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1.
Ciênc. cogn ; 26(1): 77-93, 10 set. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292985

ABSTRACT

Reading in a foreign language is considered a high cognitive function, believed, thus, to impose demands on working memory resources. Studies have shown significant correlations between working memory capacity and foreign language reading comprehension, but its underlying mechanisms are still open to discussion. This article reports on a study whose objective was to investigate possible correlations between working memory capacity and foreign language reading comprehension considering the knowledge of the first language as a possible source of interference. A recall task was conducted in two conditions, one in which readers performed the task in English and another, in Portuguese. Results showed a weak but statistically significant correlation between working memory capacity and recall scores in the second condition and no correlations between working memory capacity and reading time. Exploratory data analyses suggested that the correlation observed was influenced by foreign language reading proficiency and that the ratio of recall scores to reading time is a better measure of comprehension efficiency.


A leitura em língua estrangeira é considerada uma função cognitiva de alto nível que se acredita, portanto, impor demandas nos recursos da memória de trabalho. Estudos mostram correlações significativas entre capacidade de memória de trabalho e compreensão leitora em língua estrangeira, mas seus mecanismos subjacentes ainda estão abertos a discussões. Esse artigo reporta um estudo cujo objetivo foi investigar possíveis correlações entre capacidade de memória de trabalho e compreensão leitora em língua estrangeira considerando o conhecimento da primeira língua como uma possível fonte de interferência. Uma tarefa de recordação foi conduzida em duas condições, uma em que os leitores realizaram a tarefa em inglês e outra, em português. Os resultados mostraram uma correlação fraca, mas estatisticamente significativa entre capacidade de memória de trabalho e pontuações no teste de recordação na segunda condição e nenhuma correlação entre capacidade de memória de trabalho e tempo de leitura. Análises exploratórias dos dados apontaram que a correlação observada foi influenciada pela proficiência de leitura em língua estrangeira e que a razão entre pontuações do teste de recordação e tempo de leitura é uma medida mais apropriada para a eficiência da compreensão leitora.


Subject(s)
Humans , Comprehension , Language , Learning , Memory, Short-Term
2.
Aval. psicol ; 20(2): 201-208, abr.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1285437

ABSTRACT

Esse estudo teve como objetivo comparar o desempenho de memória operacional e memória episódica em estudantes do ensino público e privado. A amostra foi composta por 79 crianças, com idades entre 9 e 12 anos, divididos por gênero, idade e tipo de escola. A avaliação foi realizada individualmente por meio da CMS e Raven. Para a análise dos dados, foi utilizado o teste t de Student, com nível de significância adotado de 5%. Os resultados evidenciam melhor desempenho das crianças de escola pública nas tarefas de inteligência e memória visual, enquanto os estudantes de escola particular apresentaram melhor desempenho em memória verbal e visual, corroborando com estudos que apontam diferenças em tarefas cognitivas para crianças de níveis socioeconômicos diferentes. Esses resultados fomentam a importância de mais pesquisas na área, para compreensão e melhorias no desenvolvimento cognitivo das crianças e adolescentes brasileiros. (AU)


This study aimed to compare the performance of working memory and episodic memory in students from public and private schools. A sample consisted of 79 children, aged between 9 and 12 years; divided by gender, age and type of school. The assessment was carried out individually using the CMS and Raven's test. For the data analysis student's t-test was used, the level of significance adopted was 5%. The results showed better performance by the public school children in tasks of intelligence and visual memory, while the students from private schools showed better performance in verbal and visual memory, corroborating studies that highlight differences in cognitive tasks for children with different socioeconomic levels. These results demonstrate the importance of more research in the area, aiming to better understand and improve the cognitive development of Brazilian children and adolescents. (AU)


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comparar el rendimiento de la memoria de trabajo y la memoria episódica en estudiantes de escuelas públicas y privadas. La muestra se compuso por 79 niños, con edades comprendidas entre 9 y 12 años; divididos por género, edad y tipo de escuela. La evaluación se realizó individualmente a través de la CMS y Raven. Se utilizó la prueba t de student para el análisis de datos, el nivel de significación adoptado fue del 5%. Los resultados evidenciaron un mejor rendimiento de los niños de las escuelas públicas en tareas de inteligencia y memoria visual, mientras que los estudiantes de la escuela privada mostraron un mejor rendimiento en la memoria verbal y visual, corroborando con estudios que señalan diferencias en las tareas cognitivas para niños de diferentes niveles socioeconómicos. Estos resultados alientan la importancia de una mayor investigación en el área, para comprender y mejorar el desarrollo cognitivo de los niños y adolescentes brasileños. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Cognition , Memory, Episodic , Memory, Short-Term , Socioeconomic Factors , Students/psychology , Statistical Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Intelligence Tests , Medical History Taking
3.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(2): 256-266, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286193

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. The literature indicates that cognitive stimulation interventions have shown promising results. Abacus represents a tool with great potential in such interventions. Objectives: To carry out a systematic review of studies published in recent years that entailed the delivery of a cognitive training program using an abacus to boost target cognitive abilities of older persons and also other age groups, with or without cognitive impairment. Methods: A systematic review study was conducted in July 2020 involving PubMed, MedLine, LILACS, and SciELO databases. Results: A total of 29 studies were retrieved, of which 8 aimed to identify the effect of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) for different age groups and to determine its applicability as a method of cognitive stimulation for older adults. In AMC technique, participants first learn to use the physical abacus (PA) and after achieving proficiency they perform calculations using a mental image of the device, manipulating the beads of the so-called mental abacus (MA). Conclusions: The number of studies addressing abacus use as a cognitive training tool was rather limited, considering the relevance of the theme. Their interventions have shown benefits for cognitive functioning of individuals of various age groups, including older adults with cognitive impairment. Future studies that involve larger samples of healthy and/or cognitively impaired older adults with a longitudinal design and a more elaborate methodological design are suggested.


RESUMO. A literatura aponta que intervenções de estimulação cognitiva têm mostrado resultados promissores. O ábaco representa uma ferramenta com grande potencial nesse tipo de intervenções. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão sistemática de estudos publicados nos últimos anos que buscaram, em seus métodos, oferecer um programa de treino cognitivo com o uso do ábaco para estimular habilidades-alvo em idosos e em pessoas de outras faixas etárias, com ou sem comprometimento cognitivo. Métodos: Estudo de revisão sistemática, realizado em julho de 2020, utilizando-se as bases de dados PubMed, MedLine, LILACS e SciELO. Resultados: Um total de 29 estudos foram encontrados, dos quais oito objetivaram identificar o efeito do treino de uma técnica chamada abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) em diferentes faixas etárias e verificar sua aplicabilidade como método de estimulação cognitiva para idosos. No AMC, os participantes aprendem inicialmente a manipular o ábaco físico (PA, na sigla em inglês) e, após adquirirem agilidade, passam a realizar cálculos com uma imagem mental do instrumento, manipulando as contas do denominado ábaco mental (MA, na sigla em inglês). Conclusões: O número de estudos que abordaram o uso do ábaco como ferramenta para realização de treino cognitivo foi bastante limitado diante da relevância do tema. Os estudos analisados apresentaram benefícios do treino cognitivo com uso do ábaco para o desempenho cognitivo de indivíduos de diversas faixas etárias, inclusive em idosos com comprometimento cognitivo. Para estudos futuros, espera-se a realização de mais pesquisas com amostras maiores, com delineamento longitudinal e com métodos bem elaborados, com enfoque em pessoas idosas, saudáveis e/ou com comprometimento cognitivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mental Health , Aging , Cognition , Executive Function , Spatial Memory , Memory, Short-Term
4.
Av. psicol. latinoam ; 39(1): 1-25, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1366996

ABSTRACT

El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo desarrollar y validar el Cuestionario de Funciones Ejecutivas (CUFE), un cuestionario accesible para evaluar las tres principales funciones ejecutivas (memoria de trabajo, inhibición y flexibilidad cognitiva) en niños de 9 a 12 años y, así, proporcionar valores descriptivos de referencia y evidencias acerca de su confiabilidad y validez. Para ello se analizó su funcionamiento en una muestra de 269 niños argentinos de 9 a 12 años de edad, alumnos del segundo ciclo de la escuela primaria. El análisis factorial exploratorio reveló una estructura de tres factores que explicaban 49.08 % de la varianza, con cargas factoriales unidimensionales y satisfactorias. Los factores retenidos presentaron buenos índices de confiabilidad y fueron llamados: memoria de trabajo, inhibición y flexibilidad y con-trol emocional. La memoria de trabajo se asoció con la comprensión lectora, el cálculo matemático y las calificaciones escolares de Prácticas del lenguaje y Matemática. Las restantes dos subescalas se asociaron con las calificaciones escolares de ambas asignaturas. Las dimensiones del cuestionario coinciden con los actuales modelos teóricos de funcionamiento ejecutivo. En función de las evidencias de validez y confiabilidad, el CUFE se presenta como un instrumento ecológico y valioso para la medición de las funciones ejecutivas en el contexto de la evaluación infantil


The present study aimed to develop and validate an accessible questionnaire to assess the three core execu-tive functions (working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility) in children aged 9-12 years: the Executive Function Questionnaire (CUFE), and to provide descrip-tive baseline values and evidence about its reliability and validity. The questionnaire was tested on a sample of 269 Argentinean children from 9 to 12 years old. Children attended elementary schools in Mar del Plata's city. The exploratory factorial analysis revealed a three-factor structure that explained 49.08% of the variance. The items were unidimensional and showed satisfactory factor loadings. The retained factors presented good reliability and were called working memory, inhibition and flexibility, and emotional control. Working memory was associated with reading comprehension, mathemat-ical skills, and school grades (language practices and mathematics). Inhibition and flexibility, and emotional control were associated with school grades. The factors were consistent with current theoretical models on executive functioning. Based on the evidence obtained, the cufe represents an ecological and valuable instru-ment for measuring executive functions on children


O presente estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver e validar um questionário acessível para avaliar as três principais funções executivas (memória de trabalho, inibição, flexibilidade cognitiva) em crianças de 9 a 12 anos: o Questionário de Funções Executivas (cufe); e fornecer valores de referência descritivos e evidên-cias sobre sua confiabilidade e validade. Para tanto, foi analisado seu funcionamento em uma amostra de 269 crianças argentinas entre 9 e 12 anos, estudantes do se-gundo ciclo do ensino fundamental. A análise fatorial exploratória revelou uma estrutura de três fatores que explicou 49.08% da variância, com cargas fatoriais unidi-mensionais satisfatórias. Os fatores retidos apresentaram bons índices de confiabilidade e foram denominados Memória de trabalho, Inibição e Flexibilidade e con-trole emocional. A memória de trabalho foi associada à compreensão de leitura, ao cálculo matemático e às notas escolares de Prática de Linguagem e Matemática. As duas subescalas restantes foram associadas às notas escolares de ambas as disciplinas. As dimensões do ques-tionário coincidem com os modelos teóricos atuais de funcionamento executivo. Com base nas evidências de validade e confiabilidade, o cufe apresenta-se como um instrumento ecológico e valioso para a mensuração das funções executivas no contexto da avaliação infantil


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Memory, Short-Term , Argentina , Child , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Educational Measurement , Inhibition, Psychological
5.
Med. U.P.B ; 40(1): 10-18, 03/03/2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1177482

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: La capacidad intelectual (CI) y las funciones ejecutivas (FE) influyen en el rendimiento académico, lo que a su vez se asocia con la deserción universitaria que es un fenómeno que afecta a la sociedad colombiana en general. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los factores de la CI y de la FE que tienen que ver con el bajo rendimiento y con el alto rendimiento académico en una muestra de estudiantes universitarios. Metodología: Estudio observacional, transversal de dos grupos (bajo y alto rendimiento académico), de tipo analítico, prospectivo. Resultados: Todas las variables de CI y de FE mostraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos del estudio (p≤0.05), con mejor ejecución por parte de los estudiantes con alto rendimiento académico. Conclusiones: Se encontraron déficits ejecutivos y en el CI, así como en la mayoría de las dimensiones de FE en los estudiantes con bajo rendimiento, tales como menor rendimiento en la organización y categorización verbal, la memoria operativa verbal, la categorización visual y el control inhibitorio, sin que hubiera alteraciones en flexibilidad cognitiva. En el grupo de menor rendimiento también se observó mayor velocidad de la memoria operativa visual que podría entenderse como compensatoria.


Introduction: Intellectual capacity (IQ) and executive functions (EF) influence students' academic performance, which in turn is associated with university dropout, a phenomenon that affects Colombian society in general. The objective of this work was to analyze the factors of IQ and EF that have to do with low performance and high academic perfor-mance in a sample of university students. Methodology: Observational, analytical, prospective cross-sectional study carried out in 2 groups (low and high academic performance). Results: All IQ and FE variables showed significant differences between the study groups (p≤0.05), with better performance by students with high academic performance. Conclusions: Executive and IQ deficits were found, as well as in most of the EF dimensions in students with low performance, such as lower performance in verbal organization and categorization, verbal working memory, visual categorization and inhibitory control, without alterations in cognitive flexibility. In the group with the lowest performance, a higher speed of visual working memory was also observed, which could be understood as compensatory.


Objetivo: a capacidade intelectual (QI) e as funções executivas (EF) influenciam o des-empenho acadêmico, que por sua vez está associado à evasão universitária, fenômeno que afeta a sociedade colombiana em geral. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os fatores de QI e FE que têm a ver com baixo desempenho e alto desempenho acadêmico em uma amostra de estudantes universitários. Metodologia: Estudo observacional, transversal de dois grupos (baixo e alto rendimento escolar), analítico, prospectivo. Resultados: Todas as variáveis de QI e FE apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os grupos de estudo (p≤0,05), com melhor desempenho dos alunos com alto rendimento acadêmico. Conclusões: Foram encontrados déficits executivos e de QI, assim como na maioria das dimensões de FE em escolares com baixo desempenho, como menor desempenho em organização e categorização verbal, memória de trabalho verbal, categorização e controle visual. Inibitórios, sem alterações na flexibilidade cognitiva. No grupo de pior desempenho, também foi observada maior velocidade de memória visual de trabalho, o que pode ser entendido como compensatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Executive Function , Universities , Qi , Affect , Academic Performance , Memory, Short-Term
6.
Psico USF ; 26(1): 67-76, Jan. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1287586

ABSTRACT

The capacity of visual working memory (VWM) depends on the complexity of the stimuli being processed. Emotional characteristics increase stimulus complexity and can interfere with the competition for cognitive resources. Studies involving emotional information processing are scarce and still produce contradicting results. In the present study, we investigated the capacity of VWM for faces with positive, negative, and neutral expressions. A modified change-detection task was used in two experiments, in which the number of faces and the emotional valence were manipulated. The results showed that VWM has a storage capacity of approximately two faces, which is fewer than the storage capacity identified for simpler stimuli. Our results reinforce the evidence that working memory can dynamically distribute its storage resources depending on both the amount and the emotional nature of the stimuli. (AU)


A capacidade da Memória Visual de Trabalho (MTV) depende da complexidade dos estímulos que estão sendo processados. As características emocionais aumentam a complexidade do estímulo e podem interferir na competição por recursos cognitivos. Estudos envolvendo processamento de informações emocionais são escassos e ainda produzem resultados contraditórios. No presente estudo, investiga-se a capacidade da MTV para faces com expressões positivas, negativas e neutras. Uma tarefa modificada de detecção de mudança foi usada em dois experimentos, nos quais o número de faces e a valência emocional foram manipulados. Os resultados mostraram que a MTV tem uma capacidade de armazenamento de aproximadamente duas faces, menor que a capacidade de armazenamento identificada para estímulos mais simples. Os resultados reforçam as evidências de que a memória de trabalho consegue distribuir dinamicamente seus recursos de armazenamento em função tanto da quantidade como da natureza emocional dos estímulos. (AU


La capacidad de la memoria de trabajo visual (MTV) puede variar dependiendo de la complejidad de los estímulos procesados. Las características emocionales aumentan la complejidad del estímulo y pueden interferir con la competencia por los recursos cognitivos. Los estudios que relacionan el procesamiento de informaciones emocionales son todavía escasos y aún producen resultados contradictorios. En el presente estudio, investigamos la capacidad de la MTV de rostros con valencia emocional positiva, negativa y neutra. Se utilizó una tarea de detección de cambios modificada en dos experimentos, en los que se manipuló la cantidad de rostros y niveles de valencia emocional. Nuestros resultados refuerzan la evidencia de que la memoria de trabajo es capaz de distribuir dinámicamente sus recursos de almacenamiento dependiendo tanto de la cantidad, como de la naturaleza emocional de los estímulos. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Emotions , Facial Expression , Memory, Short-Term
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888226

ABSTRACT

Mental fatigue is the subjective state of people after excessive consumption of information resources. Its impact on cognitive activities is mainly manifested as decreased alertness, poor memory and inattention, which is highly related to the performance after impaired working memory. In this paper, the partial directional coherence method was used to calculate the coherence coefficient of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) of each electrode. The analysis of brain network and its attribute parameters was used to explore the changes of information resource allocation of working memory under mental fatigue. Mental fatigue was quickly induced by the experimental paradigm of adaptive N-back working memory. Twenty-five healthy college students were randomly recruited as subjects, including 14 males and 11 females, aged from 20 to 27 years old, all right-handed. The behavioral data and resting scalp EEG data were collected simultaneously. The results showed that the main information transmission pathway of the brain changed under mental fatigue, mainly in the frontal lobe and parietal lobe. The significant changes in brain network parameters indicated that the information transmission path of the brain decreased and the efficiency of information transmission decreased significantly. In the causal flow of each electrode and the information flow of each brain region, the inflow of information resources in the frontal lobe decreased under mental fatigue. Although the parietal lobe region and occipital lobe region became the main functional connection areas in the fatigue state, the inflow of information resources in these two regions was still reduced as a whole. These results indicated that mental fatigue affected the information resources allocation of working memory, especially in the frontal and parietal regions which were closely related to working memory.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Brain , Female , Frontal Lobe , Humans , Male , Memory, Short-Term , Mental Fatigue , Resource Allocation , Young Adult
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888200

ABSTRACT

Emotion plays an important role in people's cognition and communication. By analyzing electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to identify internal emotions and feedback emotional information in an active or passive way, affective brain-computer interactions can effectively promote human-computer interaction. This paper focuses on emotion recognition using EEG. We systematically evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art feature extraction and classification methods with a public-available dataset for emotion analysis using physiological signals (DEAP). The common random split method will lead to high correlation between training and testing samples. Thus, we use block-wise


Subject(s)
Arousal , Electroencephalography , Emotions , Humans , Memory, Short-Term , Neural Networks, Computer
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879825

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the intellectual characteristics of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental dyslexia (DD).@*METHODS@#A total of 55 children with ADHD and DD (ADHD+DD group), 150 children with ADHD alone (ADHD group), and 22 children with DD alone (DD group) were enrolled as subjects. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was used to evaluate and compare intellectual characteristics among the three groups.@*RESULTS@#There were significant differences in the scores of full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index, perceptual reasoning index, and working memory index among the three groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with the children with ADHD alone, the children with ADHD and DD have more severe impairment of FSIQ, verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, and working memory, and therefore, it is suggested to enhance the training on similarities, vocabulary, matrix reasoning, picture concepts, and recitation for children with ADHD and DD in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Child , Dyslexia , Humans , Intelligence Tests , Memory, Short-Term , Wechsler Scales
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879285

ABSTRACT

In order to solve the current problems in medical equipment maintenance, this study proposed an intelligent fault diagnosis method for medical equipment based on long short term memory network(LSTM). Firstly, in the case of no circuit drawings and unknown circuit board signal direction, the symptom phenomenon and port electrical signal of 7 different fault categories were collected, and the feature coding, normalization, fusion and screening were preprocessed. Then, the intelligent fault diagnosis model was built based on LSTM, and the fused and screened multi-modal features were used to carry out the fault diagnosis classification and identification experiment. The results were compared with those using port electrical signal, symptom phenomenon and the fusion of the two types. In addition, the fault diagnosis algorithm was compared with BP neural network (BPNN), recurrent neural network (RNN) and convolution neural network (CNN). The results show that based on the fused and screened multi-modal features, the average classification accuracy of LSTM algorithm model reaches 0.970 9, which is higher than that of using port electrical signal alone, symptom phenomenon alone or the fusion of the two types. It also has higher accuracy than BPNN, RNN and CNN, which provides a relatively feasible new idea for intelligent fault diagnosis of similar equipment.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Electricity , Memory, Short-Term , Neural Networks, Computer
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879273

ABSTRACT

Fetal electrocardiogram signal extraction is of great significance for perinatal fetal monitoring. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of fetal electrocardiogram signal, this paper proposes a fetal electrocardiogram signal extraction method (GA-LSTM) based on genetic algorithm (GA) optimization with long and short term memory (LSTM) network. Firstly, according to the characteristics of the mixed electrocardiogram signal of the maternal abdominal wall, the global search ability of the GA is used to optimize the number of hidden layer neurons, learning rate and training times of the LSTM network, and the optimal combination of parameters is calculated to make the network topology and the mother body match the characteristics of the mixed signals of the abdominal wall. Then, the LSTM network model is constructed using the optimal network parameters obtained by the GA, and the nonlinear transformation of the maternal chest electrocardiogram signals to the abdominal wall is estimated by the GA-LSTM network. Finally, using the non-linear transformation obtained from the maternal chest electrocardiogram signal and the GA-LSTM network model, the maternal electrocardiogram signal contained in the abdominal wall signal is estimated, and the estimated maternal electrocardiogram signal is subtracted from the mixed abdominal wall signal to obtain a pure fetal electrocardiogram signal. This article uses clinical electrocardiogram signals from two databases for experimental analysis. The final results show that compared with the traditional normalized minimum mean square error (NLMS), genetic algorithm-support vector machine method (GA-SVM) and LSTM network methods, the method proposed in this paper can extract a clearer fetal electrocardiogram signal, and its accuracy, sensitivity, accuracy and overall probability have been better improved. Therefore, the method could extract relatively pure fetal electrocardiogram signals, which has certain application value for perinatal fetal health monitoring.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Electrocardiography , Female , Fetal Monitoring , Humans , Memory, Short-Term , Pregnancy , Support Vector Machine
12.
Subj. procesos cogn ; 25(1): 149-170, ene.-jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1283729

ABSTRACT

La memoria de trabajo (MT) mantiene y manipula información de manera temporal, por lo que interviene en importantes procesos cognitivos como la comprensión del lenguaje y el razonamiento. La inhibición perceptiva (IP) controla el ingreso de información irrelevante a la MT, permitiendo que acceda información pertinente y no se sature la MT. Por ende, ambos procesos necesitan actuar conjuntamente. En este trabajo se buscó determinar la relación existente entre IP y MT en estudiantes de 4º y 6º año de escuela primaria (de 8-9 y 11-12 años respectivamente) y 3er año de escuela secundaria (15-16 años) de Mar del Plata, Argentina, y comparar el rendimiento de esos grupos. Se encontró que la IP y la MT verbal continuaron mejorando durante la adolescencia, que las modalidades verbal y viso-espacial poseen mecanismos de control específicos, y que la modalidad compleja de la tarea verbal insume mayor control inhibitorio que la simple(AU)


Working memory (WM) is a system that mantains and manipulates information temporally, so it intervenes in important cognitive processes such as language comprehension and reasoning. Perceptual inhibition (PI) prevents irrelevant information from entering WM, allowing access to relevant information and avoiding saturation of WM. Therefore, both processes need to act together. The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between WM and PI in 8- to 9-year-olds and 11- to 12-year-old elementary school students, and 15- to 16-year-old high school students from Mar del Plata, Argentina, and to compare these groups´ performance. Results showed that PI and verbal WM continued to improve during adolescence; also, that verbal and visuospatial modalities possess specific, functionally independent control mechanisms, and that the complex verbal task requires greater inhibitory control than the simple one(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Inhibition, Psychological , Memory, Short-Term , Education, Primary and Secondary
13.
Poiésis (En línea) ; 40(Ene. - Jul.): 57-72, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342081

ABSTRACT

Este artículo busca contextualizar las herramientas digitales y los smartphones en la interacción de los seres humanos, con el interés de describir la forma en que los jóvenes usan las redes sociales y los usos problemáticos de estas, para luego relacionar esto con las funciones ejecutivas del lóbulo prefrontal. Se centra la atención en el control inhibitorio, la memoria de trabajo y la flexibilidad mental porque son la base de otras funciones ejecutivas, como la planificación o monitorización; adicionalmente, estas tres funciones han sido reportadas como las más afectadas por el uso excesivo de redes sociales. Finalmente, se busca aproximarse al hecho de que los procesos cognitivos que requieren mayores periodos de concentración se pueden volver superficiales por la influencia del uso y sobreuso de las redes sociales.


This article seeks to contextualize digital tools and smartphones in the interaction of human beings, with the interest of describing how young people use social networks and the problematic uses of these, and then relate this to the executive functions of the prefrontal lobe. Attention is focused on inhibitory control, working memory and mental flexibility because they are the basis of other executive functions, such as planning or monitoring; additionally, these three functions have been reported as the most affected by the excessive use of social networks. Finally, we seek to approach the fact that cognitive processes that require longer periods of concentration can become superficial due to the influence of the use and overuse of social networks.


Subject(s)
Executive Function , Cognition , Social Networking , Memory, Short-Term
14.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1354599

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes y objetivo: El entrenamiento cognitivo puede tener repercusiones positivas en el proceso de envejecimiento, numerosos estudios evidencian el efecto positivo que produce. El objetivo de esta investigación es detrerminar si existe variabilidad positiva en la autopercepción cognitiva de los adultos mayores posterior a la aplicación de un programa de entrenamiento cognitivo. Materiales y Método: La investigación es de tipo cuantitativa, enmarcada en un diseño preexperimental dada la necesidad de valorar y comparar la autopercepción de los participantes pre y post entrenamiento cognitivo. La muestra estuvo constituida por 14 adultos mayores residentes en la zona norte de Chile. Luego de establecer el cumplimiento de todos los criterios de inclusión y exclusión se procedió a la aplicación de un programa de entrenamiento cognitivo intensivo de 15 sesiones con una duración estimada de 20 minutos por sesión que fueron realizadas de forma diaria, en las sesiones se trabajó de forma equitativa actividades de memoria de trabajo, atención, fluidez verbal y flexibilidad cognitiva. Resultados: Se establece que existe una diferenciación significativa en la autopercepción de las habilidades cognitivas (t = 0.036) pre y post entrenamiento cognitivo. Conclusiones: En la actualidad se conoce la repercusión que tienen los programas de estimulación cognitiva desde un enfoque rehabilitador, pero limitados solo a medidas diagnósticas clínicas, sin embargo, la calidad de vida siempre involucra aspectos subjetivos que pueden ser obtenidos del autoreporte como ocurre con las encuestas de autopercepción.


Background and objective: Cognitive training can have a positive impact on the aging process, numerous studies show the positive effect it produces. The objective of this research is to determine whether there is positive variability in the cognitive self-perception of older adults after the application of a cognitive training program. Materials and Method: The research is quantitative, framed in a pre-experimental design given the need to assess and compare the self-perception of the participants before and after cognitive training. The sample consisted of 14 older adults residing in the northern part of Chile. After establishing compliance with all the inclusion and exclusion criteria, an intensive cognitive training program of 15 sessions with an estimated duration of 20 minutes per session was applied, which were carried out on a daily basis. equitably activities of working memory, attention, verbal fluency and cognitive flexibility. Results: It is established that there is a significant differentiation in the self-perception of cognitive abilities (t = 0.036) before and after cognitive training. Conclusions: At present, the repercussion that cognitive stimulation programs have from a rehabilitative approach is known, but limited only to clinical diagnostic measures, however, quality of life always involves subjective aspects that can be obtained from self-report as occurs with self- perception surveys.


Subject(s)
Perception , Attention , Aging , Quality of Life , Research , Research Design , Work , Surveys and Questionnaires , Education , Memory, Short-Term
15.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 26: e2468, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345348

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo analisar a autoavaliação da memória de jovens universitários. Métodos trata-se de um estudo observacional, transversal, de caráter analítico, com abordagem quantitativa. Participaram 519 estudantes, matriculados regularmente em instituições de ensino superior, com média de idade de 22,9 anos (±5,5), sendo 408 mulheres e 111 homens. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Questionário de Memória Prospectiva e Retrospectiva - QMPR (Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire - PRMQ-10) e um questionário com informações sociodemográficas e com queixas de memória relacionadas às atividades acadêmicas. Os dados foram analisados quantitativamente, de forma descritiva e inferencial, com uso do teste Qui-quadrado, considerando o valor de p<5%. Resultados os jovens universitários relataram dificuldades frequentes de memória, em especial na prospectiva e de curto prazo. Foi visto que 46,6% dos participantes apresentaram queixas de memória e 62,8% referiram acreditar que a rotina na universidade pode provocar aumento nas falhas de memória. Na autoavaliação, verificou-se que 47,7% mencionaram dificuldades na memória prospectiva e de curto prazo e, em relação à rotina acadêmica dos universitários, 46,4% relataram dificuldades na memória retrospectiva. Conclusão há associação entre a presença de queixa e os dados da autoavaliação da memória.


ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate the memory self-assessment of university students. Methods Observational, cross-sectional, analytical study with a quantitative approach. A total of 519 students regularly enrolled in higher education institutions participated, with a mean age of 22.9 years (±5.5), being 408 women and 111 men. Data was collected through the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ-10) and a questionnaire with sociodemographic information and memory complaints related to academic activities. Data were evaluated quantitatively, descriptively and inferentially, using the Chi-Squared Test with a p-value <5%. Results University students reported frequent memory difficulties, especially in the prospective and short term memory. It was found that 46.6% of the participants had memory complaints and 62.8% reported believing that routine at the university may lead to an increase in memory failure. In the self-assessment, 47.7% reported difficulties in prospective and short-term memory and, in relation to the academic routine of university students, 46.4% reported difficulties in retrospective memory. Conclusion There is an association between the presence of a memory complaint and the self-assessment of memory data.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Self-Assessment , Students , Higher Education Institutions , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Socioeconomic Factors , Chi-Square Distribution , Surveys and Questionnaires , Academic Performance
16.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340292

ABSTRACT

Abstract Working memory (WM) is a predictor of school learning. This study aimed to investigate the predictive power of verbal and non-verbal working memory (WM) on students' performance in arithmetic. 126 children between 6 and 11 years old participated in the research. The instruments were: School Performance Test, Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices, Corsi Block-tapping Test, and Digits Subtest. The results showed strong and positive correlations of school performance with fluid intelligence r = 0.64, with verbal WM and non-verbal WM, both with r = 0.51 (p < 0.001). After multiple linear regression, it was found that the performance in visuospatial WM was a strong predictor for arithmetic, an effect not found for reading. The regression showed that WM explains 38% of the variance for arithmetic. It is concluded that WM has an expressive contribution to school performance, being more specific the contributions of visuospatial WM for arithmetic.


Resumo A memória de trabalho (MT) é um preditor da aprendizagem escolar. Este estudo teve por objetivo investigar o poder preditivo da memória de trabalho (MT) verbal e não verbal sobre o desempenho da aritmética. Participaram 126 crianças entre 6 e 11 anos. Os instrumentos foram: Teste de Desempenho Escolar, Matrizes Progressivas Colorida de Raven, Cubos de Corsi e Subteste Dígitos. Os resultados demonstraram correlações fortes e positivas do desempenho escolar com inteligência fluida r = 0,64 com MT verbal e com a MT não verbal, ambas com r = 0,51 (p < 0,001). Após regressão linear múltipla, verificou-se que o desempenho na MT visuoespacial foi um forte preditor para a aritmética, efeito não encontrado para a leitura. A regressão demonstrou que a MT explica 38% da variância para a aritmética. Conclui-se que a MT tem uma contribuição expressiva para o desempenho escolar, sendo mais específicas as contribuições do esboço visuoespacial para a aritmética.


Resumen La memoria de trabajo (MT) es un predictor del aprendizaje escolar. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el potencial predictivo de la MT verbal y no verbal en el rendimiento aritmético. Participaron 126 niños de entre 6 y 11 años. Los instrumentos fueron: Prueba de Rendimiento Escolar, Matrices Progresivas de Raven, Cubes de Corsi y Subprueba Dígitos. Los resultados mostraron correlaciones fuertes y positivas en el rendimiento escolar con inteligencia fluida r = 0,64 con MT verbal y MT no verbal, ambas con r = 0,51 (p < 0,001). Después de la regresión lineal, se observó que el rendimiento en la MT visuoespacial era fuerte predictor aritmético, efecto no encontrado en lectura. La regresión demostró que MT explica el 38% de la varianza en la aritmética. Se concluye que la MT tiene una contribución expresiva al rendimiento escolar, siendo las contribuciones visuoespaciales a la aritmética más específicas.


Subject(s)
Academic Success , Mathematics , Memory, Short-Term
17.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 26(2): 110-122, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1150018

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir las características neuropsicológicas de niños y adolescentes descendientes de padres con antecedentes de TB I, respecto a la aplicación de una prueba estandarizada de inteligencia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal, en donde los autores investigaron el Coeficiente Intelectual Total; Índice de compresión verbal; Índice de Razonamiento Perceptual; Índice de Memoria de trabajo; Índice de Velocidad de Procesamiento. Se evaluaron (n=30) descendientes al aplicar varias subpruebas de la Escala de inteligencia de Weschler para niños, (WISC -IV). Resultados: El Coeficiente Intelectual Total de los participantes con un 63,3% está por debajo del promedio de la curva de distribución normal, según la estandarización del test de inteligencia aplicado. Clasificando la tendencia de la muestra como un promedio normal bajo, en cuanto a la muestra evaluada. Los índices de memoria de trabajo y compresión verbal fueron las funciones cognitivas con puntuaciones más bajas en la muestra. Discusión: Nuestros hallazgos sugieren un riesgo en hijos de pacientes con TBI, que puede contribuir a un incremento cuantitativo de las alteraciones cognitivas, especialmente el índice de memoria de trabajo y compresión verbal. Estos hallazgos pueden sugerir un posible endofenotipo del TB I y su descendencia, en relación a la presentación temprana de alteraciones cognitivas en este grupo de riesgo. Dichos hijos podrían ser un punto de partida para realizar estudios que determinen predicción y realizar así un abordaje temprano.


Abstract Objective: To describe the neuropsychological characteristics of offspring children and adolescents of patients with bipolar disorder type 1 diagnosis through the application of a standardized intelligence test. Materials and methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional observational study, the authors investigated aspects such as Intelligence Quotient, Verbal Comprehension Index, Perceptual Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, and Processing Speed Index. Here, 30 descendants were evaluated by applying several subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV). Results: The Total Intelligence Quotient of 63.3% of the participants is below the average of the Normal Distribution curve according to the standardization of the intelligence test applied which classifies the tendency of the sample as a low normal average. The working memory and verbal comprehension indexes were the cognitive functions with the lowest scores in the sample. Discussion: Our findings suggest a risk in children of patients with Bipolar Disorder type I, which may contribute to a quantitative increase of cognitive disorders, especially in terms of working memory and verbal comprehension indexes. These findings may indicate a possible endophenotype of Bipolar Disorder type I patients and their offspring in regards to the early manifestation of cognitive disorders in this risk group. These children could be a target for studies that determine prediction and thus perform an early treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Bipolar Disorder , Cognition , Neuropsychological Tests , Reference Standards , Therapeutics , Tuberculosis , Wechsler Scales , Endophenotypes , Intelligence Tests , Memory, Short-Term
18.
Med. U.P.B ; 39(2): 2-10, 21/10/2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123556

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Explorar la relación entre los sistemas de activación de conducta (SAC) / sistema de inhibición de conducta (SIC) y funciones ejecutivas (FE) en excombatientes del conflicto armado colombiano. Metodología: Estudio observacional, exploratorio, con muestra no aleatoria de 39 excombatientes del programa de la Alta Consejería de la Presidencia para la Reintegración, residentes en Antioquia-Colombia, edad 35±7.6 años, 87.2% hombres, y escolaridad 10±2.8 grados; comparados con un grupo control de 14 no combatientes (edad 33±6.1 años, 71.4% hombres y escolaridad 10±2.7 grados). Se les administró un cuestionario de SAC/SIC, usando la sensibilidad a la recompensa (SR) y la sensibilidad al castigo (SC). Para la FE se aplicó la prueba Ineco Frontal Screening (IFS). Resultados: Hubo alteraciones específicas de la FE: en la ejecución de instrucciones conflictivas (IC), memoria de trabajo verbal (MTV) y control inhibitorio verbal (CIV). Se evidenciaron correlaciones directas, con coeficientes de moderados a altos entre el SAC (SR) y la capacidad de abstracción CA, el control motor inhibitorio (CMI), la MTV, la memoria de trabajo espacial (MTE) y el funcionamiento ejecutivo global (IFSTOT). Conclusiones: Los excombatientes presentaron un rendimiento inferior en la memoria de trabajo verbal y el control inhibitorio verbal, lo que impacta las capacidades de anticipación, establecimiento de metas, diseño de planes, iniciación de conductas voluntarias y el control inhibitorio. Lo anterior puede generar la toma de decisiones equivocadas.


Objective: To explore the correlations between behavior activation and inhibition systems (BAS/ BIS) and executive functions in ex-combatants of the Colombian armed conflict. Methodology: Observational, exploratory study, with a sample of 39 ex-combatants belonging to the "High Counseling of the Presidency for Reintegration" program, residents in Antioquia-Colombia, with an average of 35±7.6 year of age, 87.2% were males, with school grades of10±2.8; who were compared with a control group of 14 non-combatants, with ages between 33±6.1 years-old, 71.4% were males, and with school grades 10±2.7. The BAS/ BIS questionnaire was administered in order to score the Reward Sensitivity (RS) and Punishment Sensitivity (PS). The EF was evaluated with INECO-Frontal Screening (IFS). Results: There were specific alterations of EF in the execution of conflicting instructions (CI), verbal working memory (MTV) and verbal inhibitory control (CIV). Direct correlations, moderate to high coefficients between SAC (SR) and CA abstraction capacity, CMI inhibitory motor control, MTV, spatial working memory (MTE), and global executive functioning (IFSTOT). Conclusions: Colombian ex-combatants have lower performance in verbal working memory and verbal inhibitory control, which would affect anticipation, goal setting, plan design, initiation of voluntary behaviors and inhibitory control, which generates generation of wrong decisions.


Objetivo: Explorar a relação entre os sistemas de ativação de conduta (SAC) / sistema de inibição de conduta (SIC) e funções executivas (FE) em ex-combatentes do conflito armado colombiano. Metodologia: Estudo observacional, exploratório, com amostra não aleatória de 39 ex-combatentes do programa da Alto Conselho da Presidência para a Reintegração, residentes em Antioquia-Colômbia, idade 35±7.6 anos, 87.2% homens, e escolaridade 10±2.8 graus; comparados com um grupo controle de 14 não combatentes (idade 33±6.1 anos, 71.4% homens e escolaridade 10±2.7 graus). Se lhes administrou um questionário de SAC/SIC, usando a sensibilidade à recompensa (SR) e a sensibilidade ao castigo (SC). Para a FE se aplicou a prova Ineco Frontal Screening (IFS). Resultados: Houve alterações específicas da FE: na execução de instruções conflitivas (IC), memória de trabalho verbal (MTV) e controle inibitório verbal (CIV). Se evidenciaram correlações diretas, com coeficientes de moderados a altos entre o SAC (SR) e a capacidade de abstração CA, o controle motor inibitório (CMI), a MTV, a memória de trabalho espacial (MTE) e o funcionamento executivo global (IFSTOT). Conclusões: Os ex-combatientes apresentaram um rendimento inferior na memória de trabalho verbal e o controle inibitório verbal, o que impacta as capacidades de antecipação, estabelecimento de metas, desenho de planos, iniciação de condutas voluntárias e o controle inibitório. O anterior pode gerar a toma de decisões equivocadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Executive Function , Activities of Daily Living , Armed Conflicts , Memory, Short-Term , Neuropsychological Tests
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(1): 36-41, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137146

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the effects of two different inhalation anesthetic agents on postoperative olfactory memory and olfactory function in patients who underwent micro laryngeal surgery. Methods: This randomized prospective controlled study consisted of 102 consecutive patients with a voice disorder. The patients underwent micro laryngeal surgery for voice disorders under general anesthesia. Patients who did not meet inclusion criteria and/or declined to participate (n = 34) were excluded from the study. Patients were divided into two groups. Four patients from Group 1 and four patients from Group 2 were lost to follow-up. Group 1 (n = 30) received sevoflurane, and Group 2 (n = 30) received desflurane during anesthesia. We compared the results by performing the pre-op and post-op Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center Olfactory test. Results: Thirty-three patients (55%) were male and 27 (45%) were female. The mean age was 48.18 ± 13.88 years (range: 19‒70 years). Preoperative and postoperative olfactory functions did not show a significant difference within the groups postoperatively (p > 0.05). Preoperative and postoperative olfactory memory showed a significant decrease 3 hours after the surgery (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Olfactory functions and memory were not affected by desflurane in the early postoperative period. Although sevoflurane did not affect olfactory functions, it had a temporary negative effect on olfactory memory in the early postoperative period.


Resumo Introdução e objetivos: O estudo avaliou o efeito pós-operatório de dois agentes anestésicos inalatórios distintos na memória olfativa de curta duração e na função olfativa em pacientes submetidos à microcirurgia de laringe. Método: O estudo prospectivo controlado randomizado avaliou, consecutivamente, 102 pacientes com alteração vocal submetidos à microcirurgia de laringe sob anestesia geral. Trinta e quatro pacientes não obedeceram aos critérios de inclusão e/ou não aceitaram participar do estudo e foram excluídos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos. Quatro pacientes do Grupo 1 e quatro do Grupo 2 foram perdidos durante o seguimento. O Grupo 1 (n = 30) recebeu sevoflurano durante a anestesia e o Grupo 2 (n = 30), desflurano. Comparamos resultados pré e pós-operatórios de memória olfativa e funções olfativas, realizando o Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center Olfactory test. Resultados: Foram incluídos um total de 33 (55%) homens e 27 (45%) mulheres. A idade média foi 48,18 ± 13,88 anos (variação: 19-70 anos). As funções olfativas pré e pós-operatórias não apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significante dentro dos grupos no pós-operatório (p > 0,05). A memória olfativa pré e pós-operatória não mostrou diminuição estatisticamente significante quando avaliada três horas após a cirurgia (p< 0,05). Conclusões: Memória e funções olfativas não foram alteradas pelo desflurano no pós-operatório imediato. Embora o sevoflurano não tenha alterado as funções olfativas, causou efeito temporário negativo na memória olfativa no pós-operatório imediato.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Smell/drug effects , Smell/physiology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Sevoflurane/pharmacology , Desflurane/pharmacology , Memory, Short-Term/drug effects , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Postoperative Period , Prospective Studies , Larynx/surgery , Middle Aged
20.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 643-650, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878209

ABSTRACT

This paper discusses the short-term memory of vibro-tactile perception of human fingertips. By using a self-developed vibro-tactile expression device, a recall experiment was firstly carried out among 20 subjects aged 20-30 (10 males and 10 females) to discover the memory span about the vibro-tactile perception of human fingertips. Within this memory span, a cognitive experiment analyzing the recognition accuracy and the reaction time was carried out. The results showed: (1) The vibro-tactile memory span of human fingertip is 4 ± 1; (2) The vibro-tactile memory span increases as the discrete intensity between vibration stimuli increases; (3) Too long or too short vibration duration will reduce the vibro-tactile memory span, and the optimal vibration duration for men is 400 ms, for women is 300 ms; (4) The more the number of vibration stimuli is perceived by the human fingertip, the lower the recognition accuracy and the longer the reaction time it needs; (5) Compared with the vibration stimuli in disorder, people are more likely to remember the vibration stimuli in increasing/decreasing order; (6) The information extraction mechanism of the short-term memory about fingertip vibro-tactile perception bases a point to point scanning process among these stimuli. These results help to understand the human fingertip tactile characteristics and provide a physiological basis for the study of tactile feedback technologies.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Fingers , Humans , Male , Memory, Short-Term , Touch , Touch Perception , Vibration , Young Adult
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