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1.
Ann. hepatol ; 16(2): 297-303, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887236

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction and aim. The inability to distinguish cancer (CSCs) from normal stem cells (NSCs) has hindered attempts to identify safer, more effective therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to document and compare cell membrane potential differences (PDs) of CSCs and NSCs derived from human HCC and healthy livers respectively and determine whether altered GABAergic innervation could explain the differences. Material and methods. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) positive stem cells were isolated from human liver tissues by magnetic bead separations. Cellular PDs were recorded by microelectrode impalement of freshly isolated cells. GABAA receptor subunit expression was documented by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence. Results. CSCs were significantly depolarized (-7.0 ± 1.3 mV) relative to NSCs (-23.0 ± 1.4 mV, p < 0.01). The depolarized state was associated with different GABAA receptor subunit expression profiles wherein phasic transmission, represented by GAGAA α3 subunit expression, was prevalent in CSCs while tonic transmission, represented by GABAA α6 subunit expression, prevailed in NSCs. In addition, GABAA subunits α3, β3, γ3 and δ were strongly expressed in CSCs while GABAA π expression was dominant in NSCs. CSCs and NSCs responded similarly to GABAA receptor agonists (ΔPD: 12.5 ± 1.2 mV and 11.0 ± 3.5 mV respectively). Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that CSCs are significantly depolarized relative to NSCs and these differences are associated with differences in GABAA receptor subunit expression. Together they provide new insights into the pathogenesis and possible treatment of human HCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplastic Stem Cells/metabolism , Receptors, GABA-A/metabolism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , GABA-A Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule/metabolism , Liver/cytology , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Phenotype , Stem Cells/drug effects , Neoplastic Stem Cells/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Immunomagnetic Separation , Receptors, GABA-A/drug effects , Receptors, GABA-A/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protein Subunits , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Membrane Potentials/drug effects
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(7): 486-489,
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787260

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of levobupivacaine on neuromuscular transmission and neuromuscular blockade produced by pancuronium in vitro. METHODS: Thirty rats were distributed into groups (n = 5) according to the drug used alone or in combination: Group I - levobupivacaine (5 µg.mL-1); Group II - pancuronium (2 µg.mL-1); Group III - pancuronium (2 µg.mL-1) + levobupivacaine (5µg.mL-1). The following parameters were evaluated: 1) amplitude of diaphragmatic response to indirect stimulation, before and 60 minutes after the addition of levobupivacaine and pancuronium alone, and after the addition of levobupivacaine combined with pancuronium; 2) membrane potentials (MP) and miniature endplate potentials (MEPP). RESULTS: Levobupivacaine alone did not alter the amplitude of muscle response and MP. In preparations previoulsy exposed to levobupivacaine, the block with pancuronium was significantly denser (90.2 ± 15.2%), showing a significant difference (p=0.031) in comparison to the block produced by pancuronium alone (48.9% ± 9.8%). There was a decrease in the frequency and amplitude of MEPPs. CONCLUSION: Levobupivacaine potentiated the neuromuscular blockade produced by pancuronium, confirming a presynaptic action by a decrease in miniature endplate potentials.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pancuronium/pharmacology , Bupivacaine/analogs & derivatives , Synaptic Transmission/drug effects , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Junction/drug effects , Bupivacaine/pharmacology , Diaphragm/drug effects , Diaphragm/innervation , Rats, Wistar , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/pharmacology , Synaptic Transmission/physiology , Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Electric Stimulation/methods , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Membrane Potentials/physiology , Neuromuscular Junction/physiology
3.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 93-95, Jan-Mar/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741535

ABSTRACT

Introduction Schwannoma of the olfactory groove is an extremely rare tumor that can share a differential diagnosis with meningioma or neuroblastoma. Objectives The authors present a case of giant schwannoma involving the anterior cranial fossa and ethmoid sinuses. Case Report The patient presented with a 30-month history of left nasal obstruction, anosmia, and sporadic ipsilateral bleeding. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses revealed expansive lesion on the left nasal cavity extending to nasopharynx up to ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses bilaterally with intraorbital and parasellar extension to the skull base. Magnetic resonance imaging scan confirmed the expansive tumor without dural penetration. Biopsy revealed no evidence of malignancy and probable neural cell. Bifrontal craniotomy was performed combined with lateral rhinotomy (Weber-Ferguson approach), and the lesion was totally removed. The tumor measured 8.0 4.3 3.7 cm and microscopically appeared as a schwannoma composed of interwoven bundles of elongated cells (Antoni A regions)mixed with less cellular regions (Antoni B). Immunohistochemical study stained intensively for vimentin and S-100. Conclusion Schwannomas of the olfactory groove are extremely rare, and the findings of origin of this tumor is still uncertain but recent studies point most probably to the meningeal branches of trigeminal nerve or anterior ethmoidal nerves. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Cell Membrane Permeability/physiology , Hair Cells, Auditory/physiology , Ion Channels/physiology , Mechanotransduction, Cellular/physiology , Animals, Newborn , Cadherins/genetics , Cell Membrane Permeability/genetics , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Dihydrostreptomycin Sulfate/pharmacology , Embryo, Mammalian , Egtazic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Egtazic Acid/pharmacology , Hair Cells, Auditory/cytology , Hair Cells, Auditory/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Ion Channels/drug effects , Mice, Transgenic , Mechanotransduction, Cellular/drug effects , Mechanotransduction, Cellular/genetics , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Membrane Potentials/genetics , Myosins/genetics , Organ of Corti/cytology , Protein Precursors/genetics
4.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(3): 586-596, 03/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-744827

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar fatores associados à utilização dos serviços odontológicos, públicos (básicos e especializados) e privados. Foi realizado inquérito populacional de base domiciliar em dois municípios da Bahia, Brasil. Informantes-chave forneceram dados socioeconômicos e de utilização dos serviços odontológicos (desfecho). A organização do serviço público odontológico local foi classificada em pior/melhor. Realizou-se regressão logística politômica uni e múltipla. Do total de 1.290 indivíduos, 38,76% usaram o serviço privado, 33,80% atenção básica e 17,29% atenção básica e o Centro de Especialidades Odontológicas (CEO). Um perfil de vulnerabilidade social foi associado ao uso do serviço público, quando comparado ao privado. Menor escolaridade (OR = 1,47; IC95%: 1,03-2,10) e pior organização do serviço (OR = 1,74; IC95%: 1,22-2,48) foram associados ao menor uso da rede de serviços atenção básica e CEO em comparação ao uso exclusivo da atenção básica. A desigualdade na utilização dos serviços odontológicos foi observada mesmo quando comparados grupos mais homogêneos, como os usuários dos serviços públicos.


The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the use of primary and specialized public dental health services and private services. A population-based household survey was conducted in two cities of Bahia State, Brazil. Key informants provided data on socioeconomic variables and use of dental health services. Organization of the local public dental health service was ranked as worse versus better. Univariate and multivariate polytomous logistic regression was performed. Of the total of 1,290 individuals, 38.76% used private services, 33.80% used public primary care, and 17.29% used both primary care and the Center for Dental Specialties. Less use of both primary care and specialized public services was associated with lower education (OR = 1.47; 95%CI: 1.03-2.10) and worse organization of services (OR = 1.74; 95%CI: 1.22-2.48), when compared to the exclusive use of primary care. The study showed inequality in the use of dental services, even when comparing more homogeneous groups, namely users of public services.


El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar los factores asociados al uso de los servicios odontológicos (primarios y especializados) públicos y privados. Se realizó una encuesta poblacional en dos ciudades de Bahía, Brasil. Los informantes clave contestaron cuestiones socioeconómicas y de utilización de los servicios odontológicos (resultado). La organización de los servicios odontológicos públicos locales fue clasificada en peor/mejor. Se realizó regresión simple y múltiple con variable politómica. Del total de 1.290 personas, un 38,76% utilizaron el servicio privado, un 33,80% la atención primaria y un 17,29% atención primaria y el Centro de Especialidades Dentales (CED). Una menor escolaridad (OR = 1,47; IC95%: 1.03-2.10) y una peor organización de servicio (OR = 1,74; IC95%: 1,22-2,48) se asociaron con un menor uso de la red de servicios de atención primaria y CED, en comparación con el uso exclusivo de la atención primaria. La desigualdad en el uso de los servicios dentales se observó incluso cuando se comparan grupos más homogéneos, como usuarios de servicios públicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Action Potentials/physiology , Membrane Potentials/physiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Potassium/metabolism , Tacrolimus Binding Proteins/metabolism , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Action Potentials/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Up-Regulation/physiology
6.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 512-518, Oct-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731151

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tuberculosis is a common opportunistic infection in renal transplant patients. Objective: To obtain a clinical and laboratory description of transplant patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and their response to treatment during a period ranging from 2005 to 2013 at the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital. Methods: Retrospective and descriptive study. Results: In 641 renal transplants, tuberculosis was confirmed in 12 cases. Of these, 25% had a history of acute rejection, and 50% had creatinine levels greater than 1.5 mg/dl prior to infection. The disease typically presented as pulmonary (50%) and disseminated (33.3%). The first phase of treatment consisted of 3 months of HZRE (isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin and ethambutol) in 75% of the cases and HZME (isoniazid, pyrazinamide, moxifloxacin and ethambutol) in 25% of the cases. During the second phase of the treatment, 75% of the cases received isoniazid and rifampicin, and 25% of the cases received isoniazid and ethambutol. The length of treatment varied between 6 and 18 months. In 41.7% of patients, hepatotoxicity was associated with the beginning of anti-tuberculosis therapy. During a year-long follow-up, renal function remained stable, and the mortality rate was 16.7%. Conclusion: Tuberculosis in the renal transplant population studied caused diverse nonspecific symptoms. Pulmonary and disseminated tuberculosis were the most frequent forms and required prolonged treatment. Antituberculosis medications had a high toxicity and mortality. This infection must be considered when patients present with a febrile syndrome of unknown origin, especially during the first year after renal transplant. .


Introdução: A tuberculose é uma infecção oportunista comum em pacientes transplantados renais. Objetivo: Oferecer uma descrição clínica e laboratorial de pacientes transplantados com diagnóstico de tuberculose e sua resposta ao tratamento durante o período entre 2005 e 2013 no Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo descritivo. Resultados: Em 641 transplantes renais, a tuberculose foi confirmada em 12 pacientes. Destes, 25% tinham histórico de rejeição aguda e 50% apresentaram níveis de creatinina superiores a 1,5 mg/dl antes da infecção. A patologia geralmente se apresentava como pulmonar (50%) e disseminada (33,3%). A primeira fase do tratamento consistiu de três meses de HZRE (isoniazida, pirazinamida, rifampicina e etambutol) em 75% dos casos e HZME (isoniazida, pirazinamida, moxifloxacina e etambutol) em 25% dos pacientes. Durante a segunda fase do tratamento, 75% dos pacientes receberam isoniazida e rifampicina e 25% isoniazida e etambutol. A duração do tratamento variou entre seis e 18 meses. Em 41,7% dos pacientes, hepatotoxicidade foi associada ao início do tratamento da tuberculose. Durante o seguimento de um ano a função renal manteve-se estável e a taxa de mortalidade foi de 16,7%. Conclusão: A tuberculose foi responsável por diversos sintomas inespecíficos na população de transplantados renais estudada. Tuberculose pulmonar e disseminada foram as formas mais frequentes de acometimento e necessitaram de tratamento prolongado. Medicamentos contra a tuberculose apresentaram alta toxicidade e mortalidade. Esta infecção deve ser considerada quando o paciente apresenta síndrome febril de origem desconhecida, especialmente durante o primeiro ano após o transplante renal. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Locus Coeruleus/drug effects , Narcotics/pharmacology , Neural Inhibition/drug effects , Neurons/drug effects , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Barium/pharmacology , Calcium/metabolism , Enkephalin, Methionine/pharmacology , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Heterozygote , Homozygote , Ion Channel Gating/drug effects , Ion Channel Gating/physiology , Locus Coeruleus/cytology , Locus Coeruleus/physiology , Mice, Knockout , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Membrane Potentials/physiology , Neural Inhibition/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Protein Subunits , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/antagonists & inhibitors , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/deficiency , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/genetics , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/metabolism , Potassium Channels/deficiency , Potassium Channels/genetics
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(4): 428-434, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731249

ABSTRACT

Three hemoplasma species are recognized in domestic cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. We report the prevalence and hematological abnormalities of hemoplasma infection in 369 domestic cats from three different populations (blood donors, hospitalized cats and shelter cats) from Southern Brazil. Complete blood counts were performed at the time of blood collection, and DNA was extracted and tested by conventional PCR for each hemoplasma species. A total of 79 samples (21.40%) were positive for at least one species. The most prevalent hemoplasma was ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, with 50/369 (13.55%) positive cats, followed by ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’, 10/369 (2.71%), and Mycoplasma haemofelis, 8/369 (2.16%). Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ coinfection was observed in 4/369 (1.08%), whereas ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ in 5/369 (1.35%). Three cats (0.81%) were infected with all three hemoplasmas. There was no association between infection and the different populations. Anemia was associated with Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, but not with ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. Male cats and cats with outdoor access were more likely to be infected. Although ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ is believed to cause minimal or no hematological alterations, the infected cats studied herein were more likely to be anemic.


Três espécies de hemoplasmas são reconhecidas em gatos domésticos: Mycoplasma haemofelis, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ e ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. A prevalência e alterações hematológicas associadas à infecção por hemoplasmas foi estudada, em 369 gatos domésticos de três populações distintas (doadores de sangue, hospitais e gatos de abrigo) do Sul do Brasil. Foram realizados hemogramas completos no momento da coleta de sangue e as amostras tiveram seu DNA extraído e testado por PCR convencional para cada espécie de hemoplasmas. Setenta e nove amostras (21,40%) foram positivas para pelo menos uma espécie. O mais prevalente foi ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ com 50/369 (13,55%) gatos positivos, seguidos por ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ com 10/369 (2,71%) e Mycoplasma haemofelis com 8/369 (2,16%). Coinfecção por Mycoplasma haemofelis e ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ foi observada em 4/369 (1,08%), enquanto ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ e ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ coinfectaram 5/369 (1,35%) gatos. Três (0,81%) gatos apresentaram infecção pelos três hemoplasmas. Não houve associação entre a infecção e as diferentes populações. Anemia foi associada com a infecção por Mycoplasma haemofelis e ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, mas não com ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. Gatos machos e com acesso à rua apresentaram maior probabilidade de serem infectados. Embora se acredite que ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ possa causar alterações hematológicas mínimas ou ausentes, gatos infectados encontrados neste estudo foram mais propensos à anemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Mitochondria, Liver/drug effects , NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Ubiquinone/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Cytoprotection , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Glutathione/metabolism , Hepatocytes/enzymology , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Mitochondria, Liver/enzymology , NAD , Oxidation-Reduction , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Rotenone/toxicity , Uncoupling Agents/toxicity , /pharmacology
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(11): 774-777, Nov. 2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-695957

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the probable actions of ropivacaine, 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture (S75-R25) and levobupivacaine on neuromuscular transmission in vitro. METHODS: Thirty rats were distributed into groups (n=5) according to the drug used: ropivacaine, bupivacaine (S75-R25) and levobupivacaine. The concentration used for the three local anesthetics (LA) was 5 µg.mL.-1The following parameters were evaluated: 1) LA effects on membrane potential (MP) and miniature end plate potential (MEPP). A chick biventer cervicis preparation was also used to evaluate LA effects on the contracture response to acetylcholine. RESULTS: LA did not alter MP values and decreased the frequency and amplitude of MEPP. In a chick biventer cervicis preparation, bupivacaine (S75-R25) and levobupivacaine decreased the contracture response to acetylcholine with statistical significance, in comparison to ropivacaine. CONCLUSIONS: In the concentrations used, levobupivacaine and bupivacaine (S75-R25) exhibited presynaptic and postsynaptic actions evidenced by alterations in miniature end plate potentials and contracture response to acetylcholine. Ropivacaine only had a presynaptic action.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Amides/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Bupivacaine/analogs & derivatives , Bupivacaine/pharmacology , Synapses/drug effects , Synaptic Transmission/drug effects , Acetylcholine/administration & dosage , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Amides/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Synapses/physiology , Synaptic Transmission/physiology
9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 777-783, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210929

ABSTRACT

Effective drug to manage constipation has been unsatisfactory. We sought to determine whether methionine has effect on the human colon. Human colon tissues were obtained from the specimens of colon resection. Microelectrode recording was performed and contractile activity of muscle strips and the propagation of the contractions in the colon segment were measured. At 10 microM, methionine depolarized the resting membrane potential (RMP) of circular muscle (CM) cells. In the CM strip, methionine increased the amplitude and area under the curve (AUC) of contractions. In the whole segment of colon, methionine increased the amplitude and AUC of the high amplitude contractions in the CM. These effects on contraction were maximal at 10 microM and were not observed in longitudinal muscles in both the strip and the colon segment. Methionine reversed the effects of pretreatment with sodium nitroprusside, tetrodotoxin and Nw-oxide-L-arginine, resulting in depolarization of the RMP, and increased amplitude and AUC of contractions in the muscle strip. Methionine treatment affected the wave pattern of the colon segment by evoking small sized amplitude contractions superimposed on preexisting wave patterns. Our results indicate that a compound mimicking methionine may provide prokinetic functions in the human colon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Area Under Curve , Arginine/pharmacology , Colon/drug effects , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Methionine/pharmacology , Microelectrodes , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Tetrodotoxin/pharmacology
10.
Caracas; s.n; ago, 2011. 239 p. ilus, tab, graf. (IFT4872011615727).
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1178397

ABSTRACT

El fracaso terapéutico en leishmaniasis a menudo esta asociado a resistencia a los medicamentos por parte de los parásitos. Hasta ahora no se ha evaluado sistemáticamente si este fenotipo compromete u optimiza el metabolismo o la efectividad en leishmania, es decir, su competencia y adaptabilidad. Durante su ciclo de vida los parásitos deben ajustarse a condiciones de vida extremas, lo cual no es gratuito. Al presentarse conflictos que comprometen propiedades de leishmania esenciales para su supervivencia, surge un costo de adaptación. Sin embargo, tales compensaciones son el precio a pagar que garantizan la co-evolucion del binomio hospedero-parásito y el mantenimiento de la diversidad genética de leishmania. Comprender ese costo es imprescindible a fin de diseñar medidas de prognosis y control exitosas. Adicionalmente, el método vigente y confiable para evaluar resistencia en leishmania es el método in vitro macrofago-amastigote, el cual es oneroso y laborioso. Como parte de un proyecto sobre quimo-resistencia en Leismania, planteamos evaluar posibles parámetros bioquímicos que pudieran servir como marcadores celulares a ser usados para identificar parásitos con fenotipo quimioresistentes en aislados de pacientes y compararlos con cepas de referencia. Los resultados sugieren que algunos aislados:a) tienen incrementada la expresión transportadores ABC, b) utilizan glucosa de forma diferencial, c) tienen un potencial de membrana menos polarizado y d) expresan diferente sensibilidad a inhibidores clásicos de la función mitocondrial. En conjunto, los datos indican que los aislados estudiados expresan los mismos cambios fisiológicos ya descritos en parásitos de referencia quimioresistentes. Es decir, que los cambios explorados podrían constituir un patrón general asociado a este fenómeno leishmania, lo cual los valida como marcadores celulares de resistencia. En conclusion, se propone un nuevo enfoque al problema del tratamiento de la enfermedad ya que, además de las estrategias clásicas, se añadirían herramientas de pronostico del éxito de la quimioterapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis, Diffuse Cutaneous/drug therapy , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Leishmania/drug effects , Membrane Potentials , Parasites/drug effects , Phenotype , Prognosis , Genetic Variation/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Biomarkers , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Leishmaniasis, Diffuse Cutaneous/prevention & control , Glucose/analysis , Leishmania/genetics , Membrane Potentials/drug effects
11.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 24 (3): 383-387
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-129866

ABSTRACT

Atrial fibrillation [AF] results in tachycardia-induced ionic remodeling. Pharmacological prevention of tachycardia-induced ionic remodeling not only with [classical] antiarrhythmics but also with drugs which provide a basis for some of the pillars of the so-called [upstream] therapy of AF like corticosteroids or statins has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy. Amongst other ion currents, atrial sodium current I[Na] and its tachycardia-induced alterations play an important role in AF pathophysiology. Thus, effects of a dexamethasone [DT] and atorvastatin treatment [AT] on atrial sodium current I[Na] and its tachycardia-induced remodeling were studied in a rabbit model. 9 groups with 4 animals were examined. Atrial pacemaker leads were implanted in all animals. No rapid atrial pacing [600/min] was performed in the control group but for 24 or 120 hours in the respective pacing groups. Instrumentation and pacing did not differ from the respective drug groups but an additional treatment with dexamethasone or atorvastatin [7 days] was performed. Rapid atrial pacing [RAP, 600/min] reduced I[Na] after 24 hours [ -50%] with no further reduction after 120 hours. DT reduced I[Na] [ -20%], current densities in consecutively tachypaced animals did not differ from those in untreated animals. AT reduced I[Na] similar as RAP, subsequent RAP did not further diminish I[Na]. Impact of corticosteroids and statins on I[Na] and its tachycardia-induced alterations also contribute to the mode of action of these substances in upstream treatment of atrial fibrillation


Subject(s)
Animals , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Sodium Channels/drug effects , Tachycardia/physiopathology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Patch-Clamp Techniques/methods , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Rabbits
12.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 81(1): 39-49, Mar. 2009. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-506851

ABSTRACT

The isolated chick retina provides an in vitro tissue model, in which two protocols were developed to verify the efficacy of a peptide in the excitability control of the central gray matter. In the first, extra-cellular potassium homeostasis is challenged at long intervals and in the second, a wave is trapped in a ring of tissue causing the system to be under self-sustained challenge. Within the neuropil, the extra-cellular potassium transient observed in the first protocol was affected from the initial rising phase to the final concentration at the end of the five-minute pulse. There was no change in the concomitants of excitation waves elicited by the extra-cellular rise of potassium. However, there was an increase on the elicited waves latency and/or a rise in the threshold potassium concentration for these waves to appear. In the second protocol, the wave concomitants and the propagation velocity were affected by the peptide. The results suggest a synergetic action of the peptide on glial and synaptic membranes: by accelerating the glial Na/KATPase and changing the kinetics of the glial potassium channels, with glia tending to accumulate KCl. At the same time, there is an increase in potassium currents through nerve terminals.


Retinas de pinto isoladas proporcionam um modelo de tecidos in vitro, para o qual dois protocolos foram desenvolvidos para verificar a eficácia de um peptídeo no controle da excitabilidade da matéria cinzenta central. No primeiro, a homeostase do potássio extra-celular é desafiada por intervalos longos (1 hora) e no segundo, uma onda é capturada em um anel de tecido, de tal maneira que o sistema permaneça em estado de desafio auto-sustentado. Dentro da neuropil, o transiente de potássio extra-celular observado no primeiro protocolo foi afetado da fase de início de aumento à concentração final, ao final do pulso de cinco minutos. Não há mudanças nos parâmetros concomitantes das ondas de excitação geradas pelo aumento do potássio extra-celular. Entretanto, houve um aumento da latência das ondas geradas e/ou um aumento no nível de concentração de potássio necessário para gerar a onda. No segundo protocolo, os parâmetros concomitantes da onda e sua velocidade de propagação foram afetados pelo peptídeo. Os resultados sugerem uma ação sinergética do peptídeo nas membranas gliais e sinápticas: acelerando o Na/KATPase glial e mudando a cinética dos canais de potássio gliais, com a glia tendendo a acumular KCl. Nesse período, não há aumento nas correntes de potássio nas terminações nervosas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Membrane Potentials/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Periaqueductal Gray/physiology , Potassium/metabolism , Retina/physiology , Somatostatin/pharmacology , Chickens , Electric Stimulation , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Periaqueductal Gray/drug effects , Retina/drug effects
13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 384-391, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79582

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to isolate Ca2+-activated K+ current (IKCa) and elucidate its physiological significance in freshly isolated interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) of guinea-pig stomach. Single ICC was freshly isolated by enzymatically dissociating from myenteric border of gastric antrum free of circular muscles, and conventional whole-cell voltage clamp technique including immunohistochemical techniques were employed to characterize the cells: In myenteric border of gastric antrum, ICC-MY (ICCs from myenteric border) were detected by immunohistochemical reactivity, and single ICC-MY which has many branches was immunohistochemically c-Kit positive. Under K+-rich and 0.1 mM ethylene glycol-bis (2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid pipette solution, ICC produced spontaneous inward current (-256+/-92.2 pA). When step-depolarizing pulse from -80 to +80 mV was applied at holding potential (Vh) of -80 mV, voltage-dependent outward currents were recorded with superimposed spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs). Both STOCs and outward currents were reversibly affected by tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) and iberiotoxin (IbTX); 2 mM TEA and 200 nM IbTX completely abolished STOCs and significantly inhibited outward K+ current over the whole potential range tested for current/voltage (I/V) relationship. In addition, TEA delayed repolarization phase of spontaneous inward current. The present results indicate the presence of IKCa in a single ICC, and it might be involved in regulation of repolarizing phase of spontaneous inward current in guinea-pig stomach.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Guinea Pigs , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Peptides/pharmacology , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/metabolism , Pyloric Antrum/cytology , Tetraethylammonium/pharmacology
14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 403-412, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-134369

ABSTRACT

KIOM-79, a mixture of ethanol extracts from four herbs (parched Puerariae radix, gingered Magnoliae cortex, Glycyrrhizae radix and Euphorbiae radix), has been developed for the potential therapeutic application to diabetic symptoms. Because screening of unexpected cardiac arrhythmia is compulsory for the new drug development, we investigated the effects of KIOM-79 on the action potential (AP) and various ion channel currents in cardiac myocytes. KIOM-79 decreased the upstroke velocity (Vmax) and plateau potential while slightly increased the duration of action potential (APD). Consistent with the decreased Vmax and plateau potential, the peak amplitude of Na+ current (INa) and Ca2+ current (ICa,L) were decreased by KIOM-79. KIOM-79 showed dual effects on hERG K+ current; increase of depolarization phase current (Idepol) and decreased tail current at repolarization phase (Itail). The increase of APD was suspected due to the decreased Itail. In computer simulation, the change of cardiac action potential could be well simulated based on the effects of KIOM-79 on various membrane currents. As a whole, the influence of KIOM-79 on cardiac ion channels are minor at concentrations effective for the diabetic models (0.1-10 microg/mL). The results suggest safety in terms of the risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Also, our study demonstrates the usefulness of the cardiac computer simulation in screening drug-induced long-QT syndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Rabbits , Rats , Action Potentials/drug effects , Cell Line , Computer Simulation , Zingiber officinale/chemistry , Ion Channels/physiology , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pueraria/chemistry , Purkinje Fibers/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 403-412, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-134368

ABSTRACT

KIOM-79, a mixture of ethanol extracts from four herbs (parched Puerariae radix, gingered Magnoliae cortex, Glycyrrhizae radix and Euphorbiae radix), has been developed for the potential therapeutic application to diabetic symptoms. Because screening of unexpected cardiac arrhythmia is compulsory for the new drug development, we investigated the effects of KIOM-79 on the action potential (AP) and various ion channel currents in cardiac myocytes. KIOM-79 decreased the upstroke velocity (Vmax) and plateau potential while slightly increased the duration of action potential (APD). Consistent with the decreased Vmax and plateau potential, the peak amplitude of Na+ current (INa) and Ca2+ current (ICa,L) were decreased by KIOM-79. KIOM-79 showed dual effects on hERG K+ current; increase of depolarization phase current (Idepol) and decreased tail current at repolarization phase (Itail). The increase of APD was suspected due to the decreased Itail. In computer simulation, the change of cardiac action potential could be well simulated based on the effects of KIOM-79 on various membrane currents. As a whole, the influence of KIOM-79 on cardiac ion channels are minor at concentrations effective for the diabetic models (0.1-10 microg/mL). The results suggest safety in terms of the risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Also, our study demonstrates the usefulness of the cardiac computer simulation in screening drug-induced long-QT syndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Rabbits , Rats , Action Potentials/drug effects , Cell Line , Computer Simulation , Zingiber officinale/chemistry , Ion Channels/physiology , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pueraria/chemistry , Purkinje Fibers/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
16.
Biol. Res ; 42(1): 111-119, 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-519090

ABSTRACT

Endothelial cells are directly involved in many functions of the cardiovascular system by regulating blood flow and blood pressure through Ca2+ dependent exocitosis of vasoactive compounds. Using the Ca2+ indicator Fluo-3 and the patch-clamp technique, we show that bovine adrenal medulla capillary endothelial cells (B AMCECs) respond to acetylcholine (ACh) with a cytosolic Ca2+ increase and depolarization of the membrane potential (20.3±0.9 mV; n=23). The increase in cytosolic Ca2+ induced by 10µM ACh was mimicked by the same concentration of nicotine but not by muscarine and was blocked by 100 µM of hexamethonium. On the other hand, the increase in cytosolic Ca2+ could be depressed by nifedipine (0.01 -100 µM) or withdrawal of extracellular Ca2+. Taken together, these results give evidence for functional nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in capillary endothelial cells of the adrenal medulla. It suggests that nAChRs in B AMCECs may be involved in the regulation of the adrenal gland's microcirculation by depolarizing the membrane potential, leading to the opening of voltage-activated Ca2+ channels, influx of external Ca2+ and liberation of vasoactive compounds.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Adrenal Medulla/drug effects , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Cytosol/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Nicotine/pharmacology , Receptors, Nicotinic/drug effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Adrenal Medulla/blood supply , Adrenal Medulla/cytology , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Capillaries/cytology , Capillaries/drug effects , Cytosol/metabolism , Evoked Potentials/drug effects , Hexamethonium/pharmacology , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Muscarine/pharmacology , Receptors, Nicotinic/metabolism
17.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 80(1): 137-148, Mar. 2008. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-477421

ABSTRACT

The present study provides evidence that activated spleen lymphocytes from Walker 256 tumor bearing rats are more susceptible than controls to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH)-induced necrotic cell death in vitro. The iron chelator and antioxidant deferoxamine, the intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, the L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist nifedipine or the mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitor cyclosporin A, but not the calcineurin inhibitor FK-506, render control and activated lymphocytes equally resistant to the toxic effects of t-BOOH. Incubation of activated lymphocytes in the presence of t-BOOH resulted in a cyclosporin A-sensitive decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. These results indicate that the higher cytosolic Ca2+ level in activated lymphocytes increases their susceptibility to oxidative stress-induced cell death in a mechanism involving the participation of mitochondrial permeability transition.


O presente estudo demonstra que linfócitos ativados de baço de ratos portadores do tumor de Walker 256 são mais susceptíveis à morte celular necrótica induzida por tert-butil hidroperóxido (t-BOOH) in vitro quando comparados aos controles. O quelante de ferro e antioxidante deferoxamina, o quelante intracelular de Ca2+ BAPTA, o antagonista de canal de Ca2+ nifedipina ou o inibidor da transição de permeabilidade mitocondrial ciclosporina-A, mas não o inibidor de calcineurina FK-506, inibiram de maneira similar a morte celular induzida por t-BOOH em linfócitos ativados e controles. Os linfócitos ativados apresentaram redução do potencial de membrana mitocondrial induzida por t-BOOH num mecanismo sensível a ciclosporina-A. Nossos resultados indicam que o aumento da concentração de Ca2+ citosólico em linfócitos ativados aumenta a susceptibilidade dos mesmos à morte celular induzida por estresse oxidativo, num mecanismo envolvendo a participação do poro de transição de permeabilidade mitocondrial.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Spleen/pathology , tert-Butylhydroperoxide/pharmacology , Calcium/antagonists & inhibitors , Calcium/metabolism , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Deferoxamine/pharmacology , Egtazic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Egtazic Acid/pharmacology , Flow Cytometry , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Nifedipine/pharmacology , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Siderophores/pharmacology , Spleen/drug effects , Time Factors
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 459-471, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79505

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined the expression and function of inward rectifier K+ channels in cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of inward rectifier K+ channels was measured using real-time RT-PCR, and electrophysiological properties were determined using the gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: The dominant inward rectifier K+ channel subtypes were K(ir)2.1 and K(ir)6.1. These dominant K+ channel subtypes decreased significantly during the primary culture throughout activation process. HSC can be classified into two subgroups: one with an inward-rectifying K+ current (type 1) and the other without (type 2). The inward current was blocked by Ba2+ (100micrometer) and enhanced by high K+ (140mM), more prominently in type 1 HSC. There was a correlation between the amplitude of the Ba2+-sensitive current and the membrane potential. In addition, Ba2+ (300micrometer) depolarized the membrane potential. After the culture period, the amplitude of the inward current decreased and the membrane potential became depolarized. CONCLUSION: HSC express inward rectifier K+ channels, which physiologically regulate membrane potential and decrease during the activation process. These results will potentially help determine properties of the inward rectifier K+ channels in HSC as well as their roles in the activation process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Barium/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Cells, Cultured , Electrophysiology , Liver/cytology , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Potassium/pharmacology , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/genetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
19.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 143(2): 131-135, mar.-abr. 2007. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-568791

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes. Los canales iónicos ASIC (del inglés Acid Sensing Ion Channel) son canales iónicos activados por reducciones transitorias en el pH extracelular. Pese a no conocerse con exactitud su mecanismo, la activación ocurre por medio de la unión de protones al dominio extracelular del canal y es modulada por iones calcio y zinc. Objetivo. El hecho de que los cationes divalentes modifiquen el funcionamiento del canal nos llevó a preguntar si el plomo, otro catión divalente, sería capaz de alterar el funcionamiento de los ASIC. Métodos y resultados. Mediante el uso de la técnica de fijación de voltaje en configuración de célula completa en las neuronas de los ganglios de la raíz dorsal de la rata, encontramos que el plomo inhibe la corriente ASIC en forma dependiente de la concentración. Conclusiones. Estos resultados contribuyen a definir los mecanismos de activación de los canales ASIC y a explicar algunos de los mecanismos tóxicos del plomo en el organismo.


BACKGROUND: Acid sensing ion channels (ASIC) are ionic channels activated by transient pH reductions in the ext raceilularenvi ronment. Although the activation mechanism is not fully elucidated, it is clear that the channel is activated by proton binding to its extraceilular domain, a process that is modulated by calcium and zinc. OBJECTIVE: The fact that divalent cations are able to modify ASIC operation, lead us to consider if lead, anotherdivalent cation and widely distributed neurotoxicant, is also capable to affect ASIC function. METHODS: For this purpose, we recordedASiC currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: The results indicated that lead inhibits ASIC currents in a concentration -dependent fashion. CONCLUSIONS: These results contribute to the understanding of the activation mechanism of ASIC and to explain some of the toxic mechanisms of lead in the organism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sodium Channels/drug effects , Organometallic Compounds/toxicity , Ganglia, Spinal/drug effects , Membrane Proteins/drug effects , Nerve Tissue Proteins/drug effects , Sodium Channels/physiology , Ganglia, Spinal/physiopathology , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Membrane Potentials/physiology , Membrane Proteins/physiology , Nerve Tissue Proteins/physiology , Rats, Wistar
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