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Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 827-833, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285282


This report describes clinical, ultrasonographic and anatomopathological findings in a case of metastatic melanoma in an adult Saanen goat. Clinically, the goat had apathy, an intra-abdominal palpable firm structure, and exophytic keratinized areas on the skin of the udder. Ultrasound revealed non-encapsulated oval structures, with heterogeneous echogenicity and marked central and peripheral vascularization, and hypoechoic hepatic multifocal to coalescent areas. In the udder, there were non-encapsulated oval structures with heterogeneous echogenicity and hyperechoic center surrounded by hypoechogenic tissue. Grossly, there were black multifocal to coalescent areas in the liver, as well as black nodules in mammary and mesenteric lymph nodes, uterus, spleen, and myocardium. Microscopically, multifocal melanocytic neoplastic proliferation was observed in the dermis and junction of the udder epidermis. Most of the neoplastic cells had cytoplasmic granules of melanin. In the liver there were areas of neoplastic tissue compressing the adjacent parenchyma, with central foci of necrosis, mild desmoplasia, and multifocal infiltration of malignant cells into the adjacent tissues. Similar findings were observed in the mammary and mesenteric lymph nodes, uterus, spleen, and myocardium, which characterized metastatic melanoma. Ultrasonography played a key role for establishing the diagnosis of a metastatic melanoma and helped establish a proper clinical management protocol.(AU)

Este relato descreve os achados clínicos, ultrassonográficos e anatomopatológicos em um caso de melanoma metastático em uma cabra Saanen adulta. Clinicamente, a cabra apresentava apatia, estrutura firme palpável intra-abdominal e áreas exofíticas queratinizadas na pele do úbere. A ultrassonografia revelou estruturas ovais não encapsuladas, com ecogenicidade heterogênea e marcada vascularização central e periférica, além de áreas hepáticas multifocais a coalescentes hipoecoicas. No úbere, havia estruturas ovais não encapsuladas, com ecogenicidade heterogênea e centro hiperecogênico circundado por tecido hipoecogênico. Macroscopicamente, havia áreas pretas multifocais a coalescentes no fígado, bem como nódulos pretos nos linfonodos mamários e mesentéricos, no útero, no baço e no miocárdio; microscopicamente, proliferação neoplásica melanocítica multifocal foi observada na derme e na junção da epiderme do úbere. A maioria das células neoplásicas apresentava grânulos citoplasmáticos de melanina. No fígado, havia áreas de tecido neoplásico comprimindo o parênquima adjacente, com focos centrais de necrose, desmoplasia leve e infiltração multifocal de células malignas nos tecidos adjacentes. Achados semelhantes foram observados nos nódulos linfáticos mamários e mesentéricos, no útero, no baço e no miocárdio, que caracterizaram o melanoma metastático. A ultrassonografia desempenhou um papel fundamental para estipular o diagnóstico de um melanoma metastático e ajudou a estabelecer um protocolo de manejo clínico adequado.(AU)

Animals , Goats , Melanoma/pathology , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnostic imaging
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 139-147, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248748


Abstract Background: Dermoscopy increases the sensitivity of the diagnosis of melanoma, leading to its early identification and increasing the chances of cure. Objective: To describe the clinical and dermoscopic characteristics of superficial spreading melanomas, and to detect the differences between in situ and invasive 1-mm thick melanomas. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which dermoscopic images of 58 melanomas, grouped according to their thickness, were evaluated. Results: 24 in situ melanomas were evaluated, 28 invasive melanomas with Breslow ≤ 1 mm (0.50 ± 0.22 mm) and six with Breslow > 1 mm (2.35 ± 2.02 mm). In situ melanomas were smaller than invasive melanomas. The most commonly found dermoscopic criteria were asymmetry (84.5%), three or more colors (81.0%), and atypical network (79.3%). A non-specific pattern was more common in in situ melanomas (p = 0.028) and atypical network in invasive melanomas with Breslow 1 mm presented inverted network (p = 0.018). Study limitations: The sample was selected by convenience, since it was necessary to have a preoperative photo of the tumor, which may have led to the loss of clinically less significant lesions, as well as those highly suggestive of melanoma. Conclusions: Melanomas in early stages showed a more frequent nonspecific pattern and atypical network, while invasive melanomas showed a multicomponent pattern, three or more colors, and an inverted network.

Humans , Skin Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Dermoscopy
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 32(1): 78-84, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252508


Skin cancer is usually classified into melanoma (SCM) and non-melanoma (SCNM), with different cell origins; being the SCM responsible for the highest mortality. In Chile, an incidence (2008) of 434 new cases is estimated, obtaining a standardized rate of 2.2 cases per 100,000 habitants. There are multiple associated risk factors, the main ones being exposure to UV radiation and sunburn. The strategies to prevent this pathology fall on these same factors. The clinical evaluation of the lesions with ABCD mnemonics added to the use of dermoscopy increases the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity; however, the definitive confirmation is through biopsy, which must include the necessary parameters to define prognosis of disease. The definitive treatment is Surgical. There are alternatives such as the use of the sentinel lymph node to define lymph node dissections. Regarding systemic therapies, the use of immunotherapy has shown results that improve survival in these patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Melanoma/diagnosis , Melanoma/therapy , Skin Neoplasms , Melanoma/prevention & control , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(6): 748-750, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142128


Abstract Polypoid melanoma is a variant of nodular melanoma, whose poor prognosis depends on its thickness and the presence of ulceration at the time of diagnosis. The authors report two cases of polypoid melanoma, presenting as broad, cauliflower-like, polypoid masses. Dermoscopy was characterized by a multicolored pattern, atypical polymorphic vessels, and the fiber sign. Clinical and dermoscopic features can help to diagnose polypoid melanoma and exclude other possible differential diagnoses. However, histology remains mandatory to confirm the diagnostic suspicion.

Humans , Skin Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Skin , Dermoscopy , Diagnosis, Differential
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1088702


El melanoma anal (MA) es un tumor infrecuente, caracterizado por presentar un comportamiento agresivo y mal pronóstico(1). La sintomatología inespecífica con la cual se presenta y su similitud con etiologías benignas anorrectales, dificulta el diagnóstico y puede conducir a un retraso en el mismo(2)(3). Por lo tanto, es necesaria una exploración física minuciosa y un elevado índice de sospecha. Se discute el caso de una paciente que consultó por tumoración anal dolorosa, no pigmentada y rectorragia; a la que se le realiza diagnóstico de melanoma anal.

Anal melanoma (MA) is an infrequent tumor, characterized by aggressive behavior and poor prognosis(1). The nonspecific symptomatology and its similarity with benign anorectal etiologies, makes the diagnosis difficult and leads to a delay in it(2)(3).Therefore, a thorough physical examination and a high index of suspicion are necessary. The case of a patient who consulted for a non-pigmented and painful anal mass with rectal bleeding is discussed; which is diagnosed with anal melanoma.

O melanoma anal (MA) é um tumor infrequente, caracterizado por apresentar um comportamento agressivo e ter um mauprognóstico(1). A sintomatologia inespecífica da sua apresentação e a sua similaridade com etiologias benignas anorretais dificultam o diagnóstico e pode levar a um atraso do mesmo(2)(3). Por tanto é necessário uma exploração física minuciosa e um indice de suspeita elevado. Discute-se o um caso de uma paciente que consultou por uma tumoração anal, dolorosa, não pigmentada e retorragia, a qual se realizou o diagnostico de melanoma anal.

Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Anus Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Anus Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Melanoma/diagnosis , Melanoma/radiotherapy , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Pain/etiology , Pruritus Ani/etiology , Colonoscopy , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(2): 230-234, jun. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002310


ABSTRACT: Oral melanoma (OM) is an extremely rare and aggressive malignancy. A 67-year-old patient presented with complains of a slightly symptomatic spot in the mouth since the past 2 years. Extraoral examination revealed left cervical lymphadenopathy, and intraoral examination a blue-black multinodular sessile mass, with irregular margins, involving the attached gingiva of teeth 27 and 28, extending to vestibular sulcus and hard palate, measuring approximately 3.5 cm. The lesion presented focal areas of ulceration. Panoramic radiograph did not show bone involvement. The main diagnostic hypothesis was oral melanoma. Microscopic findings of the incisional biopsy revealed a proliferation of densely pigmented pleomorphic cells, invading the subepithelial connective tissue in sheets or nests showing an organoid pattern. Immunopositivity for S-100, Melan-A and HMB-45 confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma. The patient was referred to an oncology hospital in which multiple metastases were detected, and the patient was subjected to palliative care. Herein we report an OM in advanced clinical stage, and discuss the clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical diagnostic criteria with emphasis on the importance of early diagnosis.

RESUMEN: El melanoma oral (MO) es una malignidad extremadamente rara y agresiva. Un paciente de 67 años acudió a consulta con la queja de una mancha intraoral ligeramente sintomática, presente desde hace dos años. Al examen clínico extraoral, se encontró adenopatía cervical del lado izquierdo, y al examen intraoral, se observó una masa sésil multinodular de color negro azulado, focalmente ulcerada, con bordes irregulares, afectando la encía de los dientes 27 y 28, extendiéndose hasta el surco vestibular y el paladar duro, midiendo aproximadamente 3,5 cm. La radiografía panorámica no mostró involucramiento óseo. La principal hipótesis diagnóstica fue MO. Los hallazgos microscópicos de la biopsia incisional revelaron una proliferación de células pleomórficas densamente pigmentadas, invadiendo difusamente el tejido conectivo en forma de sábanas o nidos con patrón organoide. La positividad inmunohistoquímica para S-100, Melan-A y HMB-45 confirmó el diagnóstico de melanoma. El paciente fue referido a un hospital oncológico, en el cual se le detectaron múltiples metástasis y fue sometido a cuidados paliativos. Este es el reporte de un caso de MO diagnosticado en estado avanzado, en el que se discuten los criterios clínicos, morfológicos e inmunohistoquímicos para su diagnóstico, haciendo énfasis en la importancia del diagnóstico temprano.

Humans , Aged , Gingival Neoplasms/diagnosis , Melanoma/diagnosis , Prognosis , Gingival Neoplasms/etiology , Gingival Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Delayed Diagnosis , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Microscopy
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(6): 899-901, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973631


Abstract: Dermoscopic examination allows visualization of horizontal images on the skin, showing well-defined patterns. The authors propose ex vivo dermoscopic visualization using a vertical view of skin sections. The new image clearly distinguishes the stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis as well as the anatomical location of the pigment. Will this new approach be useful in dermoscopic diagnosis? Further studies are needed.

Humans , Male , Skin Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Dermoscopy/methods , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Nevus, Pigmented/diagnostic imaging , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy , Reproducibility of Results , Diagnosis, Differential , Melanoma/pathology , Nevus, Pigmented/pathology
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(6): 517-519, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973860


ABSTRACT Uveal melanoma is the most common adult primary intraocular cancer. Although liver metastasis is common to the natural history of the disease, metastasis to the fellow eye is extremely rare. Here we report the case of a 59-year-old man with choroidal melanoma in his right eye who underwent enucleation at a different center. The patient was referred to our service 21 months postoperatively, complaining of decreased vision. He was found to have a new pigmented choroidal tumor in his left eye associated with liver disease. Ocular ultrasonography and liver biopsy with histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis were performed and confirmed the diagnosis. Few similar cases have been described in the literature. The differential diagnosis included primary bilateral choroidal melanoma and metastatic choroidal tumor from a primary skin melanoma.

RESUMO O melanoma uveal é o câncer intraocular primário mais frequente em adultos. Embora a metástase hepática seja comum à história natural da doença, a metástase para o outro olho é extremamente rara. Aqui relatamos o caso de um homem de 59 anos com melanoma de coroide em seu olho direito que foi submetido à enucleação em um centro diferente. O paciente foi encaminhado ao nosso serviço 21 meses após a cirurgia, com queixa de diminuição da visão. Foi encontrado um novo tumor de coróide pigmentado em seu olho esquerdo associado com doença hepática. Ultrassonografia ocular e biópsia hepática com exame histopatológico e imuno-histoquímico foram realizadas e confirmaram o diagnóstico. Poucos casos semelhantes foram descritos na literatura. O diagnóstico diferencial incluiu melanoma de coróide bilateral orimário e tumor coroidal metastático de um melanoma primário da pele.

Humans , Middle Aged , Uveal Neoplasms/secondary , Choroid Neoplasms/pathology , Melanoma/pathology , Uveal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Choroid Neoplasms/surgery , Ultrasonography , Fatal Outcome , Rare Diseases/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Liver/pathology , Melanoma/surgery , Melanoma/secondary , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 38(3): 105-109, sept. 2018. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022809


La dermatoscopia digital es una herramienta que permite el diagnóstico de melanomas en estadios tempranos, por medio del seguimiento de las lesiones pigmentarias a largo plazo. Se comunican tres casos de pacientes con alto riesgo de melanoma, en los cuales ‒a través del seguimiento con dermatoscopia digital‒ se realizó el diagnóstico de la enfermedad mediante la detección de cambios morfológicos, arquitecturales y de pigmentación de las lesiones estudiadas. (AU)

Digital dermoscopy is a tool that allows the early diagnosis of melanomas, through the long-term follow up of pigmentary skin lesions. We report three cases of patients with high-risk of melanoma, in which the diagnosis had been made by morphological, arquitectural and pigmentary changes observed by the digital dermoscopy follow-up. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Dermoscopy/trends , Melanoma/diagnosis , Nevus, Pigmented/pathology , Risk Factors , Dermoscopy/instrumentation , Dermoscopy/methods , Melanoma/prevention & control , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Nevus, Pigmented/surgery , Nevus, Pigmented/etiology , Nevus, Pigmented/physiopathology
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(4): 565-567, July-Aug. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887002


Abstract: Lentigo maligna has an extensive and neoplastic character. It typically progresses slowly and may eventually develop into an invasive melanoma, which is called lentigo maligna melanoma. Ocular melanoma is the second most common type of melanoma. The uvea is the most common site of origin of ocular melanomas, while conjunctival melanoma accounts for about 1-5% of cases. In this article, we describe a rare case of synchronic conjunctival melanoma and lentigo maligna on the face.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle/pathology , Conjunctiva/pathology , Conjunctival Neoplasms/pathology , Melanoma/pathology , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle/diagnostic imaging , Conjunctiva/diagnostic imaging , Conjunctival Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Dermoscopy , Face , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/diagnostic imaging
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(3): 225-227, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897916


Abstract Melanoma is a tumor that virtually involves any tissue and commonly metastasizes to the heart. It is usually not diagnosed because of the absent/nonspecific cardiac signs and symptoms. Herein, we present a case of a 41-year-old man without any cardiovascular risk factor, admitted to the emergency room with chest pain, diagnosed with a myocardial infarction. Due to the presence of a mass adjacent to the mitral valve on the cardiac ultrasound examination, causing mitral regurgitation, the patient was referred to surgery. Pathological analysis of the excised specimens diagnosed the melanoma. The chemotherapy was started and achieved a partial response. Cardiac metastases usually affect the myocardium, leaving the valves unaffected. In this case, the acute coronary syndrome was the first manifestation of the malignant melanoma. We highlight the high level of suspicion needed in these cases.

Humans , Male , Adult , Acute Coronary Syndrome/pathology , Heart Neoplasms/pathology , Heart Neoplasms/secondary , Melanoma/pathology , Melanoma/secondary , Immunohistochemistry , Echocardiography , Treatment Outcome , Diagnosis, Differential , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Heart Neoplasms/surgery , Heart Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Melanoma/surgery , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Mitral Valve/surgery , Mitral Valve/pathology
Rev. méd. (La Paz) ; 23(2): 40-44, 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902431


El Melanoma Maligno es una de las neoplasias más agresivas, siendo responsable del 90% de las muertes por cáncer de piel; Su incidencia fue incrementándose durante las últimas décadas a nivel mundial. La progresión de la enfermedad puede presentarse en forma de recurrencia local, por diseminación linfática hacia los ganglios regionales, o por metástasis hematógena a sitios distantes: piel, órganos y hueso entre otros. Las metástasis regionales y a distancia, se presentan aproximadamente en 10% de los pacientes con melanoma, al momento del diagnóstico, conllevando peor pronóstico. La supervivencia a 5 y 10 años en pacientes con metástasis a distancia es de 12%-15% y 8%, respectivamente. Se presenta el caso de un paciente que rechaza tratamiento inicial de ablación de lesión primaria, presentándose múltiples metástasis y desenlace fatal.

The malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive neoplasias, being responsible for 90% of the deaths due to skin cancer; its incidence was increasing during the last decades worldwide. The progression of the disease can occur in the form of local recurrence, by lymphatic dissemination to the regional ganglia, or by hematogenous metastasis to distant sites: skin, organs and bone among others. Regional and distant metastasis occurs in approximately 10% of patients with melanoma at the time of diagnosis, leading to a worse prognosis. The 5-year and 10-year survival in patients with distant metastasis is 12% - 15% and 8%, respectively. The case of a patient who refuses initial treatment of primary lesion is presented, presenting multiple metastasis and fatal outcome.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Melanoma/classification , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Melanoma/diagnosis , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnostic imaging
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(5,supl.1): 95-97, Sept.-Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837934


Abstract We present a case of a 71-year-old man with an advanced melanoma of the right colon. The final diagnosis was determined based on histopathological examination of the material collected during urgent laparotomy performed due to ileus. Although we considered the tumor to be a disseminated primary melanoma of the colon, the possibility of unknown primary origin could not be excluded. Palliative chemotherapy and radiotherapy reduced symptoms associated with the disease and prolonged patient's survival.

Humans , Male , Aged , Colonic Neoplasms/complications , Intestinal Obstruction/etiology , Melanoma/complications , Palliative Care , Skin Neoplasms/secondary , Skin Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Brain Neoplasms/secondary , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Intestinal Obstruction/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Melanoma/pathology , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159347


Oral cancer is a major global health problem. It is ranked as the third most common cancer in India. More than 95% of oral cavity carcinomas are of squamous cell type. Melanoma is a major health problem and originates from the malignant transformation of melanocytes. Primary mucosal melanomas of the head and neck occur less frequently than their cutaneous counterparts. Among those, oral mucosal melanoma is extremely infrequent with an incidence of 0.5% of oral neoplasms. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa, however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic melanomas. Th ese are extremely rare variants and the most frequent sites in the oral cavity are the hard palate and the gingiva. Lesions that are suspected to be melanomas should be assessed both histologically and by immunohistochemistry, which are helpful in the diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma. Th ey have a poorer prognosis than the pigmented melanomas because of the delay in diagnosis and in the initiation of treatment. Th is presentation is a rare case report of oral mucosal amelanotic melanoma.

Female , Humans , Melanoma/diagnosis , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Melanoma/surgery , Melanoma, Amelanotic/diagnosis , Melanoma, Amelanotic/diagnostic imaging , /surgery , Mouth Mucosa/pathology
Rev. AMRIGS ; 52(1): 49-51, jan.-mar. 2008. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-859700


A metástase do melanoma maligno do intestino delgado é incomum. As manifestações clínicas são inespecíficas, e o quadro de abdome agudo obstrutivo pode ser a primeira manifestação. Apresenta-se um caso de intussuscepção intestinal devido a um melanoma metastático de sítio primário não detectado. São discutidos sua etiologia, seu diagnóstico e seu tratamento (AU)

Malignant melanoma metastasis to the small bowel is uncommon. Its clinical presentation is inespecific and an obstructive acute abdomen syndrome could be its first manifestation. A case of intestinal intussusception due to a metastatic melanoma with no primary site detected is described. Etiology, diagnosis and treatment are discussed (AU)

Humans , Female , Adult , Neoplasms, Unknown Primary , Intestinal Neoplasms/secondary , Intestine, Small/pathology , Intussusception , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Melanoma/surgery