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1.
Med. lab ; 27(1): 25-32, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412746

ABSTRACT

Las lesiones metastásicas representan hasta un 3 % de los tumores malignos de la glándula tiroides. La mayoría de los casos se originan de tumores de células renales y de pulmón. El abordaje diagnóstico implica una alta sospecha clínica en pacientes con primarios conocidos, sin embargo, puede ser la manifestación inicial de una enfermedad maligna extensa no diagnosticada hasta en un 20 % a 40 % de los pacientes. La biopsia por aguja fina ha demostrado buen rendimiento para el diagnóstico de los nódulos metastásicos. El pronóstico y la opción del tratamiento quirúrgico dependen del control local del primario y del estado de la enfermedad sistémica asociada, por lo tanto, debe ser individualizado. Por lo general, hasta un 80 % de los pacientes con compromiso de la tiroides tienen enfermedad metastásica multiorgánica, y la intención del tratamiento quirúrgico es con fines paliativos para prevenir las complicaciones derivadas de la extensión local de la enfermedad a las estructuras del tracto aerodigestivo superior en el cuello. Se presenta a continuación, una serie de seis casos de pacientes con lesiones metastásicas a glándula tiroides con primarios en riñón, mama y de melanomas


Metastatic lesions represent up to 3% of malignant tumors of the thyroid gland. Most cases originate from lung and renal cell tumors. The diagnostic approach implies a high clinical suspicion in patients with known primaries, however, it can be the initial manifestation of an extensive undiagnosed malignant disease in up to 20% to 40% of patients. Fine-needle biopsy has shown good performance for the diagnosis of metastatic nodules. The prognosis and the option of surgical treatment depend on the local control of the primary condition and the state of the associated systemic disease, therefore it must be individualized. In general, up to 80% of patients with thyroid involvement have multi-organ metastatic disease and surgical treatment is intended to be palliative to prevent complications resulting from local extension of the disease to structures of the upper aerodigestive tract in the neck. A case series of six patients with metastatic lesions to the thyroid gland with primaries in the kidney, breast and melanomas is presented below


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/secondary , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Facial Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology , Upper Extremity/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Melanoma/pathology
2.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 441-445, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447632

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Morphine is an analgesic agent used for cancer pain management. There have been recent concerns that the immunosuppressant properties of morphine can also promote cancer metastasis. Morphine is an agonist for toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) that has a dual role in cancer development. The promotor or inhibitor role of morphine in cancer progression remains controversial. We investigated the effects of morphine on migration and metastasis of melanoma cells through TLR4 activation. Methods Mouse melanoma cells (B16F10) were treated with only morphine (0, 0.1, 1, and 10 μM) or in combination with a TLR4 inhibitor (morphine10 μM +CLI-095 1μM) for either 12 or 24 hours. Migration of cells was analyzed by transwell migration assays. Twenty C57BL/6 male mice were inoculated with B16F10 cells via the left ventricle of the heart and then randomly divided into two groups (n = 10 each) that received either morphine (10 mg.kg−1, sub-q) or PBS injection for 21 days (control group). Animals were euthanized and their lungs removed for evaluation of metastatic nodules. Results Morphine (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) increased cell migration after 12 hours (p < 0.001) and after 24 hours of treatment with morphine (10 μM) (p < 0.001). Treatment with CLI-095 suppressed migration compared to cells treated with morphine alone (p < 0.001). Metastatic nodules in the morphine-treated group (64 nodules) were significantly higher than in the control group (40 nodules) (p < 0.05). Conclusion Morphine increases the migration and metastasis of mouse melanoma cells by activating TLR4.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Melanoma/pathology , Morphinum/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 4
3.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(12): 1585-1595, dic. 2022. ilus, tab, graf, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most fatal cutaneous neoplasm. Its incidence is increasing progressively, which cannot be explained only by early diagnosis. Chilean population, due to the geography of the country, has a very varied solar exposure. AIM: To know the incidence of MM in a Chilean population, according to the level of sun exposure and to describe its clinical and histopathological characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred seventy-four surgeries for malignant melanoma with histological confirmation, carried out between 2016 and 2018 in an oncological institute were included. RESULTS: The annualized incidence of MM was 13.83 cases per 100,000 people over 15 years of age in the 2016-2018 period. The geographical distribution of the incidence did not have a clear relationship with sun exposure. The most frequent locations of the primary lesions were trunk, head/neck and lower limb. Sixty-one per cent of cases were invasive MM; lesion thickness and presence of ulceration were associated with a higher risk of sentinel node involvement. CONCLUSIONS: No association between the level of sun exposure and the incidence of MM was observed in this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Melanoma/pathology , Melanoma/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Incidence , Age and Sex Distribution , Sentinel Lymph Node
5.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 56 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396952

ABSTRACT

O câncer de pele pode ser classificado como não melanoma e melanoma. O melanoma apresenta baixa incidência entre os cânceres de pele, porém é a forma mais letal e é considerado um dos tipos mais resistentes ao tratamento. Devido à infiltração de células malignas nos tecidos, vasos linfáticos e vasos sanguíneos, o melanoma invade e se espalha rapidamente. Suas metástases são frequentemente localizadas em linfonodos, cérebro, fígado e outros órgãos. Melanomas metastáticos abrigam múltiplas mutações gênicas e muitos tumores apresentam resistência aos tratamentos, como por exemplo com inibidores BRAF, devido à mutações e ativação de vias paralelas. Ou seja, existe uma necessidade clara da busca de novas opções de tratamento. Em trabalho realizado por nosso grupo, Massaro et al mostraram que o derivado de estradiol 2- Metoxiestradiol induz apoptose em células de melanoma e senescência. Neste sentido, o composto STX140, (um análogo do estradiol com biodisponibilidade superior), que já se mostrou eficaz no combate ao câncer de mama em diversos estudos in vitro e in vivo, será então avaliado para sua ação no melanoma de forma inédita. Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo explorar a ação antitumoral em células de melanoma do composto STX140, especialmente a indução de senescência. Utilizando a cultura de células de melanoma foram realizados os ensaios de: viabilidade celular - IC50, formação de colônias, análise do ciclo celular e caracterização de morte celular por citometria de fluxo, ensaio In vitro scratch, coloração para ß-galactosidase, PCR quantitativo e ELISA. Os resultados mostraram que o composto STX140: diminui a viabilidade celular, inibe a proliferação, formação de colônias e migração em linhagens de melanoma (não resistentes e resistentes ao vemurafenibe, inibidor de BRAF). Além do mais, o composto atuou diminuindo a secreção da interleucina pró-tumoral IL-8 em células resistentes. O STX140 induziu senescência nas células de melanoma que foram positivas para ß-galactosidase, também havendo aumento da expressão de genes chave de vias de senescência (CDKN1A e GADD45A) nas células de melanoma resistentes tratadas com o composto. Em conclusão, o STX140 mostrou ter um potencial antitumoral contra o melanoma, diminuindo sua viabilidade celular, inibindo sua proliferação e migração, induzindo senescência, diminuindo a secreção de interleucina pró- tumoral, com efeito mais acentuado nas linhagens de melanoma resistente


Skin cancer can be classified as non-melanoma and melanoma. Melanoma has a low incidence among skin cancers, but it is the most lethal form and is considered one of the most resistant to treatment. Due to the infiltration of malignant cells into tissues, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels, melanoma invades and spreads rapidly. Its metastases are often located in lymph nodes, brain, liver and other organs. Metastatic melanomas presents multiple gene mutations and many tumors are resistant to treatments, such as with BRAF inhibitors, due to mutations and activation of parallel pathways. In other words, there is a clear need to search for new treatment options. In work carried out by our group, Massaro et al showed that the estradiol derivative 2- Methoxyestradiol induces apoptosis in melanoma cells and senescence. In this sense, the compound STX140, (an estradiol analogue with superior bioavailability), which has already been shown to be effective against breast cancer in vitro and in vivo studies will be then evaluated for its action on melanoma. The main objective of this work is to explore the antitumor action of the compound STX140 in melanoma cells, especially the induction of senescence. Using the melanoma cell culture the following assays were performed: cell viability - IC50, clonogenic, cell cycle analysis and cell death characterization by flow cytometry, wound assay, staining for ß-galactosidase, quantitative PCR and ELISA. Preliminary data from this work showed that the compound STX140: decreases cell viability, inhibits proliferation, colony formation and migration in melanoma cell lines (non-resistant and resistant to vemurafenib, BRAF inhibitor). It also decreased the secretion of pro-tumor interleukin IL-8 in resistant cells. STX140 induced senescence in melanoma cells, that were positive for ß-galactosidase, and there was also increased expression of key genes of senescence pathways (CDKN1A and GADD45A) in resistant melanoma cells treated with the compound. In conclusion, STX140 has been shown to have antitumor potential against melanoma, decreasing its cell viability, inhibiting its proliferation and migration, inducing senescence, decreasing pro-tumor interleukin secretion, with a more pronounced effect on resistant melanoma cell lines


Subject(s)
Estradiol/analogs & derivatives , Melanoma/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Aging/metabolism , Interleukin-8/adverse effects , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Flow Cytometry/instrumentation , Neoplasm Metastasis
6.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 354-359, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935220

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the ultrasonographic features and clinical pathological of liver metastasis in patients with melanoma. Methods: Thirteen patients with liver metastasis from melanoma treated in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from 2013 to 2019 were selected, and their ultrasonographic and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Eleven of the 13 patients had multiple liver lesions. The maximum diameter of the lesions was (5.89±2.73) cm. Five cases of lesions were mixed echo (3 cases with high melanin content), 4 cases of lesions were hyperechoic (3 cases with low melanin content), 3 cases of lesions were hypoechoic (all with high melanin content), 1 case of lesions were equal echo (with high melanin content). The lesions in 11 patients had clear boundaries, while other 2 patients lacked the clear borders. Cystic areas were present in the lesions of 3 patients. Six cases had irregular lesions (lobulated), and 7 cases had regular lesions (round, oval). There were acoustic halos around the lesion in 9 cases and smooth and uneven acoustic halos in 5 cases. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that 11 cases were positive for S-100, HMB45 and Melan-A. One patient was not tested for HMB45, while S-100 and Melan-A were positive. One patient did not undergo Melan-A test, while S-100 and HMB45 were positive. Conclusion: Most of the liver metastases of melanoma are mixed echo or hyperechoic, most of them are nodular with clear boundaries combined with vocal halo, and a few of the lesions have cystic areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Neoplasms/secondary , MART-1 Antigen , Melanins , Melanoma/pathology , Retrospective Studies
7.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 157 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380998

ABSTRACT

Melanoma accounts for 3% of skin neoplasms and is the leading cause of death from skin disorders worldwide. The high mortality rate associated with this disease stems from the high capacity of melanoma patients to develop metastases and treatment relapse with inhibitors of the MAPK signaling pathway (such as BRAF inhibitors), commonly used in melanoma therapy. Thus, the investigation of genes involved in the mechanisms of melanoma development is essential for new and more effective therapeutic strategies. Hence, we describe in this thesis two projects involving the genes SIN3B and IRF4 as possible biomarkers for cutaneous melanoma. Initially, through bioinformatics analyses performed by our group, an upregulation of SIN3B was found in metastatic melanomas. This result together with the understanding of SIN3B role in regulating gene expression and oncogenic transformation, prompted us to describe in this thesis some mechanisms by which SIN3B may influence melanoma development. We then sought to characterize the gene function using SIN3B-deleted cells, generated by the CRISPR-Cas9 methodology. Initially, we observed increased SIN3B expression in BRAF-mutant metastatic melanomas, where we noted that the long splicing variant of the gene (NM_001297595.1) was effectively prevalent in melanomas. Subsequently, we designed gRNAs between the exons 2 and 3 of the human SIN3B gene and engineered three knockout clones and three control clones (containing empty lentiCRISPRv2 plasmid) from different melanoma cell lines (SKMEL28, A2058, and A375). Through functional analyses, it was observed that the absence of the gene did not interfere in the proliferation of tumor cells; however, it led to a decrease in invasive properties. These results were verified by Boyden chamber assays and transcriptome analysis (total RNA sequencing of deleted cells), where a decrease in migration and motility pathways was observed. Additionally, a screening of synthetically lethal genes with SIN3B was performed with a genome wide CRISPR library. These results showed that USP7 and STK11 genes, which belong to the FoxO signaling pathway, were essential in SIN3B-depleted melanoma cells. Finally, through a collaborative project with the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, previous large-scale sequencing analyses demonstrated that deletion of the IRF4 gene was lethal for melanoma cells. Accordingly, we performed IRF4 silencing in vitro and noticed that the lack of IRF4 promotes cell death and apoptosis, independently of MYC and MITF, known in the literature to be downstream targets of this gene. Therefore, these data suggest that IRF4 plays a vital role in melanoma cell survival. Taken together, both works herein described in this thesis demonstrate how CRISPR-Cas9 can be applied to study the functions and mechanisms of genes involved in melanoma progression, collectively helping in the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for this tumor


O melanoma representa 3% dos tipos de neoplasias cutâneas e é a maior causa das mortes por distúrbios de pele no mundo. A alta taxa de mortalidade associada à essa doença advém da alta capacidade de pacientes com melanoma desenvolverem metástases, e apresentarem recidiva após tratamento com inibidores da via de sinalização MAPK (como da proteína BRAF), comumente utilizados no tratamento de pacientes metastáticos. Assim, a investigação de genes envolvidos nos mecanismos de desenvolvimento do melanoma é primordial para novas estratégias terapêuticas mais efetivas. Dessa forma, descrevemos no presente trabalho dois projetos envolvendo os genes SIN3B e IRF4 como possíveis biomarcadores para melanoma cutâneo. Em análises prévias de bioinformática realizados pelo nosso grupo, SIN3B foi identificado tendo maior expressão em melanomas metastáticos. Além disso, diversos estudos mostraram que o gene está envolvido na regulação da expressão gênica e transformação oncogênica. Dessa forma, descrevemos nessa tese alguns mecanismos pelos quais SIN3B pode influenciar no desenvolvimento do melanoma, através da caracterização funcional de células SIN3B-deletadas pela metodologia CRISPR-Cas9. Inicialmente, observamos aumento na expressão de SIN3B em melanomas metastáticos BRAF-mutados, onde notamos que a variante de splicing longa do gene (NM_001297595.1), era efetivamente prevalente em melanomas. Assim, desenhamos sequências de RNA guias entre os éxons 2 e 3 do gene SIN3B humano e, obtivemos três clones knockout e outros três clones controle (contendo plasmídeo vazio) em diferentes linhagens de melanoma (SKMEL28, A2058 e A375), para caracterização funcional. Observou-se que a ausência do gene não interferiu na proliferação das células tumorais, contudo, acarretou na diminuição de processos invasivos. Esses resultados foram averiguados através de ensaios em câmara de Boyden e análises de transcriptoma (sequenciamento de RNA total das células deletadas), onde notou-se diminuição das vias de migração e motilidade. Adicionalmente, um rastreamento de genes sinteticamente letais com SIN3B foi realizado com uma biblioteca de CRISPR capaz de silenciar todo o genoma. Esses resultados mostraram que os genes USP7 e STK11, ambos pertencentes à via de sinalização de FoxO, são essenciais nas células SIN3B deletadas. Por fim, através de um projeto colaborativo com o Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, análises prévias de sequenciamento de larga escala demonstraram que a deleção do gene IRF4 era letal para células de melanoma. Dessa forma, realizamos o silenciamento de IRF4 in vitro e notamos que a ausência do gene promove morte celular e apoptose, independentemente de MYC e MITF, conhecidos na literatura por serem alvos downstream do gene. Portanto, esses dados sugerem que IRF4 tem um papel importante na sobrevivência de células de melanoma. Em conjunto, ambos trabalhos descritos nessa tese, demonstram como a metodologia CRISPR-Cas9 pode auxiliar no entendimento de processos importantes para a malignidade do melanoma e contribuir para estratégias terapêuticas mais efetivas para esse tumor


Subject(s)
Skin Neoplasms/complications , Methodology as a Subject , Melanoma/pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms , Patients/classification , Skin , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Biomarkers/analysis , Gene Expression , Cell Survival , Sequence Analysis, RNA/instrumentation , Computational Biology/methods , Absenteeism , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats
8.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 59(4): 375-378, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388408

ABSTRACT

Resumen La carcinomatosis meníngea es una entidad poco frecuente, que puede formar parte de la historia natural de muchos procesos neoplásicos. Se presenta habitualmente con síntomas poco específicos, como cefalea, cambios en la conducta o alteraciones motoras y sensitivas. A continuación, presentamos el caso de una paciente con carcinomatosis meníngea por melanoma metastásico y su evolución clínica.


La carcinomatosis meníngea es una entidad poco frecuente, que puede formar parte de la historia natural de muchos procesos neoplásicos. Se presenta habitualmente con síntomas poco específicos, como cefalea, cambios en la conducta o alteraciones motoras y sensitivas. A continuación, presentamos el caso de una paciente con carcinomatosis meníngea por melanoma metastásico y su evolución clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Meningeal Carcinomatosis/secondary , Melanoma/pathology , Fatal Outcome
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(5): 1509-1515, oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385480

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Immunohistochemistry allows in situ detection of cell and extracellular components through specific antibodies. The objective was to compare the immunohistochemical expression patterns of the S-100, HMB-45 and MART-1 proteins for differential diagnosis of malignant melanoma and melanocytic nevus in human skin biopsies. Thirty-nine biopsies of human tissue were used. They were divided into two groups: 19 in malignant melanoma and 20 in melanocytic nevi. Next, the samples were fixed with paraformaldehyde and processed following the protocol for inclusion. Then, immunohistochemical staining was performed. Finally, the histological and qualitative analysis of the samples was carried out. S-100, HMB-45, and MART-1 markers showed positive immunoreaction in melanoma biopsies. HMB-45 marker was generally present with weaker expression than S-100 and MART-1 in melanocytic nevus biopsies. No expression pattern was observed which specifically associates one or more markers with some types of histopathological diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry is fundamental in differential diagnosis of melanomas and melanocytic nevi. However, there is no antibody or set of antibodies which allows unequivocal diagnosis between melanoma and nevus. It is therefore necessary to analyze with care the expression pattern and location of the lesion using standard morphological characteristics.


RESUMEN: La inmunohistoquímica permite la detección in situ de componentes celulares y extracelulares a través de anticuerpos específicos. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue comparar los patrones de expresión inmunohistoquímica de las proteínas S-100, HMB-45 y MART-1 para el diagnóstico diferencial de melanoma maligno y nevo melanocítico en biopsias de piel humana. Se utilizaron treinta y nueve biopsias de tejido humano, las que fueron divididas en dos grupos: 19 en melanoma maligno y 20 en nevos melanocíticos. A continuación, las muestras se fijaron con paraformaldehído y se procesaron siguiendo el protocolo convencional para su inclusión. Luego, se realizó la tinción inmunohistoquímica. Finalmente, se realizó el análisis histológico y cualitativo de las muestras. Los marcadores S-100, HMB- 45 y MART-1 mostraron inmunorreacción positiva en biopsias de melanoma. El marcador HMB-45 estuvo generalmente presente con una expresión más débil que S-100 y MART-1 en biopsias de nevo melanocítico. No se observó ningún patrón de expresión que asocie específicamente uno o más marcadores con algunos tipos de diagnóstico histopatológico. La inmunohistoquímica es fundamental en el diagnóstico diferencial de melanomas y nevos melanocíticos. Sin embargo, no existe ningún anticuerpo o panel de anticuerpos que permita un diagnóstico inequívoco entre el melanoma y el nevo. Por tanto, es necesario analizar con cuidado el patrón de expresión y la localización de la lesión utilizando características morfológicas estándar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Melanoma/diagnosis , Nevus/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , S100 Proteins , Biomarkers, Tumor , Diagnosis, Differential , MART-1 Antigen , Melanoma/pathology , Antigen-Antibody Complex , Antigens, Neoplasm , Nevus/pathology
10.
Dermatol. argent ; 27(3): 86-96, jul.- sep. 2021. il, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1370948

ABSTRACT

La biopsia selectiva del ganglio centinela (BSGC) se ha desarrollado de tal manera que reemplazó a la linfadenectomía electiva en el tratamiento del melanoma cutáneo (MC). Numerosos estudios demostraron que el estado del ganglio centinela es un factor pronóstico independiente en relación con la supervivencia global y la supervivencia libre de enfermedad de los pacientes con melanoma. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue realizar una revisión bibliográfica para comprender la utilidad y las indicaciones de la BSGC en pacientes con MC a partir de la evidencia actual publicada.


Sentinel lymph biopsy (SLNB) has been developed in such a way that is has replaced elective lymphadenectomy in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma (CM). Numerous studies have shwn that sentinel node status is an independent prognostic factor in relation to overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with CM. The purpose of this article is to carry out a literature review to understand the usefulness and indications of SLNB in patients with CM based on the current evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skin Neoplasms , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods , Sentinel Lymph Node/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Melanoma/pathology
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 827-833, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285282

ABSTRACT

This report describes clinical, ultrasonographic and anatomopathological findings in a case of metastatic melanoma in an adult Saanen goat. Clinically, the goat had apathy, an intra-abdominal palpable firm structure, and exophytic keratinized areas on the skin of the udder. Ultrasound revealed non-encapsulated oval structures, with heterogeneous echogenicity and marked central and peripheral vascularization, and hypoechoic hepatic multifocal to coalescent areas. In the udder, there were non-encapsulated oval structures with heterogeneous echogenicity and hyperechoic center surrounded by hypoechogenic tissue. Grossly, there were black multifocal to coalescent areas in the liver, as well as black nodules in mammary and mesenteric lymph nodes, uterus, spleen, and myocardium. Microscopically, multifocal melanocytic neoplastic proliferation was observed in the dermis and junction of the udder epidermis. Most of the neoplastic cells had cytoplasmic granules of melanin. In the liver there were areas of neoplastic tissue compressing the adjacent parenchyma, with central foci of necrosis, mild desmoplasia, and multifocal infiltration of malignant cells into the adjacent tissues. Similar findings were observed in the mammary and mesenteric lymph nodes, uterus, spleen, and myocardium, which characterized metastatic melanoma. Ultrasonography played a key role for establishing the diagnosis of a metastatic melanoma and helped establish a proper clinical management protocol.(AU)


Este relato descreve os achados clínicos, ultrassonográficos e anatomopatológicos em um caso de melanoma metastático em uma cabra Saanen adulta. Clinicamente, a cabra apresentava apatia, estrutura firme palpável intra-abdominal e áreas exofíticas queratinizadas na pele do úbere. A ultrassonografia revelou estruturas ovais não encapsuladas, com ecogenicidade heterogênea e marcada vascularização central e periférica, além de áreas hepáticas multifocais a coalescentes hipoecoicas. No úbere, havia estruturas ovais não encapsuladas, com ecogenicidade heterogênea e centro hiperecogênico circundado por tecido hipoecogênico. Macroscopicamente, havia áreas pretas multifocais a coalescentes no fígado, bem como nódulos pretos nos linfonodos mamários e mesentéricos, no útero, no baço e no miocárdio; microscopicamente, proliferação neoplásica melanocítica multifocal foi observada na derme e na junção da epiderme do úbere. A maioria das células neoplásicas apresentava grânulos citoplasmáticos de melanina. No fígado, havia áreas de tecido neoplásico comprimindo o parênquima adjacente, com focos centrais de necrose, desmoplasia leve e infiltração multifocal de células malignas nos tecidos adjacentes. Achados semelhantes foram observados nos nódulos linfáticos mamários e mesentéricos, no útero, no baço e no miocárdio, que caracterizaram o melanoma metastático. A ultrassonografia desempenhou um papel fundamental para estipular o diagnóstico de um melanoma metastático e ajudou a estabelecer um protocolo de manejo clínico adequado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Goats , Melanoma/pathology , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnostic imaging
12.
Dermatol. argent ; 27(2): 59-63, abr-jun 2021. il, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1366196

ABSTRACT

Los tumores de colisión consisten en neoplasias compuestas por dos poblaciones celulares distintas que mantienen una clara diferenciación de sus bordes y que se encuentran adyacentes una de otra en la misma muestra histopatológica. Esta asociación puede corresponder a dos tumores malignos, dos benignos o uno maligno y uno benigno. Son infrecuentes y, en ocasiones, representan un desafío clínico para la detección correcta de ambas neoplasias. Se presenan los casos de tres pacientes con tumores cutáneos de colisión, de estirpe melanocítica combinada con queratinocítica; en dos de ellos ambas neoplasias fueron malignas y en uno, se asociaron una lesión maligna y una benigna.


Collision tumors consist of neoplasms composed of two different cell populations that maintain a clear differentiation of their borders, and that are adjacent to each other in the same histopathological sample. This association can correspond to two malignant tumors, two benign, or one malignant and one benign. They are infrequent and, at times, represent a clinical challenge for the correct detection of both neoplasms. Three cases of cutaneous collision tumors of a melanocytic line combined with a keratinocytic line are presented, two of them in which both neoplasms were malignant and one that associated a malignant and a benign lesion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/diagnosis , Melanoma/diagnosis , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/pathology , Melanoma/surgery , Melanoma/pathology , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/surgery , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/pathology
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(2): 512-519, abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385339

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Inflammatory infiltrates are frequently present in melanocytic lesions, with different distribution and composition. Much attention has been devoted to tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in the tumor microenvironment, establishing their prognostic and predictive value in many malignancies, including melanoma. However, lymphocytes, albeit the most numerous and consistent presence, constitute only part of the immune microenvironment. Other inflammatory cells, including neutrophils, plasma cells, eosinophils and mast cells, are found in melanoma and other melanocytic lesions.Few studies offer a detailed count of these inflammatory infiltrates across the spectrum of melanocytic lesions. By using whole slide image analysis and open source software, in the present study we report the enumeration of different inflammatory infiltrates in benign melanocytic nevi, dysplastic nevi, melanoma in situ and invasive malignant melanomas. Significant higher numbers of plasma cells and neutrophils were observed in melanoma. These results indicate that composition of the inflammatory infiltrate may contribute to the diagnostic algorithm of melanocytic lesions.


RESUMEN: Los infiltrados inflamatorios están presentes con frecuencia en las lesiones melanocíticas, con diferente distribución y composición. Se ha prestado mucha atención a los linfocitos infiltrantes de tumores (TIL) en el microambiente tumoral, estableciendo su valor pronóstico y predictivo en muchas neoplasias malignas, incluido el melanoma. Sin embargo, los linfocitos de presencia más numerosa y constante, constituyen solo una parte del microambiente inmunológico. Otras células inflamatorias, incluidos neutrófilos, células plasmáticas, eosinófilos y mastocitos, se encuentran en el melanoma y otras lesiones melanocíticas. Pocos estudios ofrecen un recuento detallado de estos infiltrados inflamatorios en todo el espectro de lesiones melanocíticas. Mediante el uso de análisis de imágenes de diapositivas completas y software de código abierto, en el presente estudio informamos la enumeración de diferentes infiltrados inflamatorios en nevos melanocíticos benignos, nevos displásicos, melanoma in situ y melanomas malignos invasivos. Se observaron números significativamente más altos de células plasmáticas y neutrófilos en el melanoma. Estos resultados indican que la composición del infiltrado inflamatorio puede contribuir al algoritmo diagnóstico de las lesiones melanocíticas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin Neoplasms/immunology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Melanocytes/immunology , Melanocytes/pathology , Melanoma/immunology , Melanoma/pathology , Plasma Cells , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Inflammation , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology
14.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 215-219, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279104

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: Los estudios sobre factores pronóstico de melanoma están basados en poblaciones caucásicas, con predominio de melanomas delgados (Breslow < 3 mm). Los pacientes mexicanos muestran predominio de melanomas gruesos (Breslow ≥ 3 mm). Objetivo: Identificar factores asociados al pronóstico de pacientes con melanomas gruesos. Material y métodos: Se analizó la influencia pronóstica de factores clinicopatológicos en 362 melanomas gruesos. Resultados: La mediana de Breslow fue de 7 mm, 271 (74.9 %) pacientes tuvieron melanoma acral y 49 (13.5 %) melanoma nodular. El 56.6 % de los pacientes se encontró en etapa clínica [EC] III), 269 (74.3 %) tenía ulceración y 15 (4.1 %) márgenes positivos. Las variables asociadas con menor supervivencia global [SG] fueron la EC (p < 0.001), Breslow (p = 0.044), ulceración (p = 0.004), mitosis (p < 0.001) y margen < 2 cm (p < 0.001) . En el análisis multivariante los factores que influyen en SG fueron la EC, mitosis y el margen quirúrgico. Conclusiones: En pacientes con melanomas gruesos la SG es influida por un margen positive, mitosis y EC.


Abstract Background: Studies on prognostic factors in melanoma are based on Caucasian populations, with a predominance of thin melanomas (Breslow <3 mm). Mexican patients show a predominance of thick melanomas (Breslow ≥ 3 mm). Objective: To identify factors associated with the prognosis of patients with thick melanomas. Material and methods: The prognostic influence of clinicopathological factors was analyzed in 362 thick melanomas. Results: The Breslow median was 7 mm, 271 (74.9 %) patients had acral melanoma and 49 (13.5 %) nodular melanoma. The 56.6 % of patients were found in clinical stage [CS] III), 269 (74.3 %) had ulceration, and 15 (4.1 %) had positive margins. The variables associated with lower overall survival [OS] were CS (p < 0.001), Breslow (p = 0.044), ulceration (p = 0.004), mitosis (p < 0.001) and margin < 2 cm (p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the factors influencing OS were CD, mitosis, and the surgical margin. Conclusions: In patients with thick melanomas, OS is influenced by a positive margin, mitosis and CS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Burden , Melanoma/mortality , Melanoma/pathology , Prognosis , Ulcer/pathology , Margins of Excision , Lymphatic Metastasis , Melanoma/classification , Mexico , Mitosis
15.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021299, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285404

ABSTRACT

Primary malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare tumor in clinical practice. Extensive malignant melanomas are still very rare in the literature. Patients with malignant melanoma of oral cavity are often diagnosed at the advanced stage of the disease due to their painless and nonspecific radiological findings. Histopathology is the gold standard for the final diagnosis and staging of the tumor. Surgery followed by radiotherapy is the standard treatment offered to patients with malignant melanoma. Here we present a rare case of extensive malignant melanoma of oral cavity which was successfully managed by surgical excision followed by adjuvant radiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Melanoma/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Mouth Neoplasms/therapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(6): 691-695, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142133

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The mitotic index is no longer used to classify T1 melanoma patients into T1a and T1b, so it should not be used to indicate sentinel node biopsy in these patients. Objectives: To evaluate patients with T1 melanoma who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy and to compare those who were classified as T1a with those classified T1b, according to the 7th and 8th Edition of the melanoma staging system, regarding a positive biopsy result. The authors also aimed to assess whether there is any difference in the results in both staging systems. Material and methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 1213 patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma, from 2000 to 2015, in a single institution. Results: Of 399 patients with thin melanomas, 27 (6.7%) presented positive sentinel lymph nodes; there was no difference in positivity for sentinel node biopsy when comparing T1a vs. T1b in both staging systems. Furthermore, the clinical results were also similar between the two groups. However, in the complete cohort analysis, the mitotic index was associated with positivity for sentinel lymph node biopsy (p < 0.0001), positivity for non-sentinel lymph node (p < 0.0001), recurrence-free survival (p < 0.0001), and specific melanoma survival (p = 0.023). Study limitation: Unicentric study. Conclusion: The mitotic index was shown to be a very important prognostic factor in the present study, but it was not observed in patients classified as T1. The mitotic index should no longer be used as the only reason to refer sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with thin melanoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Melanoma/pathology , Prognosis , United States , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Lymphatic Metastasis , Mitotic Index , Neoplasm Staging
17.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(5): 464-467, oct. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138740

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivos: El melanoma cutáneo presenta un alto potencial metastásico y constituye la fuente extraabdominal más frecuente de lesión del intestino delgado. El diagnóstico de metástasis gastrointestinales es a menudo una expresión de enfermedad avanzada, con una supervivencia media de entre 6 y 9 meses. Materiales y Método: Presentamos el caso de un paciente varón de 63 años diagnosticado de melanoma cutáneo que acudió a urgencias por dolor abdominal y estreñimiento. Se realizó una TC abdominal donde se informó de la existencia de 2 lesiones metastásicas a nivel de intestino delgado que condicionaban oclusión intestinal. Resultados: El paciente fue intervenido quirúrgicamente bajo abordaje laparoscópico con resección de los dos segmentos intestinales afectos y anastomosis intracorpórea. El informe histopatológico confirmó que se trataban de metástasis de melanoma. Discusión: La oclusión intestinal por metástasis de melanoma maligno es muy infrecuente. La cirugía es el tratamiento de elección en pacientes con metástasis intestinales de melanoma. El tratamiento quirúrgico puede mejorar el pronóstico y estaría indicado casos de metástasis únicas o pacientes sintomáticos con intención paliativa. El abordaje mínimamente invasivo ofrece resultados oncológicos similares a la laparotomía.


Aim: Cutaneous melanoma has a high metastatic potential, being the most frequent extra-abdominal source of small bowel metastasis. The diagnosis of gastrointestinal metastases is often an expression of advanced disease, with an average survival of 6-9 months. Materials and Method: We herein present the case of a 63-year-old male patient diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma who arrived to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain and constipation. An abdominal CT scan was performed, it revealed two metastatic lesions in the small bowel which marked the mechanical obstruction. Results: Patient underwent a laparoscopy and both involved segments were removed. Pathology exam confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma metastases. Discussion: Surgery excision is the treatment of choice in patients with small bowel metastases from melanoma. Surgical management can improve the prognosis and it would be indicated in cases of single metastases or symptomatic patients with a palliative intention. Minimally invasive approach provides similar oncological results as conventional laparotomy. Small bowel obstruction due to metastases of malignant melanoma is extremely rare.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Melanoma/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Laparoscopy , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/secondary , Intestinal Obstruction/surgery , Melanoma/pathology
19.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 280-284, jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125080

ABSTRACT

El melanoma desmoplásico es una variedad infrecuente de melanoma que se distingue por su presentación clínico-patológica y su comportamiento biológico. El diagnóstico temprano es un desafío por su presentación clínica variable, con predominio del componente dérmico y la frecuente ausencia de pigmento. En la histología se lo divide en puro y mixto y esta clasificación tiene importantes implicancias pronósticas. El espesor de Breslow promedio al momento del diagnóstico es mayor que en otras variantes de melanoma, sin embargo, la tendencia a generar metástasis ganglionares es menor.


Desmoplastic melanoma is a rare presentation of melanoma with a different clinical behavior compared to other histological variants. Its diagnosis in early stages is a challenge due to its variable clinical presentation, with a predominant dermal component and the frequent absence of pigment. Its histology is divided into pure and mixed type, and this classification has important prognostic implications. The average Breslow thickness at diagnosis is higher than in other melanoma variants. However, the tendency to lymph node metastasis is low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Melanoma/diagnosis , Melanoma/pathology , Biopsy , Diagnosis, Differential
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(2): 158-164, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130841

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The incidence and mortality of melanoma is increasing in many countries, including Brazil. Survival studies are still scarce in our country, but much needed to know and address this problem better. Objective: To analyze the disease-specific survival of patients with invasive melanoma and to correlate it with clinical and histopathological variables. Methods: Retrospective cohort analysis of 565 cases of invasive melanoma in a tertiary hospital with the objective of testing variables that could be associated with a worse prognosis, such as gender, phototype, thickness, histological type and presence of pre-existing clinical lesion at the site of the tumor. Results: The worst survival rates were significantly associated with thicker tumors (p < 0.001), male sex (p = 0.014), high phototype (p = 0.047), nodular melanoma (p = 0.024) and "de novo" lesions (p = 0.005). When all variables were adjusted for melanoma thickness, male patients (p = 0.011) and "de novo" melanomas (p = 0.025) remained associated with worse survival. Study limitations: Retrospective study of a single tertiary hospital. Conclusions: Although the causes are still unknown, melanoma-specific survival was statistically worse for males and for "de novo" melanomas even after adjustment of tumor thickness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Melanoma/mortality , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Disease-Free Survival , Melanoma/pathology , Middle Aged
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