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1.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 660-675, oct.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355741

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. Los conflictos armados afectan los territorios ricos en recursos y biodiversidad; el daño ambiental causado por las acciones violentas puede afectar la salud de las poblaciones. Objetivos. Evaluar los riesgos para la salud humana debidos a la degradación ambiental asociada con tres acciones violentas en el marco del conflicto armado colombiano: la voladura de oleoductos, la minería informal con mercurio y la aspersión de cultivos ilícitos con glifosato. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo una evaluación cuantitativa de los riesgos para la salud individual asociados con actividades del conflicto armado, usando metodologías que tienen en cuenta la ruta de dispersión de los contaminantes, su concentración en el ambiente, la exposición de los individuos y los riesgos de efectos cancerígenos y no cancerígenos. Resultados. La evaluación de los riesgos asociados con las acciones en el marco del conflicto armado analizadas, evidenció un riesgo cancerígeno intolerable y uno no cancerígeno inaceptable debidos al consumo de agua y peces contaminados por hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos, mercurio y glifosato. Conclusiones. El estudio reafirmó las conexiones inextricables que existen entre ambiente, sociedad y salud, y las implicaciones de la violencia ambiental para la salud pública de los grupos poblacionales vulnerables y, en general, para el bienestar de todos los seres vivos afectados por el conflicto armado.


Abstract | Introduction: Armed conflicts affect territories rich in resources and biodiversity. As a result of the environmental damage caused by violent actions, the health of populations can be affected. Objectives: To assess the risks to human health due to environmental degradation associated with three violent actions in the context of the Colombian armed conflict: Pipeline bombing, informal mining with mercury, and spraying of illicit crops with glyphosate. Materials and methods: We conducted a quantitative evaluation of the risks to individual health associated with armed conflict activities using methodologies focused on the routes of pollutants dispersion, their concentrations in the environment, the exposure of the individuals, and the risks of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. Results: The risk assessment of the armed conflict-related actions under study evidenced intolerable carcinogenic risk and unacceptable non-carcinogenic risk due to the consumption of water and fish contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mercury, and glyphosate. Conclusions: The study reiterates the inextricable connections existing among the environment, society, and health, as well as the implications of environmental violence for the public health of vulnerable population groups and, in general, for the well-being of all living beings affected by the armed conflict.


Subject(s)
Environmental Health , Armed Conflicts , Environmental Pollution , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Risk Assessment , Mercury , Mining
2.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(4): 225-231, out./dez. 2021. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363787

ABSTRACT

This study has as objective to determine total mercury (Total Hg) levels by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 134 individuals edible part of Mullus argentinae, in two different fishing areas and two seasons in Rio de Janeiro State. Also, proximate composition was performed. Total Hg results in wet weight basis ranged from 0.0867 to 0.7476 µg.g-1 in muscle; 0.0023 to 0,1034 µg.g-1 in flippers; and 0.0177 to 0.1849 µg.g-1 in skin. Mean evaluated moisture was 73.39%; protein was 18.76%; lipid concentration of 5.36%; carbohydrates of 2.35%; and ashes were 0.85%.Results showed that Total Hg contents was lower than accepted limits established by regulatory organization. Higher averages were observed in muscle (0.2441 µg.g-1) when compared with skin (0.2386 µg.g-1) and flippers (0.0195 µg.g-1). In general, samples collected on summer showed higher values of total Hg when comparing to winter. Regarding beach areas there was no significant difference (p>0.05). We can conclude that this specie should be cautious consumed because of total Hg bioaccumulation characteristics, although neither levels were above limits established.


O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o teor de mercúrio no tecido comestível de Mullus argentinae, conhecido como peixe trilha, espécie amplamente consumida no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Foi determinado o teor de mercúrio total (Hg total) por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica em 134 amostras, coletados em duas áreas e estações climáticas diferentes. Além disso, foi avaliada a composição centesimal das amostras. Os resultados de Hg total em peso úmido variaram de 0,0867 a 0,7476 µg.g-1 no músculo; 0,0023 a 0,1034 µg.g-1 nas nadadeiras; e 0,0177 a 0,1849 µg.g-1 na pele. Os valores médios da composição centesimal foram de 73,30% de umidade, 18,76% de proteína, 5,36% de lipídios, 2,35% de carboidratos e 0,85% de matéria mineral. Os resultados das 134 amostras analisadas demostraram que os teores de Hg Total apresentam concentração inferior aos limites aceitos pelos órgãos reguladores. As maiores médias foram observadas no músculo (0,2441 µg.g-1) quando comparadas à pele (0,2386 µg.g-1) e nadadeiras (0,0195 µg.g-1). Em geral, as amostras coletadas no verão apresentaram maiores valores de Hg total em relação ao inverno. Em relação aos locais de coleta não houve diferença significativa (p> 0,05). Podemos concluir que esta espécie deve ser consumida com cautela devido às características de bioacumulação do Hg total, apesar das médias apresentadas estarem abaixo dos limites estabelecidos pela legislação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes , Bioaccumulation , Mercury , Spectrum Analysis , Fish Proteins/analysis
3.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(3): 1-12, 2021-08-11. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363305

ABSTRACT

Background: Dietary exposure to mercury in women of childbearing age could result in neurological effects on the fetus. A health risk assessment of total mercury by fishery products intake has not been conducted in this population group in Bogota, Colombia. On the other hand, it has been suggested that selenium content on fishery products may have a protective effect against mercury toxicity. Nevertheless, selenium content on fish species marketed in Bogota has not been determined. Objective: Exposure risk to total mercury and selenium content on fishery products consumed by women of childbearing age from Bogota, Colombia, were assessed. Methods: Total mercury and selenium concentrations for products available at fish stores and supermarkets were determined. The exposure risk to total mercury was estimated considering the intake of these products by women of childbearing age group. Results: Total mercury highest concentrations were 0.8166 mg/kg in mota (Calophysusmacropterus), and 0.6275 mg/kg in catfish (Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum). On the other hand, the highest selenium concentration was 0.6471 mg/kg in nicuro (Pimelodus blochii). Finally, it was established that for women of childbearing age group, health risk of exposure to total mercury due to mota intake exceeded by 8.56-fold the reference dose. Conclusions:Mota intake considerably increases exposure risk to total mercury on women of childbearing age from Bogota, Colombia. The selenium levels established in the fishery products assessed, except for catfish and mota, are theoretically suggestive of a protective effect of selenium against mercury toxicity. Consequently, continuous total mercury concentrations monitoring is required to protect health of women of childbearing age and the general population from Bogota, Colombia


Antecedentes: La exposición dietética al mercurio en mujeres en edad fértil podría provocar efectos neurológicos en el feto. En Bogotá, Colombia no se han realizado evaluaciones de riesgo por la exposición al mercurio total debido a la ingesta de productos de la pesca en este grupo de la población. Por otro lado, ha sido sugerido que el contenido de selenio en los productos de la pesca podría tener un efecto protector frente a la toxicidad por mercurio, sin embargo, el contenido de selenio en las especies de peces comercializadas en Bogotá, Colombia no ha sido determinado. Objetivo: Evaluar el riesgo de exposición al mercurio total y el contenido de selenio en los productos de la pesca consumidos por las mujeres en edad fértil de Bogotá, Colombia. Métodos: Se determinaron las concentraciones de mercurio total y selenio en distintos productos de la pesca disponibles en pescaderías y supermercados. El riesgo de exposición a mercurio total se estimó considerando la ingesta de estos productos por parte de un grupo de mujeres en edad fértil. Resultados: Las concentraciones más altas de mercurio total fueron de 0.8166 mg/kg en mota (Calophysus macropterus) y 0.6275 mg/kg en bagre (Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum). Por otro lado, la concentración más alta de selenio fue de 0.6471 mg/kg en nicuro (Pimelodus blochii). Finalmente, se estableció que el riesgo de exposición a mercurio total, debido a la ingesta de mota, excedió en 8.56 veces la dosis de referencia en el grupo de mujeres en edad fértil. Conclusiones: La ingesta de mota aumenta el riesgo de exposición al mercurio total en las mujeres en edad fértil de Bogotá, Colombia. Por otro lado, los niveles de selenio identificados en los productos evaluados, excepto en bagre y mota, teóricamente sugieren un posible efecto protector del selenio contra la toxicidad por mercurio. Considerando lo indicado, es necesario realizar un monitoreo continuo de las concentraciones de mercurio total en los productos de la pesca, con el fin de proteger la salud de las mujeres en edad fértil y de la población general de Bogotá, Colombia


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk Assessment , Selenium , Women , Fertility , Mercury
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(6): 2253-2270, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278691

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo objetivou revisar os estudos de biomonitoramento humano (BMH) que avaliaram a exposição a chumbo (Pb), cádmio (Cd), mercúrio (Hg), níquel (Ni), arsênio (As) e manganês (Mn) em adultos residentes próximo a áreas industriais. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática, sem limite de data inicial até dezembro de 2017, utilizando a base de dados da MEDLINE e a BVS. Foram incluídos estudos originais em inglês, português ou espanhol, com uso de sangue e/ou urina como biomarcador. Os artigos foram avaliados pelos critérios metodológicos, incluindo-se estudos com grupo de comparação e/ou amostragem probabilística. Dos 28 estudos incluídos, 54% foram realizados na Europa, 36% na Ásia, 7% na América do Norte e 4% na África. Fundições, metalúrgicas e siderúrgicas foram as indústrias mais estudadas. Urina e sangue foram usados em 82% e 50% dos estudos, respectivamente. Os elementos mais investigados foram Cd, Pb e As. Embora com metodologias heterogêneas, em geral, os estudos observaram maiores concentrações de metais em expostos, especialmente As e Hg, do que nos grupos de comparação. Esta revisão evidencia a necessidade de estudos de BMH com maior rigor metodológico, reforçando a importância da vigilância em saúde de populações expostas a metais tóxicos, sobretudo nos países em desenvolvimento.


Abstract This study aimed to review studies of human biomonitoring (HBM) that evaluated exposure to lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in adults living close to industrial areas. A systematic review of studies was selected, without initial date limit through to December 2017, from the MEDLINE and BVS databases. Original studies in English, Portuguese or Spanish conducted among the adult population using blood and/or urine as biomarkers were included. The articles were evaluated according to methodological criteria, including studies with comparison groups and/or probabilistic sampling. Of the 28 studies selected, 54% were conducted in Europe, 36% in Asia, 7% in North America and 4% in Africa. Foundries, metal works and steel mills were the most frequently studied. Urine and blood were used in 82% and 50% of studies, respectively. The elements most investigated were Cd, Pb and As. Despite using heterogeneous methodologies, the results revealed higher metal concentrations, especially from As and Hg in general, than in the comparison group. This review highlights the need for more rigorous methodological studies of HBM, stressing the importance of public health vigilance among populations exposed to toxic metals, especially in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Arsenic/analysis , Mercury/analysis , Cadmium/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Europe , Lead/analysis
5.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e210001, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340235

ABSTRACT

Mining activities have significantly affected the Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna, the most diverse in the world. However, no study has systematized knowledge on the subject. In this review, we assembled information on the main impacts of mining of crude oil, gold, iron, copper, and bauxite on aquatic ecosystems, emphasizing Neotropical freshwater fishes. The information obtained shows that mining activities generate several different disturbances, mainly via input of crude oil, metals and other pollutants, erosion and siltation, deforestation, and road construction. Mining has resulted in direct and indirect losses of fish diversity in several Neotropical waterbodies. The negative impacts on the ichthyofauna may change the structure of communities, compromise entire food chains, and erode ecosystem services provided by freshwater fishes. Particularly noteworthy is that mining activities (legal and illegal) are widespread in the Neotropics, and often located within or near protected areas. Actions to prevent and mitigate impacts, such as inspection, monitoring, management, and restoration plans, have been cursory or absent. In addition, there is strong political pressure to expand mining; if - or when - this happens, it will increase the potential of the activity to further diminish the diversity of Neotropical freshwater fishes.(AU)


As atividades de mineração têm impactado significativamente a ictiofauna de água doce Neotropical, a mais diversa do mundo. Porém, nenhum estudo sistematizou o conhecimento sobre o assunto. Nesta revisão, reunimos informações sobre os principais impactos da mineração de petróleo, ouro, ferro, cobre, e bauxita sobre os ecossistemas aquáticos, com ênfase nos peixes de água doce Neotropicais. As informações obtidas mostram que as atividades de mineração geram diferentes distúrbios, principalmente por meio de petróleo bruto, metais e outros poluentes, erosão e assoreamento, desmatamento e construção de estradas. A mineração resultou em perda direta e indireta de diversidade de peixes de vários corpos d'água Neotropicais. Os impactos negativos sobre a ictiofauna podem alterar a estrutura das comunidades, comprometer cadeias alimentares inteiras, bem como degradar os serviços ecossistêmicos fornecidos pelos peixes de água doce. Particularmente importante é que as atividades de mineração (legais e ilegais) são generalizadas na região Neotropical, e frequentemente estão localizadas dentro ou perto de áreas protegidas. Ações de prevenção e mitigação de impactos, como planos de fiscalização, monitoramento, manejo e restauração, têm sido precárias ou ausentes. Além disso, há forte pressão política para expandir a mineração; se - ou quando - isso acontecer, aumentará o potencial da atividade em diminuir ainda mais a diversidade de peixes de água doce Neotropicais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environment , Fishes , Mining , Oils , Mercury
6.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e200155, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340228

ABSTRACT

In South America, mercury contamination due to gold mining operations is a threat to both biodiversity and human health. We examined mercury (Hg) concentrations in fishes that constitute important subsistence fisheries from mined and non-mined tributaries in the middle Mazaruni River, Guyana. Mercury concentrations and trophic food web structure (based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes) were characterized for primary basal sources and 39 fish species representing seven trophic guilds. Fishes collected at mined sites had higher mercury concentrations; piscivores and carnivores had the highest Hg concentrations and exhibited significant Hg biomagnification. Our results showed that medium- to large-bodied fishes commonly eaten by local people contained Hg values that exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, and pose a health concern for riverine communities along the Mazaruni River that depend on fish as their main source of protein. Further research to determine the sources of Hg contamination and how it affects human health in this neotropical river must become a top priority. In addition, more research on how Hg contamination impacts the fishes themselves and overall aquatic biodiversity is also needed in the Mazaruni River which has both high fish endemism and diversity.(AU)


Na América do Sul, a contaminação por mercúrio devido às operações de mineração de ouro é uma ameaça à biodiversidade e à saúde humana. Nós examinamos as concentrações de mercúrio (Hg) em peixes que constituem importantes pescarias de subsistência em afluentes minerados e não minerados no médio rio Mazaruni, Guiana. As concentrações de mercúrio e a estrutura trófica da teia alimentar (baseada em isótopos estáveis ​​de carbono e nitrogênio) foram caracterizadas para fontes basais primárias e 39 espécies de peixes representando sete guildas tróficas. Os peixes coletados em locais minerados tiveram maiores concentrações de mercúrio; piscívoros e carnívoros tiveram as maiores concentrações de Hg e exibiram biomagnificação significativa de Hg. Nossos resultados mostraram que peixes de corpo médio a grande comumente consumidos pela população local continham valores de Hg que excedem os critérios da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) e representam uma preocupação para a saúde das comunidades ribeirinhas ao longo do rio Mazaruni que dependem dos peixes como sua principal fonte de proteína. Outras pesquisas para determinar as fontes de contaminação por Hg e como isso afeta a saúde humana neste rio neotropical devem se tornar uma prioridade. Além disso, mais pesquisas sobre como a contaminação por Hg impacta os próprios peixes e a biodiversidade aquática em geral também são necessárias no rio Mazaruni, que tem alto endemismo e diversidade de peixes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemical Contamination , Fishes/physiology , Mercury/toxicity , Food Chain , Bioaccumulation , Mercury Isotopes/chemistry
7.
Acta amaz ; 50(2): 142-148, abr - jun. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118376

ABSTRACT

This is the first study to investigate mercury (Hg) contamination in felid species in the Brazilian Amazon. We collected 26 fur samples from wild felids of four species (Puma concolor, Panthera onca, Leopardus pardalis and Leopardus wiedii) occurring in the Mamirauá and Amanã sustainable development reserves, in the state of Amazonas. Samples were from museum specimens, except for five P. onca samples collected from free-living individuals. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.12 to 48.1 µg g-1. Concentrations of Hg did not differ significantly between museum specimens and live individuals of P. onca, but varied significantly among species, with significantly higher concentrations for P. onca and L. pardalis, which could be related to factors such as diet and habitat. (AU)


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Bioaccumulation , Mammals , Amazonian Ecosystem , Mercury/toxicity
8.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135560

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the amount of mercury in new and old dental amalgam restorations. Material and Methods: This study analyzed twenty samples of dental amalgam restorations, dividing into two groups. Group 1 consisted of samples of new dental amalgam restoration (n=10) and group 2 consisted of samples of old dental amalgam restoration (5-years old) (n=10). In each group, the mercury involved in the dental amalgam restoration was calculated using the cloud point extraction (CPE) method. The new dental amalgam restorations are taken from the patients' mouth after condensation and analyzed directly after setting. The old dental amalgam restorations are removed from the patients' mouth, after 5 years of use by the patients, and then they are analyzed. The independent-samples t-test was used to analyze the differences (p<0.05). Results: For new amalgam restorations, the mean of mercury was 0.1281 µg/mL, while for old restorations it was 0.1029 µg/mL. There was a significant difference between the new and old amalgam restorations in the amount of mercury available (p<0.001). Conclusion: There is a significant loss of mercury over a five years period in the patient mouth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Alloys/chemistry , Dental Amalgam , Dental Materials , Mercury , Iraq
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828048

ABSTRACT

In this study, the contents of Cu, As, Cd, Pb and Hg in 10 batches of Gardeniae Fructus and 10 batches of fried Gardeniae Fructus from Fuzhou in Jiangxi were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS), and the target hazard coefficient(THQ) for different drug users(adults and children) was calculated by using the international health risk assessment model. According to the ISO and green industry standard, the content of Hg in 4 batches of Gardeniae Fructus exceeded the standard with an over-standard rate of 40%. The THQ and total THQ of Hg in 2 batches of Gardeniae Fructus were higher than the international standard limit of Gardeniae Fructus. For 10 batches of fried Gardeniae Fructus, the content of every heavy metal and total amount of five heavy metals did not exceed the standard. However, the THQ and total THQ of Hg in 1 batch of fried Gardeniae Fructus were higher than the international standard limit of Gardeniae Fructus. As compared with Gardeniae Fructus, the contents of Cu, Pb and Hg in fried Gardeniae Fructus decreased by 34.0%, 77.6% and 23.1%; the THQ of Cu, Pb and Hg for adults decreased by 33.3%, 75.0% and 96.9%; and the THQ of Cu, Pb and Hg for children decreased by 37.5%, 75.0%, 90.7%. It showed that the contents of heavy metals in individual batches of Gardeniae Fructus in this experiment had a certain risk to human health, but the contents of these heavy metals in fried Gardeniae Fructus had no obvious effect on human health. This study provided experimental basis and research ideas for safety evaluation of Gardeniae Fructus and fried Gardeniae Fructus.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gardenia , Humans , Mercury , Metals, Heavy , Risk Assessment
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878790

ABSTRACT

A highly specific electrochemical biosensor based on T-Hg~(2+)-T structure for fast screening trace Hg~(2+) in complex animal drug matrix was constructed by cyclic voltammetry(CV) and differential pulse voltammetry(DPV). In the presence of Hg~(2+), it can be specifically binded to the T base of DNA sequence on the surface of modified gold electrode, which changes the conformation of DNA molecule and the electrochemical signal. The concentration ratio of EDC/NHS, the concentration ratio of FC-DNA and the reaction time of the biosensor were optimized by the index of sensitivity and reproducibility in CV. The results showed that the stability of the biosensor was good within 3 days(RSD≤1.3%), the difference between batches was low(RSD=4.7%), and the specificity of the biosensor was high in the presence of interfering ions(As~(3+), Cd~(2+), Cu~(2+), Pb~(2+), Zn~(2+) and Fe~(3+)). DPV results showed that the peak current signal value has a linear relationship with the lgC_((Hg)) over a concentration range from 0.1 nmol·L~(-1) to 1.0 μmol·L~(-1) with a detection limit of 0.066 nmol·L~(-1). Finally, the recovery rate tested in the matrix of animal medicine was satisfactory as 99.17%-101.3%, which can meet the needs of the determination of trace Hg~(2+) in the matrix of Bombyx Batryticatus, and provide a new idea for the rapid screening of trace heavy metals in the matrix of other types of complex traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biosensing Techniques , DNA/genetics , Electrochemical Techniques , Gold , Mercury , Reproducibility of Results
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2467-2477, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878503

ABSTRACT

The low expression rate of exogenous genes in cyanobacteria is one of the bottlenecks of cyanobacteria genetic engineering. The T7 RNA polymerase expression system has achieved the efficient expression of exogenous genes in Escherichia coli. Cyanobacteria and E. coli are both Gram-negative bacteria with high genetic homology. The construction of T7 RNA polymerase expression system in cyanobacteria may improve the expression of foreign genes. In order to construct the T7 RNA polymerase expression system in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, methods such as overlapping extension PCR and digestion-ligation technique were used to construct a site-specific integration vector pEASY-T1-F1-TacT7RNAPCmR-F2 and a shuttle expression vector pRL-T7-hG-CSF. The site-specific integration vector is capable of expressing T7 RNA polymerase, and the shuttle expression vector expresses hG-CSF driven by the T7 promoter. Then we introduced the site-specific integration vector into the wild type cyanobacteria by electroporation and transferred the shuttle expression vector into the site-integrated transgenic cyanobacteria by triparental conjugative transfer. In the end, we identified the presence of foreign genes in cyanobacteria by PCR, tested the transcription level of foreign genes in cyanobacteria by RT-PCR, and detected the protein expression of foreign genes in cyanobacteria by Western blotting. The two vectors were successfully constructed, the T7 RNA polymerase gene and hG-CSF gene were transferred into cyanobacteria well, and both genes were also expressed in cyanobacteria. In summary, the T7 RNA polymerase expression system was successfully constructed in cyanobacteria, and the expression rate of hG-CSF gene was doubled than the traditional cyanobacteria expression systems. This expression system will provide a better tool for the application of cyanobacteria genetic engineering and will promote the development of cyanobacteria as a chassis cell in the fields of synthetic biology in the future.


Subject(s)
Anabaena/genetics , Cloning, Molecular , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases , Escherichia coli/genetics , Gene Expression , Mercury , Plasmids , Viral Proteins
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190091, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132234

ABSTRACT

Abstract The kinetics and equilibrium of experimental data of mercury (II) sorption using three different macrophytes E. crassipes, E. azurea and S. ariculata were analyzed. From the kinetic models used, the model 1, which considers the surface area of constant sorption, presents the coefficient of determination, R2, closer to the unit (0.97). Already, in the liquid phase, the best fit of the experimental data was obtained for model 2 (R2=0.96), which considers the variable surface area. The calculated values for the determination coefficients indicate that the Redlich-Peterson isotherm best describes the equilibrium (R2=0.79). The results show that the macrophyte S. ariculata surface area, which presented the highest adsorption potential (15.77x10-4m2.g-1), was far below those found in the best adsorbents. However, considering the large volume of adsorbent material required in an industrial plant and the low cost of the analyzed adsorbents, it is considered that the macrophytes investigated have a considerable potential for the removal of mercury from wastewater.


Subject(s)
Macrophytes , Echinodermata/drug effects , Mercury/pharmacokinetics , Models, Biological , Adsorption
13.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(8): e00072119, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124329

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Approximately 600,000 people work as recycling material collectors in Brazil and few studies evaluate the health risks involved in this occupation. The objective was to evaluate the blood levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) among workers from recycling sorting facilities (RSF) in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, compare the results with a non-occupationally exposed population, and identify factors associated with higher blood metal levels. Four RSF were selected and 226 collectors were examined for their blood metal levels and associated factors. The mean concentration of Cd (arithmetic mean - AM: 0.47µgL-1; geometric mean - GM: 0.34µgL-1) was almost four times higher than those found in a reference study. The generalized linear model (GLM) indicated that the "RSF where the collectors work", "work in another occupation", and "smoking" were statistically significant predictors of blood Cd levels. The Pb mean concentration (AM: 39.13µgL-1; GM: 34.11µgL-1) was also higher than the observed in the reference study (about 1.4 times) and its associated factors in the GLM were "the RSF where the collectors work", "sex", "smoking", "age" and "meat consumption". The Hg mean concentration (AM: 1.46µgL-1; GM: 0.94µgL-1) was not significantly higher than the reference population and its associated factors were "previous work in other RSF", "fish consumption" and "years of work in the current RSF". This study indicates that recycling material collectors have higher blood Cd and Pb levels compared to the general population.


Resumo: Cerca de 600 mil brasileiros trabalham na coleta e separação de materiais recicláveis, mas há poucos estudos que avaliam os riscos de saúde envolvidos nessa ocupação. O estudo teve como objetivos avaliar os níveis sanguíneos de cádmio (Cd), chumbo (Pb) e mercúrio (Hg) em trabalhadores de centros de reciclagem na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, além de comparar os resultados com uma população sem exposição ocupacional e identificar fatores associados com níveis elevados desses metais pesados no sangue. Foram selecionados quatro centros de reciclagem, e 226 trabalhadores foram testados para os níveis sanguíneos dos metais e fatores associados. As concentrações médias de Cd (média aritmética - MA: 0,47µgL-1; média geométrica - MG: 0,34µgL-1) eram quase quatro vezes mais altas que aquelas encontradas em um estudo de referência. De acordo como o modelo linear generalizado (MLG), os fatores "centro de reciclagem onde o indivíduo trabalha", "trabalho em outra ocupação" e "tabagismo" apareceram como preditores estatisticamente significativos de níveis mais altos de Cd. As concentrações médias de Pb (MA: 39,13µgL-1; MG: 34,11µgL-1) também eram mais altas (cerca de 1,4 vezes) que no estudo de referência e os fatores associados no MLG eram "centro de reciclagem onde o indivíduo trabalha", "sexo", "tabagismo", "idade" e "consumo de carne". As concentrações médias de Hg (MA: 1,46µgL-1; MG: 0,94µgL-1) não eram significativamente mais altas que na população de referência, e os fatores associados eram "trabalho prévio em outro centro de reciclagem", "consumo de peixe" e "anos de trabalho no centro de reciclagem atual". O estudo indica que os trabalhadores de reciclagem apresentam níveis sanguíneos mais elevados de Cd e Pb, comparado com os níveis na população geral.


Resumen: Alrededor de 600.000 personas trabajan como recolectores de materiales para reciclar en Brasil, además de existir pocos estudios que evalúen los riesgos de salud implicados en esta ocupación. El objetivo fue evaluar los niveles de cadmio en sangre (Cd), plomo (Pb) y mercurio (Hg) entre los trabajadores de plantas de reciclaje (RSF por sus siglas en inglés), en la región metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, comparando los resultados con la población no expuesta ocupacionalmente, e identificando los factores asociados con niveles más altos de metal en la sangre. Se seleccionaron 4 plantas de reciclaje y se examinaron a 226 recolectores para analizar los niveles de metales en sangre y sus factores asociados. La concentración media de Cd (media aritmética - MA: 0,47µgL-1; media geométrica - MG: 0,34µgL-1) fue casi cuatro veces mayor que la que se encontró en el estudio de referencia. El modelo lineal generalizado (GLM) indicó que las "las RSF donde trabajan los recolectores", "trabajo en otra ocupación", y "fumador" fueron predictores significativos estadísticamente de los niveles de Cd en sangre. La concentración media de Pb (MA: 39,13µgL-1; MG: 34,11µgL-1) también fue mayor que la observada en el estudio de referencia (sobre 1,4 veces) y los factores asociados en el GLM fueron: "las RSF donde trabajan los recolectores", "sexo", "fumador", "edad" y "consumo de carne". La concentración media de Hg (MA: 1,46µgL-1; MG: 0,94µgL-1) no fue significativamente mayor que en la población de referencia y los factores asociados fueron "trabajo previo en otra RSF", "consumo de pescado" y "años de trabajo en la actual RSF". Este estudio indica que los recolectores de material reciclable tienen niveles más altos en sangre de Cd y Pb, si se comparan con la población general.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cadmium , Mercury , Brazil , Smoking , Diagnostic Tests, Routine
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 37: 56-60, Jan. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051261

ABSTRACT

Heavy metals are natural elements in the Earth's crust that can enter human food through industrial or agricultural processing, in the form of fertilizers and pesticides. These elements are not biodegradable. Some heavy metals are known as pollutants and are toxic, and their bioaccumulation in plant and animal tissues can cause undesirable effects for humans; therefore, their amount in water and food should always be under control. The aim of this study is to investigate the conditions for the bioremediation of heavy metals in foods. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been used to reduce the heavy metal content in the environment. During the last decades, bioremediation methods using plants and microorganisms have created interest to researchers for their advantages such as being more specific and environmentally friendly. The main pollutant elements in foods and beverages are lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury, which have their own permissible limits. Among the microorganisms that are capable of bioremediation of heavy metals, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an interesting choice for its special characteristics and being safe for humans, which make it quite common and useful in the food industry. Its mass production as the byproduct of the fermentation industry and the low cost of culture media are the other advantages. The ability of this yeast to remove an individual separated element has also been widely investigated. In countries with high heavy metal pollution in wheat, the use of S. cerevisiae is a native solution for overcoming the problem of solution. This article summarizes the main conditions for heavy metal absorption by S. cerevisiae.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Food Industry , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Arsenic , Yeasts , Cadmium , Contaminant Removal , Absorption , Bioaccumulation , Lead , Mercury
15.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 702-706, out.-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047483

ABSTRACT

Esta nota resulta de reflexões iniciais sobre a atual conjuntura brasileira no que tange aos desafios postos aos povos indígenas, diante de um governo declaradamente anti-indígena. Considerando a perspectiva histórica da política indigenista brasileira, observam-se elementos que nos instigam a analisar a relação do Estado com os povos originários e a capacidade que o movimento indígena brasileiro tem de articulação visando à resistência. São necessários saberes e práticas que exigem, cada vez mais, o rompimento com o pensamento autoritário e colonialista tão presente no contexto brasileiro.


This text is product of the initial attempts to think about the current Brazilian conjuncture regarding the challenges posed to indigenous peoples since they are confronted with a government who have declared to be anti-indigenous. From the historical perspective of Brazilian governmental policy towards indigenous, we observe elements that push us to analyze the relationship of the State with the indigenous peoples and the Brazilian indigenous movement' capacity for interacting to resist. Knowledge and practices that demand more and more a break with the authoritarian and colonialist thinking so present in the Brazilian context are indispensable.


Esta nota resulta de reflexiones iniciales a cerca de la coyuntura brasileña actual por lo que se refiere a los desafíos que los pueblos indígenas tienen que enfrentar frente a un Gobierno que expresa clara y determinadamente ser antiindígena. Observando la perspectiva histórica de la política indigenista brasileña, hay elementos que instigan el análisis de la relación del Estado con los pueblos indígenas y la capacidad que el movimiento indígena brasileño tiene de articularse para resistir. Son necesarios saberes y prácticas que exigen cada vez más el rompimiento con el pensamiento autoritario y colonialista tan presente en el contexto brasileño.


Subject(s)
Humans , Authoritarianism , Brazil , Amazonian Ecosystem , Population Groups , Ethnic Violence , Wildfires/statistics & numerical data , Human Rights Abuses , Environmental Policy , Indigenous Culture , Mercury , Mining
16.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 107(3): 79-81, jul.-sept. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047872

ABSTRACT

Las convenciones internacionales relacionadas con las posibles consecuencias ambientales del empleo del mercurio a las que ha adherido la República Argentina llevan a la paulatina desaparición de la posibilidad del empleo de este elemento. Consecuentemente, se genera la necesidad de reducir y, en última instancia, eliminar el uso de productos médicos que lo contengan, como es el caso de la amalgama dental. Se requiere de la decisión conjunta de las comunidades académica y asistencial para definir estrategias a aplicar en la reducción gradual del uso de la amalgama dental. La forma de hacerlo y la tecnología para su reemplazo aún son inciertas (AU)


International conventions related to the possible environmental consequences of the use of mercury that the Argentine Republic has subscribed lead to the gradual disappearance of the possibility of using this element. Consequently, there is a need to reduce and ultimately eliminate the use of medical products that contain it, as is the case with dental amalgam. The joint decision of academic and healthcare communities is required to define strategies to be applied in the gradual reduction of the use of dental amalgam. The way to do it and the technology for its replacement still remain uncertain (AU)


Subject(s)
Environmental Health , Dental Amalgam/toxicity , Mercury/toxicity , Dental Restoration, Permanent
17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(4): 245-251, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1054928

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Debido a la fuerte industrialización de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y alrededores, la población podría estar expuesta a metales. Para poder evaluar el nivel de exposición de los niños al cromo y al mercurio, es fundamental tener valores de referencia (VR) propios. El objetivo fue determinar los VR pediátricos para cromo y mercurio en la muestra aislada de orina. Población y métodos: Se incluyeron niños y niñas no expuestos a los contaminantes evaluados que concurrieron al Servicio de Bajo Riesgo y al Consultorio del Jardín Maternal del Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan". Se cuantificó cromo (UCr), mercurio (UHg) y creatinina urinarios. Se calcularon los p95 con su intervalo de confianza del 95 % [IC 95 %] según el concepto para VR de la German Human Biomonitoring Commission. Resultados: Se incluyeron 160 pacientes en el estudio. Se obtuvieron 144 muestras de niños y niñas de entre 1 y 17 años (mediana: 7 años). Se cuantificó UCr a 137 muestras y UHg a 129. La mediana y rango de cromo fue 0,54 (indetectable -3,06) µg/g de creatinina y la de mercurio fue 0,49 (indetectable -7,57) µg/g de creatinina.Conclusiones: Los VR fueron, para UCr, hasta 1,5 µg/l [1,2-2,8] y hasta 2,2 µg/g de creatinina [1,8-3,0] y para UHg, hasta 2,5 µg/l [1,8-4,8] y 3,2 µg/g de creatinina [2,5-4,7


Introduction. Due to the heavy industrialization of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires, the population may have become exposed to metals.To assess the level of exposure to chromium and mercury in children, it is critical to have local reference values (RVs). Our objective was to determine pediatric RVs for chromium and mercury in a single urine sample.Population and methods: Children who were not exposed to the studied contaminants and who attended the Department of Low Risk Conditions and the Daycare Center Office of Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" were included. Urinary chromium (UCr), urinary mercury (UHg), and urinary creatinine were measured. The p95 and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were estimated based on the RV concept proposed by the German Human Biomonitoring Commission.Results: The study included 160 patients. A total of 144 samples from children aged 1-17 years (median: 7 years) were collected. UCr was measured in 137 samples and UHg, in 129 samples. The median value of chromium was 0.54 µg/g of creatinine (range, undetectable to 3.06), while that of mercury was 0.49 µg/g of creatinine (range, undetectable to 7.57). Conclusions: The RVs for UCr were up to 1.5 µg/L [1.2-2.8] and up to 2.2 µg/g of creatinine [1.8-3.0], and for UHg, up to 2.5 µg/L [1.8-4.8] and 3.2 µg/g of creatinine [2.5-4.7]


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Reference Values , Chromium/urine , Mercury/urine , Urban Population , Urine , Environmental Exposure/analysis
18.
Rev. salud pública ; 21(3): e481048, mayo-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115863

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Determinar el impacto percibido en la salud de los mineros artesanales del municipio de Quinchía (Colombia) por el uso de mercurio y cianuro en el proceso de amalgamiento de oro. Métodos Investigación cuantitativa, descriptiva, en una muestra de 28 mineros activos expuestos a cianuro y mercurio. Se caracterizó el proceso de amalgamiento de oro, se realizó una encuesta de percepción de síntomas y se efectuaron exámenes de laboratorio para detectar la concentración de mercurio y cianuro en la sangre. Resultados El 50% de los mineros llevan en el oficio entre 21 y 30 años, con una exposición de 2,6 horas/día al mercurio y cianuro. El 33% de los mineros presentan niveles de concentración de mercurio en la sangre entre 4 y 4,9 microgramos por litro (μg/L) y refieren síntomas en los sistemas nervioso y digestivo. Los resultados de cianuro en la sangre fueron negativos. Conclusiones Las concentraciones de mercurio en la sangre se asocian con el tiempo en el oficio, horas de exposición al mercurio y percepción de síntomas. Los resultados de cianuro en la sangre no son coincidentes con los síntomas referidos por los mineros. Pese a que, se reconoce la toxicidad de estas sustancias químicas, aún se emplean métodos tradicionales y prohibidos sin tener en cuenta los protocolos de seguridad y el uso de elementos de protección adecuados. Los mineros constantemente están expuestos a procedimientos que implican riesgos para la salud; refieren síntomas no diagnosticados y que podrían afectar el organismo a largo plazo. No se adoptan medidas de prevención y promoción.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective Determine the Perceived Impact on the Artisanal Miner's Health from Quinchía's Municipality (Colombia) by the Use of Cyanide and Mercury in the Amalgamation Process of Gold. Methods Quantitative, descriptive research in a sample of 28 active miners exposed to cyanide and mercury. The process of gold amalgamation was characterized, a survey of symptom perception was carried out and laboratory tests were carried out to detect the concentration of mercury and cyanide in blood. Results 50% of the miners are in the trade between 21 and 30 years, with an exposure of 2.6 hours/day to mercury and cyanide. 33% of miners have levels of mercury concentration in blood between 4-4.9 micrograms per liter (μg/L), as well as refer to symptoms in the nervous and digestive systems. The results of cyanide in blood are negative. Conclusions Blood mercury concentrations are associated with time in the trade, hours of exposure to mercury and perception of symptoms. The results of cyanide in blood are not coincident with the symptoms reported by the miners. Although the toxicity of these chemical substances is recognized, traditional and prohibited methods are still used without taking into account safety protocols and the use of appropriate protection elements. Miners are constantly exposed to procedures that involve health risks, refer undiagnosed symptoms and that could affect the organism in the long term. Prevention and promotion measures are not adopted.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Exposure , Cyanides/adverse effects , Miners , Mercury/adverse effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Colombia
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(4): 374-380, Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001285

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Mercury's deleterious effects are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Objective: To determine whether chronic exposure to inorganic mercury increases the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme and its relationship with oxidative stress in several organs and tissues. Methods: We studied male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (3-month-old) exposed or not to HgCl2 for 30 days. At the end of treatment, we investigated the following: changes in body weight, hemodynamic parameters, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and oxidative stress in the heart, aorta, lung, brain and kidney in hypertensive compared to normotensive animals. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Chronic exposure to HgCl2 did not affect weight gain in either group. Systolic blood pressure, measured weekly, did not increase in Wistar rats but showed a small increase in SHR rats. We also observed increases in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and ACE activity in the plasma and hearts of normotensive rats. In the SHR+Hg group, ACE activity increased in plasma but decreased in kidney, lung, heart, brain and aorta. Oxidative stress was assessed indirectly by malondialdehyde (MDA) production, which increased in Hg-treated rats in both plasma and heart. In the SHR+Hg group, MDA increased in heart and aorta and decreased in lungs and brain. Conclusion: These results suggest that chronic exposure to inorganic mercury aggravates hypertension and produces more expressive changes in ACE activity and oxidative stress in SHRs. Such exposure affects the cardiovascular system, representing a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disorders in normotensive rats and worsening of pre-existing risks for hypertension.


Resumo Fundamento: Os efeitos deletérios do mercúrio estão associados ao risco cardiovascular aumentado. Objetivo: Determinar se a exposição crônica ao mercúrio inorgânico aumenta a atividade da enzima conversora de angiotensina e sua relação com o estresse oxidativo em vários órgãos e tecidos. Métodos: Estudamos ratos Wistar e ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR) (3 meses de idade) expostos ou não a HgCl2 por 30 dias. Ao final do tratamento, investigamos: alterações de peso, parâmetros hemodinâmicos, atividade da enzima conversora de angiotensina (ECA) e estresse oxidativo no coração, aorta, pulmão, cérebro e rim de animais hipertensos comparados a animais normotensos. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: A exposição crônica ao HgCl2 não afetou o ganho de peso em nenhum dos grupos. A pressão arterial sistólica, medida semanalmente, não aumentou em ratos Wistar, mas mostrou um pequeno aumento nos ratos SHR. Também observamos aumentos na pressão diastólica final do ventrículo esquerdo e na atividade da ECA no plasma e no coração de ratos normotensos. No grupo SHR + Hg, a atividade da ECA aumentou no plasma, mas diminuiu no rim, pulmão, coração, cérebro e aorta. O estresse oxidativo foi avaliado indiretamente pela produção de MDA, que aumentou nos ratos tratados com Hg tanto no plasma quanto no coração. No grupo SHR + Hg, o MDA aumentou no coração e na aorta e diminuiu nos pulmões e no cérebro. Conclusão: Estes resultados sugerem que a exposição crônica ao mercúrio inorgânico agrava a hipertensão e produz mudanças mais expressivas na atividade da ECA e no estresse oxidativo em SHRs. Essa exposição afeta o sistema cardiovascular, representando um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de distúrbios cardiovasculares em ratos normotensos e para piorar riscos pré-existentes para hipertensão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hypertension/metabolism , Mercury/toxicity , Mercury Poisoning/complications , Aorta/enzymology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Reference Values , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Risk Factors , Rats, Wistar , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/analysis , Heart , Hypertension/physiopathology , Kidney/enzymology , Lung/enzymology , Malondialdehyde/blood
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