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2.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(3): 199-207, sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1353212

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades mentales representan uno de los mayores problemas de salud pública. El consumo de alimentos ricos en antioxidantes como, frutas y verduras puede disminuir los factores de riesgo. Objetivo. Analizar la ingesta dietética y el riesgo de enfermedades mentales en adultos peruanos. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal en 393 adultos peruanos, provenientes de las tres regiones del país (costa, sierra y selva). Los datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos se obtuvieron por auto reporte mediante una ficha de registro y el riesgo de enfermedades mentales se determinó con el Cuestionario de Salud General-12 (GHQ-12). Se analizaron los datos mediante el software estadístico IBM SPSS, versión 26. Se utilizó la prueba Chi-cuadrado, considerando un nivel de significancia del 5 %. Resultados. Los participantes que informaron riesgo y presencia de enfermedades mentales reportaron un consumo inadecuado de frutas, verduras y grasas saludables. El consumo adecuado de cereales integrales, frutas y verduras fue significativamente mayor en las mujeres (p<0,05). Sin embargo, más de la mitad de las mujeres demostró estar en riesgo de enfermedades mentales respecto a los hombres (p<0,001). Conclusiones. La ingesta adecuada de alimentos saludables podría resultar beneficiosa en la reducción de los riesgos de las enfermedades mentales en este grupo de población(AU)


Mental illnesses represent one of the biggest public health problems. Consuming foods rich in antioxidants such as fruits and vegetables can lower risk factors. Objective. To analyze the dietary intake and the risk of mental illnesses in Peruvian adults. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 393 Peruvian adults, who came from the three regions of the country (coast, mountains and jungle). Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were obtained through a registration form and the risk of mental illnesses was determined using the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). The data were analyzed using the statistical software IBM SPSS, version 26. The Chi-square test was used, considering a significance level of 5%. Results. Participants who reported risk and presence of mental illness reported inadequate consumption of fruits, vegetables, and healthy fats. Adequate consumption of whole grains, fruits and vegetables was significantly higher in women (p <0.05). However, more than half of the women proved to be at risk for mental illnesses compared to men (p <0.001). Conclusions. The adequate intake of healthy foods could be beneficial in reducing the risks of mental illness in this population group(AU)q


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Vegetables , Depression/etiology , Diet, Healthy , Fruit , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/genetics , Antioxidants , Stress, Psychological , Risk Factors , Adult , Life Style
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(6): 670-680, dic. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250290

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hyperprolactinemia may be associated with psychiatric disorders in the context of two scenarios: antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia and psychiatric disorders arising from the medical treatment of hyperprolactinemia. Both situations are particularly common in psychiatric and endocrine clinical practice, albeit generally underestimated or unrecognized. The aim of this article is to provide tools for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia associated with psychiatric disorders to raise awareness, especially among psychiatrists and endocrinologists, so that these professionals can jointly focus on the appropriate management of this clinical entity.


Resumen La hiperprolactinemia puede asociarse con trastornos psiquiátricos en el contexto de dos escenarios: la hiperprolactinemia inducida por antipsicóticos y trastornos psiquiátricos surgidos por el tratamiento médico de la hiperprolactinemia. Ambas situaciones son particularmente comunes en la práctica clínica psiquiátrica y endocrinológica, aunque generalmente subestimadas o inadvertidas. El objetivo de este artículo es proporcionar herramientas de diagnóstico y tratamiento de la hiperprolactinemia asociada a trastornos psiquiátricos, para concientizar particularmente a psiquiatras y endocrinólogos a enfocar en conjunto el manejo apropiado de esta entidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Hyperprolactinemia/diagnosis , Hyperprolactinemia/chemically induced , Hyperprolactinemia/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Prolactin/metabolism
5.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 36(2): e3251, abr.-jul.2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280254

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Dentre os membros da estratégia saúde da família, está o enfermeiro, um profissional capaz de perceber o indivíduo como um todo, favorecendo a assistência às pessoas com transtorno mental de maneira qualificada. Objetivo: Analisar a imagem da pessoa com transtorno mental construída pelos enfermeiros da estratégia de saúde da família. Métodos: Estudo qualitativo, de natureza descritivo-exploratória, cujo cenário foi composto pelas Unidades de Saúde de Maceió, com a partticipação de quinze enfermeiros, que foram entrevistados com base em uma entrevista semiestruturada e a metodologia utilizada foi a análise de conteúdo por meio de análise temática e o referencial teórico utilizado foram os conceitos de estigma, identidade social e pessoal da teoria de Erving Goffman. Resultados: Na problematização emergiram três categorias de análise: Transtorno mental: uma imagem ainda estigmatizada; Relação enfermeiro-pessoa: dificuldades para o encontro entre o eu e o outro; Possibilidades de mudanças: o portador de transtorno mental é simplesmente uma pessoa. Conclusões: Os enfermeiros ainda mantêm uma imagem marcada pelo estigma da loucura, sentimentos de insegurança e falta de confiança dificultam a realização de cuidados efetivos em saúde mental, os quais, por sua vez, estão relacionados à má formação e ausência de atualizações(AU)


Introducción: Entre los miembros de la estrategia salud de la familia está el enfermero, un profesional que puede percibir al individuo en su totalidad, favoreciendo una asistencia calificada a las personas con trastorno mental. Objetivo: Analizar la imagen de la persona con trastorno mental construida por el enfermero miembro de la estrategia de salud de la familia. Métodos: Estudio cualitativo, descriptivo exploratorio, cuyo escenario fue compuesto por las Unidades de Salud de Maceió, con la participación de quince enfermeras, que fueron entrevistadas en base a una entrevista semiestructurada. La metodología utilizada fue el análisis de contenido mediante análisis temático y el marco teórico utilizado fueron los conceptos de estigma, identidad social y personal de la teoría de Erving Goffman. Resultados: En la problematización surgieron tres categorías de análisis: Trastorno mental: una imagen aún estigmatizada; Relación enfermero-persona: dificultades para el encuentro entre el yo y el otro; y Posibilidades de cambio: el portador de trastorno mental es simplemente una persona. Conclusión: El personal de enfermería aún mantiene una imagen marcada por el estigma de la locura, sentimientos de inseguridad y la falta de confianza dificultan la realización de cuidados efectivos en salud mental, los cuales a su vez están relacionados con un pobre entrenamiento y ausencia de actualización(AU)


Introduction: Among those members who participate in the family health strategy is the nurse, a professional who can perceive the individual in his/her entire being, favoring qualified assistance for people with mental disorders. Objective: To analyze the image about the person with a mental disorder constructed by the nurse who is a member of the family health strategy. Methods: Qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study whose setting was composed of the health units in Maceió and carried out with the participation of fifteen nurses, who were conducted a semi-structured interview. The methodology used was content analysis through thematic analysis, while the theoretical framework used included the concepts of stigma, and social and personal identity provided within Erving Goffman's theory. Results: In the problematization, three categories of analysis emerged: mental disorder, an image still stigmatized; nurse-person relationship, difficulties for the encounter between the self and the other; and possibilities for a change, the carrier of a mental disorder is simply a person. Conclusion: The nursing staff still maintains an image marked by the stigma of insanity; feelings of insecurity and lack of confidence hinder the performance or provision of effective mental health cares, which is, in turn, related to poor training and absence of upgrade(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Family Health , National Health Strategies , Mental Disorders/etiology , Nursing Staff , Epidemiology, Descriptive
6.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 73(supl.2): e20200338, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1125937

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to identify publishing related to the mental health of health professionals working in the front line of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: an integrative review that included primary articles indexed in the Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Science Direct databases and US National Library of Medicine databases. The result analysis was performed descriptively, in four analytical categories. Results: The publishing involved aspects related to insufficient personal protective equipment, feelings of fear and stigma, the need for psychological and psychiatric support and the possibility of post-outbreak mental disorders. Conclusion: All mentioned aspects have a direct impact on the mental health of professionals, demanding the creation of strategies that minimize the emotional burnout of workers, considering that each country and culture reacts differently to the disease.


RESUMEN Objetivo: identificar publicaciones relacionadas con la salud mental de los profesionales de la salud que trabajan frente a la pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos: una revisión integradora que incluyó artículos primarios indexados en las bases de datos de Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Science Direct e US National Library of Medicine. El análisis descriptivo de los resultados se realizó en cuatro categorías analíticas. Resultados: las publicaciones incluyeron aspectos relacionados con la falta de equipo de protección personal, sentimientos de miedo y estigma, la necesidad de apoyo psicológico y psiquiátrico y la posibilidad de trastornos mentales posteriores al brote. Conclusión: Todos estos aspectos tienen un impacto directo en la salud mental de los profesionales y exigen el desarrollo de estrategias que minimicen el agotamiento emocional de los trabajadores, teniendo en cuenta que cada país y cultura reacciona de manera diferente a la enfermedad.


RESUMO Objetivo: identificar as publicações relacionadas com a saúde mental dos profissionais de saúde atuantes diante da pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos: revisão integrativa que incluiu artigos primários indexados nas bases de dados Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Science Direct e US National Library of Medicine. A análise descritiva dos resultados foi realizada em quatro categorias analíticas. Resultados: As publicações envolveram aspectos relacionados com a insuficiência de equipamentos de proteção individual, sentimentos de medo e estigma, necessidade de apoio psicológico e psiquiátrico e a possibilidade de transtornos mentais pós-surto. Conclusão: Todos estes aspectos impactam diretamente na saúde mental dos profissionais e demandam o desenvolvimento de estratégias que minimizem o desgaste emocional dos trabalhadores, levando em conta que cada país e cultura reage de forma diferente em relação a doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Mental Health , Health Personnel/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stereotyping , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , Fear/psychology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Diseases/psychology
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(12): 4375-4384, dez. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055758

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fiscal austerity policies have been used as responses to economic crises and fiscal deficits in both developed and developing countries. While they vary in regard to their content, intensity and implementation, such models recommend reducing public expenses and social investments, retracting the public service and substituting the private sector in lieu of the State to provide certain services tied to social policies. The present article discusses the main effects of the recent economic crisis on public health based on an updated review with consideration for three dimensions: health risks, epidemiological profiles of different populations, and health policies. In Brazil, the combination of economic crisis and fiscal austerity policies is capable of producing a direr situation than those experienced in developed countries. The country is characterized by historically high levels of social inequality, an under-financed health sector, highly prevalent chronic degenerative diseases and persisting preventable infectious diseases. It is imperative to develop alternatives to mitigate the effects of the economic crisis taking into consideration not only the sustainability of public finance but also public well-being.


Resumo Políticas de austeridade fiscal têm sido utilizadas como respostas à crise econômica e deficit fiscal tanto em países desenvolvidos como em desenvolvimento. Embora variem quanto ao conteúdo, intensidade e cronograma de implementação, tais modelos preconizam a redução do gasto público, promovendo também a diminuição do investimento social, a retração da máquina pública e a substituição do Estado pelo setor privado na provisão de determinados serviços vinculados a políticas sociais. Este artigo debate os principais efeitos da crise econômica recente sobre a saúde da população, tendo sido baseado em uma revisão atualizada, considerando-se três dimensões: riscos à saúde, perfil epidemiológico das populações e políticas de saúde. A crise econômica no Brasil, combinada com a política de austeridade fiscal, pode produzir um contexto mais grave do que o vivenciado pelos países desenvolvidos. O país apresenta altos níveis históricos de desigualdade social, subfinanciamento do setor saúde, alta prevalência de doenças crônico-degenerativas e persistência de doenças infeciosas evitáveis. É imperativo que se construam alternativas para se mitigar os efeitos da crise econômica, levando-se em conta não apenas a sustentabilidade das finanças públicas, mas também o bem-estar da população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Care Rationing/economics , Public Health/economics , Resource Allocation/economics , Developing Countries/economics , Economic Recession , Health Policy/economics , Research Support as Topic/economics , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Poverty Areas , Developed Countries/economics , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Mortality , Health Expenditures , Risk Assessment , Economics , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Infections/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/psychology
9.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(4): 1096-1102, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1005467

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Compreender os riscos e os mecanismos de enfrentamento apresentados pelas puérperas diante dos transtornos mentais no pós-parto. Métodos: Pesquisa qualitativa, de caráter descritivo, realizada com 12 puérperas, na faixa etária de 16 a 35 anos, que fizeram o acompanhamento do pré-natal na unidade de Atendimento Multiprofissional Especializado em Petrolina/PE, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada e observação dos conteúdos implícitos no comportamento das puérperas. A coleta dos dados ocorreu em novembro e dezembro de 2016. Resultados: Identificou-se que fatores como gravidez precoce ou não planejada, carência de apoio do companheiro, instabilidade familiar e baixas condições socioeconômicas podem contribuir como agentes facilitadores no surgimento de algum transtorno mental na puérpera. Conclusão: Considerando que os transtornos mentais são comuns no puerpério, quanto mais precocemente detectar os fatores de risco, melhor assistência poderá ser oferecida à puérpera


Objective: To understand the risks and coping mechanisms presented by puerperal women in the face of postpartum mental disorders. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was carried out with twelve puerperae, in the age group of 16 to 35 years old who underwent prenatal follow-up at the Multiprofessional Specialized Care Unit in Petrolina-PE, through a semi-structured interview and observation of the contents implicit in the behavior of puerperal women. Data collection took place in November and December 2016. Results: It was identified that factors such as early or unplanned pregnancy, lack of support from the partner, family instability and low socioeconomic conditions can contribute as facilitating agents in the emergence of some mental disorder in the puerpera. Conclusion: Considering that chronic disorders are common in the puerperium, the earlier the risk factors are detected, the better care can be given to the woman


Objetivo: Comprender los riesgos y mecanismos de enfrentamiento presentados por las puérperas ante los trastornos mentales en el posparto. Métodos: Investigación cualitativa, de carácter descriptivo, realizada con doce puérperas, en el grupo de edad de 16 a 35 años que hicieron el seguimiento del prenatal en la unidad de Atención Multiprofesional Especializado en Petrolina-PE, por medio de entrevista semiestructurada y observación de los contenidos implícitos en el comportamiento de las puérperas. La recolección de los datos ocurrió en noviembre y diciembre de 2016. Resultados: Se identificó que factores como embarazo precoz o no planificado, carencia de apoyo del compañero, inestabilidad familiar y bajas condiciones socioeconómicas pueden aportar como agentes facilitadores en el surgimiento de algún trastorno mental en la puérpera. Conclusión: Considerando que los trastornos mentales son comunes en el puerperio, cuanto más precozmente detecte los factores de riesgo, mejor asistencia podrá ser ofrecida a la puérpera


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Depression, Postpartum/prevention & control , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Mental Disorders/classification , Mental Disorders/etiology
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(5): 1925-1934, Mai. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001808

ABSTRACT

Resumo Insegurança alimentar e nutricional está relacionada a problemas nutricionais e de saúde, entretanto poucos estudos a relacionam com saúde mental. O objetivo deste artigo é Investigar associação da insegurança alimentar familiar e risco de transtornos mentais comuns (TMC) em mães com filhos de um ano de idade. Estudo de coorte prospectivo com 194 mães e seus filhos desde o nascimento. Insegurança alimentar foi medida aos quatro meses pós-parto, com a Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar e risco de diagnóstico positivo de TMC nas mães ao final do primeiro ano da criança, com o Self Response Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Medidas socioeconômicas e de saúde foram utilizadas como controle. Das famílias, 59,3% apresentavam insegurança alimentar, tendo razão de risco para diagnóstico de TMC de 1,59 (IC 95%: 1,10 - 2,31), comparado com famílias em segurança alimentar. Após ajuste, modelo logístico múltiplo estimou OR = 2,20 (IC 95%: 1,16 - 4,20) para esta relação. Observou-se associação da insegurança alimentar familiar aos quatro meses pós-parto e risco de diagnóstico de TMC entre mães ao final do primeiro ano dos filhos. O enfrentamento da insegurança alimentar deve fazer parte das estratégias promotoras da saúde materna e da qualidade de vida materno-infantil.


Abstract Household food insecurity (HFI) is related to health and nutritional problems, however there are few extant studies that relate it to mental health. The scope of this article is to associate HFI with the risk of minor mental disorders (MMD) in mothers with one-year-old children. A prospective cohort was conducted with 194 mothers and their babies from birth onwards. HFI was measured fourth months after birth using the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity scale and MMD risk amongst mothers was measured by the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) when their baby was one year old. Socio-economic and health status were used for control. HFI was present in 59.3% of the families. The MMD risk ratio was 1.59 (CI 95%: 1.10 - 2.31) in HFI families compared with secure families. This relationship remains significant in the multiple logistic model, OR= 2.20 (CI 95%: 1.16 - 4.20), after controlling by socio-economic and health variables. HFI is an independent risk factor to maternal risk of MMD. It should be important to include strategies to reduce HFI by promoting maternal mental health and improving child-mother quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Adult , Quality of Life , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mothers/psychology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Status , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Mental Disorders/etiology
12.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(5): e00093718, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001665

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito da exposição e do tempo de exposição ao aleitamento materno na ocorrência de transtornos mentais comuns (TMC) entre adolescentes escolares brasileiros. Este trabalho analisou dados do Estudo de Riscos Cardiovasculares em Adolescentes (ERICA), avaliando aqueles que tiveram o questionário referente ao aleitamento materno respondido pelos pais ou responsáveis. A presença de TMC foi identificada pelo General Health Questionnaire, versão 12 itens (GHQ-12), considerando-se dois pontos de corte (escores ≥ 3 e ≥ 5). As associações foram testadas em análises bivariadas e por meio de modelos de regressão logística múltipla, com ajustes por variáveis potenciais de confusão. Dentre os 41.723 adolescentes avaliados, a maioria foi composta por estudantes do sexo feminino (54,6%), que tinham idades entre 12 e 15 anos (71%), estudavam em escolas públicas (83,1%), residiam na Região Sudeste (51,9%) e eram das classes econômicas B (53,8%) e C (34,1%). Cerca de metade das mães dos adolescentes não tinha o ensino médio completo (51,7%). O grupo de adolescentes com mais de seis meses de aleitamento materno (51,8%) apresentou uma menor prevalência de TMC para os dois pontos de corte do GHQ-12 avaliados, quando comparado com o grupo que não recebeu aleitamento materno ou que o recebeu por período ≤ 1 mês (RI = 0,82; IC95%:0,69-0,97 e RI = 0,74; IC95%: 0,59-0,91 para 3 e 5 pontos, respectivamente). O aleitamento materno prolongado parece desempenhar um papel protetor para a ocorrência de TMC na adolescência.


Abstract: This article sought to evaluate the effect of exposure, and exposure time, to breastfeeding on the occurrence of common mental disorders (CMD) among Brazilian adolescents enrolled in school. This study analyzed data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents (ERICA), evaluating those whose questionnaire regarding breastfeeding had been filled out by parents or guardians. The presence of CMD was identified using the General Health Questionnaire, version 12 items (GHQ-12), and we considered two cutoff points (scores ≥ 3 and ≥ 5). We tested the associations in bivariate analyses and through multiple logistical regression models, adjusting for potential confounding variables. Of the 41,723 adolescents we evaluated, most were students of the female sex (54.6%), aged between 12 and 15 years (71%), attended public schools (83.1%), resided in the Southeastern region (51.9%) and belonged to the economic classes B (53.8%) and C (34.1%). Around half of the adolescents' mothers had not completed their secondary education (51.7%). The group of adolescents who were breastfed for more than six months (51.8%) had a lower CMD prevalence for both GHQ-12 cutoff points, when compared with the group who were not breastfed or who were breastfed for ≤ 1 month (IR = 0.82; 95%CI: 0.69-0.97 and IR = 0.74; 95%CI: 0.59-0.91 for 3 and 5 points, respectively). Prolonged breastfeeding seems to play a protective role on the occurrence of CMD in adolescence.


Resumen: El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la exposición y del tiempo de exposición a la lactancia materna en la ocurrencia de trastornos mentales comunes (TMC) entre adolescentes escolares brasileñas. Este trabajo analizó datos del Estudio de Riesgos Cardiovasculares en Adolescentes (ERICA), evaluando aquellos, cuyo cuestionario -referente a la lactancia materna- había sido respondido por los padres o responsables legales. La presencia de TMC fue identificada por el General Health Questionnaire, versión 12 ítems (GHQ-12), considerándose dos puntos de corte (puntuaciones ≥ 3 y ≥ 5). Las asociaciones fueron probadas en análisis bivariados, y a través de modelos de regresión logística múltiple, con ajustes por variables potenciales de confusión. Entre los 41.723 adolescentes evaluados, la mayoría estuvo compuesta por estudiantes que eran del sexo femenino (54,6%), que tenían una edad entre 12 y 15 años (71%), estudiaban en escuelas públicas (83,1%), residían en la región Sudeste (51,9%) y eran de las clases económicas B (53,8%) y C (34,1%). Cerca de la mitad de las madres de los adolescentes no contaba con la enseñanza media completa (51,7%). El grupo de adolescentes con más de seis meses de lactancia materna (51,8%) presentó una menor prevalencia de TMC para los dos puntos de corte del GHQ-12 evaluados, cuando se comparan con el grupo que no recibió lactancia materna o que la recibió durante un período ≤ 1 mes (RI = 0,82; IC95%: 0,69-0,97 y RI = 0,74 y IC95%: 0,59-0,91 para 3 y 5 puntos, respectivamente). La lactancia materna prolongada parece desempeñar un papel protector para la ocurrencia de TMC en la adolescencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent Health , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Depressive Disorder/prevention & control , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology
13.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 12(4): 402-407, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984337

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT - Objective: Population aging is a global phenomenon associated with a rising prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases such as dementia. Dementia poses a challenge not only for patients but also their family caregivers who, in exercising this role, are at higher risk of mental illness. The present study investigated the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) in family caregivers of demented elderly seen at a geriatric outpatient clinic of a Brazilian teaching hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which the following assessment instruments were applied: the Self Reporting Questionnaire, Zarit Burden Interview, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Mini-Mental State Examination (caregivers aged ≥65 years) plus a sociodemographic questionnaire. Results: The sample comprised 90 caregivers; 83 (92.2%) women, 51 (56.7%) married, 60 (66.7%) son/daughter of elder and 62 (68.6%) holding another job besides caring for the demented elder. Caregivers had a mean age of 57.3 (±11.7) years and mean education of 9.5 (±4.9) years; 62.2% of caregivers were diagnosed with common mental disorder, 50% exhibited anxiety symptoms, 52.2% depression symptoms and 66.7% reported burden. Caregivers with common mental disorder had higher scores on the anxiety, depression and burden scales (p<0.01). Logistic regression showed that caregivers with anxiety symptoms were 15 times more likely to present common mental disorder (OR: 15.0; 95% CI: 3.5-71.2) and caregivers with symptoms of depression were 8 times more likely to have CMD (OR: 8.0; 95% CI: 2.1-31.1). Conclusion: Results revealed a high prevalence of common mental disorder in the population studied.


RESUMO - Objetivo: O envelhecimento populacional é um fenômeno mundial que está associado ao aumento da prevalência de doenças crônico-degenerativas, como as demências. Demências desafiam não somente os pacientes, mas também seus familiares cuidadores que, como consequência, estão em maior risco de adoecimento mental. O estudo verificou a prevalência de transtorno mental comum em familiares cuidadores de idosos com demência acompanhados em ambulatórios de geriatria de um hospital-escola brasileiro. Métodos: Neste estudo transversal, os instrumentos de avaliação utilizados foram: Self Reporting Questionnaire, Zarit Burden Interview, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale e Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (cuidadores com 65 anos ou mais) e questionário sócio demográfico. Resultados: A amostra foi composta por 90 cuidadores; 83 (92,2%) era do sexo feminino, 51 (56,7%) casados, 60 (66,7%) filhos(as) do idoso e 62 (68,6%) possuíam alguma ocupação além de cuidar do idoso dementado. A média de idade foi 57,3 (±11,7) anos e a média de escolaridade foi de 9,5 (±4,9) anos; 62,2% dos cuidadores apresentaram transtorno mental comum, 50% apresentaram sintomas de ansiedade, 52,2% apresentaram sintomas de depressão e 66,7% apresentaram sobrecarga. Cuidadores com transtorno mental comum apresentaram escores maiores nos instrumentos de ansiedade, depressão e sobrecarga (p<0,01). Regressão logística mostrou que cuidadores com sintomas de ansiedade tiveram 15 vezes mais chances de apresentar TMC (OR: 15,0; IC95%: 3,5-71,2) e cuidadores com sintomas de depressão tiveram 8 vezes mais chances de apresentar TMC (OR: 8,0; IC95%: 2,1-31,1). Conclusão: Resultados encontrados demonstram que, na população estudada, existe alta prevalência de transtorno mental comum.


Subject(s)
Humans , Caregivers/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Aging , Risk Factors
15.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 89(2): 166-172, abr. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900083

ABSTRACT

El divorcio o separación de una pareja con hijos pone fin a la convivencia de ambos padres en con junto con sus hijos. Puede haber múltiples causas para un divorcio y tanto la literatura como la ex periencia de los autores trabajando con familias en esta situación, dan cuenta de algunas consecuen cias a corto y largo plazo para los niños, especialmente en aquellos casos en que el divorcio ha sido conflictivo. En estos casos, se ha observado mayor riesgo de presentar trastornos de conducta, bajo rendimiento escolar y abuso de sustancias. Por otra parte puede tener consecuencias en la vida adulta, presentando mayor riesgo de patologías psiquiátricas o dificultades en las relaciones interpersonales si no se realiza una intervención que aborde algunas situaciones potencialmente traumáticas para los niños. Los pediatras se encuentran en una relación privilegiada con respecto a los niños y sus familias para detectar signos de discordia parental y alteración de la salud mental infantil. Las conductas que se manifiesten en los niños a consecuencia del divorcio y el conflicto parental van a depender de la edad y etapa de desarrollo del niño, siendo importante reconocerlas para poder intervenir de forma adecuada. El presente artículo propone directrices para guiar a los padres, ya que con un adecuado manejo de las situaciones de conflicto que ocurren alrededor del divorcio es posible prevenir algunas de las consecuencias que éste puede tener en los hijos.


When divorce or separation of a couple occurs, children will no longer live with both parents at the same time. There may be multiple causes for divorce, and both literature and our own experien ce as child mental health providers, report some short- and long-term consequences for children, especially where the divorce has been conflictive. In these cases, increased risk of developing be havioral disorders, poor school performance, and substance abuse has been documented as well as consequences in adult life with higher risk of psychiatric pathologies or difficulties in interpersonal relationships, if an intervention that addresses some potentially traumatic situations for children is not done. Pediatricians are in a privileged relationship with children and their families in order to detect signs of parental discord and altered mental health in children. Children behaviors as a result of divorce and parental conflict will depend on the age of the child and stage of development, and it is important to recognize them in order to intervene properly. This article proposes some guidelines for parents. Good management of high conflict situations related to divorce may prevent some of the consequences that these can have on children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pediatrics , Physician's Role , Professional-Family Relations , Divorce/psychology , Child Behavior , Family Conflict/psychology , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Parents/psychology , Psychology, Child , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/etiology
16.
Rev. bras. med. trab ; 16(2): 218-224, abr.-jun-2018.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-909239

ABSTRACT

A relação entre os transtornos mentais em decorrência do trabalho decorre de várias causas e pode atingir todos os profissionais de saúde. A equipe de enfermagem se submete a altas demandas físicas e psicológicas que colaboram para o adoecimento mental. Dessa forma, o presente trabalho objetivou levantar estudos brasileiros com vistas a identificar a relação causal entre os transtornos mentais e o trabalho dos profissionais da enfermagem. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de estudos brasileiros do período de 2010 a 2017. Para o levantamento bibliográfico foi utilizado o banco de dados da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde. Por meio da associação entre os descritores e filtragem foram obtidos sete artigos. O método de exclusão foi aplicado àqueles que correspondiam a artigos repetidos, teses e os que não se enquadravam no objetivo do estudo. Com isso, descobriu-se que o sofrimento psíquico prejudica a vida familiar, social, pessoal, laboral, os estudos, a compreensão de si mesmo e dos outros, a capacidade de autocrítica, a aceitação dos problemas e a possibilidade de ter prazer na vida em geral. A carga física através de grande volume de atividades, déficit de pessoal e número elevado de pacientes, bem como a pressão psicológica sobre o trabalho, contribuem para o surgimento de transtornos mentais. Portanto, as pressões sofridas pelo trabalhador da enfermagem no ambiente laboral e as jornadas duplas de trabalho, associadas ao modo de enfrentamento do trabalhador e à baixa remuneração contribuem para o afastamento por transtornos mentais. Entretanto, se faz necessária a realização de estudos mais amplos.


Work-related mental disorders have several causes and might affect all healthcare professionals. Nursing professionals are exposed to high physical and psychological demands which contribute to the development of mental illnesses. The aim of the present study was to survey studies conducted in Brazil to investigate the causal relationship between mental disorders and nursingprofessionals' work. Integrative review of studies conducted in Brazil from 2010 to 2017. The literature search was performed on the Virtual Health Library database. Combination of descriptors and application of filters resulted in seven articles. Duplicates, doctoral dissertations and articles which did not meet the study aims were excluded. Mental suffering impairs the family, social, personal and professional life of nursing professionals, their studies, self-comprehension and understanding of others, self-criticism ability, acceptance of problems and possibility to take pleasure in life as a whole. The physical load resulting from a large volume of activities, understaffing, large numbers of patients and psychological pressure in the workplace contribute to the development of mental disorders. The pressure to which nursing professionals are exposed in the workplace and double shifts, together with coping modalities and low salary contribute to sick leaves due to mental disorders. However, broader scoped studies are needed


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Mental Disorders/etiology , Nurse Practitioners/psychology , Occupational Diseases
17.
Rev. bras. med. trab ; 16(1): 100-105, jan.-mar-2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-882545

ABSTRACT

El cambio en las condiciones de trabajo y de empleo a nivel mundial, y en especial en Chile, ha propiciado la generación de nuevos riesgos en el trabajo. Los factores de riesgos psicosociales y las consecuencias en la salud mental de los trabajadores, debido a la exposición a estos, han ido en constante crecimiento en los últimos años. La preocupación por la prevención de estos y la adecuada identificación de las patologías de salud mental, son una de las principales problemáticas de las autoridades de salud y seguridad en nuestro país. Es por ello que en los últimos 5 años se elaboraron instrucciones específicas para el correcto proceso de reconocimiento de patologías de salud mental en el lugar del trabajo. La normativa actual incorpora mejoras en el proceso administrativo, en la formación de los profesionales y los tiempos que toma este proceso. Sin embargo, existen aún deficiencias que solucionar tanto en aspectos legales como en la calidad del proceso de reconocimiento que permita mejorar la precisión de las decisiones respecto al reconocimiento de las patologías mentales de origen laboral.


The changes in the work and employment conditions worldwide, and in Chile in particular, led to the development of new risks at work. Psychosocial risks at work, and their impacts on the health of workers following exposure, have continuously increased in recent years. Prevention against such risks and adequate identification of mental health disorders are some of the main problems for the Chilean occupational safety and health authorities. For this reason, specific guidelines for the process of recognition of mental health diseases at the workplace were formulated. The current regulations include improvements of administrative aspects, professional training and duration of the full process. Nevertheless, there are still deficiencies in legal aspects and in the quality of the process that need to be overcome to improve decisions regarding the recognition of this kind of diseases.


Subject(s)
Working Conditions , Occupational Risks , Mental Disorders/etiology , Occupational Diseases , Chile
18.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(1): 6-11, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899396

ABSTRACT

Objective: To increase understanding of the influence of photoperiod variation in patients with bipolar disorders. Methods: We followed a sample of Italian bipolar patients over a period of 24 months, focusing on inpatients. All patients admitted to the Psychiatric Inpatient Unit of San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital in Orbassano (Turin, Italy) between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2015 were recruited. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected. Results: Seven hundred and thirty patients were included. The admission rate for bipolar patients was significantly higher during May, June and July, when there was maximum sunlight exposure, although no seasonal pattern was found. Patients with (hypo)manic episodes were admitted more frequently during the spring and during longer photoperiods than those with major depressive episodes. Conclusions: Photoperiod is a key element in bipolar disorder, not only as an environmental factor but also as an important clinical parameter that should be considered during treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Seasons , Sunlight/adverse effects , Bipolar Disorder/etiology , Bipolar Disorder/psychology , Photoperiod , Socioeconomic Factors , Sex Factors , Depressive Disorder, Major , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Italy , Mental Disorders/classification , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/psychology
19.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 39(4): 365-368, Oct.-Dec. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899374

ABSTRACT

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Psychiatric comorbidities are highly prevalent in patients with MS, and can have drastic impact on quality of life and interpersonal relationships. Despite this high prevalence, whether psychiatric manifestations may represent the first signs of MS is still debatable. This constitutes an important issue, since early diagnosis of "psychiatric-onset MS" would result in prompt management, which usually ameliorates long-term prognosis. Here, we discuss clinical and radiological hints that suggest a diagnosis of psychiatric-onset MS. Briefly, this entity should be considered in healthy patients presenting with late-onset psychiatric symptoms, with or without cognitive decline, and with negative family history of psychiatric diseases. A thorough neurological exam is crucial to detect any subtle neurological signs. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is recommended to rule out frontotemporal lesions that might explain the clinical picture. Poor response to standard psychiatric treatments provides additional evidence for the diagnosis of an organic disease (e.g., MS). Combining psychopharmaceuticals with intravenous corticosteroids would result in good outcomes, but patients should be monitored carefully for possible psychiatric exacerbation, a common side effect of steroids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mental Disorders/etiology , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/psychology , Early Diagnosis
20.
Med. infant ; 24(2): 87-94, Junio 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-878494

ABSTRACT

La epilepsia es una enfermedad crónica que en ocasiones puede afectar el funcionamiento emocional, cognitivo y lingüístico del niño e impactar en su funcionamiento intra-psíquico e interpersonal incluyendo a su familia y al medio académico y social. Si bien en el ámbito internacional se han realizado numerosos estudios que han podido demostrar que muchos niños con epilepsia ven afectadas sus funciones mentales, sus emociones y conducta, muy pocas investigaciones se propusieron explorar la relación existente entre psicopatología y tipo de epilepsia. Es frecuente que la epilepsia se acompañe de síntomas y cuadros psicológicos y psiquiátricos, causados ya sea por los efectos neurofisiológicos de la misma enfermedad, como consecuencia de las condiciones de vida que la enfermedad impone, por las características constitucionales de los sujetos, por la dinámica que se establece en el plano familiar y también como efectos adversos de la medicación. El predominio de problemas del comportamiento en niños con epilepsia se muestra dos veces superior al considerado en niños con enfermedades crónicas que no implican el SNC y cuatro veces superior al de niños sanos. Estudios más recientes señalan la presencia de disturbios del comportamiento en 21-32% de niños con epilepsia usando la lista de comprobación del comportamiento del niño, en 23-26% con el inventario de la depresión del niño, en el 48% con la escala de Rutter. Es objetivo de esta investigación, determinar la distribución de los trastornos mentales asociados a epilepsia benigna de la infancia en un grupo de pacientes de entre 6 y 13 años y comparar esta distribución con la de un grupo de niños de entre 6 y 13 años de la población escolar general (AU)


Epilepsy is a chronic disease that may affect emotional, cognitive, and linguistic, as well as inter-psychic and intrapersonal functioning including the family and academic and social environments. Although numerous international studies have been conducted showing that in children with epilepsy cognitive function, emotions, and behavior are often impaired, few investigations have proposed to assess the correlation between psychopathology and type of epilepsy. Epilepsy is commonly associated with psychological and psychiatric features caused either by the neurophysiological effects of the disease or by the conditions of life related to the disease, due to constitutional characteristics of the patients, family dynamics, and adverse effects of the antiepileptic drugs. Predominance of behavioral difficulties of children with epilepsy are two-fold higher than in children with other chronic diseases not involving the CNS and four-fold higher than in healthy children. More recent studies have found the presence of behavioral disturbances in 21-32% of children with epilepsy using a checklist of child behavior, with the Child Depression Inventory in 23-26% and the Rutter Scale in 48%. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of mental disorders associated with benign childhood epilepsy in a group of patients between 6 and 13 years of age compared with that in a group of children between 6 and 13 years of age from the general school-age population (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Comorbidity , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Chronic Disease , Epilepsy, Frontal Lobe , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe
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