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2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(9): 601-608, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038743

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Hypothalamic inflammation and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) overexpression in astrocytes are well described in obese animals, as are some cognitive and memory deficits. As the hippocampus plays important roles in the consolidation of information, this investigation aimed to observe the memory function and the astrocyte expression of GFAP in the hippocampus of rats that received either a hypercaloric or a normocaloric diet. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats received a high-fat (cafeteria) or a standard diet for 60 days. On the 61st day, the rats were submitted to the novel object recognition (NOR) test at three and 24 hours after the first contact with objects, to assess short-term and long-term memory, respectively. Thereafter, the rats were euthanized and their brains were collected for GFAP immunohistochemical investigation in the hippocampus (CA1, CA2, CA3 areas) and hypothalamus (periventricular and arcuate nuclei). Astrocytic reactivity was assessed by morphometry. Different white adipose tissue depots and brown adipose tissue were weighed to calculate the adiposity index. Results: The hypercaloric diet increased body weight gain, adiposity index, white adipose tissue weight (epididymal, subcutaneous and retroperitoneal) and brown adipose tissue weight. Rats fed with the hypercaloric diet showed short-term and long-term memory impairments in the NOR test, as well as increased GFAP expression in astrocytes from all analyzed hypothalamic and hippocampal areas. Conclusion: This astrogliosis suggests that the neuroinflammatory response also occurs in the hippocampus and may be involved in the memory losses observed in obese/overweight animals.


RESUMO Objetivo: A inflamação hipotalâmica e a superexpressão da proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP) em astrócitos são bem descritas em animais obesos, assim como déficits cognitivos e de memória. Como o hipocampo desempenha importante papel na consolidação de informações, esta investigação teve como objetivo observar a função da memória e a expressão astrocitária da GFAP no hipocampo de ratos que receberam dieta hipercalórica ou normocalórica. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos adultos receberam dieta rica em gordura (cafeteria) ou dieta padrão por 60 dias. No 61º dia, os ratos foram submetidos ao teste de reconhecimento de objetos (NOR) 3 e 24 horas após o primeiro contato com os objetos, para avaliação da memória de curto e de longo prazo, respectivamente. Após, os ratos foram eutanasiados e os encéfalos coletados para pesquisa imuno-histoquímica da expressão astrocitária de GFAP no hipocampo (áreas CA1, CA2 e CA3) e no hipotálamo (núcleos periventricular e arqueado). A reatividade astrocitária foi avaliada por morfometria. Diferentes depósitos de tecido adiposo branco e marrom foram pesados para calcular o índice de adiposidade. Resultados: A dieta hipercalórica aumentou o ganho de peso corporal, o índice de adiposidade, o peso do tecido adiposo branco (epididimal, subcutâneo e retroperitoneal) e marrom. Ratos alimentados com dieta hipercalórica apresentaram prejuízos na memória de curto e longo prazo no teste NOR e aumento da expressão de GFAP em astrócitos de todas as áreas hipotalâmicas e hipocampais analisadas. Conclusão: Esta astrogliose sugere que a resposta neuroinflamatória também ocorre no hipocampo, podendo estar envolvida nas perdas de memória observadas em animais obesos/com sobrepeso.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Astrocytes/chemistry , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/analysis , Hippocampus/cytology , Memory Disorders/etiology , Obesity/complications , Reference Values , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , Memory Disorders/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(6): e6049, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839314

ABSTRACT

Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) is located within the Down syndrome critical region of chromosome 21. DSCAM is a broadly expressed neurodevelopmental protein involved in synaptogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and axon guidance. We previously demonstrated DSCAM overexpression in the cortex of amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice, suggesting possible regulatory interactions between APP and DSCAM. APP mice exhibit deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. In this preliminary study, we examined age-related changes in DSCAM expression within the hippocampus in 16 APP transgenic mice (1, 3, 6 and 12 months old). Hippocampus-dependent spatial memory was assessed in APP mice and age-matched wild type littermates (WTs) using the Morris water maze (MWM). The cellular distribution of hippocampal DSCAM and total expression at both mRNA and protein levels were measured by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and western blotting, respectively. APP mice exhibited spatial memory deficits in the MWM. Intense DSCAM immunoreactivity was observed in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer and hippocampal stratum pyramidale. Total hippocampal DSCAM mRNA and protein expression levels were substantially higher in APP mice than WTs at 1 and 3 months of age. Expression decreased with age in both groups but remained higher in APP mice. DSCAM is overexpressed in the hippocampus over the first 12 months of life in APP mice, but especially during maturation to adulthood. In conclusion, these results suggest an association between DSCAM and APP mice, which is characterized by neuropathology and behavioral deficits. These results provide some clues for future studies on the role of DSCAM overexpression in the precocious cognitive decline observed in APP transgenic mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/genetics , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Age Factors , Brain/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Down Syndrome/metabolism , Genotype , Learning Disabilities/metabolism , Memory Disorders/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(9): 723-729, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796042

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of crocin on brain oxidative damage and memory deficits in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of Parkinson’s disease. Male Wistar rats were subjected to unilateral injection of 6-OHDA (16 µg) into the medial forebrain bundle and treated with crocin (30 and 60 mg/kg) for six weeks. The rats were tested for memory performance at six weeks after 6-OHDA infusion, and then were killed for the estimation of biochemical parameters. The increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitrite levels in the hippocampus were observed in the 6-OHDA lesioned rats, which was accompanied by memory deficits in a passive avoidance test at the end of week 6. Moreover, treatment with crocin decreased TBARS and nitrite levels in the hippocampus, and improved aversive memory. The present study conclusively demonstrated that crocin acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in the hippocampus of parkinsonian rats and could improve aversive memory through its properties.


RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar o efeito da crocina no dano oxidativo cerebral e nos déficits de memória em um modelo 6-OHDA de doença de Parkinson. Ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos à injeção unilateral de 6-OHDA (16 μg) em MFB e tratados com crocina (30 e 60 mg/kg), durante 6 semanas. Os ratos foram testados quanto ao desempenho da memória 6 semanas após a infusão de 6-OHDA, e, em seguida, foram sacrificados para a estimativa dos parâmetros bioquímicos. O aumento nos níveis de TBARS e de nitrito no hipocampo foram observados em ratos 6-OHDA lesionados, acompanhado por déficits de memória em um teste de esquiva passiva no final da semana 6. Além disso, o tratamento com crocina diminuiu os níveis de nitrito e de TBARS no hipocampo e melhorou a memória aversiva. O presente estudo demonstrou conclusivamente que a crocina age como um antioxidante e um agente anti-inflamatório no hipocampo de ratos parkinsonianos e pode melhorar a memória aversiva através de suas propriedades.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Memory Disorders/prevention & control , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Sulfhydryl Compounds/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Random Allocation , Cerebral Cortex/physiopathology , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Oxidopamine , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Memory/drug effects , Memory/physiology , Memory Disorders/physiopathology , Memory Disorders/metabolism , Nitrites/analysis
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(12): 1050-1056, 12/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727667

ABSTRACT

People who suffer from traumatic brain injury (TBI) often experience cognitive deficits in spatial reference and working memory. The possible roles of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) in learning and memory impairment in mice with TBI are far from well known. Adult mice subjected to TBI were treated with the COX-1 selective inhibitor SC560. Performance in the open field and on the beam walk was then used to assess motor and behavioral function 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days following injury. Acquisition of spatial learning and memory retention was assessed using the Morris water maze on day 15 post-TBI. The expressions of COX-1, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-6, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), synapsin-I, and synaptophysin were detected in TBI mice. Administration of SC560 improved performance of beam walk tasks as well as spatial learning and memory after TBI. SC560 also reduced expressions of inflammatory markers IL-6 and PGE2, and reversed the expressions of COX-1, BDNF, PDGF-BB, synapsin-I, and synaptophysin in TBI mice. The present findings demonstrated that COX-1 might play an important role in cognitive deficits after TBI and that selective COX-1 inhibition should be further investigated as a potential therapeutic approach for TBI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Injuries/complications , Cerebral Cortex/injuries , Cyclooxygenase 1/physiology , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Learning/drug effects , Memory Disorders/drug therapy , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Blotting, Western , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Cerebral Decortication , Cyclooxygenase 1/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Dinoprostone/analysis , Dinoprostone/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hippocampus/metabolism , /blood , Maze Learning/drug effects , Memory Disorders/etiology , Memory Disorders/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis/metabolism , Recovery of Function/drug effects , Synaptophysin/analysis , Synaptophysin/metabolism
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 70(11): 874-879, Nov. 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-655926

ABSTRACT

The effects of a high estradiol dose on memory and on nitric oxide metabolites in hippocampal tissues were investigated. Sham-Est and OVX-Est Groups were treated with 4 mg/kg of estradiol valerate for 12 weeks. Time latency and path length were significantly higher in the Sham-Est and OVX-Est Groups than in the Sham and OVX Groups, respectively (p<0.001). The animals in the Sham-Est and OVX-Est Groups spent lower time in the target quadrant (Q1) than those of the Sham and OVX Groups during the probe trial test (p<0.05 and <0.001, respectively). Significantly lower nitric oxide metabolite levels in the hippocampi of the Sham-Est and OVX-Est Groups were observed than in the Sham and OVX ones (p<0.001). These results suggest that decreased nitric oxide levels in the hippocampus may play a role in the learning and memory deficits observed after treatment with a high dose of estradiol, although the precise underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated.


Os efeitos de uma alta dose de estradiol na memória e nos metabólitos do óxido nítrico de tecidos hipocampais foram estudados. Os Grupos Sham-Est e OVX-Est foram tratados com 4 mg/kg de valerato de estradiol por 12 semanas. O tempo de latência e o comprimento do caminho foram significativamente maiores nos Grupos Sham-Est e OVX-Est em relação aos Grupos Sham e OVX, respectivamente (p<0,001). Os animais dos Grupos Sham-Est e OVX-Est passaram menos tempo na meta do quadrante (Q1) do que aqueles dos Grupos Sham e OVX durante o teste inicial (p<0,05 e <0,001, respectivamente). Níveis significativamente menores de metabólitos do óxido nítrico foram observados nos hipocampos dos Grupos Sham-Est e OVX-Est em relação aos Grupos Sham e OVX (p<0,001). Esses resultados sugerem que os níveis diminuídos de óxido nítrico no hipocampo podem ter um papel nos déficits de aprendizado e de memória, que são observados após tratamento com alta dose de estradiol, embora os mecanismos específicos envolvidos nestes achados ainda precisam ser elucidados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Rats , Contraceptive Agents/administration & dosage , Estradiol/analogs & derivatives , Hippocampus/metabolism , Learning Disabilities/etiology , Memory Disorders/etiology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Estradiol/administration & dosage , Hippocampus/drug effects , Learning Disabilities/metabolism , Maze Learning/drug effects , Memory Disorders/metabolism , Memory/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Ovariectomy , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
7.
Clinics ; 65(11): 1175-1181, 2010. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-571442

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe cognitive impairment follows thyroid hormone deficiency during the neonatal period. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in learning and memory has been widely investigated. METHODS: This study aimed to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism during neonatal and juvenile periods on NO metabolites in the hippocampi of rats and on learning and memory. Animals were divided into two groups and treated for 60 days from the first day of lactation. The control group received regular water, whereas animals in a separate group were given water supplemented with 0.03 percent methimazole to induce hypothyroidism. Male offspring were selected and tested in the Morris water maze. Samples of blood were collected to measure the metabolites of NO, NO2, NO3 and thyroxine. The animals were then sacrificed, and their hippocampi were removed to measure the tissue concentrations of NO2 and NO3. DISCUSSION: Compared to the control group's offspring, serum thyroxine levels in the methimazole group's offspring were significantly lower (P<0.01). In addition, the swim distance and time latency were significantly higher in the methimazole group (P<0.001), and the time spent by this group in the target quadrant (Q1) during the probe trial was significantly lower (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the plasma levels of NO metabolites between the two groups; however, significantly higher NO metabolite levels in the hippocampi of the methimazole group were observed compared to controls (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the increased NO level in the hippocampus may play a role in the learning and memory deficits observed in childhood hypothyroidism; however, the precise underlying mechanism(s) remains to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hypothyroidism/metabolism , Learning Disabilities/metabolism , Memory Disorders/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Antithyroid Agents , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Methimazole , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/blood , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Thyroxine/analysis
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