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1.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(11): 834-839, Nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357075

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective It has been suggested that excess body weight could represent a risk factor for infertility outcomes. The present study aimed to evaluate the association of overweight and anovulation among infertile women with regular menstrual cycles. Methods We conducted a retrospective case-control study with consistently anovulatory patients undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. The patients were stratified into normal weight (body mass index [BMI]: 18.5-24.9kg/m2) and overweight (BMI: 25.0- 29.9kg/m2).Those with polycystic ovary syndrome or obesity were excluded. The groups were matched for age, duration of infertility, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), thydroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol levels. Results Overweight was significantly associated with anovulation, when using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for anovulation: progesterone levels>5.65 ng/ml and ultrasonography evidence of follicle collapse (odds ratio [OR]: 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 1.04-6.98). Conclusion Body mass index above the normal range jeopardizes ovulation among non-obese infertile women with regular menstrual cycles.


Resumo Objetivo O excesso de peso corporal tem sido associado como fator de risco para infertilidade. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a associação de sobrepeso e anovulação entre mulheres inférteis com ciclos menstruais regulares. Métodos Realizamos um estudo retrospectivo de caso-controle com mulheres com anovulação consistente em tratamento por reprodução assistida. As pacientes foram estratificadas entre aquelas com peso normal (índice de massa corporal [IMC]: 18,5- 24,9 Kg/m2) e as com sobrepeso (IMC: 25,0-29,9 Kg/m2). As pacientes com síndrome do ovário policístico ou obesidade foram excluídas. Os grupos foram pareados por idade, duração da infertilidade, níveis de prolactina, hormônio folículo-estimulante (FSH), hormônio tiroestimulante (TSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH) e estradiol. Resultados O excesso de peso associou-se significativamente à anovulaçãoquando usados os critérios de anovulação da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS): níveis de progesterona>5,65 ng/ml e evidência ultrassonográfica de colapso folicular (razão de chances [RC]: 2,69; IC95%: 1,04-6,98). Conclusão O IMC acima da faixa normal compromete a ovulação em mulheres inférteis não obesas com ciclos menstruais regulares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Infertility, Female/complications , Anovulation/complications , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Overweight/complications , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Menstrual Cycle
3.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(4): e20200374, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1279018

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo descrever as experiências das mulheres sobre as suas trajetórias desde o início dos sintomas até o diagnóstico da endometriose. Método pesquisa descritiva, qualitativa, realizada com dez mulheres com diagnóstico de endometriose no município do Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brasil. Coletaram-se entrevistas semiestruturadas áudio gravadas e posteriormente submetidas à Análise de Conteúdo por meio do software Atlas.ti 8. Resultados sem o diagnóstico de endometriose, as mulheres vivenciam sintomas fortes desde a menarca. Essa situação repercute negativamente em diferentes esferas da vida, inclusive pela desvalorização de suas queixas em seus círculos de convivência. Assim, entende-se a importância da rede de apoio perante essa situação. Diante desse contexto, as mulheres peregrinam por diversos profissionais até o diagnóstico definitivo. Considerações finais e implicações para a prática as trajetórias dessas mulheres são marcadas pela desvalorização de suas queixas por profissionais de saúde e pessoas próximas, pela naturalização da dor feminina e pela dificuldade em estabelecer um diagnóstico diferencial. No entanto, a capacidade individual de reconhecer a presença de uma patologia, o conhecimento sobre a endometriose e a experiência do profissional facilitaram o diagnóstico. No contexto da assistência de enfermagem, entender essa trajetória pode promover a escuta ativa, melhor valorização das queixas, avaliação clínica e o encaminhamento para o diagnóstico precoce.


Resumen Objetivo describir las vivencias de las mujeres en sus trayectorias desde el inicio de los síntomas hasta el diagnóstico de endometriosis. Método investigación descriptiva cualitativa realizada con diez mujeres diagnosticadas con endometriosis en la ciudad de Río de Janeiro (RJ), Brasil. Se recogieron entrevistas semiestructuradas grabadas en audio y posteriormente se sometieron a Análisis de Contenido utilizando el software Atlas.ti 8. Resultados sin el diagnóstico de endometriosis, las mujeres experimentan síntomas fuertes desde la menarquia. Esta situación tiene un impacto negativo en diferentes ámbitos de la vida, incluso por la devaluación de sus quejas en sus círculos de convivencia. Así, se comprende la importancia de la red de apoyo en esta situación. Ante este contexto, las mujeres deambulan por diferentes profesionales hasta el diagnóstico definitivo. Consideraciones finales e implicaciones para la práctica las trayectorias de estas mujeres están marcadas por la devaluación de sus quejas por parte de los profesionales de la salud y personas cercanas, por la naturalización del dolor femenino y por la dificultad para establecer un diagnóstico diferencial. Sin embargo, la capacidad del individuo para reconocer la presencia de una patología, el conocimiento sobre la endometriosis y la experiencia del profesional facilitaron el diagnóstico. En el contexto del cuidado de enfermería, comprender esta trayectoria puede promover la escucha activa, mejor valoración de las quejas, evaluación clínica y la derivación para diagnóstico precoz.


Abstract Objectives to describe the experiences of women on their trajectories from the beginning of symptoms to the diagnosis of endometriosis. Method descriptive, qualitative research, conducted with ten women diagnosed with endometriosis in the city of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil. Audio recorded semi-structured interviews were collected and later submitted to Content Analysis using Atlas.ti 8 software. Results without the diagnosis of endometriosis, women experience strong symptoms from the menarche. This situation has a negative impact on different spheres of life, including the devaluation of their complaints in their circles of coexistence. Thus, the importance of the support network in this situation is understood. Faced with this context, women wander through various professionals until the definitive diagnosis. Final considerations and implications for practice the trajectories of these women are marked by the devaluation of their complaints by health professionals and people close to them, by the naturalization of female pain and by the difficulty in establishing a differential diagnosis. However, the individual's ability to recognize the presence of a pathology, the knowledge about endometriosis and the professional's experience facilitated the diagnosis. In the context of nursing care, understanding this trajectory can promote active listening, better appreciation of complaints, clinical assessment and referral to early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Endometriosis/diagnosis , Quality of Life/psychology , Health Care Costs , Cost of Illness , Pelvic Pain , Qualitative Research , Early Diagnosis , Dysmenorrhea/complications , Dysmenorrhea/drug therapy , Endometriosis/therapy , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Menstrual Cycle/physiology
4.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 71(2): 163-177, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126324

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: realizar una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura para evaluar la aceptabilidad y seguridad de la copa menstrual como producto de higiene genital femenina. Materiales y métodos: se realizó búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PopLine y Google Scholar, desde 1966 hasta julio de 2019. Se utilizaron los términos: "Menstrual" AND "Cup" OR "Copa" AND "Menstrual". Se incluyeron estudios cuantitativos, cualitativos y mixtos, series y reportes de caso publicados en inglés y español que hubieran evaluado la copa menstrual en mujeres en edad reproductiva. Los estudios fueron selecciona- dos y los datos fueron extraídos por dos evaluadores de manera independiente. Como resultado primario se evaluó la aceptabilidad y seguridad. La síntesis de información se presenta de manera narrativa. Resultados: se encontraron 737 títulos para revisión inicial. Finalmente, se incluyeron 38 estudios. La copa menstrual tiene una aceptabilidad que varía entre el 35 y el 90 %. Del 10 al 45 % la encontraron difícil de usar. Fue descrita como más cómoda comparada con el tampón y la toalla higiénica de fabricación industrial. La continuidad de su uso está entre el 48 y el 94 %. En cuanto a la seguridad se presentó un caso de síndrome de choque tóxico, uno de atrapamiento mecánico, uno de alergia al producto y mayor riesgo de expulsión en usuarias del dispositivo intrauterino. Conclusión: la copa menstrual es una alternativa cómoda, segura y eficiente para la higiene mens- trual. Se requieren más estudios controlados alea- torizados y cohortes prospectivas a largo plazo para determinar el riesgo de complicaciones por una exagerada colonización bacteriana o menstruación retrógrada.


ABSTRACT Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the literature and assess the acceptability and safety of the menstrual cup as a feminine hygiene product. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PopLine and Google Scholar databases for publications be- tween 1966 and July 2019. The terms ("Menstrual" AND "Cup") OR ("Copa" AND "Menstrual") were used. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed studies were included, as well as case series and case reports published in English and Spanish assessing the menstrual cup in women in childbearing age. The studies were selected and the data extracted by two reviewers working independently. Acceptability and safety were assessed as the primary result. The summary of the information is presented in narrative form. Results: Overall, 737 titles were found for initial review and, in the end, 38 studies were included in this work. The acceptability of the menstrual cup ranges between 35 % and 90 %. Between 10 to 45 % of women found it difficult to use. It was described as more comfortable when compared to tampons and pads. Continued use of the cup ranges between 48 and 94 %. In terms of safety, there was one case of toxic shock syndrome, one case of mechanical entrapment, and another case of allergy; and a higher risk of expulsion was found among intrauterine device users. Conclusion: The menstrual cup appears to be a comfortable, safe and efficient option for menstrual hygiene. Further randomized controlled studies and long-term prospective cohort studies are needed in order to determine the risk of complications due to excess bacterial colonization or retrograde menstruation.


Subject(s)
Menstrual Hygiene Products , Feminine Hygiene Products , Menstrual Cycle
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811222

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This descriptive study aimed to identify the menstrual cycle characteristics and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) prevalence in Korean young adult women using the retrospective and prospective Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP).METHODS: In the first stage, participants included 151 nursing students studying in a university located in Seoul. Data were collected from April 20 to June 2, 2017, using the questionnaire on menstrual characteristics, pictorial blood assessment chart, and retrospective DRSP. In the second stage, participants included 17 students with PMS, based on the screening conducted in the first stage. Data were collected using the prospective DRSP from May 29 to 2 September 2, 2017.RESULTS: Of the study sample, 104 participants (68.9%) had regular periods. Those with regular periods had 11.97 periods annually with a menstrual cycle of 29.38 days and a period duration of 5.72 days. Fifty-five participants (37.4%) showed menorrhagia. Sixty-four participants (42.4%) were found to have PMS based on their retrospective DRSP. When the ratio of women (52.9%) with PMS shown in the prospective DRSP was used as a positive predictive value, the estimated PMS prevalence was 22.4%.CONCLUSION: This study provides clinically significant PMS prevalence among Korean young adult women, positive predictive value of the retrospective DRSP, and valid data to basically understand the menstrual cycle characteristics experienced by these women.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Mass Screening , Menorrhagia , Menstrual Cycle , Premenstrual Syndrome , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Students, Nursing , Young Adult
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(12): 989-996, Dec. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056929

ABSTRACT

The yellow-breasted capuchin (Sapajus xanthosternos) and robust tufted capuchin (Sapajus robustus) are endangered species due to destruction of their natural habitat and predatory chase. However, it is still necessary to elucidate some details of their reproductive physiology in order to obtain better indices in the assisted reproduction of these species. This study aimed to evaluate the ovarian cycle of 13 dominant and subordinate females of S. xanthosternos (n=8) and S. robustus (n=5) using sagittal and transversally scanned ultrasound of their uterus and ovaries. Sonograms were performed every seven days for two months. The ovarian cycle phase and anestrous condition were confirmed by colpocytology. Our results showed different uterine parameters (craniocaudal diameter, dorso-ventral diameter, and transverse diameter) (P<0.05) between anestrous subordinate females and other ovarian cycle phases and social classes. The mean of uterine volume was higher in dominant females than subordinate females in all cycle phases (P<0.05), except in follicular phase. During anestrus, endometrial width was smaller in subordinate females than in dominant females (P<0.05). Subordinate females showed differences in endometrial measures (P<0.05) between anestrous period and follicular and luteal periods. Ovarian measures in dominant females were higher than in subordinate females only during anestrus (P<0.05). In the subordinate females, ovarian parameters were different (P<0.05) between anestrus and follicular and luteal phases. Dominant females showed higher volume of right ovary compared to volume of the left ovary during anestrus and follicular phase (P<0.05). Follicles and corpus luteum were distinguished by ultrasonography in most exams (86.11%). During anestrus, measurable ovarian structures were not observed in both ovaries in dominant and subordinate females. In conclusion, the methodology used in this study allowed to evaluate the ovarian cycle in S. xanthosternos e S. robustus females and that cycle phase/anestrus and social class of the female influenced the size of the uterus and ovaries.(AU)


O macaco-prego-do-peito-amarelo (Sapajus xanthosternos) e o macaco-prego-de-crista (Sapajus robustus) encontram-se em risco de extinção devido a destruição do seu habitat e a caça predatória. Porém, ainda necessita-se elucidar alguns detalhes de sua fisiologia reprodutiva, para obterem-se melhores índices por meio de reprodução assistida. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi acompanhar o ciclo ovariano de 13 fêmeas dominantes e subordinadas de S. xanthosternos (n=8) e S. robustus (n=5) por meio de cortes ultrassonográficos sagitais e transversais do útero e dos ovários. Estas fêmeas foram examinadas uma vez por semana durante dois meses. A fase do ciclo ovariano/anestro foi confirmada pela colpocitologia. Os resultados da pesquisa demonstrou diferença significativa (P<0,05) relacionada ao diâmetro crânio-caudal, diâmetro dorso-ventral e diâmetro transversal entre as fêmeas subordinadas em anestro com todas as outras fases do ciclo ovariano e classes sociais. A média do volume uterino foi maior nas fêmeas dominantes que nas subordinadas em todas as fases do ciclo (P<0,05) a exceção da fase folicular. A largura endometrial, durante o período de anestro, foi menor nas fêmeas subordinadas quando comparada às dominantes (P<0,05). Nas fêmeas subordinadas, houve diferenças (P<0,05) nas mensurações endometriais entre o período de anestro e das fases folicular e lútea. Quanto aos ovários, as médias das medidas observadas nas fêmeas dominantes foram superiores as das subordinadas durante o anestro (P<0,05). As médias das medidas das variáveis ovarianas das fêmeas subordinadas apresentaram diferenças entre o anestro e as fases folicular e lútea (P<0,05). Nas fêmeas dominantes o volume do ovário direito foi maior que o do ovário esquerdo durante o anestro e na fase folicular (P<0,05). Folículos e corpos lúteos foram diferenciados pela ultrassonografia na maioria das coletas (86,11%). Durante o anestro não foram observadas estruturas ovarianas mensuráveis nos ovários em ambas as classes sociais. Concluiu-se que a metodologia empregada neste estudo permitiu o acompanhamento do ciclo ovariano das fêmeas S. xanthosternos e S. robustus e que as fases do ciclo/anestro e a classe social das fêmeas influenciaram as medidas do útero e ovários.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Ovary/diagnostic imaging , Reproduction/physiology , Uterus/diagnostic imaging , /anatomy & histology , /physiology , Menstrual Cycle/physiology , Ultrasonography/veterinary , Endangered Species
8.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 572-581, sep.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127320

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To measure the impact of an intervention on adolescents' knowledge of the phase of the menstrual cycle with more likelihood of pregnancy and identify its associated factors. Materials and methods: A quasi-experimental study in two rural communities. Difference-in-differences analyses was performed. Results: There was a 22.1% average reduction in wrong answers on the phase of the menstrual cycle with more likelihood of pregnancy in the intervention group versus the control group (p<0.001). We founded six factors associated with this knowledge: marry and have children, right to receive education and information on sexual and reproductive health; gender equity; use of the condom; condom self-efficacy; emergency and contraceptive pills. Conclusion: There is a prevailing need to improve -among sexuality topics- basic knowledge of reproductive biology, while at the same time insisting on the benefits of using birth control methods provided for practicing responsible sexuality.


Resumen: Objetivo: Medir el efecto de una intervención en el conocimiento de los adolescentes sobre la fase del ciclo menstrual de mayor posibilidad de embarazo e identificar sus factores asociados. Material y métodos: Estudio cuasiexperimental en comunidades rurales. Se realizó un análisis de diferencias en diferencias. Resultados: Hubo una reducción promedio de 22.1% de respuestas incorrectas sobre la fase del ciclo menstrual de mayor posibilidad de embarazo en el grupo intervención vs. control (p<0.001). Se encontraron seis factores asociados con este conocimiento: casarse y tener hijos; derecho a recibir educación e información sobre salud sexual y reproductiva; equidad de género; uso correcto del condón; autoeficacia del uso del condón y pastillas anticonceptivas y de emergencia. Conclusión: Entre las diferentes temáticas de sexualidad, prevalece la necesidad de mejorar los conocimientos básicos sobre biología de la reproducción, insistiendo a la vez sobre los beneficios que conlleva el uso de métodos anticonceptivos para ejercer una sexualidad responsable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Rural Population , Women's Rights , Sexual Health/education , Menstrual Cycle , Marriage , Condoms , Contraceptive Agents, Female/administration & dosage , Contraception, Postcoital , Reproductive Health/education , Human Rights/education , Mexico
9.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(5): 317-319, jun 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1024650

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Celiac disease is an immune response to a gluten-based diet that affects the small intestines of people with a genetic predisposition to disease. Celiac has intra intestinal and extra instestinal manifestations., In recent years, celiac and infertility have been considered. The present study examines the effect of celiac disease and its treatment on the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and menopause. In this study, we compared the prevalence of celiac disease in fertile women with infertile women in Zahedan. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, 150 patients with unexplained infertility from Febraury 2016 to 2017 referred to Infrtility Clinic of Alis ibn-Abitaleb Hospital in Zahedan (Iran), were included in the study. Total IgA and IgA TTG were evaluated. IƒTTG is positive, for confirmation of diagnosis, biopsy is performed from the distal part of the duodenum. In control group, 150 fertile women with two or more children with the same characteristics were studied. Results: Theree patients with unexlained infertility (2%) were positive for TTG. Two of them (1/3%) were positive to celiac disease in small intestinal biopsy. None of the women in the control group had TTG positive (p=0.49) Discussion and Conclusion: It seems that some infertile patients with unexplained infertility suffer from celiac disease, but with a (p=0.49), it seems that celiac screening as a cause of infertility with unexplained cause needs more studies with larger sample size in Iran (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Menopause , Pregnancy , Case-Control Studies , Celiac Disease/therapy , Infertility, Female/etiology , Menstrual Cycle
10.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(3): 419-423, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003048

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Premature Ovarian Insufficiency is defined as a decline in ovarian function that is accompanied by two biochemical determinations of Follicle Stimulating Hormone in hypergonadotropic values, in addition to low levels of circulating estrogens in women under 40 years old. Although some of its possible etiologies are recognized and diagnosed, most of the time, its cause remains unknown. It is a pathology with medical, psychological, and reproductive implications. Patients may experience climacteric symptoms, infertility, and emotional distress. In the medium and long term, cardiovascular and bone health can be affected, and some degree of cognitive deterioration can be evidenced. The therapeutic approach needs to be comprehensive for the patient and multidisciplinary. SAEGRE created in Argentina an interhospital network dedicated to gathering relevant statistical information regarding this and other pathologies in order to provide better assistance for these patients.


RESUMO Insuficiência ovariana primária é definida como um declínio da função ovariana acompanhado por dois determinantes bioquímicos do Hormônio Folículo Estimulante em valores hipergonadotróficos, além de baixos níveis de estrogênios circulantes em mulheres com menos de 40 anos de idade. Embora algumas das suas possíveis etiologias serem reconhecidas e diagnosticadas, na maioria das vezes sua causa permanece desconhecida. Trata-se de patologia com a implicações médicas, psicológicas e reprodutivas. Os pacientes podem vivenciar sintomas climatéricos, infertilidade e problemas emocionais. A médio e longo prazo, a saúde cardiovascular e óssea pode ser afetada, e algum grau de deterioração cognitiva pode ser observado. A abordagem terapêutica precisa ser abrangente para o paciente e multidisciplinar. A SAEGRE criou na Argentina uma rede interospitalar dedicada a reunir informações estatísticas relevantes sobre esta e outras patologias, a fim de proporcionar uma melhor assistência para esses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Menopause/physiology , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency/etiology , Fertility/physiology , Menstrual Cycle/physiology
11.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(1): 70-76, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002173

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Dichotic listening refers to the ability to hear different sounds presented to each ear simultaneously. Objective The aim of the present study was to assess dichotic listening in women throughout the menstrual cycle. Methods The volunteers who met the eligibility criteria participated in a dichotic listening assessment composed of three tests: 1) staggered spondaic word test; 2) dichotic digits test; and 3) consonant-vowel test. The female participants were tested during two different phases of the menstrual cycle: the follicular (days 11 to 13) and luteal (days 23 to 26) phases. The phases were confirmed by measuring serum levels of the hormone estradiol. Results A total of 20 volunteers aged 18 to 49 years participated in the study (9 females and 11 males). In test 1, only the right ear of females showed better performance during the follicular phase (high estrogen levels), compared with the luteal phase (low estrogen levels); in test 2, there were no significant differences for any of the groups; and in test 3, both males and females showed significantly better performance in their right ear compared with their left ear. Conclusion The better performance of females during the follicular phase of the cycle may indicate that estrogen levels might have an influence on dichotic listening in women. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Auditory Perception/physiology , Estrogens/blood , Menstrual Cycle/physiology , Cohort Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Hearing Tests
12.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. 76 p. ilus..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1087801

ABSTRACT

A menstruação, biologicamente e de acordo com a visão médica, é definida como a eliminação de sangue e tecido superficial do endométrio após a prévia involução, em consequência à queda das concentrações séricas de estrogênios e progesterona ao final do ciclo ovariano. Porém, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) tem procurado desestimular este conceito mecanicista, buscando afirmar que o ato de menstruar também envolve variáveis psicológicas, sociais e culturais. Foram definidos os seguintes objetivos: Descrever as relações de influência da menstruação na vida de mulheres, segundo sua própria percepção e Analisar a relação de mulheres com a menstruação à luz do interacionismo simbólico. O estudo proposto é descritivo, qualitativo e visa a explorar diferentes aspectos das experiências de vida das participantes. Optou-se por abordagem qualitativa, baseada nos pressupostos da Grounded Theory, por oferecer elementos para a discussão e análise dos dados de modo comparativo constante dos resultados, e do interacionismo simbólico, que possibilita que a pesquisa qualitativa atinja o objetivo de pesquisar o sentido que os indivíduos propõem aos objetos, pessoas e símbolos com os quais interagem no meio social. Dos resultados evidenciados, foram geradas quatro categorias: "A chegada de algo inesperado e desconhecido que ficará para sempre...", "A influência dos outros na vivência/experiência da menstruação", "O conhecimento do corpo e a relação consigo mesma e com o mundo à sua volta" e "Reconhecendo e lidando com as influências na vida". Observou-se que as mulheres, ao lidarem com o fenômeno da menstruação, mesmo esta sendo algo natural, vivenciam-na diferentemente, sendo o seu meio social e sua cultura grandes influenciadores do processo, além de o próprio evento ser um marco em sua vida, pois, muitas vezes, ocorre de modo inesperado, podendo gerar ações positivas ou negativas. O suporte social é outra estratégia bastante importante como apoio tanto para as adolescentes que vivenciam esse momento de transição para a fase adulta como para as mulheres adultas que consideram importante receber apoio de seus familiares, amigos, entre outros. A participação do enfermeiro pode tornar-se uma importante mediação junto a essa mulher, para auxiliá-la na busca de significados mais contundentes por meio de um cuidado mais integral, qualificado, fazendo com que a mulher tenha uma visão reflexiva sobre o ato de estar menstruada e sobre as influências da menstruação em sua vida, bem como um olhar para além de assumir naturalmente este evento, conformar-se ou não aceitar a menstruação. Ao ajudá-la a ressignificar esse fenômeno, trazendo para ela uma visão diferenciada, mostrando a menstruação como algo natural, possibilitando que a mulher assuma a menstruação como símbolo do feminino e instrumento de empoderamento, a enfermagem desenvolve ação importante do cuidado, atribuindo a esse cuidado cunho libertador. Os resultados do presente estudo evidenciaram situações que merecem aprofundamento em estudos posteriores.


Menstruation, biologically and according to the medical view, is defined as the elimination of blood and superficial tissue of the endometrium after previous involution, as a result of the drop in serum concentrations of estrogens and progesterone at the end of the ovarian cycle. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) has tried to discourage this mechanistic concept and sought to affirm that the act of menstruating also involves psychological, social and cultural variables. The following objectives were defined: Describe the relations of the influence of menstruation in the lives of women, according to their own perception and Analyze the relation of women with menstruation in the light of symbolic interactionism. The proposed study is descriptive, qualitative and aimed at exploring different aspects of the participants' life experiences. We chose a qualitative approach, based on the assumptions of the Grounded Theory, for it offers elements for the discussion and analysis of the data results in a constant comparative way, and of the Symbolic Interactionism, which enables the qualitative research to achieve the objective of researching the meaning that individuals propose to the objects, people and symbols with which they interact in the social environment. From the results, four categories were generated: "The arrival of something unexpected and unknown that will remain forever...", "The influence of others in living/experiencing menstruation", "The knowledge of the body and the relationship with herself and the world around her" and "Recognizing and dealing with the influences in life". It was observed that women, when dealing with the phenomenon of menstruation, although it is something natural, experience it differently, their social environment and culture being great influencers of this process, besides the event itself being a milestone in her life because it often occurs unexpectedly, and can generate positive or negative actions. Social support is another particularly important strategy as a support for both adolescents who experience this moment of transition to adulthood and for adult women who consider it important to receive support from their relatives, friends, among others. The participation of the nurse can become an important mediation with this woman to help her in the search for more significant meanings by means of a more integral, qualified care, causing the woman to have a reflexive vision about the act of being menstruated and about the influences of menstruation in her life, as well as having a look beyond just assuming this event naturally, conforming herself or not accepting the menstruation. By helping her to re-signify this phenomenon, bringing her a differentiated view, showing menstruation as something natural, enabling women to assume menstruation as a symbol of the feminine and an instrument of empowerment, nursing will be developing an important action of care with a liberating imprint. The results of the present study evidenced situations which deserve to be deepened in further studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Women , Symbolic Interactionism , Menstruation , Nursing Care , Premenstrual Syndrome/nursing , Nursing Methodology Research , Women's Health , Menstrual Cycle
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765763

ABSTRACT

This review paper evaluates use of Foeniculum vulgare extracts as a popular female plant in management of different ailments of women. Information in this paper was gathered from accessible sources (PubMed, Science Direct, Springer, Wiley, and Google), and traditional books (Persian or English modern traditional books), unpublished data (R&D reports, thesis and dissertation) by keywords based on the words F. vulgare or fennel and women. Efficacy of oral fennel oil in management of dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome, amenorrhea, menopause, lactation, and polycystic ovary syndrome were confirmed according to results of clinical studies. Results of clinical efficacy of fennel oil on menstrual bleeding is complicated, but results of one meta-analysis study revealed that fennel oil significantly increased means of bleeding in the first menstrual periodic cycle (P = 0.001), while fennel oil had no significant effect on bleeding in the second menstrual cycle (P = 0.67). Topical and vaginal fennel extract (5%) exhibited good efficacy in treatment of sexual function, vaginal atrophy, and hirsutism. Fennel had no effect on bone density, or body mass index of menopause women. Results of clinical studies introduce fennel as a valuable medicinal plant in management of women's ailments, but understanding the mechanism of action could be the subject of future studies.


Subject(s)
Amenorrhea , Atrophy , Body Mass Index , Bone Density , Dysmenorrhea , Female , Foeniculum , Hemorrhage , Hirsutism , Humans , Lactation , Lethal Dose 50 , Menopause , Menstrual Cycle , Phytoestrogens , Plants , Plants, Medicinal , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Premenstrual Syndrome , Treatment Outcome , Women's Health
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760672

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common problems for women, especially during their reproductive age. Various studies have examined the effects of vitamins D and E and ginger supplements. This study aimed to investigate the individual effects of each of these supplements on dysmenorrhea. METHODS: This single-blind clinical trial was conducted in 2016 on students aged 18 to 25 years who complained of mild to severe dysmenorrhea. The participants were randomly assigned into 4 groups: vitamin D, vitamin E, ginger, and placebo. The effects of the supplements on the severity of dysmenorrhea were evaluated in 2 successive cycles using the visual analog scale (VAS) and a questionnaire. RESULTS: Initially, 240 female students were enrolled in the study; thereafter, 40 students were excluded from the study owing to follow-up loss. The average VAS score for dysmenorrhea in the entire study population was 7.13±0.80 before the intervention; the mean VAS score after the first and second months of supplement use was 5.37±1.51 and 4.93±1.48, respectively. The highest reduction in pain severity was observed in the ginger group (F=74.54, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D, vitamin E, and ginger significantly reduced the severity of dysmenorrhea, with ginger having the most significant effect followed by vitamin D and vitamin E. Given the low risk of these supplements, more studies must be conducted on their use as opposed to analgesics.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Dysmenorrhea , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Ginger , Humans , Menstrual Cycle , Visual Analog Scale , Vitamin D , Vitamin E , Vitamins
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760662

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at identifying a correlation between polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) and the severity of primary dysmenorrhea in young Korean women. METHODS: A total of 592 patients who visited a tertiary hospital from March 2008 to March 2015 for dysmenorrhea were examined. After excluding those with secondary causes of menstrual pain (for example, myoma, adenomyosis, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease), 361 women were recruited and retrospectively analyzed. Severe dysmenorrhea was defined as a visual analog scale (VAS) score ≥6. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 23.0±4.0 years, the average menstrual cycle length was 34.4±23.7 days, and the average pain intensity was VAS 6.7±0.1 at baseline. PCOM was assessed by ultrasound in 54 women (15%). Patients with severe menstrual pain were more likely to have irregular menstrual cycles (P=0.03) and heavy menstrual flow (P=0.01) than those with mild menstrual pain. After adjusting for weight, height, menstrual cycle interval, and menstrual flow in the logistic regression analysis, PCOM (odds ratio [OR], 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–4.97; P=0.04) and heavy menstrual flow (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.05–3.28; P=0.04) were found to be significant independent factors influencing pain. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that PCOM may have a correlation with the severity of primary dysmenorrhea. Since PCOM may play a role in the development of menstrual pain, patients with PCOM should be under active surveillance with resources for prompt pain management readily available. It may also be necessary to further investigate the molecular mechanisms of pain development in primary dysmenorrhea.


Subject(s)
Adenomyosis , Dysmenorrhea , Endometriosis , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Menstrual Cycle , Menstruation Disturbances , Myoma , Pain Management , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Ultrasonography , Visual Analog Scale
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741747

ABSTRACT

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common disorder that affects millions of women of reproductive age worldwide. In recent years, there has been a focus on finding accessible, acceptable, and cost-effective therapeutic approaches with minimal side effects to treat the symptoms of PMS. This systematic review aimed to investigate the role of calcium and vitamin D in Premenstrual syndrome. The PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases were systematically searched for relevant articles from clinical trial, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist was used to assess the quality of the selected papers. A total of 28 eligible high-quality papers were reviewed. Low serum levels of calcium and vitamin D during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle were found to cause or exacerbate the symptoms of PMS. Therefore, the administration of calcium and vitamin D supplements or the use of a diet rich in these two substances can restore serum levels and eliminate or reduce the symptoms of PMS. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation are recommended as an inexpensive, low-risk, acceptable, and accessible approach to eliminate or reduce the symptoms of PMS.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Case-Control Studies , Checklist , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Luteal Phase , Menstrual Cycle , Premenstrual Syndrome , Vitamin D , Vitamins
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785639

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish whether differences in ovarian size exist between the right and the left ovary of the same individual in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.METHODS: In total, 206 Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome were included in this study. In all participants, a transvaginal or transrectal ultrasound examination was conducted in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle.RESULTS: A significant linear correlation was found between the two ovaries with regard to antral follicle count and ovarian volume. The mean antral follicle count in the right ovary (26.75±11.72) was significantly higher than that in the left ovary (23.98±10.85), and the mean volume of the right ovary (11.06±5.17 cm³) was significantly different from that of the left ovary (9.12±4.89 cm³).CONCLUSION: Ovarian size is different between the right and the left ovary in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.


Subject(s)
Female , Follicular Phase , Humans , Menstrual Cycle , Ovary , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Ultrasonography
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775879

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy between acupuncture artificial menstrual cycle method and medication artificial menstrual cycle method for abnormal uterine bleeding-ovulatory (AUB-O) dysfunction (spleen deficiency syndrome).@*METHODS@#Sixty patients were randomly assigned into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each one. 3 cases dropped out in the observation group and 27 cases were included into analysis; 2 cases dropped out in the control group and 28 cases were included into analysis. The patients in the observation group were treated with acupuncture artificial menstrual cycle method. The acupoints were selected according to different stages of menstrual cycle. The acupuncture was given for 30 min per treatment, once every other day; no treatment was given during menstrual period. Xuehai (SP 10), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Taixi (KI 3), Guanyuan (CV 4), Qihai (CV 6), Zusanli (ST 36) and Zhangmen (LR 13) were selected after menstrual period. Taichong (LR 3), Hegu (LI 4), Yaoyangguan (GV 3), Geshu (BL 17), Ganshu (BL 18), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Pishu (BL 20) were selected in ovulaton periods. Baihui (GV 20), Shenshu (BL 23), Yaoyangguan (GV 3), Geshu (BL 17), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Zusanli (ST 36), Gongsun (SP 4) were selected before menstrual period. The patients in the control group were treated with medication artificial menstrual cycle method. Femoston (estradiol tablets/estradiol dydrogesterone tablets) was taken orally. The white tablets were estradiol (1 mg), while the gray tablets were estradiol (1 mg) and dydrogesterone (10 mg). The Femoston was taken once a day, white tablets for the first 14 days, then gray tablets for the last 14 days. The 28-day treatment was taken as one session, and one cycle menstrual was taken as one treatment course, and totally 3 courses were given in the two groups. The clinical symptom score was observed before and after treatment as well as in follow-up visit (3 months after treatment). The clinical efficacy was evaluated based on the total effective rate, the marked effective rate of main symptoms (including menstrual cycle, menstrual period, menstrual volume) and basal body temperature (BBT).@*RESULTS@#① Compared before treatment, the clinical symptom score in the two groups was decreased after treatment and in the follow-up visit (0.05). Compared with the control group, the clinical symptom score in the follow-up visit as well as the difference of that between pre-treatment and follow-up visit had significant difference in the observation group (0.05). ③ After treatment, the marked effective rate of menstrual cycle, menstrual period, menstrual volume had no significant difference between the two groups (>0.05); during the follow-up visit, the marked effective rate of menstrual cycle in the observation group was superior to that in the control group (0.05). ④ After treatment, the diphasic curve rate of BBT had no significant difference between the two groups (>0.05); during the follow-up visit, the diphasic curve rate of BBT in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture artificial menstrual cycle method has superior efficacy for AUB-O dysfunction (spleen deficiency syndrome), which has similar efficacy with medication artificial menstrual cycle method. Moreover, acupuncture has advantages in regulating menstrual cycle and improving ovulation, and has a longer curative effect.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Female , Humans , Menstrual Cycle , Treatment Outcome , Uterine Hemorrhage , Therapeutics
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786682

ABSTRACT

While hormonal changes during the ovulatory cycles affect multiple body systems, medical management, including medication dosing remains largely uniform between the sexes. Little is known about sex-specific pharmacology in women. Although hormonal fluctuations of the normal menstruating process alters women's physiology and brain biochemistry, medication dosing does not consider such cyclical changes. Using schizophrenia as an example, this paper illustrates how a woman's clinical symptoms can change throughout the ovulatory cycle, leading to fluctuations in medication responses. Effects of sex steroids on the brain, clinical pharmacology are discussed. Effective medication dose may be different at different phases of the menstrual cycle. Further research is needed to better understand optimal treatment strategies in reproductive women; we present a potential clinical trial design for examining optimal medication dosing strategies for conditions that have menstruation related clinical fluctuations.


Subject(s)
Biochemistry , Brain , Clothing , Female , Humans , Male , Menstrual Cycle , Menstruation , Pharmacology , Pharmacology, Clinical , Physiology , Psychopharmacology , Schizophrenia , Steroids
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