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1.
s.l; Fundación Programa de Investigación y Estudios Estratégicos;Latinoamericanos (Pinves); ago 2020. 211 p. graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117643

ABSTRACT

El conjunto de ensayos que componen este libro han sido hechos en plena pandemia y procuran aportar a la memoria histórica latinoamericana y caribeña, además de ser un documento elaborado únicamente por mujeres, cuya sensibilidad y capacidad intelectual se unen con el fin de alertar a las lectoras y los lectores acerca de la peligrosidad del asedio contra la Revolución bolivariana, que pone en riesgo, sin duda alguna, la paz de toda la humanidad(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Venezuela , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Memory
2.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 11(1): 57-62, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1102527

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: compreender os conteúdos representacionais e suas origens a partir do esquecimento e da depressão em pessoas com idade ≥ 65 anos, identificando-se as aproximações e as diferenciações atribuídas ao declínio cognitivo. Metodologia: estudo qualitativo delineado na abordagem processual da Teoria das Representações Sociais, realizado numa Unidade de Atenção Primária à Saúde, numa cidade de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Entrevistas individuais em profundidade com gravação de áudio a partir de questões norteadoras. Conteúdos discursivos transcritos na íntegra e tratados em Programa NVivo Pro11, análise de conteúdo. Atendidos todos os aspectos ético-legais de pesquisa. Resultados: foram 49 participantes, cujos fragmentos de discurso permitiram identificar dimensões: comportamental, atitudinal, cognitivo, informativo, valorativo e objetival. A perda cognitiva foi percebida como algo peculiar ao envelhecimento e vinculada à presença da depressão. Conclusão: as representações sociais do esquecimento e depressão foram associadas ao isolamento social com origens vinculadas a problemas (pessoais, sociais ou familiares) identificadas a partir da observação do cotidiano. (AU)


Objective: to understand the representational contents and their origins from forgetfulness and depression in people aged ≥ 65 years, identifying the approaches and differentiations attributed to cognitive decline. Method: qualitative study outlined in the procedural approach of the Theory of Social Representations, conducted in a Primary Care Unit. to Health in a city of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Individual in-depth interviews with audio recording from guiding questions. Discursive content transcribed in full and treated in NVivo Pro11 Program, content analysis. Met all ethical and legal aspects of research. Results: 49 participants, whose speech fragments allowed us to identify dimensions: behavioral, attitudinal, cognitive, informative, evaluative and objective. Cognitive loss was perceived as peculiar to aging and linked to the presence of depression. Conclusion: the social representations of forgetfulness and depression were associated with social isolation with origins linked to problems (personal, social or family) identified from the observation of daily life. (AU)


Objectivo: comprender los contenidos de representación y sus orígenes del olvido y la depresión en personas de ≥ 65 años, identificando los enfoques y las diferencias atribuidas al deterioro cognitivo. Metodo: estudio cualitativo descrito en el enfoque procesal de la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales, realizado en una Unidad de Atención Primaria. a la salud en una ciudad de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Entrevistas individuales en profundidad con grabación de audio de preguntas orientadoras. Contenido discursivo transcrito en su totalidad y tratado en el programa NVivo Pro11, análisis de contenido. Cumplió con todos los aspectos éticos y legales de la investigación. Resultados: 49 participantes, cuyos fragmentos de habla nos permitieron identificar dimensiones: conductuales, actitudinales, cognitivas, informativas, evaluativas y objetivas. La pérdida cognitiva se percibió como peculiar al envejecimiento y vinculada a la presencia de depresión. Conclusión: las representaciones sociales del olvido y la depresión se asociaron con el aislamiento social con orígenes vinculados a problemas (personales, sociales o familiares) identificados a partir de la observación de la vida cotidiana. (AU)


Subject(s)
Nursing , Aged , Aging , Depression , Memory
3.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 14(1): 75-79, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1089812

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The nature of memory and the search for its localization have been a subject of interest since Antiquity. After millennia of theoretical concepts, shifting from the heart to the brain, then from the ventricles to solid parts, the core memory-related structures finally began to be identified through modern scientifically-based methods at the diencephalic and cortical (hippocampal and neocortical) levels, mostly in the late Modern period, culminating in the current state of knowledge on the subject.


RESUMO A natureza da memória e a busca de sua localização tem sido objeto de interesse desde a Antiguidade. Após milênios de conceitos teóricos, mudando do coração para o cérebro e daí dos ventrículos para as partes sólidas, as estruturas centrais relacionadas com a memória finalmente começaram a ser identificadas através de métodos modernos com base científica, nos níveis diencefálico e cortical (hipocampal e neocortical), principalmente no período Moderno tardio, aproximando-se do estado atual do conhecimento sobre o tema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neocortex , Diencephalon , Hippocampus , Memory , Models, Anatomic
4.
Gerais (Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora) ; 13(1): 1-16, jan.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1090454

ABSTRACT

O presente artigo tem por objetivo investigar possíveis efeitos da atenção dividida no priming de repetição a partir de uma revisão seletiva da literatura. Foram selecionados estudos realizados com testes de priming perceptual e/ou conceitual, nos quais a divisão da atenção foi realizada na fase de codificação ou de recuperação. Em geral, as evidências indicaram que o priming, tanto o perceptual quanto o conceitual, foi afetado pela atenção dividida na codificação quando a tarefa secundária (ou distratora) foi mais demandante de atenção, exigindo resposta frequente e apresentada sincrônica ao estímulo alvo. Poucos estudos foram realizados na recuperação e eles indicaram imunidade do priming perceptual e conceitual à atenção dividida. Conclui-se que os processos de memória implícita podem exigir recursos atencionais na codificação. Implicações teóricas dos resultados são discutidas.


This article aims to investigate possible effects of divided attention on repetition priming from a selective review of the literature. Studies were included if they utilized perceptual and/or conceptual priming tasks, in which the division of attention was performed during encoding or retrieval. In general, the results suggested that perceptual and conceptual priming were affected by divided attention during encoding. This effect occurred when the secondary task (or distractor task) demanded higher levels of attention, requiring frequent task responses and it was presented simultaneously to the memory target stimulus. The few studies investigating retrieval showed that perceptual and conceptual priming are not sensitive to divided attention. Therefore, implicit memory processes may require attentional resources in the encoding. Theoretical implications of the results are discussed.


Subject(s)
Attention , Repetition Priming , Psychology , Memory
5.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-820814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To adequately evaluate the extent of neurocognitive impairment in patient living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV), a battery of neuropsychological tests is typically administered which are neither cost effective nor time efficient in the outpatient clinical setting. The aim of the study was to assess neurocognitive status and functional ability of people living with HIV and find a brief screening tool to identify those who would benefit from a full diagnostic evaluation.METHODS: The study enrolled 160 PLHIV (80 pre-antiretroviral therapy [ART] and 80 on ART) fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Neurocognitive assessment and an assessment of Functional ability was done by using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale scale, respectively.RESULTS: The study population consisted of 75.6% males and 24.4% females with mean age of 44±10 years. The overall prevalence of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in the study subjects was 52.5%. Of these, 47.5% had asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment and 5% had minor neurocognitive disorder. In MoCA, the most frequently affected domains were Language (97.6%), visuospatial ability (92.9%) and memory (71.4%).CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HAND in both groups were similar suggesting that neurocognitive impairment starts early in HIV infection. Memory and Visuospatial function impairment had the most predictive potential for detecting the presence of HAND. HAND screening is recommended in all PLHIV at enrolment into care. Simple tools like MoCA can be used in busy outpatient settings by healthcare workers to screen for HAND.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Hand , HIV , HIV Infections , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Memory , Methylenebis(chloroaniline) , Neurocognitive Disorders , Neuropsychological Tests , Outpatients , Prevalence
6.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An epidural blood patch (EBP) is a highly effective therapy for spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. However, the factors predicting the response to an EBP have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to elucidate factors predicting the response to an EBP.METHODS: We retrospectively examined the relationship between the response to an EBP and clinical variables of 118 patients with spinal CSF leakage, such as patient age, sex, etiology, interval from the onset to EBP application, CSF opening pressure (OP), radioisotope (RI) cisternography findings, rate of RI remaining in the CSF space, computed tomography (CT) myelography findings, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and subjective symptoms (headache, vertigo/dizziness, visual disturbance, nausea, numbness, nuchal pain, back pain/lumbago, fatigability, photophobia, and memory disturbance). The correlations between these variables and the responses to EBPs were analyzed statistically.RESULTS: A positive response to an EBP was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with the following variables: < 1.5 years from the onset to EBP application, age < 40 years, CSF OP < 7 cm H₂O, epidural CSF leakage in RI cisternography, epidural CSF collection in MRI, < 20% RI remaining after 24 hours, orthostatic headache, nausea, nuchal pain, and photophobia. The other variables did not show significant correlations with the responses to EBPs.CONCLUSIONS: It might be prudent to take the following variables into account when applying an EBP to treat spinal CSF leakage: the interval from the onset to EBP application, age, CSF OP, epidural CSF leakage in RI, epidural CSF collection in MRI, rate of remaining RI, orthostatic headache, nuchal pain, photophobia, and nausea.


Subject(s)
Back Pain , Blood Patch, Epidural , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Headache , Humans , Hypesthesia , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Memory , Myelography , Nausea , Photophobia , Retrospective Studies
7.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated the prevalence of amyloid positivity and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in subjects with cognitive complaints with the aim of identifying differences in clinical parameters and cognitive function according to the pattern of coexistence.METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 200 subjects with memory impairment and applied both standardized ¹⁸F-florbetaben PET and brain MRI, including susceptibility-weighted imaging. The amyloid burden was visually classified as positive or negative, and the number and location of CMBs were also analyzed visually. Descriptive analysis was performed for the prevalence of amyloid positivity and CMBs. The relationship between the coexisting pattern of those two findings and clinical parameters including the results of neuropsychiatric tests was analyzed.RESULTS: Positive amyloid PET scans were exhibited by 102 (51.5%) of the 200 patients, and 51 (25.5%) of them had CMBs, which were mostly located in lobar areas in the patients with positive amyloid scans. The patients with CMBs were older and had a higher burden of white-matter hyperintensities than the patients without CMBs. The patients with CMBs also performed worse in confrontation naming and frontal/executive function. When classified by topographical region, parietal CMBs (odds ratio=3.739, p=0.024) were significantly associated with amyloid positivity.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CMBs was higher in patients with cognitive decline than in the general population. CMBs play distinctive roles in affecting clinical parameters and neuropsychological profiles according to the coexistence of amyloid pathology.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Brain , Cognition , Dementia , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Memory , Parietal Lobe , Pathology , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
8.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of a short form of the Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire-Cognition (KDSQ-C) as a screening tool for cognitive dysfunction.METHODS: This study recruited 420 patients older than 65 years and their informants from 11 hospitals, and categorized the patients into normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia subgroups. The KDSQ-C was completed separately by the patients and their informants. We abstracted three components of the KDSQ-C and combined these components into the following four subscales: KDSQ-C-I (items 1–5, memory domain), KDSQ-C-II (items 1–5 & 11–15, memory domain+activities of daily living), KDSQ-C-III (items 1–5 & 6–10, memory domain+other cognitive domains), and KDSQ-C-IV (items 6–10 & 11–15, other cognitive domains+activities of daily living). The reliability and validity were compared between these four subscales.RESULTS: A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of questionnaire scores provided by the patients showed that the areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for the KDSQ-C, KDSQC-I, and KDSQ-C-II for diagnosing dementia were 0.75, 0.72, and 0.76, respectively; the corresponding AUCs for informant-completed questionnaires were 0.92, 0.89, and 0.92, indicating good discriminability for dementia.CONCLUSIONS: A short form of the patient- and informant-rated versions of the KDSQ-C (KDSQ-C-II) is as capable as the 15-item KDSQ-C in screening for dementia.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Cognition , Dementia , Humans , Mass Screening , Memory , Cognitive Dysfunction , Reproducibility of Results , ROC Curve , Self Report , Self-Assessment
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-781767

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of early intervention electroacupuncture (EA) at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) on the learning-memory ability and the expression of phosphorylated Tau protein in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice, so as to provide reference for the intervening period of EA for Alzheimer's disease (AD).@*METHODS@#A total of 36 3-month old SAMP8 mice were randomly divided into a model group, a 3-month-old EA group and a 9-month-old EA group, 12 mice in each group. Twelve normal SAMR1 mice with the same age were taken as the control group. The mice in the 3-month-old EA group and 9-month-old EA group were treated with EA at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) separately 3 months old and 9 months old (continuous wave, 2 Hz, 1.5-2 mA), 20 min each time, once a day, 8 days as a course of treatment, with an interval of 2 days between courses, totally 3 courses of treatment were given. The mice sample in each group was collected at the age of 10 months after the learning-memory ability tested by Morris water maze. The expression of phosphorylated Tau protein in the hippocampus was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, and the expression of Tau mRNA was detected by real-time PCR.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, in the model group, the escape latency was significantly increased (<0.01), the time of stay in the original platform quadrant and the number of crossing the platform quadrant were reduced (<0.01), and the expressions of phosphorylated Tau protein and Tau mRNA in hippocampus were increased (<0.01). Compared with the model group, in the 3-month-old EA group and 9-month-old EA group, the escape latency was significantly reduced (<0.05), the time of stay in the original platform quadrant and the number of crossing the platform quadrant were increased (<0.05), and the expressions of phosphorylated Tau protein and Tau mRNA in hippocampus were reduced (<0.05). Compared with the 9-month-old EA group, in the 3-month-old EA group, the escape latency was significantly reduced (<0.05), the time of stay in the original platform quadrant and the number of crossing the platform quadrant were increased (<0.05), and the expressions of phosphorylated Tau protein and Tau mRNA were reduced (<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The early EA intervention could more effectively improve the learning-memory ability and inhibit phosphorylation of Tau protein in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Electroacupuncture , Hippocampus , Learning , Memory , Mice , tau Proteins
10.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-787143

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective role of imatinib in global ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury along with possible mechanisms. Global ischemia was induced in mice by bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 20 min, which was followed by reperfusion for 24 h by restoring the blood flow to the brain. The extent of cerebral injury was assessed after 24 h of global ischemia by measuring the locomotor activity (actophotometer test), motor coordination (inclined beam walking test), neurological severity score, learning and memory (object recognition test) and cerebral infarction (triphenyl tetrazolium chloride stain). Ischemia-reperfusion injury produced significant cerebral infarction, impaired the behavioral parameters and decreased the expression of connexin 43 and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in the brain. A single dose administration of imatinib (20 and 40 mg/kg) attenuated ischemia-reperfusion-induced behavioral deficits and the extent of cerebral infarction along with the restoration of connexin 43 and p-STAT3 levels. However, administration of AG490, a selective Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 inhibitor, abolished the neuroprotective actions of imatinib and decreased the expression of connexin 43 and p-STAT3. It is concluded that imatinib has the potential of attenuating global ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury, which may be possibly attributed to activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway along with the increase in the expression of connexin 43.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Carotid Arteries , Cerebral Infarction , Connexin 43 , Imatinib Mesylate , Ischemia , Learning , Memory , Mice , Motor Activity , Neuroprotection , Phosphotransferases , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Transducers , Walking
11.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-787141

ABSTRACT

Neuroinflammation is an important process underlying a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Carvacrol (CAR) is a phenolic monoterpene commonly used as a food additive due to its antibacterial properties, but it has also been shown to exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of CAR on inflammation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In our study, lipopolysaccharide was injected into the lateral ventricle of rats to induce memory impairment and neuroinflammation. Daily administration of CAR (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) for 21 days improved recognition, discrimination, and memory impairments relative to untreated controls. CAR administration significantly attenuated expression of several inflammatory factors in the brain, including interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, CAR significantly increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, and decreased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA. Taken together, these results show that CAR can improve memory impairment caused by neuroinflammation. This cognitive enhancement is due to the anti-inflammatory effects of CAR medicated by its regulation of BDNF and TLR4. Thus, CAR has significant potential as an inhibitor of memory degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cytokines , Discrimination, Psychological , Food Additives , Hippocampus , Inflammation , Lateral Ventricles , Lipopolysaccharides , Memory , Necrosis , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroprotective Agents , Phenol , Prefrontal Cortex , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Toll-Like Receptor 4
12.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-787140

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia worldwide, and is mainly characterized by aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ). Increasing evidence has shown that plant extracts have the potential to delay AD development. The plant sterol β-Sitosterol has a potential role in inhibiting the production of platelet Aβ, suggesting that it may be useful for AD prevention. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of β-Sitosterol on deficits in learning and memory in amyloid protein precursor/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice. APP/PS1 mice were treated with β-Sitosterol for four weeks, from the age of seven months. Brain Aβ metabolism was evaluated using ELISA and Western blotting. We found that β-Sitosterol treatment can improve spatial learning and recognition memory ability, and reduce plaque load in APP/PS1 mice. β-Sitosterol treatment helped reverse dendritic spine loss in APP/PS1 mice and reversed the decreased hippocampal neuron miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequency. Our research helps to explain and support the neuroprotective effect of β-Sitosterol, which may offer a novel pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of AD. Taken together, these findings suggest that β-Sitosterol ameliorates memory and learning impairment in APP/PS1 mice and possibly decreases Aβ deposition.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Animals , Blood Platelets , Blotting, Western , Brain , Cognition Disorders , Dementia , Dendritic Spines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , Learning , Memory , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Plant Extracts , Plants , Plaque, Amyloid , Spatial Learning
13.
Immune Network ; : 2-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811180

ABSTRACT

Acute viral infection or vaccination generates highly functional memory CD8 T cells following the Ag resolution. In contrast, persistent antigenic stimulation in chronic viral infection and cancer leads to a state of T-cell dysfunction termed T-cell exhaustion. We and other have recently identified a novel subset of exhausted CD8 T cells that act as stem cells for maintaining virus-specific CD8 T cells in a mouse model of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. This stem cell-like CD8 T-cell subset has been also observed in both mouse and human tumor models. Most importantly, in both chronic viral infection and tumor models, the proliferative burst of Ag-specific CD8 T cells driven by PD-1-directed immunotherapy comes exclusively from this stem cell-like CD8 T-cell subset. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms how CD8 T-cell subsets are regulated during chronic viral infection and cancer is required to improve the current immunotherapies that restore the function of exhausted CD8 T cells. In this review, we discuss the differentiation of virus-specific CD8 T cells during chronic viral infection, the characteristics and function of CD8 T-cell subsets, and the therapeutic intervention of PD-1-directed immunotherapy in cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus , Memory , Mice , Stem Cells , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination
14.
Psico (Porto Alegre) ; 51(1): e-29844, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1097648

ABSTRACT

Nossa capacidade de armazenamento é maior para estímulos com os quais estamos mais familiarizados. No entanto, os processos específicos afetados pela familiaridade ainda são pouco conhecidos. Nós investigamos o efeito da familiaridade sobre a recuperação de representações visuais em uma tarefa de reconhecimento utilizando o paradigma de dicas retroativas. Uma tarefa de interferência visual irrelevante (Ruído Visual Dinâmico) foi utilizada como indicador da natureza visual das representações recuperadas. A familiaridade, definida como a exposição repetida ao mesmo conjunto de estímulos, foi manipulada entre dois grupos de participantes. Para um grupo (Grupo com Estímulos Repetidos) as provas experimentais continha estímulos sorteados de um mesmo conjunto de 8 (oito) caracteres chineses. Para o outro grupo (Grupo com Estímulos Inéditos) as provas eram formadas por estímulos inéditos, sorteados de um conjunto de 483 caracteres chineses. O RVD foi apresentado no intervalo entre a dica retroativa e o estímulo teste em metade das provas. O desempenho de ambos os grupos na tarefa de reconhecimento melhora ao longo da sessão, mas de forma mais acentuada no grupo que trabalhou com Estímulos Repetidos. O efeito da dica se mantem inalterado ao longo da sessão e independe da familiaridade, entretanto a representação mais familiar mostra-se mais suscetível à interferência do RVD, sugerindo que a exposição repetida aos mesmos estímulos permitiu a geração de representações visuais.


Our ability to save is greater for more familiar stimuli than for less familiar. However, the specific processes affected by familiarity are still less known. We investigate the familiarity effect on the retrieval of visual representations in a recognition task, using the retroactive cue paradigm. A visual interference task (DVN-Dynamic Visual Noise) was used as visual nature indicator of recovered representations. The familiarity, defined as to the repeated exposure to the same stimuli set, was manipulated between two groups of participants. For one group (Group with Repeated Stimuli) the experimental tests contained stimuli drawn from the same set of 8 Chinese characters. For the other group (Group with Unpublished Stimuli) the tests were formed by unpublished stimuli, drawn from a set of 483 Chinese characters. DVN was presented in the interval between the retroactive tip and the test stimulus in half the tests. The performance of both groups improves on the task recognition throughout the experimental session, but more sharply at the group that worked with Repeated Stimuli. The retrieval effect remains unchanged throughout the session and independs of familiarity, however the more familiar representation is more susceptible to DVN, suggesting the repeated exposure to the same stimuli allowed the generation of visual representations.


Nuestra capacidad de almacenamiento es mayor para estímulos familiares que para los estímulos poco familiares. Sin embargo, los procesos específicos afectados por la familiaridad son poco conocidos. Nosotros investigamos el efecto de la familiaridad sobre la recuperación de las representaciones visuales en una tarea de reconocimiento usando el paradigma de pistas retroactivas. Una tarea de interferencia visual irrelevante (Ruido Visual Dinámico) fue utilizada como indicador de la naturaleza visual de las representaciones recuperadas. La familiaridad, definida como la exposición repetida al mismo conjunto de estímulos, fue manipulada entre dos grupos de participantes. Para un grupo (Grupo con Estímulos Repetidos) las pruebas experimentales contenían estímulos sorteados de un mismo conjunto de 8 caracteres chinos. Para el otro grupo (Grupo con Estímulos Inéditos) las pruebas eran formadas por estímulos inéditos, sorteados de un conjunto de 483 caracteres chinos. El RVD fue presentado en el intervalo entre pista retroactiva y el estímulo test en la mitad de las pruebas. El desempeño de ambos los grupos en la terea de reconocimiento mejora a lo largo de la sesión experimental, pero mejora de forma más acentuada en el grupo que trabajó con los Estímulos Repetidos. El efecto de las pistas retroactivas se mantiene inalterado a lo largo de la sesión y no depende de la familiaridad, por otro lado, la representación más familiar se muestra más susceptible a la interferencia del RVD, sugiriendo que la exposición repetida a los mismos estímulos permitió la generación de representaciones visuales


Subject(s)
Memory , Vision, Ocular , Mental Processes
15.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 14(2): 1-7, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1102535

ABSTRACT

Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar la influencia de las emociones en los procesos de memoria declarativa en personas con enfermedad de Alzheimer. Para esto, se planteó un estudio con diseño comparativo-correlacional y modelo no probabilístico. Participaron 160 adultos mayores, 80 con diagnóstico de enfermedad de Alzheimer y 80 con envejecimiento normal, homólogos en edad, género y nivel escolar. Se encontró que, de forma general, las emociones negativas favorecen la codificación, almacenamiento y evocación de la información en personas con Alzheimer, más que las positivas, y la mayor influencia se haya en contenidos de información asociados a emociones como miedo y tristeza. Asimismo, el brindar claves semánticas posibilita una mayor cantidad de información a ser evocada. La memoria en el envejecimiento normal y patológico se beneficia de los vínculos establecidos entre la información y las emociones contextuales al momento de registrarla y almacenarla, por lo que, siendo la memoria uno de los principales deterioros en la enfermedad de Alzheimer, este vínculo es clave en el abordaje de la patología y los programas de intervención clínica.


The objective of this research was to determine the influence of emotions on declarative memory processes in people with Alzheimer's disease. A study with a comparative-correlational design and a non-probabilistic model was proposed. 160 elderly people participated, 80 with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and 80 with normal aging, homologous in age, gender and school level. It was found that in general negative emotions favor the coding storage and evocation of information in people with Alzheimer's disease, rather than positive ones, and the greatest influence is on information content associated with emotions such as fear and sadness. Likewise, providing semantic keys allows a greater amount of information to be evoked. Memory in normal and pathological aging benefits from the links established between information and contextual emotions at the time of recording and storing it since memory is one of the main impairments in Alzheimer's disease, this link is key in the approach of pathology and clinical intervention programs.


O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar a influência das emoções nos processos de memória declarativa em pessoas com doença de Alzheimer. Para isso, foi proposto um estudo com modelo comparativo-correlacional e não probabilístico. Participaram 160 idosos, sendo 80 com diagnóstico de doença de Alzheimer e 80 com envelhecimento normal, homólogos em idade, sexo e nível escolar. Achou-se que, em geral, as emoções negativas favorecem a codificação, armazenamento e evocação de informações em pessoas com doença de Alzheimer, ao invés das positivas, e a maior influência está no conteúdo de informação associado a emoções como medo e tristeza. Da mesma forma, fornecer chaves-semânticas permite que uma quantidade maior de informações seja evocada. A memória no envelhecimento normal e patológico se beneficia das ligações estabelecidas entre a informação e as emoções contextuais no momento de registrála e de armazená-la, de modo que, como a memória é um dos principais prejuízos na doença de Alzheimer, essa ligação é fundamental na abordagem da patologia e dos programas de intervenção clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Emotions/physiology , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Aging/physiology , Cognition/physiology , Memory/physiology
16.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25039, jan.- dez. 2019. Quadros
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1048270

ABSTRACT

Fundamentado no aporte teórico-metodológico da História Oral, este texto analisa os dez Centros de Memória da Educação Física e Esporte existentes nas universidades federais brasileiras, considerando seus objetivos, funções e estratégias de ação. Para tanto, foram realizadas 36 entrevistas com pessoas que criaram e participaram dessas iniciativas, as quais foram cotejadas com outras fontes documentais. Ao analisarmos essas diferentes fontes, identificamos o quanto esses lugares são representados como espaços que guardam, recuperam, preservam, produzem e divulgam memórias. Por estarem vinculados a instituições universitárias outras funções são mencionadas, notadamente, no que se refere à produção de conhecimento e à formação de pessoas


Based on the theoretical-methodological contribution of Oral History, this text analyzes the ten Memory Centers for Physical Education and Sports operating in Brazilian federal universities, considering their goals, functions and action strategies. Thirtysix interviews were conducted with the people who created and participated in those initiatives, which were compared with other documentary sources. In analyzing these different sources, the article discusses how these places are represented as spaces that keep, recover, preserve, produce and disseminate memories. Because they are linked to university institutions, other functions are mentioned, especially regarding knowledge production and training


Fundamentado en el aporte teórico-metodológico de la Historia Oral, este texto analiza los diez Centros de Memoria de Educación Física y Deporte existentes en las universidades federales brasileñas, considerando sus objetivos, funciones y estrategias de acción. Para ello, fueron realizadas 36 entrevistas con personas que crearon y participaron en esas iniciativas, las cuales fueron verificadas con otras fuentes documentales. Al analizar las diferentes fuentes identificamos que esos lugares son representados como espacios que guardan, recuperan, preservan, producen y divulgan memorias. Por estar vinculados a instituciones universitarias, otras funciones son mencionadas, sobre todo en lo que se refiere a la producción de conocimiento y a la formación de personas


Subject(s)
Humans , Physical Education and Training , Universities , History , Archives , Libraries , Memory , Museums
17.
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 18: 1-14, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1095036

ABSTRACT

La presente investigación tiene por objetivo estudiar la correlación entre las habilidades de memoria secuencial auditiva (MSA), integración auditiva (IA) y el desempeño fonológico en 24 niños con trastorno específico del lenguaje (TEL) expresivo de un rango etario de 3 años a 3 años 11 meses que asisten a una escuela especial de lenguaje. Los participantes fueron evaluados mediante la aplicación de dos subtest del Test Illinois de Aptitudes Psicolingüísticas (subtest de MSA y subtest de IA), y el Test para Evaluar los Procesos de Simplificación Fonológica Revisado (TEPROSIF-R). Los resultados muestran una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre memoria secuencial auditiva, integración auditiva y desempeño fonológico. Al analizar los datos dividiendo la muestra en dos grupos etarios se observa que, para el grupo etario de 3 años a 3 años 5 meses existe una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre MSA, IA y desempeño fonológico. En cambio, para el grupo etario de 3 años 6 meses a 3 años 11 meses se observa la misma tendencia sinalcanzar valores estadísticamente significativos. Esto sugiere que la relación entre estas variables disminuye a medida que los niños se acercan a su cuarto año de vida.


The present research aims to study the correlation between auditory sequential memory capacity (ASM), auditory integration (AI) abilities, and phonological performance in 24 children with expressive specific language impairment, with an age range between 3 and 3 years and 11 months, who attend a special language school. Participants were evaluated through two subtests of the Illinois Psycholinguistic Aptitudes Test (an ASM subtest and an AIsubtest), and the Test to Evaluate the Phonological Simplification Processes Revised (TEPROSIF-R). The results indicate a statistically significant correlation between sequential auditory memory, auditory integration and phonological performance. When analyzing the data by dividing the sample into two age groups. When analyzing the data dividing the sample into two age groups, we observed that, for the age group between 3 and 3 years and 5 months there is a statistically significant correlation between auditory sequential memory, auditory integration and phonological performance. For the age group from 3 years 6 months to 3 years 11 months the same trend is observed without reaching statistically significant values. This suggests that the relationship between these variables decreases as children approach their fourth year of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Auditory Perception/physiology , Specific Language Disorder/physiopathology , Memory
18.
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 18: 1-20, nov. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1095114

ABSTRACT

El presente estudio aborda el impacto de la enfermedad de Parkinson en el procesamiento de información semántica durante una tarea de reconocimiento visual de palabras. Para ello, se comparó el rendimiento de un grupo de pacientes con Parkinson con el rendimiento de sujetos sin daño neurológico en dos experimentos. Se evaluaron los efectos de tiempo de presentación de un prime semántico directo (Experimento 1) y un prime semántico mediado orto-fonológicamente (Experimento 2). Además, se evaluó la influencia de la frecuencia léxica tanto del prime como la palabra target, sobre el acceso léxico. Los participantes estaban divididos en tres grupos (grupo clínico, grupo de control etario, y grupo de adultos jóvenes). Los tres grupos completaron una tarea de decisión léxica de tiempo de reacción en la modalidad go-no-go. Los participantes debían responder presionando una tecla del computador si el estímulo presentado en la pantalla era una palabra. En el caso contrario cuando era una pseudo palabra, los participantes no debían presionar ninguna tecla. Los resultados en base al número de respuestas correctas y los tiempos de reacción muestran dificultades de procesamiento semántico en el grupo clínico. Sin embargo, este grupo mostró ser sensible a la frecuencia de las palabras y los tiempos de presentación de estas. En su conjunto, los resultados son coherentes con la literatura existente, y contribuyen a comprender de mejor manera el déficit lingüístico presente en la enfermedad de Parkinson.


The present study addresses the incidence of Parkinson's disease in the processing of semantic information during visual word recognition tasks. In order to do so, the performance of a group of patients with Parkinson's was compared with the performance of subjects without neurological impairment in two experiments. We evaluate the effects of presentation time of a semantic prime (Experiment 1) and anortho-phonologically mediated semantic prime (Experiment 2), and the impact of the lexical frequency of both the prime and the target words. Participants divided into three groups (a clinical group, an age control group and a group of young adults), completed a reaction time lexical decision task in the go-no-go modality. They had to respond by pressing a computer key if the stimulus presented on the screen was a word. Otherwise, the participants should not press any key. The results, based on response accuracy and reaction times, show a semantic deficit in the clinical group, while this group was, nevertheless, sensitive to the frequency of the words and their presentation time. As a whole, the results are consistent with the existing literature, and contribute to a better understanding of the linguistic deficit present in Parkinson's disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Semantics , Speech/physiology , Language , Reaction Time , Memory
19.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 13(3): 343-349, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1039653

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Memory complaint (MC) is common in older adults and can be confirmed by people close to them, such as family members and caregivers. Studies show an association between MC and cognitive impairment and, hence, physical vulnerability may exacerbate MC. However, the relationship between MC and physical vulnerability is not yet clear in the literature.\ Objective: to investigate the association between MC, cognitive impairment, and physical vulnerability. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study. We evaluated 100 older adults with a mean age of 65 years or over. The Memory Complaint Scale (MCS), Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Vulnerable Elderly Research-13 (VES-13), Geriatric Depression Scale and a sociodemographic questionnaire were applied. Results: participants were divided into two groups according to results on the MCS-A (elderly) and MCS-B (informant). Correlations were found between the MCS-A and the MMSE (p=.045/ρ=.201), ACE-R/Visual-Spatial (p=.048/ρ=.199), and ACE-R/Attention-Orientation (p=.026/ρ=.223). For the MCS-B, correlations were found with total score on the ACE-R (p=.044/ρ=-.202) and the ACE-R/Visual-Spatial (p=0.003/ρ=-.291). Conclusion: MC reported by the informant indicate the need to assess, in more depth, the cognition of the older adult. Thus, for clinical practice, screening of MC through an informant is advised.


RESUMO. A queixa de memória (QM) é comum em idosos e pode ser confirmada por pessoas próximas a ele, como familiares e cuidadores. Estudos apontam associação entre QM e alterações cognitivas e, nesse sentido, a vulnerabilidade física poderia exacerbá-la. Porém, a relação entre QM e vulnerabilidade física ainda não está clara na literatura. Objetivo: investigar a relação entre QM, alterações cognitivas e vulnerabilidade física. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo transversal. Foram avaliados 100 idosos com idade igual ou superior a 65 anos. Utilizou-se a Escala de Queixa de Memória (EQM), Exame Cognitivo de Addenbrooke - Revisado (ACE-R), Mini Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM), Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13), Escala de Depressão Geriátrica e questionário sociodemográfico. Resultados: os participantes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com os resultados da EQM formas A (idoso) e B (informante). Encontrou-se correlação entre a EQM-A e MEEM (p=.045/ρ=.201), ACE-R Atenção e Orientação (p=.026/ρ=.223) e ACE-R/Visual-Espacial (p=.048/ρ=.199). Na EQM-B encontrou-se correlação entre pontuação total do ACE-R (p=.044/ρ=-.202) e ACE-R/Visual-Espacial. (p=.003/ρ=-.291). Conclusão: o relato de QM a partir do informante aponta a necessidade de avaliação mais aprofundada da cognição dos idosos. Assim, para a prática clínica, o rastreio de QM do informante é aconselhado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction , Motor Disorders , Memory
20.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 13(3): 335-342, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1039656

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT There is great divergence of results in the literature regarding the clinical relevance and etiology of subjective cognitive impairment (SCI). Currently, SCI is studied as a pre-clinical symptom of Alzheimer's disease, before establishing a possible diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The hypothesis was that SCI is associated with low cognitive performance and poor self-perceived health. Objective: to investigate the relationship of SCI with objective cognitive impairment and self-perceived health in older individuals and to compare SCI reported by the elderly subjects and by their respective informants. Methods: 83 subjects participated in the study, divided between the forms of the Memory Complaint Scale (MCS). Cognition was evaluated by the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised and self-perceived health by the Short Form Health Survey-8. Results: there was no association between SCI and self-perceived health. SCI reported by the older adults was associated with executive functions. SCI reported by the informant was associated with overall cognitive performance, memory, verbal fluency and visuospatial functions. Conclusion: we found more robust results between SCI reported by the informant and cognitive impairment in the elderly assessed. There is a need to include and value the perception of someone who knows the older individual well enough to evaluate SCI globally.


RESUMO Há grande divergência de resultados na literatura em relação à relevância clínica e à etiologia do comprometimento cognitivo subjetivo (CCS). Atualmente, o CCS é estudado como um sintoma pré-clínico da doença de Alzheimer, antes de se estabelecer um possível diagnóstico de CCL. A hipótese é que o CCS pode estar associado a um desempenho inferior em testes cognitivos ou a uma autopercepção de saúde ruim. Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a relação do CCS com o comprometimento cognitivo objetivo e a autopercepção de saúde em idosos e comparar o CCS relatado pelos idosos e o CCS relatado pelo informante. Métodos: 83 sujeitos participaram do estudo, divididos entre as formas da Escala de Queixa de Memória para as análises. A cognição foi avaliada pelo Exame Cognitivo de Addenbrooke - Revisado e autopercepção da saúde pelo Short Form Health Survey-8. Resultados: não houve associação entre CCS e autopercepção de saúde. O CCS relatado pelos idosos foi associado com funções executivas. O CCS reportado pelo informante esteve associado ao desempenho cognitivo global, memória, fluência verbal e função visual espacial. Conclusão: neste estudo encontramos resultados mais robustos entre CCS relatado pelo informante e o comprometimento cognitivo objetivo dos idosos, evidenciando a necessidade de incluir e valorizar a percepção de um indivíduo que conheça o idoso bem o suficiente para avaliar o CCS de maneira integrada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Caregivers , Cognitive Dysfunction , Memory
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