed a trend: women usually preferred to continue using LARC methods or DMPA until menopause rather than decide for sterilization, be it their own, or their partners'. The annual number of sterilizations dropped in the same period. The use of LARC methods and DMPA until menopause is an important option to avoid sterilization, which requires a surgical procedure with potential complications.


Resumo Introdução Mulheres necessitam de contracepção até atingirem a menopausa. Os contraceptivos reversíveis de longa duração e o acetato de medroxiprogesterona de depósito (AMPD) são ótimas opções para substituir possíveis esterilizações. Objetivo Avaliar a relação entre o uso de contraceptivos reversíveis de longa duração (LARCs) e AMPD com terminações atribuídas à menopausa e a esterilizações em uma clínica brasileira. Métodos Revisamos os registros de mulheres entre 12 e 50 anos de idade atendidas em clínica e que escolheram usar LARC ou AMPD. Índices de terminação acumulada devido à esterilização ou à menopausa foram computados usando análise de tabela de vida durante 32 anos. Também examinamos todos os registros de cirurgias de esterilização em nosso hospital no período de 1980 a 2012. Resultados Trezentas e trinta e duas mulheres usaram continuamente o mesmo contraceptivo até a menopausa, e 555 mulheres não deram continuidade ao método pelo fato de elas ou seus parceiros terem se submetido à esterilização. De 20 a 30 anos de uso, usuários de sistema intrauterino de levonorgestrel, dispositivo intrauterino de cobre e AMPD apresentaram tendência de maiores índices de descontinuidade devido à menopausa quando comparados a índices de descontinuidade devido à esterilização. No período de estudo, ocorreu um declínio acentuado no uso de esterilização. Conclusão Nos últimos 15 anos do estudo, foi observada uma tendência na qual mulheres optaram mais por continuar usando LARC ou AMPD até a menopausa do que pela esterilização própria ou de seus parceiros. O número anual de esterilizações caiu no mesmo período. O uso de LARC e AMPD até a menopausa é uma opção importante para evitar a esterilização, que exige um procedimento cirúrgico com potenciais complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Contraceptive Agents, Female , Long-Acting Reversible Contraception/statistics & numerical data , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate , Menopause , Sterilization, Reproductive , Brazil
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(4): 286-293, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781334

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of letrozole (Ltz) in carcinogen+estrogen-induced endometrial hyperplasia. METHODS: BALB/c female mice were divided into four groups of 12 animals each receiving an intrauterine dose of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and weekly subcutaneous injections of estradiol hexaidrobenzoate (EHB), except for group I(control). The groups were divided in I (control), II (ENU+EHB), III (ENU+EHB+MPA) and IV (ENU+EHB+Ltz). Group III also received intramuscular injections of MPA (medroxy progesterone acetate) every four weeks, while group IV received oral doses of Ltz daily. At the end of 16 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum estradiol and progesterone levels. Uterine histological sections were made to evaluate the presence of endometrial proliferative lesions. Differences between groups were evaluated with student's t test, ANOVA and chi-square test. RESULTS: Groups ENU+EHB, ENU+EHB+MPA and ENU+EHB+Ltz showed varying degrees of endometrial hyperplasia. The incidence of hyperplasia in groups ENU+EHB and ENU+EHB+Ltz was higher and more severe than in group ENU+EHB+MPA. Control group showed lower levels of serum estradiol than the other groups. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence that letrozole could act as an antiestrogenic drug in the development of endometrial proliferative lesions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Triazoles/pharmacology , Aromatase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Endometrial Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Nitriles/pharmacology , Progesterone/blood , Time Factors , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Adenocarcinoma/etiology , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Endometrial Neoplasms/etiology , Endometrial Neoplasms/drug therapy , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/pharmacology , Aromatase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Endometrial Hyperplasia/chemically induced , Endometrial Hyperplasia/pathology , Endometrium/drug effects , Endometrium/pathology , Estradiol/blood , Ethylnitrosourea , Carcinogenesis/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitriles/therapeutic use
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