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2.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(1): 64-67, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152784

ABSTRACT

Abstract External ear melanoma is rare, and early diagnosis and treatment are paramount for the patient's survival. Four clinical cases are reported, emphasizing the importance of the routine clinical examination of the ears in the dermatological consultation. The study included male and female patients, aged 60 to 81 years old, with melanocytic lesions in the outer ear, evaluated with detailed physical and dermoscopic examination, leading to the identification of lesions suggestive of melanoma. The cases were treated surgically with excision of the lesion, and the diagnoses were confirmed by histopathological study. The therapeutic approach was instituted early as most cases were diagnosed at an early stage, which directly impacted global survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Melanoma/surgery , Melanoma/diagnosis , Ear, External , Melanocytes , Middle Aged
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(6): 684-690, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142132

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The independent role of solar radiation in the differential melanogenesis between melasma and adjacent skin is unknown. Objectives: To assess the melanogenic responses of skin with facial melasma and of the adjacent skin to UVB, UVA, and visible light, in an ex vivo model. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study involving 22 patients with melasma. Facial melasma and adjacent skin samples were collected and stored in DMEM medium, at room temperature. One fragment was placed under the protection from light, while another was exposed to UVB, UVA, and visible light (blue-violet component): 166 mJ/cm2, 1.524 J/cm2, and 40 J/cm2, respectively. Subsequently, all samples were kept for 72 hours in a dark environment and stained by Fontana-Masson to assess basal layer pigmentation, dendrites, and melanin granulation. Results: Effective melanogenesis was observed in the basal layer in melasma and in the normal adjacent skin after all irradiations (p< 0.01), with the following median increment: UVB (4.7% vs. 8.5%), UVA (9.5% vs. 9.9%), and visible light (6.8% vs. 11.7%), with no significant difference between anatomical sites. An increase in melanin granulation (coarser melanosomes) was observed only after irradiation with UVA and only in the skin with melasma (p= 0.05). An increase in the melanocyte dendrite count induced by UVB radiation was observed in both anatomical sites (p≤ 0.05). Study limitations: Use of an ex vivo model, with independent irradiation regimes for UVB, UVA, and visible light. Conclusions: Melanogenesis induced by UVB, UVA, and visible light was observed both in melasma and in the adjacent skin. The morphological patterns suggest that different irradiations promote individualized responses on the skin with melasma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Melanins , Melanosis , Skin , Ultraviolet Rays , Melanocytes
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(5): 570-574, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130945

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Vitiligo is a common skin disorder in which melanocytes are destroyed by auto-reactive immune responses. The loss of melanocytes results in the appearance of depigmented areas in different parts of the body. Cytokines have remarkable roles in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α; interleukin 27 (IL-27) is a new member of the IL-6/IL-12 family, mainly released by activated antigen-presenting cells. IL-27 has been suggested to function as a pro-inflammatory as well as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Altered concentrations of IL-27 have been shown in various auto-immune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. No studies have been conducted to determine the expression of this cytokine in vitiligo patients. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the serum concentration of IL-27 in vitiligo patients and compare it with normal individuals. Methods: The serum concentration of IL-27 in 79 vitiligo patients was evaluated in comparison to 45 healthy controls using ELISA assay. Results: Results showed decreased concentration of IL-27 in vitiligo patients as compared with healthy subjects (p = 0.026). Furthermore, no correlation between IL-27 concentrations and disease parameters such as vitiligo severity and the extension of the depigmented area was observed. Study limitation: A larger sample size would be more recommended for this study. Conclusion: The reduction in the serum levels of IL-27 in vitiligo patients compared to normal subjects suggested the possible anti-inflammatory role of this cytokine in vitiligo. Thus, IL-27 may be considered as a new target for the manipulation of the immune system in vitiligo patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitiligo , Interleukin-27 , Cytokines , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Melanocytes
5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(5): 602-608, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130937

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Dermoscopy increases the diagnostic accuracy in dermatology. The aspects related to training, usage profile, or perceptions of usefulness of dermoscopy among dermatologists in Brazil have not been described. Objectives: To evaluate the profile of the use of dermoscopy and the perception of the impact of the technique on clinical practice. Methods: The Brazilian Society of Dermatology invited all members to complete an online form with 20 items regarding demographic data, dermatological assistance, use of dermoscopy, and perceptions of the impact of the technique on clinical practice. The proportions between the categories were compared by analysis of residuals in contingency tables, and p-values < 0.01 were considered significant. Results: The answers from 815 associates (9.1% of those invited to participate) were assessed, 84% of whom were female, and 71% of whom were younger than 50 years of age. The use of dermoscopy was reported in the daily practice of 98% of dermatologists: 88% reported using it more than once a day. Polarized light dermoscopy was the most used method (83%) and pattern analysis was the most used algorithm (63%). The diagnosis and follow-up of melanocytic lesions was identified as the main use of the technique, while the benefit for the diagnosis of inflammatory lesions was acknowledged by less than half of the sample (42%). Study limitations: This was a non-randomized study. Conclusion: Dermoscopy is incorporated into the clinical practice of almost all Brazilian dermatologists, and it is recognized for increasing diagnostic certainty in different contexts, especially for pigmented lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Skin Neoplasms , Dermoscopy , Algorithms , Brazil , Dermatologists , Melanocytes , Middle Aged
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 351-354, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130885

ABSTRACT

Abstract Secondary osteoma cutis is a phenomenon that may occur in several conditions. When it occurs in a melanocytic nevus it is named osteonevus of Nanta, an event considered uncommon and characterized by the presence of bone formation adjacent or interposed with melanocytic cells. There are reports of its occurrence in various melanocytic lesions, being more frequently associated with intradermal nevus. We report a case of osteonevus of Nanta in combined nevus, possibly the first description of this association.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Scalp Dermatoses/pathology , Skin Diseases, Genetic/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/pathology , Ossification, Heterotopic/pathology , Nevus, Intradermal/pathology , Nevus, Pigmented/pathology , Scalp Dermatoses/surgery , Skin Diseases, Genetic/surgery , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/surgery , Immunohistochemistry , Ossification, Heterotopic/surgery , Nevus, Intradermal/surgery , Melanocytes/pathology , Nevus, Pigmented/surgery
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(1): 71-74, Jan.-Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088719

ABSTRACT

Abstract Spitz nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion, which presents in several ways: solitary, agminated, or disseminated. The disseminated variant is uncommon; it may have a rapid evolution (the eruptive form) and be difficult to manage. This report presents the case of a 24-year-old patient with multiple papules on his limbs, which had appeared four years previously. On physical examination, 120 pink and skin-colored papules were seen, which under dermoscopy were observed to be homogeneous, pink vascular lesions. Histopathologic study revealed epithelioid cells arranged in groups or singly in the dermis and dermo-epidermal junction. They were HMB-45 positive in the superficial dermis, and Ki-67 < 1%. Given these findings, a diagnosis of eruptive disseminated Spitz nevi was made.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell/pathology , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Dermoscopy , Melanocytes/pathology
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e9282, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089351

ABSTRACT

Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder resulting from selective destruction of melanocytes. Emerging studies have suggested that T helper cell 17 (Th17) is potentially implicated in vitiligo development and progression. It was recently discovered that metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) can modulate Th17-mediated adaptive immunity. However, the influence of mGluR4 on melanogenesis of melanocytes has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we primarily cultured mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and then knocked down and over-expressed mGluR4 using transfection. Transduced BMDC were co-cultured with CD4+ T cells and the expression of Th17-related cytokines were measured. The morphology and melanogenesis of B16 cells were observed after being treated with co-culture medium of CD4+ T cells and transduced BMDC. We found that mGluR4 knockdown did not affect the co-stimulatory CD80 and CD86 upregulation after lipopolysaccharide stimulation but did increase the expression of Th17-related cytokines, and further down-regulated the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and the downstream genes, decreased melanin production, and destroyed the morphology of B16 cells. Conversely, over-expression of mGluR4 reduced the expression of CD80 and CD86, suppressed the production of Th17-related cytokines, increased the expression of MITF, and did not destroy the morphology of B16 cells. Our study confirmed that mGluR4 modulated the Th17 cell polarization and resulted in the alteration of melanogenesis and morphology of B16 cells. Collectively, these findings suggest mGluR4 might be a potent target involved in the immune pathogenesis of vitiligo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Vitiligo/immunology , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate/physiology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Vitiligo/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/immunology , Th17 Cells/cytology , Flow Cytometry , Melanins/biosynthesis , Melanocytes/cytology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 139-147, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827074

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence suggests that stress may induce changes in hair color, with the underlying mechanism incompletely understood. In this study, female C57BL/6 mice subjected to electric foot shock combined with restraint stress were used to build chronic stress mouse model. The melanin contents and tyrosinase activity were measured in mouse skin and B16F10 melanoma cells. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the content of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin- 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the mouse skin. The content of nuclear factor κB (NFκB)/p65 subunit in mouse skins was valued by immunofluorescence staining. The results demonstrated that under chronic stress, the fur color turned from dark to brown in C57BL/6 mice due to the decrease of follicle melanocytes and tyrosinase activity in C57BL/6 mouse skin. Simultaneously, inflammatory responses in skins were detected as shown by increased NFκB activity and TNF-α expression in stressed mouse skin. In cultured B16F10 melanoma cells, TNF-α reduced the melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicate that chronic stress induces fur color change by decreasing follicle melanocytes and tyrosinase activity in female C57BL/6 mice, and TNF-α may play an important role in stress-induced hair color change.


Subject(s)
Animal Fur , Animals , Color , Female , Melanins , Melanocytes , Melanoma, Experimental , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Metabolism , Pigmentation , Skin , Stress, Physiological
10.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 101-108, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Melasma is a chronic acquired focal hypermelanosis which pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Classical pathophysiologic studies have analysed the affected and perilesional areas, but little is known about the status of sun-protected skin, which is subjected to the same endogenous and genetic factors.OBJECTIVE: To assess the histological characteristics of melasma compared to adjacent and retroauricular skin.METHODS: Skin samples were collected from 10 female from: melasma, perilesional area and retroauricular. The samples were stained (haematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Fontana-Masson, picrosirius red, toluidine blue and Verhoeff), immunolabelled for CD34 and Wnt1. The data from the skin sites were analysed simultaneously by a multivariate model.RESULTS: Melasma skin exhibited noteworthy stratum corneum compaction, greater collagen heterogeneity, solar elastosis, higher number of mast cells, basement membrane zone (BMZ) damage, Wnt1 expression, pendulum melanocytes, higher cellularity and vascular proliferation at the superficial dermis. Stratum corneum compaction, collagen heterogeneity and BMZ abnormalities were variables associated to melasma that not follow a continuum through retroauricular to adjacent skin. Mast cell count was the variable that disclosed correlation with the most other abnormalities as well as had the greater contribution in the multivariate model.CONCLUSION: In addition to melanocyte hyperactivity, melasma skin exhibits alterations in the epidermal barrier, upper dermis and BMZ, which differ from the adjacent sun-exposed skin and retroauricular skin, indicating a distinct phenotype, rather than a mere extension of photoageing or intrinsic ageing. Mast cells appear to play a central role in the physiopathology of melasma.


Subject(s)
Basement Membrane , Collagen , Dermis , Epidermis , Female , Humans , Hyperpigmentation , Mast Cells , Melanocytes , Melanosis , Phenotype , Population Characteristics , Skin , Tolonium Chloride , Wnt Signaling Pathway
11.
Biol. Res ; 53: 04, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pigmentation development, is a complex process regulated by many transcription factors during development. With the development of the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), non-coding RNAs, such as miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs, are found to play an important role in the function detection of related regulation factors. In this study, we provided the expression profiles and development of ncRNAs related to melanocyte and skin development in mice with black coat color skin and mice with white coat color skin during embryonic day 15 (E15) and postnatal day 7 (P7). The expression profiles of different ncRNAs were detected via RNA-seq and also confirmed by the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method. GO and KEGG used to analyze the function the related target genes. RESULTS: We identified an extensive catalogue of 206 and 183 differently expressed miRNAs, 600 and 800 differently expressed lncRNAs, and 50 and 54 differently expressed circRNAs, respectively. GO terms and pathway analysis showed the target genes of differentially expressed miRNA and lncRNA. The host genes of circRNA were mainly enriched in cellular process, single organism process. The target genes of miRNAs were mainly enriched in chromatin binding and calcium ion binding in the nucleus. The function of genes related to lncRNAs are post translation modification. The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network of lncRNAs and circRNAs displays a complex interaction between ncRNA and mRNA related to skin development, such as Tcf4 , Gnas , and Gpnms related to melanocyte development. CONCLUSIONS: The ceRNA network of lncRNA and circRNA displays a complex interaction between ncRNA and mRNA related to skin development and melanocyte development. The embryonic and postnatal development of skin provide a reference for further studies on the development mechanisms of ncRNA during pigmentation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Skin/embryology , Skin Pigmentation/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Melanocytes , Cell Differentiation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 747-750, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054880

ABSTRACT

Abstract Melanoacanthoma is a rare variant of seborrheic keratosis, which is notable for dark pigmentation and fast radial growth, making it difficult to distinguish from melanoma. Histologically, it is characterized by proliferation of keratinocytes and dendritic melanocytes. The authors report a scalp lesion, fast growing, suspected by dermoscopy and confocal microscopy examination, with dendritic cells distributed throughout the lesion. Based on these findings, it was not possible to classify this lesion as clearly benign, so it was excised. Histopathologic evaluation and immunostain were consistent with melanoacanthoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Scalp Dermatoses/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Keratosis, Seborrheic/pathology , Acanthoma/pathology , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Dermoscopy , Melanocytes/pathology
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1497-1505, set.-out. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038655

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to microscopically re-evaluate the melanocytic lesions diagnoses established by the Animal Pathology Laboratory of the Federal University of Uberlândia, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, over a period of eleven years; in addition, to perform a comparative analysis between the conventional histopathological (CH) method and the use of the melanin bleaching (MB) technique with potassium permanganate, sulfuric acid, and oxalic acid solutions. The results of the MB method presented a disagreement in 24.32% of the diagnosis previously by CH, with low agreement (61.0%) and low Kappa coefficient (0.2267). Melanoma was the most frequent lesion, more frequent in elderly and non-breed female dogs. The most frequent melanoma location was in the cutaneous tissue. The presence or absence of a pagetoid spread in cutaneous samples, distribution of melanin, pattern of cell layout, cell morphology, degree of cellular atypia, and the number of mitoses verified after MB were the most important criteria to confirm the diagnosis of malignancy or benignity of the lesions. Evaluating pathologists considered MB to be essential for the majority of diagnoses and an efficient complementary method for the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions, even in cases with a moderate degree of pigmentation.(AU)


Este estudo objetivou reavaliar microscopicamente os diagnósticos de lesões melanocíticas estabelecidos pelo setor de Patologia Animal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, em um período de 11 anos, e, com base nesse levantamento, realizar uma análise comparativa entre o método histopatológico convencional (HC) e o método de despigmentação de melanócitos (DM) com permanganato de potássio, ácido sulfúrico e ácido oxálico. A DM revelou discordância em 24,32% dos diagnósticos previamente estabelecidos por HC, apresentando baixa concordância (61,0%) e baixo valor de coeficiente Kappa (0,2267). A alteração mais frequente foi o melanoma, com maior ocorrência em cadelas idosas sem raça definida (SRD). A localização mais frequente dos melanomas foi cutânea. A presença ou ausência de disseminação pagetoide nos casos cutâneos, a forma de distribuição da melanina, o padrão de disposição das células, a morfologia celular, o grau de atipia celular e a quantidade de mitoses verificada após a despigmentação foram critérios de elevada importância para firmar o diagnóstico quanto à malignidade ou benignidade da lesão. A despigmentação foi considerada pelos patologistas avaliadores como essencial para o diagnóstico na maioria dos casos, o que leva a concluir que ela constitui um método complementar eficiente no diagnóstico das lesões melanocíticas, mesmo em casos com grau moderado de pigmentação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Potassium Permanganate/pharmacology , Pigmentation , Melanocytes/cytology , Melanocytes/pathology
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1477-1482, set.-out. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038664

ABSTRACT

Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) etiology can be acquired, iatrogenic or idiopathic. There are no previous reports of RLN caused by recurrent laryngeal nerve compression by melanomas. This report describes a horse presenting severe dyspnea and progressive weight loss. Physical exam demonstrated tachycardia, tachypnea, inspiratory dyspnea at rest, neck extension and mydriasis. Temporary tracheotomy was performed and videoendoscopic examination diagnosed grade IV laryngeal paralysis. The animal came suddenly to death by suppurative bacterial pneumonia. At necropsy, it was possible to observe multiple melanotic epithelioid melanoma nodules compressing the recurrent laryngeal nerve, alongside with lung and parotid metastasis. This finding emphasizes the importance of establishing a differential diagnosis for tumor mass compression in the etiology of RLN, especially melanomas in gray horses, with or without cutaneous manifestations of masses.(AU)


A neuropatia laríngea recorrente (NLR) pode apresentar etiologia adquirida, iatrogênica ou idiopática. Não há relatos prévios da ocorrência da NLR causada pela compressão do nervo laríngeo recorrente por melanomas. Este relato descreve um equino apresentando dispneia grave e perda de peso progressiva. O exame físico demonstrou taquicardia, taquipneia, dispneia inspiratória em repouso, extensão do pescoço e midríase. Foi realizada traqueotomia temporária e exame videoendoscópico, mediante o qual se diagnosticou paralisia laríngea grau IV. O animal veio a óbito por pneumonia bacteriana supurativa. Na necropsia, foi possível observar múltiplos nódulos de melanoma epitelioide amelanótico comprimindo o nervo laríngeo recorrente, juntamente com metástases pulmonares e parotídeas. Este achado enfatiza a importância de estabelecer um diagnóstico diferencial nos casos de NLR, pensando-se na compressão nervosa por massas tumorais, especialmente melanomas em cavalos tordilhos, com ou sem manifestações cutâneas de massas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Horses , Larynx/physiopathology , Melanocytes/pathology , Melanoma/physiopathology , Melanoma/veterinary
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(4): 434-441, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038295

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: In-vitro studies showed that Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 3 (LGI3) is a keratinocyte-derived cytokine that stimulates melanin synthesis and is increased after ultra violet B (UVB) irradiation. So, we postulated that LGI3 may be involved in vitiligo aetiopathogenesis and may participate in narrow band ultra violet B (NB-UVB) induced pigmentation in vitiligo. Objectives: To assess this hypothesis, lesional LGI3 immunohistochemical expression of vitiligo patients before and after NB-UVB phototherapy was studied, and its correlation with repigmentation was evaluated. Methods: Forty vitiligo patients and 20 age, sex, and skin phenotype-matched controls were enrolled. Patients were treated with NB-UVB thrice weekly for 12 weeks. VASI score was evaluated before and after NB-UVB sessions. For vitiligo patients, baseline LGI3 immunohistochemical staining was estimated, and compared to that of controls and to its post-treatment data in those patients. Results: Baseline LGI3 immunohistochemical studied parameters (expression, intensity, percentage and H score) were significantly lower in vitiligo cases than controls (p=0.003, 0.013, 0.001 and 0.001 respectively). After 12 weeks of NB-UVB phototherapy, these LGI3 immunohistochemical parameters were up-regulated and became comparable to that of controls (p >0.05 for all). There was a significant positive correlation between the improvement of both VASI score and LGI3 H score mean values (r=-0.349 , p=0.027). Study limitations: Small number of investigated subjects. Conclusions: Decreased LGI3 protein may play an active role in vitiligo pathogenesis and its up-regulation after NB-UVB phototherapy, may actively participate in NB-UVB photo-induced melanogenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Ultraviolet Therapy/methods , Vitiligo/pathology , Vitiligo/radiotherapy , Proteins/analysis , Cytokines/analysis , Reference Values , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Immunohistochemistry , Case-Control Studies , Keratinocytes/radiation effects , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Melanocytes/radiation effects
16.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(3): 756-764, mayo.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094083

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los melanomas mucosos son tumores poco frecuentes y de mal pronóstico. Presentan un comportamiento agresivo, y pueden tener varias localizaciones en el aparato digestivo. Este tipo de tumores es más frecuente en la región anorectal. Se presentó un caso de una paciente femenina de 59 años, con un cuadro de varios meses de evolución; caracterizado por ardor, prurito anal y sensación de masa que prolapsaba a través del ano. Se constató al examen físico masa tumoral aspecto polipoideo. Se realizó polipectomía donde la biopsia arrojó como resultados el aspecto histológico de un melanoma mucoso de canal anal.


ABSTRACT Mucous melanomas are few frequent and have a bad prognosis. They present an aggressive behavior and might have several locations in the digestive system. This kind of tumors is more frequent at the anus-rectal region. The authors presented the case of a female patient, aged 59 years, with clinical conditions of several months of evolution, characterized by burning, anal pruritus and the sensation of a mass prolapsing through the anus. A tumor mass of polypoid aspect was found at physical examination. Polypectomy was carried out and the biopsy showed the histologic aspect of a mucous melanoma of the anal canal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Anus Neoplasms/pathology , Anus Neoplasms/blood , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Sarcoma, Clear Cell/diagnosis , Melanocytes/metabolism , Melanoma/diagnosis , Melanoma/pathology , Melanoma/blood , Anal Canal/physiopathology , Pruritus Ani/diagnosis , Neoplasm Metastasis
17.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(1): 151-155, jan.-mar. 2019. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-994623

ABSTRACT

O lentigo maligno (LM) é uma forma de melanoma in situ que mais comumente se apresenta como uma mácula de crescimento lentamente progressivo, pigmentada, na face de idosos com pele danificada pelo sol. Esse melanoma in situ tem um risco (30% a 50%) de progressão para lentigo maligno melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica completa da lesão requer margens de pelo menos 10mm, mesmo para lesões in situ. Porém, quando o crescimento de LM ocorre em áreas de implicações estéticas ou funcionais (face, pescoço, solas), a excisão é frequentemente reduzida para preservar estruturas anatômicas importantes e por razões cosméticas. Além disso, as margens periféricas podem ser clinicamente mal definidas e nem sempre pigmentadas, com extensão subestimada e risco de ressecção insuficiente. A "técnica de espaguete", descrita por Gaudy Marqueste, é uma cirurgia estratégica baseada na amostragem de uma faixa de tecido "spaghettilike" para determinar as margens da lesão antes da remoção do tumor. Após a confirmação anatomopatológica de margens livres de neoplasia, a lesão principal central é ressecada, permitindo a reconstrução do defeito no mesmo procedimento, sendo uma alternativa à cirurgia micrográfica de Mohs.(AU)


Lentigo maligna (LM) is a melanoma in situ that commonly presents as a macula with progressive and irregularly pigmented growth, especially in the face of elderly people with sun-damaged skin. This melanoma in situ has a risk (30-50%) of progression to lentigo maligna melanoma. Complete surgical excision of the lesion requires margins of at least 10 mm, even for lesions in situ. However, when the growth of LM occurs in areas of aesthetic or functional implications (face, neck, and soles), the excision is often reduced to preserve important anatomic structures and for cosmetic purposes. Moreover, the peripheral margins may be clinically ill-defined and not always pigmented, and thus, such cases are associated with underestimated extension and risk of insufficient resection. The "spaghetti" technique, described by Gaudy Marqueste, is a strategic surgical approach based on sampling of a range of "spaghetti-like" strips to determine the margins of the lesion prior to removal of the tumor. After the pathological confirmation of neoplasia-free margins, the main central lesion is resected, allowing reconstruction of the defect in the same procedure, as an alternative to Mohs micrographic surgery. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Skin Neoplasms , Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle/physiopathology , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Nasal Surgical Procedures/methods , Melanocytes/pathology , Melanoma/complications , Melanoma/diagnosis , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Melanoma/surgery
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740563

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Barely sprout is a well-known oriental herbal medicine with a wide range of health benefits. Recent studies have provided scientific evidence of its therapeutic effects with expanded application. This study investigated anti-melanogenic effect of barley sprout water extract (BSE) in murine melanocyte B16F10. METHODS: Various concentrations (0, 50, 125, and 250 µg/mL) of BSE and arbutin (150 ppm) were applied to B16F10 stimulated with or without alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (100 nM) for 72 hours. The whitening potency of BSE was determined altered cellular melanin contents. Activity and expression of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were also assayed. RESULTS: Experimental results revealed that treatment with BSE reduced cellular melanin production by approximately 40% compared to the control. Molecular findings supported that suppressed activity and expression of tyrosinase and MITF proteins by BSE were associated with declined cellular melanogenesis. Furthermore, anti-melanogenic effect of BSE (250 µg/mL) was similar to that of arbutin, a commonly used whitening agent. Lastly, polyphenols including p-coumaric, ferulic, and vanillic acids were identified in BSE using HPLC analyses. They might be potential active ingredients showing such melanogenesis-reducing effect. CONCLUSION: BSE was evident to possess favorable anti-melanogenic potency in an in vitro model. As a natural food sourced material, BSE could be an effective depigmentation agent with potential application in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.


Subject(s)
Arbutin , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Herbal Medicine , Hordeum , In Vitro Techniques , Insurance Benefits , Melanins , Melanocytes , Melanoma , Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Polyphenols , Therapeutic Uses , Vanillic Acid , Water
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739659

ABSTRACT

Coculture with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can stimulate proliferation and migration of melanocytes. To enhance outcomes of skin disorders caused by melanocyte loss or death, mixed transplantation with ADSCs has been suggested. However, role of cocultured ADSCs in proliferation and migration of melanocytes remains unclear. This study determined the effect of ADSCs on production of growth factors and expression levels of intergrins in primary culture of adult human melanocytes with or without ADSCs and in nude mice grafted with such melanocytes. Higher amounts of growth factors for melanocytes, such as bFGF and SCF were produced and released from ADSCs by coculturing with melanocytes. Relative levels of integrins β1, α5, and α6 as well as adhesion to fibronectin and laminin were increased in melanocytes cocultured with ADSCs. Such increases were inhibited by neutralization of bFGF or SCF. Relative levels of bFGF, SCF and integrins were increased in nude mice skin after grafting with melanocyte+ADSC cocultures. Collectively, these results indicate that ADSCs can stimulate proliferation and migration of melanocytes by increasing expression of integrins in melanocytes through upregulation of production/release of melanocyte growth factors such as bFGF and SCF.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Coculture Techniques , Extracellular Matrix , Fibronectins , Humans , Integrins , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Laminin , Melanocytes , Mice , Mice, Nude , Skin , Stem Cells , Transplants , Up-Regulation
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1633-1642, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771767

ABSTRACT

Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway to produce melanin pigment in melanocyte, involving a series of intricate enzymatic and chemical catalyzed reactions. Melanogenesis involves five signaling pathways that converge on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. In addition, many cytokines, involved in the regulation of melanogenesis, play an important role in the development, proliferation, differentiation and migration of melanocytes. Polyoxometalate can be used as a potential inhibitor of melanin production. Hence, this paper reviews the signaling pathways of melanogenesis and their regulatory mechanism, to apply polyoxometalates in the melanin production pathway, and briefly introduces the regulatory factors of related pathways.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Melanins , Melanocytes , Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor , Signal Transduction
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