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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880679

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcal meningitis has become the largest cause for the death of infectious diseases in the central nervous system infectious disease worldwide. Most patients with cryptococcal meningitis have AIDS, autoimmune diseases, hematologic malignancies, and some other relevant diseases. It is mainly caused by infection with


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Cryptococcus neoformans , Female , HIV Infections , Humans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/complications , Middle Aged , Stroke
2.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(3): 1-11, jul.-set. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247662

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e Objetivos: Neurocriptococose é uma doença fúngica que acomete principalmente pacientes imunocomprometidos. Casos em pacientes imunocompetentes têm sido descritos em alguns relatos de casos; no entanto, por não ser uma doença de notificação compulsória no Brasil até 2020, ainda pouco se sabe sobre sua epidemiologia no sul do país. O presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever aspectos epidemiológicos relacionados à doença em pacientes supostamente imunocompetentes. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, observacional, baseado em uma série de casos atendidos entre 2018 e 2019, em um hospital público de Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Pacientes com diagnóstico clínico confirmado pela presença do fungo do gênero Cryptococcus spp. no líquido cefalorraquidiano pelo método tinta da China foram avaliados quanto aos aspectos clínicos, tratamento e complicações durante o período de internação. Resultados: Houve dois pacientes em 2018 e seis pacientes em 2019 com diagnóstico confirmado. Todos sem fatores aparentes para imunocomprometimento e sem fator de risco ambiental evidente. A maioria eram homens com média de idade de 39 anos. Febre e confusão mental foram os achados mais comuns na apresentação. A variante C. neoformans foi encontrada em 75% dos casos. Todos receberam Anfotericina B, no mínimo, durante 13 dias, associado ou não a Fluconazol. Seis pacientes apresentaram nefrotoxicidade pela Anfotericina B, dois evoluíram para óbito intra-hospitalar e dois permaneceram com sequelas neurológicas. Conclusão: A mortalidade e as complicações relacionadas ao tratamento da neurocriptococose em pessoas imunocompetentes foram altas na amostra estudada. A recente inclusão da doença como uma patologia de notificação compulsória poderá aprimorar dados epidemiológicos para o melhor entendimento e a prevenção dessa doença.(AU)


Background and Objectives: Neurocryptococcosis is a fungal disease that affects mainly immunocompromised patients. Cases in immunocompetent patients have been described in some case reports. However, as its reporting was not mandatory in Brazil until 2020, little is known about its epidemiology in the South Region of the country. The present study had the objective of describing epidemiological aspects related to the disease in presumably immunocompetent patients. Methods: A retrospective and observational study was developed, based on cases of patients who received care in a public hospital in Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil, between 2018 and 2019. Patients with a clinical diagnosis confirmed by the presence of the fungus Cryptococcus spp. in cerebrospinal fluid by means of the Chinese ink staining were evaluated regarding clinical aspects, treatment, and complications during hospitalization. Results: The diagnosis of the disease was confirmed for two patients in 2018 and six patients in 2019. All of them showed no apparent factors for immunodeficiency and no evident environmental risk factors. Most were men with an average age of 39 years. Fever and mental confusion were the most common symptoms at admission. The variant C. neoformans was found in 75% of the cases. All patients received amphotericin B for at least 13 days with or without combined fluconazole. Six patients had nephrotoxicity due to amphotericin B, two evolved to in-hospital death, and two had neurological sequelae. Conclusion: Mortality and complications related to the treatment of neurocryptococcosis in immunocompetent people showed high rates in the studied sample. The recent inclusion of this disease as a mandatory reporting pathology can improve epidemiological data, which will be used to achieve better understanding and prevention of this problem.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: La neurocriptococosis es una enfermedad fúngica que afecta especialmente a pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Fueron citados casos en pacientes inmunocompetentes en algunos relatos. Por no considerársela de notificación obligatoria en Brasil hasta 2020, poco se sabe aún sobre su epidemiología en el sur del país. El estudio objetivó describir aspectos epidemiológicos relativos a la enfermedad en pacientes supuestamente inmunocompetentes. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional, en base a una serie de casos atendidos entre 2018 y 2019 en un hospital público de Joinville, Santa Catarina. Pacientes con diagnóstico clínico confirmado por presencia de Cryptococcus spp., utilizándose el método de tinta china en líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron evaluados respecto de aspectos clínicos, tratamiento y complicaciones durante su internación. Resultados: Hubo 2 pacientes en 2018 y 6 en 2019 con diagnóstico confirmado, todos sin factores aparentes de inmunocompromiso y sin factor de riesgo ambiental evidente. Mayoría de hombre, media etaria de 39 años. Fueron hallazgos comunes en su presentación la fiebre y confusión mental. La variante C. neoformans fue hallada en 75% de los casos. Todos recibieron anfotericina B como mínimo durante 13 días, en asociación o no con fluconazol. Seis pacientes presentaron nefrotoxicidad por anfotericina B, dos sufrieron fallecimiento intrahospitalario, y dos resultaron con secuelas neurológicas. Conclusión: La mortalidad y las complicaciones relativas al tratamiento de la neurocriptococosis en inmunocompetentes fueron altas en la muestra estudiada. La inclusión de la enfermedad como patología de notificación obligatoria podrá mejorar los datos epidemiológicos para entender mejor y prevenir la enfermedad.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/epidemiology , Immunocompetence
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20180463, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057304

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic efficacy of daily amphotericin B infusion is related to its maximum concentration in blood; however, trough levels may be useful in intermittent regimens of this antifungal drug. METHODS : High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the minimum concentration (Cmin) of amphotericin B in the serum of patients receiving deoxycholate (D-Amph) or liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis (n=28), histoplasmosis (n=8), paracoccidioidomycosis (n=1), and leishmaniasis (n=1). RESULTS: Daily use of D-Amph 30 to 50 mg or L-AmB 50 mg resulted in a similar Cmin, but a significant increase ocurred with L-AmB 100 mg/day. The geometric mean Cmin tended to decrease with a reduction in the dose and frequency of intermittent L-AmB infusions: 357 ng/mL (100 mg 4 to 5 times/week) > 263 ng/mL (50 mg 4 to 5 times/week) > 227 ng/mL (50 mg 1 to 3 times/week). The impact on Cmin was variable in patients whose dose or therapeutic scheme was changed, especially when administered the intermittent infusion of amphotericin B. The mean Cmin for each L-AmB schedule of intermittent therapy was equal or higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration of amphotericin B against Cryptococcus isolates from 10/12 patients. The Cmin of amphotericin B in patients with cryptococcal meningitis was comparable between those that survived or died. CONCLUSIONS: By evaluating the Cmin of amphotericin B, we demonstrated the therapeutic potential of its intermittent use including in the consolidation phase of neurocryptococcosis treatment, despite the great variability in serum levels among patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/blood , Deoxycholic Acid/blood , Antifungal Agents/blood , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/pharmacokinetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/drug therapy , Deoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Deoxycholic Acid/pharmacokinetics , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(11): e9056, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132484

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcal meningitis affects normal hosts and immunocompromised patients exhibiting high mortality rates. The objective of this study was to design two molecular assays, visible microarray platforms and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), to identify Cryptococcus spp. and the species neoformans and gattii from the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). To identify Cryptococcus and the two species, we designed two microarrays DNA platforms based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and CAP59 gene and LAMP assays specific for Cryptococcus species. The assays were tested using CSF from patients with cryptococcal meningitis. CSF from patients with cryptococcal meningitis was cultured in Sabouraud culture medium, and the Cryptococcus spp. grown in the culture medium were also tested for LAMP and microarray platforms. The results were compared to DNA sequencing of the same genetic regions. A total of 133 CSF samples were studied. Eleven CSFs were positive for Cryptococcus (9 C. neoformans and 2 C. gattii), 15 were positive for bacteria, and 107 were negative. The CAP59 platform correctly identified 73% of the CSF samples, while the ITS platform identified 45.5%. CAP59 platform correctly identified 100% of the Cryptococcus isolates, and ITS platform identified 70%. The two sets of LAMP primers correctly identified 100% of the Cryptococcus isolates. However, for CSF samples, the amplification occurred only in 55.5% of C. neoformans. The methodologies were reliable in the identification of Cryptococcus species, mainly for isolates from culture medium, and they might be applied as adjunctive tests to identify Cryptococcus species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnosis , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2859-2866, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877942

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia (ACA) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals has been observed to be elevated. The prevalence of ACA ranges from 1.3% to 13%, with different rates of prevalence in various regions of the world. We reviewed studies conducted internationally, and also referred to two established expert consensus guideline documents published in China, and we have concluded that Chinese HIV-infected patients should undergo cryptococcal antigen screening when CD4 T-cell counts fall below 200 cells/μL and that the recommended treatment regimen for these patients follow current World Health Organization guidelines, although it is likely that this recommendation may change in the future. Early screening and optimized preemptive treatment for ACA is likely to help decrease the incidence of cryptococcosis, and is lifesaving. Further studies are warranted to explore issues related to the optimal management of ACA.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , China , Cryptococcosis/epidemiology , Cryptococcus , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2787-2795, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Cryptococcus neoformans in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, and is complicated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of first-diagnosed HIV-associated CM after 2-years of follow-up.@*METHODS@#Data from all patients (n = 101) of HIV-associated CM hospitalized in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from September 2013 to December 2016 were collected and analyzed using logistic regression to identify clinical and microbiological factors associated with mortality.@*RESULTS@#Of the 101 patients, 86/99 (86.9%) of patients had CD4 count <50 cells/mm, 57/101 (56.4%) were diagnosed at ≥14 days from the onset to diagnosis, 42/99 (42.4%) had normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell counts and biochemical examination, 30/101 (29.7%) had concomitant Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) on admission and 37/92 (40.2%) were complicated with cryptococcal pneumonia, 50/74 (67.6%) had abnormalities shown on intracranial imaging, amongst whom 24/50 (48.0%) had more than one lesion. The median time to negative CSF Indian ink staining was 8.50 months (interquartile range, 3.25-12.00 months). Patients who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) before admission had a shorter time to negative CSF Indian ink compared with ART-naïve patients (7 vs. 12 months, χ = 15.53, P < 0.001). All-cause mortality at 2 weeks, 8 weeks, and 2 years was 10.1% (10/99), 18.9% (18/95), and 20.7% (19/92), respectively. Coinfection with PCP on admission (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.933; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.166-13.269, P = 0.027) and altered mental status (AOR, 9.574; 95% CI, 2.548-35.974, P = 0.001) were associated with higher mortality at 8 weeks.@*CONCLUSION@#This study described the clinical features and outcomes of first diagnosed HIV-associated CM with 2-year follow-up data. Altered mental status and coinfection with PCP predicted mortality in HIV-associated CM.


Subject(s)
China , HIV , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180391, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Cryptococcosis is one of the most devastating fungal infections in humans. Despite the disease's clinical importance, current therapy is based on limited antifungals that are either toxic, inefficient, unavailable worldwide, or that quickly lead to resistance. OBJECTIVES The goal of this study was to provide insight into the future of cryptococcosis treatment by describing the patent scenario in this field. METHODS We identified and analysed patent documents revealing compounds with anti-cryptococcal activity supported by experimental evidence. FINDINGS Patenting in this field has been historically low, with an overall tendency of increase since 2012. Most applications are single filings, suggesting that they do not encompass strategic inventions requiring broad protection. Research and development essentially took place in China and the United States, which also represent the main countries of protection. Both academic and corporate institutions contributed to patenting in this field. Universities are the leading actors, with the highest patent family counts. CONCLUSION The low number of patents in this field indicates that efforts to mitigate the unmet needs for cryptococcosis treatment remain insufficient. Without investment to drive research and innovation, patients will likely continue to face inadequate assistance. Given the current scenario characterised by poor funding and low interest for technological development, drug repurposing may be the best alternative for cryptococcosis treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/therapy , Cryptococcosis , Cryptococcus , /organization & administration
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180376, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041562

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The present study evaluated the epidemiology of cryptococcal meningitis and TNFα gene polymorphisms in patients at a reference hospital in northern Brazil. METHODS: Samples from 25 patients infected with Cryptococcus spp. were collected to confirm the infection and to analyze the TNFα gene polymorphisms. RESULTS: Cryptococcus neoformans was detected as the predominant etiological agent (100%) in HIV-positive patients. No genetic polymorphic changes were found. CONCLUSIONS: No correlation was observed between the analyzed TNFα polymorphisms and cryptococcal meningitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/genetics , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Genetic , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/cerebrospinal fluid , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Genotype
10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 383-386, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759942

ABSTRACT

Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion is the standard treatment for hydrocephalus; shunt-associated infection is the most common complication after surgery. However, fungal infections are unusual. We present a case of cryptococcal meningitis complicated by a brain abscess and an infected intra-abdominal pseudocyst that developed 14 weeks after VP shunt insertion to treat hydrocephalus in a 74-year-old patient. Cryptococcal central nervous system (CNS) infection has a high mortality rate; however, diagnosis is challenging. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment are required when a cryptococcal CNS infection is suspected in patients with VP shunts.


Subject(s)
Aged , Brain Abscess , Brain , Central Nervous System , Cryptococcus , Diagnosis , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Meningitis, Cryptococcal , Mortality , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776064

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcal meningitis(CM)is often seen in immunocompromised patients and has become a global health concern. Elevated intracranial pressure(ICP)is a common complication of CM and often leads to poor prognosis. Monitoring and management of ICP is an important task in CM patients. Invasive intervention is often needed for the elevated ICP in CM patients due to the pathophysiological features of this condition. This article review the recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of elevated ICP in CM patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intracranial Hypertension , Intracranial Pressure , Meningitis, Cryptococcal
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813071

ABSTRACT

To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis for connective tissue disease (CTD) with cryptococcal meningitis (CM). 
 Methods: Clinical data of 18 patients with CTD complicated with cryptococcal meningitis diagnosed by Rheumatology and Immunology Department, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from January 2000 to January 2017, were retrospectively analyzed.
 Results: The common symptoms of CTD patients with CM were headache, fever, nausea, and vomiting. Patients with severe clinical manifestations, such as convulsions and disturbance of consciousness, all died. Logistic regression analysis showed that disturbance of consciousness and decreased peripheral blood lymphocyte count might be the related factors of poor prognosis of CTD patients with CM (P<0.05). The mortality rate of CTD with CM was 61.11%, and the effective rate of treatment for this disease was 38.89%.
 Conclusion: CTD patients with cryptococcal meningitis have a high risk of death. Severe clinical symptoms, such as disturbance of consciousness and lower peripheral blood lymphocyte count, are associated with its poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Connective Tissue Diseases , Fever , Humans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal , Retrospective Studies , Vomiting
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(12): 1481-1485, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991360

ABSTRACT

We report a 45-year-old male with AIDS who had a Cryptococcus neoformans central nervous system infection. He was treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate subsequently changed to voriconazole due to systemic toxicity of the former. Plasma levels of voriconazole were insufficient with a standard dose (0.7 μg/mL), therefore, the dose was increased thereafter to reach appropriate levels (4.5 μg/mL). Anti-retroviral therapy was started five weeks after voriconazole initiation with non-interacting drugs and he was discharged after a favorable evolution. He was re-admitted three months later due to seizures; a brain magnetic resonance showed new sub-cortical nodules. After excluding alternative causes and demonstrating fungal eradication, an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) event was suspected and treated with a short course of steroids. His evolution was satisfactory.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Deoxycholic Acid/adverse effects , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/chemically induced , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnostic imaging , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnostic imaging , Deoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Drug Combinations , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
14.
Prensa méd. argent ; 104(10): 510-515, dic 2018. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046997

ABSTRACT

La criptococosis es una micosis grave de distribución universal, que afecta principalmente a huéspedes inmunocomprometidos. Es una de las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en los pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV). Provoca al menos 620 000 muertes al año, representando entre el 13% al 44% de la mortalidad en pacientes HIV positivos según datos de cohortes correspondientes a países en desarrollo. (1, 2) La letalidad de la criptococosis meníngea en estudios de Argentina y Brasil muestra valores que van desde el 26% hasta el 63%. El complejo Cryptococcus neoformans/ Cryptococcus gattii, es el responsable de esta enfermedad. Existen alrededor de 70 especies pero solo dos de ellas son patógenas para el hombre: C. neoformans y C. gattii. Se reconocen 8 genotipos de este complejo, C. neoformans: VNI y VNII (C. neoformans var. grubii), VNIII (C. neoformans híbrido intervariedad AD), VNIV (C. neoformans var. neoformans) y C. gattii: genotipos VGI, VGII, VGIII y VGIV. Se han descripto híbridos interespecie VNIV/VGI, VNI/VGI, VNI/VGII. Se estudiaron 207 aislamientos de Cryptococcus, elegidos aleatoriamente, de un total de 2593 pacientes con diagnóstico de criptococosis diseminada. A los mismos se les realizó la genotipificación mediante una PCR-RFLP del gen URA5, y posterior digestión enzimática con enzimas Sau96I y HhaI. De las 207 cepas estudiadas, 174 fueron VNI (84,05%), 14 VNII (6,76%), 10 VNIII (4,83%), 2 VNIV (0,97%), 3 VGI (1,45%), 3 VGII de (1,45%) y 1 VGIII (0,49%).


Cryptococcosis is a severe worldwide mycosis, which mainly affects immunocompromised hosts and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. It causes 620,000 annual deaths, accounting for 13-44 % of mortality in HIV-positive individuals in developing countries. Mortality rates of meningeal cryptococcosis in studies from Argentina and Brazil go from 26 to 63 %. Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii is the species complex responsible for this disease. There are about 70 species, however, only two are human pathogens: C. neoformans and C. gattii. C. neoformans genotypes are VNI and VNII (C. neoformans var. grubii), VNIII (C. neoformans intervariety hybrid AD), VNIV (C. neoformans var. neoformans). C. gattii genotypes are VGI, VGII, VGIII and VGIV. Interspecies hybrids were described: VNIV/VGI, VNI/VGI, VNI/ VGII. A total of 207 Cryptococcus isolates were randomly selected from 2593 patients with diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis. Genotyping was performed by PCRRFLP of UR A5 gene with restriction enzyme digestion using Sau96I and HhaI enzymes. Among the 207 studied isolates, 174 resulted VNI (84.05%), 14 VNII (6.76%), 10 VNIII (4.83%), 2 VNIV (0.97%), 3 VGI (1.45%), 3 VGII (1.45%) and 1 VGIII (0.49%).


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies/statistics & numerical data , Morbidity , HIV/isolation & purification , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/epidemiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus gattii/isolation & purification , Genotype
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(6): 495-498, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039219

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT There are limited data on the molecular epidemiology of cryptococcosis in Brazil. Here, we report on the identification of the molecular pattern of the Cryptococcus species that caused meningitis in patients admitted in a Brazilian reference tertiary care hospital, and review the published studies addressing the molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus in Brazil. Our study has shown the predominance of molecular type VNII in HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. Molecular types VNII and VGII were occasionally detected in HIV-infected and non-infected patients with meningoencephalitis. In contrast, previous studies have shown that several regions exhibited a high prevalence of the VNI molecular type and sporadic cases of the VNII and VGII molecular types in patients with cryptococcosis in Brazil. Additional studies including VNII isolates will contribute to understanding the epidemiology and phylogenetic relationship of these genotype compared to the other ones. So far, no clear correlation has been established between genotypes, antifungal susceptibility for Cryptococcus and clinical outcome in cryptococcosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/microbiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/microbiology , Mycological Typing Techniques , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/epidemiology , Molecular Epidemiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/classification , Tertiary Care Centers , Genotype
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 485-492, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957449

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to describe cryptococcal meningitis (CM) cases and the associated demographic, clinical, and microbiological data obtained from cities in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul in the Midwestern region of Brazil. METHODS: The data from 129 patients with laboratory-confirmed CM admitted from 1997 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The molecular types of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolated from cerebrospinal fluid were analyzed to determine their geographic distribution. RESULTS: The patients had a mean age of 37 years and consisted mostly of men (76.7%). Most of the Cryptococcus isolates were obtained from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and included 105 (87.5%) and 5 (55.6%) isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii complexes, respectively. A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of URA5 revealed that most of the isolates were C. neoformans molecular type VNI (89.1%), whereas the molecular types VGII (7%) and VNII (3.9%) were observed less frequently. Notably, 65% of the cases with a time from symptom onset to laboratory diagnosis of more than 60 days resulted in fatalities, and sequelae were observed among the patients who survived. CONCLUSIONS: The present study documents the occurrence of neurocryptococcosis, which is mainly caused by C. neoformans VNI, in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, with probable autochthonous cases in the Brazilian Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland, and a biome where cryptococcosis has not yet been explored.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/epidemiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus gattii/isolation & purification , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Fungal/cerebrospinal fluid , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/microbiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Cryptococcus gattii/genetics , Genotype , Middle Aged
17.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(6): 716-721, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990857

ABSTRACT

Resumen La criptococosis es una enfermedad fúngica de distribución global con una mayor incidencia en países en vía de desarrollo, donde constituye una de las principales causas de meningitis, asociado a una alta morbi-mortalidad. Afecta principalmente a pacientes con inmunosupresión (por infección por VIH, tratamiento con glucocorticoides, sometidos a trasplantes, cáncer, etc). Sin embargo, en los últimos años se ha presentado un incremento de casos en inmunocompetentes, siendo tanto o más grave que en inmunocomprometidos. Presentamos dos casos de meningitis criptocóccica. Un varón de 48 años, en quien se descartó una infección por VIH u otra causa de inmunosupresión y una mujer de 67 años con antecedentes de cirrosis hepática. Debe considerarse Cryptococcus spp. como posible agente causal de meningitis, tanto en pacientes inmunocomprometidos como inmunocompetentes.


Cryptococcosis is a fungal disease of global distribution with a higher incidence in developing countries, where it represents one of the main causes of meningitis, associated with high morbidity and mortality. It mainly occurs in patients with immunosuppression (due to HIV infection, glucocorticoid treatment, transplants, cancer, etc.). However, in recent years there has been an increase in cases in immunocompetent, which is as serious or more severe than in immunocompromised. We report two cases of cryptococcal meningitis. A 48-year-old male with no pathological history, in whom HIV infection or another cause of immunosuppression was ruled out, and a 67-year-old woman with a previous diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. The above mentioned highlights the importance of always considering Cryptococcus spp. as possible causative agent of meningitis, in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnosis , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Immunocompromised Host
18.
Med. Afr. noire (En ligne) ; 65(02): 77-84, 2018.
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1266285

ABSTRACT

Introduction : La Cryptococcose Neuro-Méningée (CNM) survient souvent sur terrain d'immunodépression et surtout au cours de l'infection à VIH.Objectif : Déterminer la prévalence de la mortalité et les facteurs associés au décès. Patients et méthodes : Etude rétrospective descriptive et analytique, sur des patients hospitalisés de 2011 à 2014, des deux sexes, d'âge supérieur à 18 ans avec une CNM confirmée.Résultats : Trente-quatre cas colligés, dont 31 chez des patients VIH+ (91,1%). L'âge moyen était de 43,17 ans et la majorité avait un âge compris entre 40 et 49 ans. Le sex-ratio était de 1,26 en faveur des hommes. Ils présentaient des maladies chroniques sous-jacentes dans 11,7% des cas. Sur le plan clinique, céphalées (81,8%), fièvre au long cours (76,5%), vomissements (57,6%) et troubles de la conscience (44,1%) étaient notés. Des infections opportunistes étaient objectivées (97%) avec une prédominance de la candidose digestive. Sur le plan biologique, le taux moyen de LT CD4+ était de 117,42/mm3. L'examen direct à l'encre de Chine positif dans 11/23 cas. L'antigène cryptococcique positif dans LCR dans 16/24 cas et l'antigénémie positive pour 20/22 cas. Sur le plan évolutif, la létalité était de 57,6%. La durée de l'infection à HIV< 20 mois et les patients sans traitement ARV étaient les facteurs associés au décès.Conclusion : Dans nos régions elle est l'une des principales causes de méningo-encéphalite chez les sujets VIH+ immunodéprimés. Sa létalité est importante du fait de la non- disponibilité des antifongiques majeurs et du diagnostic tardif de l'infection à VIH


Subject(s)
Cryptococcosis , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/epidemiology , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/mortality
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(7): e170391, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894941

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common central nervous system infection in the world today. It occurs primarily, but not exclusively, in immunocompromised individuals and despite substantial improvement in management of clinical events like AIDS, the numbers of cases of cryptococcosis remain very high. Unfortunately, despite several antifungal agents available for treatment, morbidity and mortality rates remain high with this fungal infection. In this Review, we will describe the treatments and strategies for success, identify the failures, and provide insights into the future developments / improvements for management. This sugar-coated yeast can play havoc within the human brain. Our goals must be to either prevent or diagnose disease early and treat aggressively with all our clinical tools when disease is detected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(7): e180050, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894943

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcosis diagnosis has been recently improved by the use of rapid cryptococcal antigen testing with lateral flow assays, which have proved sensitive and specific. Using "test and treat" screening strategies for cryptococcal disease with these tests has been showed effective in reducing cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in HIV-infected patients. Recommended induction, consolidation, and maintenance therapeutic strategy for CM is widely unavailable and/or expensive in low and middle-income settings. New therapeutic strategies, mostly using reduced duration, have recently shown acceptable outcome or are currently tested. Diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for cryptococcal disease in limited resources countries are undergoing a paradigmatic shift.


Subject(s)
Humans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Immunologic Tests , Drug Therapy, Combination
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