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Rev. méd. Maule ; 36(2): 8-14, dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344577


In our country, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of death. Unhealthy eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, among other factors, have contributed to increase the risk for CDV in the population. An alternative to the commonly used pharmacological therapies is the use of validated natural products that can be incorporated in the development of functional foods or supplements. In particular, the tomato has been shown to have a protective role in CVD; its high content of antioxidants, particularly lycopene, provides it with extensively documented beneficial properties. Tomasa, a by-product of the agroindustry, maintains some of the beneficial characteristics of its fruit of origin. Mice fed with a high-fat (hypercaloric) diet increase their body weight and visceral adipose mass, and also display an increase in metabolic and inflammatory parameters. Our results allow us to conclude that the consumption of Tomasa in mice fed a hypercaloric diet reduces the blood levels of cholesterol, glycaemia and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results support the rationale of using of this by-product in the generation of functional ingredients with proven beneficial effects.

Animals , Male , Mice , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Biochemical Phenomena , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/metabolism , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/prevention & control , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Coloring Agents/analysis
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 500-503, Sep.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286550


The metabolic syndrome describes a group of signs that increase the likelihood for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. The action of insulin depends on its binding to membrane receptors on its target cells. We wonder if blood insulin could travel bound to proteins and if, in the presence of hyperinsulinemia, a soluble insulin receptor might be generated. We used young adult Wistar rats (which have no predisposition to obesity or diabetes), whose drinking water was added 20 % of sugar and that were fed a standard diet ad libitum for two and six months. They were compared with control rats under the same conditions, but that had running water for consumption. At two months, the rats developed central obesity, moderate hypertension, high triglyceride levels, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, i.e., metabolic syndrome. Electrophoresis of the rats’ plasma proteins was performed, followed by Western Blot (WB) for insulin and for the outer portion of the insulin receptor. The bands corresponding to insulin and to the receptor external part were at the same molecular weight level, 25-fold higher than that of free insulin. We demonstrated that insulin, both in control animals and in those with hyperinsulinemia, travels bound to the receptor outer portion (ectodomain), which we called soluble insulin receptor, and that is released al higher amounts in response to plasma insulin increase; in rats with metabolic syndrome and hyperinsulinemia, plasma levels are much higher than in controls. Soluble insulin receptor increase in blood might be an early sign of metabolic syndrome.

Humans , Animals , Rats , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Receptor, Insulin/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Hyperinsulinism/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Hypertriglyceridemia/etiology , Rats, Wistar , Glucose Intolerance/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Disease Models, Animal , Obesity, Abdominal/etiology , Hypertension/etiology , Insulin/blood
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(3): 270-275, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038708


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Metabolic risk factors of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in non diabetic teetotallers who constitute a definite group are not well defined. OBJECTIVE: To identify the metabolic risk factors of NAFLD if any in non diabetic subjects who do not consume alcohol. METHODS: In a cross sectional study the effect of metabolic parameters (BMI, individual lipid levels, hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c), HOMA IR and the metabolic syndrome components) of 150 consecutive non diabetic teetotallers (90 with normal glucose tolerance and 60 prediabetics) on their NFS (quantifiable severity parameter of NAFLD) was studied by linear regression analysis. Similar study was done in the normal glucose tolerance and prediabetes groups separately. These parameters were then compared with those of 75 matched diabetic teetotallers with NAFLD. To analyse further the difference between normal glucose tolerance, prediabetic and overt diabetic groups, binary logistic regression of the factors was carried out taking prediabetes and diabetes as outcome variable. RESULTS: All the metabolic parameters were significantly higher in diabetics compared to non diabetics and in prediabetics compared to those with normal glucose tolerance except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and BMI significantly predicted NFS in the overall (adjusted R2 68.7%, P=0.000) and normal glucose tolerance groups (adjusted R2 73.2%, P=0.000) whereas BMI, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and HbA1c did in prediabetics (adjusted R2 89%, P=0.000). The metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with NFS in the overall and prediabetic groups. High triglyceride (odds ratio1.08), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio1.03) and HbA1c (odds ratio 11.54) were positively associated with prediabetes compared to normal glucose tolerance group. CONCLUSION: In nondiabetic teetotallers dyslipidemias are the prime contributors to the development of NAFLD.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os fatores de risco metabólicos da doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) em abstêmios não diabéticos, que constituem um grupo distinto, não são bem definidos. OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores de risco metabólicos da DHGNA em indivíduos não diabéticos e que não consumam álcool. MÉTODOS: Em um estudo transversal, o efeito dos parâmetros metabólicos (IMC, níveis de lipídios individuais, HbA1c, Homa IR e os componentes da síndrome metabólica) de 150 abstêmios não diabéticos consecutivos (90 com tolerância à glicose normal e 60 pré-diabéticos) em sua NFS (parâmetro de gravidade quantificável da DHGNA) foram estudados por análise de regressão linear. Um estudo similar em separado foi feito nos grupos normais da tolerância da glicose e do pré-diabetes. Esses parâmetros foram comparados com os de 75 abstêmios diabéticos pareados com DHGNA. Para analisar ainda mais a diferença entre a tolerância à glicose normal foi realizada a regressão logística binária dos fatores tomando pré-diabetes e diabetes como variável de desfecho, nos grupos diabéticos e pré-diabéticos. RESULTADOS: Todos os parâmetros metabólicos foram significativamente maiores nos diabéticos comparados aos não diabéticos e em pré-diabéticos comparados àqueles com tolerância normal à glicose, exceto HDL. Os índices TG, HDL e IMC previram significativamente o NFS no geral nos grupos de tolerância normal (R2 ajustado 68,7%, P=0,000) e de glicose normal (R2 ajustado 73,2%, P=0,000), enquanto o IMC, TG, LDL e HbA1c predisseram em pré-diabéticos (R2 ajustado 89%, P=0,000). A síndrome metabólica foi associada significativamente com o NFS nos grupos totais e pré-diabéticos. O TG elevado (odds ratio 1,08), o LDL (odds ratio 1,03) e a HbA1c (odds ratio 11,54) foram positivamente associados ao pré-diabetes em comparação com o grupo normal de tolerância à glicose. CONCLUSÃO: Em abstêmios não diabéticos as dislipidemias são os principais contribuintes para o desenvolvimento da DHGNA.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Dyslipidemias/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Dyslipidemias/blood , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Middle Aged , Obesity/metabolism
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 427-437, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019362


ABSTRACT Objective Chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk is inconsistent in the normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals due to the heterogeneity of metabolic status. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the combined effects of body mass index (BMI) and metabolic status on CKD risk. Materials and methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge databases were systematically searched up to March 2019 to identify all eligible studies investigating the CKD risk (defined as GFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and/or microalbuminuria or proteinuria) associated with the body size phenotypes which are known as metabolically unhealthy normal-weight (MUNW), metabolically healthy overweight (MHOW), metabolically unhealthy overweight, metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO). The classification of subjects in included studies as metabolically unhealthy was based on the presence of three components of metabolic syndrome. BMI categorization was based on the criteria of included studies. The risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted and pooled using random effects analysis. Results A total of 9 prospective cohort studies with 128773 participants and 4797 incident cases were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with healthy normal-weight individuals as reference, MUNW and MHO subjects showed an increased risk for CKD events with a pooled RR of 1.58 (95% CI = 1.28-1.96) in MUNW and 1.55 (95% CI = 1.34-1.79) in MHO persons. Also, MHOW was at increased risk for CKD (RR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.20-1.51). MUHO individuals were at the highest risk for the development of CKD (RR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.66-2.72). Conclusions Individuals with metabolic abnormality, although at normal-weight, have an increased risk for CKD. Healthy overweight and obese individuals had higher risk; refuting the notion that metabolically healthy overweight and obese phenotypes are benign conditions.

Humans , Phenotype , Body Weight/genetics , Metabolic Syndrome/genetics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/genetics , Body Mass Index , Risk , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Observational Studies as Topic , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism
Clinics ; 74: e836, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011915


OBJECTIVE: Follow-up studies of girls with premature adrenarche have reported the development of polycystic ovary syndrome, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia and a propensity to cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of these conditions in patients previously treated at the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro. METHODS: A total of 130 medical records reported premature adrenarche. One hundred and twenty-two patients were invited to participate, of whom 54 accepted; 34 patients were selected, as they had reached their final height. Anthropometric, blood glucose, insulin, and lipid and hormonal profile (LH, FSH, estradiol, 17α-OH-progesterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone) data were obtained, the HOMA-IR index was calculated, and pelvic ultrasonography was performed. To characterize polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome, the Rotterdam and International Diabetes Federation criteria, respectively, were used. Data were analyzed according to measures of dispersion, frequency and correlations of interest. RESULTS: The age of the participants ranged from 15.2 to 28.2 years/months; 23.5% of the patients were overweight, 11.8% were obese, 29.4% had a large waist circumference, and 8.8% were hypertensive. None of the patients had altered glucose levels, and insulin levels and HOMA-IR were elevated in 29.4% and 38.2% of the participants, respectively; 14.7% of the patients exhibited acanthosis nigricans. The lipid profiles of the participants were variable, and one patient (2.9%) had metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome was found in 41.2% of patients. CONCLUSION: The percentage of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome who also had overweight, obesity and insulin resistance corroborates the literature data about the need for follow-up aiming at interventions, especially for conditions associated with cardiometabolic risk.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/etiology , Puberty, Precocious/complications , Puberty, Precocious/metabolism , Adrenarche/metabolism , Reference Values , Triglycerides/blood , Insulin Resistance , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Dyslipidemias/etiology , Dyslipidemias/metabolism , Overweight/etiology , Overweight/metabolism , Hormones/blood
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(5): 733-737, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038532


Abstract Background: Obesity is recognized as a major risk factor for the development of several metabolic complications. However, some obese individuals have a favorable metabolic profile. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify an easy parameter for recognizing metabolically healthy obese (MHO) women. Methods: A total of 292 non-diabetic women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 were selected, and 239 composed the final cohort. We classified the participants according to their metabolic state determined by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) into MHO or metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). Both groups were compared regarding biochemical, anthropometric, and body composition characteristics. Results: The average age of the cohort was 43.9 ± 10.9 years and the average BMI was 37.2 ± 5.3 kg/m2. In total, 75.7% of the participants were classified as MHO by HOMA. A cutoff of 108.2 cm for waist circumference (WC) identified MHO participants with a sensitivity of 72.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59.8-82.3%), specificity of 66.9% (95% CI: 59.71-73.3%), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.41 (95% CI: 0.36-0.47). Additionally, a visceral adiposity index cutoff value of 99.2 identified MHO women with a sensitivity of 89.7% (95% CI: 79.2-95.2%), specificity of 48.6% (95% CI: 41.4-55.9%), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.21 (95% CI: 0.15-0.30). Conclusion: Women classified as MHO exhibited smaller WC measurements and lower body fat percentages, as well as lower blood glucose and insulin levels. WC emerged as an easy parameter for identifying MHO women.

Resumo Fundamento: A obesidade é reconhecida como um fator de risco importante no desenvolvimento de várias complicações metabólicas. Porém, alguns indivíduos obesos apresentam um perfil metabólico favorável. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar um parâmetro fácil para reconhecer mulheres obesas metabolicamente saudáveis (OMS) Métodos: Foram selecionadas 292 mulheres não diabéticas com índice de massa corporal (IMC) ≥ 30 kg/m2 e a coorte final foi composta de 239. De acordo com o estado metabólico determinado pelo modelo de avaliação da homeostase (HOMA), as participantes foram classificadas como obesas metabolicamente saudáveis (OMS) ou obesas metabolicamente não saudáveis (OMNS). Compararam-se ambos os grupos quanto às características bioquímicas, antropométricas e de composição corporal. Resultados: A idade média da coorte foi de 43,9 ± 10,9 anos e o IMC médio foi 37,2 ± 5,3 kg/m2. No total, 75,7% das participantes foram classificadas como OMS pelo HOMA. O ponto de corte para a circunferência da cintura (CC) de 108,2 identificou mulheres OMS com sensibilidade de 72,4% (intervalo de confiança [IC] de 95%: 59,8-82,3%), especificidade de 66,9% (IC 95%: 59,71-73,3%) e razão de verossimilhança negativa (RVN) de 0,41 (IC 95%: 0,36-0,47). Adicionalmente, o ponto de corte de 99,2 para o índice de adiposidade visceral (IAV) identificou mulheres OMS com sensibilidade de 89,7% (IC 95%: 79.2-95.2%), especificidade de 48,6% (IC 95%: 41,4-55,9%) e RVN de 0,21 (IC 95%: 0.15-0.30). Conclusões: Mulheres classificadas como OMS apresentaram menor CC, menor percentual de gordura corporal e menores níveis séricos de glicose e de insulina. A CC foi identificada como um parâmetro fácil para identificar mulheres OMS.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Waist Circumference , Obesity/diagnosis , Phenotype , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Insulin Resistance , Biomarkers/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Sensitivity and Specificity , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Intra-Abdominal Fat/metabolism , Data Accuracy , Insulin/blood , Obesity/metabolism
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(4): 446-451, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950080


ABSTRACT Objective: Osteocalcin has been associated with several effects on energy and glucose metabolism. However, the physiological role of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (U-osc; the hormonally active isoform of osteocalcin) is still controversial. To correlate the serum levels of U-osc with bone mineral density (BMD) values and metabolic parameters in postmenopausal women. Subjects and methods: Cross-sectional study including 105 postmenopausal women (age 56.5 ± 6.1 years, body mass index [BMI] 28.2 ± 4.9 kg/m2) grouped based on the presence of three or less, four, or five criteria of metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The subjects underwent dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the assessment of body composition and BMD and blood tests for the measurement of U-osc and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) levels. Results: The mean U-osc level was 3.1 ± 3.4 ng/mL (median 2.3 ng/mL, range 0.0-18.4 ng/mL) and the mean BSAP level was 12.9 ± 4.0 ng/mL (median 12.1 ng/mL, range 73-24.4 ng/mL). There were no associations between U-osc and BSAP levels with serum metabolic parameters. Lower fasting glucose levels were observed in participants with increased values of U-osc/femoral BMD ratio (3.61 ± 4 ng/mL versus 10.2 ± 1.6 ng/mL, p = 0.036). When the participants were stratified into tertiles according to the U-osc/ femoral BMD and U-osc/lumbar BMD ratios, lower fasting glucose levels correlated with increased ratios (p = 0.029 and p = 0.042, respectively). Conclusion: Based on the ratio of U-osc to BMD, our study demonstrated an association between U-osc and glucose metabolism. However, no association was observed between U-osc and metabolic parameters.The U-osc/BMD ratio is an innovative way to correct the U-osc value for bone mass.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bone Density , Osteocalcin/metabolism , Postmenopause/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Femur/metabolism , Lumbar Vertebrae/metabolism
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(3): 309-318, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950069


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the body mass index (BMI) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) parameters on oxidative and nitrosative stress in overweight and obese subjects. Subjects and methods: Individuals were divided into three groups: the control group (G1, n = 131) with a BMI between 20 and 24.9 kg/m2, the overweight group (G2, n = 120) with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 and the obese group (G3, n = 79) with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Results: G3 presented higher advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) in relation to G1 and G2 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively) whereas G2 and G3 had lower levels of nitric oxide (NO) (p = 0.009 and p = 0.048, respectively) compared to G1. Adjusted for the presence of MetS to evaluate its influence, the levels of AOPPs did not differ between the groups, whereas NO remained significantly lower. Data adjusted by the BMI showed that subjects with higher triacylglycerol levels had higher AOPPs (p = 0.001) and decreased total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter/uric Acid (p = 0.036). Subjects with lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and patients with higher blood pressure showed increased AOPPs (p = 0.001 and p = 0.034, respectively) and lower NO levels (p = 0.017 and p = 0.043, respectively). Subjects who presented insulin resistance had higher AOPPs (p = 0.024). Conclusions: Nitrosative stress was related to BMI, and protein oxidation and nitrosative stress were related to metabolic changes and hypertension. MetS components were essential participants in oxidative and nitrosative stress in overweight and obese subjects.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Advanced Oxidation Protein Products/metabolism , Nitrosative Stress/physiology , Obesity/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Overweight/physiopathology , Overweight/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 31(1): e1351, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949212


ABSTRACT Background: Actually the lifestyle exposes the population to several risk factors related to alimentary habits and less physical activity that contributes to chronic diseases appearance worldwide. Aim: To analyze the association between salivary cortisol and the components of metabolic syndrome. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. As part of it, 28 individuals aged 30-59 years presenting three or more of the following findings: CA: ≥88 cm for women and ≥102 cm for men; SBP>130 mmHg and DBP>85 mmHg; GL>100 mg/dl; TG>150 mg/dl; HDL<40 mg/dl for men and <50 mg/dl for women. Was performed analysis of salivary cortisol (by radioimmunoassay) from 25 salivary samples collected throughout the day, for evaluating changes in the circadian rhythm of this hormone (8AM, noon and 8PM). Results: 28 evaluated individuals had a mean age of 51.9±7.5 years, mostly women (64.3%) and a mean of BMI 33.6±3.2 kg/m². The cortisol level from the 8AM averaged 18.7±4.8 ng/dlL. Individuals with FPG>110mg/dl, have significantly lower average levels of cortisol than ones with FPG <110 (12.8±5,2 vs. 17.3±4.2). Significant correlations were HOMA vs. WC (r=0,465; p˂0,005) and TG (r=0,473; p˂0,005), WC vs. FG (r=0,446; p˂0,005) and BMI (r=0,730; p˂0.0001); TG vs. HDL (r=0,441 p˂0,005) and FG (r=0,440; p˂0,005). Conclusion: Morning salivary cortisol in subjects with chronically elevated blood glucose can represent a downregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. This is an important finding not yet well investigated.

RESUMO Racional: Atualmente o estilo de vida expõe a população a diversos fatores de risco relacionados a hábitos alimentares e à inatividade física, contribuindo para o surgimento de doenças crônicas. Objetivo: Analisar a associação entre o cortisol salivar e os componentes da síndrome metabólica. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 28 indivíduos, idade entre 30 e 59 anos apresentando três ou mais dos seguintes achados: circunferência abdominal ≥88 cm (mulheres) e ≥102 cm (homens); pressão arterial sistólica >130 mmHg e pressão arterial diastólica >85 mmHg; glicemia >100 mg/dl; triglicerídeo >150 mg/dl; lipoproteína de alta densidade <40 mg/dl (homens) e <50 mg/dl (mulheres). Foram realizadas coletas do cortisol salivar nos seguintes horários 8 h, 12 h e 20 h e analisadas por radioimunoensaio. Resultados: A média de idade foi 51,9±7,5 anos, 64,3% eram mulheres e a média do índice de massa corporal foi 33,6±3,2 kg/m². O nível de cortisol salivar às 8 h teve média de 18,7±4,8 ng/dl. Os indivíduos com glicemia de jejum >110 mg/dl, apresentaram níveis médios de cortisol significativamente menores que os com glicemia de jejum <110 mg/dl (12,8±5,2 vs. 17,3±4,2). As correlações significativas foram HOMA vs. circunferência abdominal (r=0,465; p˂0,005) e triglicerídeos (r=0,473; p˂0,005), circunferência abdominal vs. glicemia de jejum (r=0,446; p˂0,005) e índice de massa corporal (r=0,730; p˂0,0001), triglicerídeos vs. lipoproteína de alta densidade (r=0,441 p˂0,005) e glicemia de jejum (r=0,440; p˂0,005). Conclusão: O cortisol salivar pela manhã, em indivíduos com glicemia cronicamente elevada, pode representar uma contraregulação do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal, sendo achado importante e pouco investigado.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Saliva/chemistry , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 42: 2-12, Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-880873


BACKGROUND: Some studies have shown that cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) has beneficial effects on the components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a condition characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors suchas central obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose homeostasis, elevated triglycerides, and decreased HDL cholesterol levels. Cranberry is very rich in polyphenols, which may significantly reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Main body of the ABSTRACT: Nutritional intervention studies have indicated that the intake of cranberries and cranberry products may have the following impact on metabolic health: (1) attenuate markers of obesity such as body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference; (2) reduce systolic and diastolic pressures; (3) decrease plasma concentrations of triglycerides and oxidized LDL-cholesterol, as well as increase HDL cholesterol; and (4) promote glucose homeostasis. In addition, nutritional intervention with cranberries could confer antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and the ability to reduce biomarkers of atherosclerosis associated with the MetS, such as homocysteine. Short CONCLUSION: Although there has been promising results, particularly related to lipid profile and blood pressure, further research is needed to support the recommendation of cranberry intake as a nutritional intervention for the treatment of MetS

Humans , Male , Female , Metabolic Syndrome/diet therapy , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Vaccinium macrocarpon/chemistry , Vaccinium macrocarpon/drug effects , Vaccinium macrocarpon/physiology
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(6): 614-622, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887618


ABSTRACT Elevated hepatic glucose production, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin resistance - abnormalities of glucose metabolism typically found in subjects with obesity - are major factors underlying the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (DM2) and the metabolic syndrome (MS). Adiponectin is a major regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis via its insulin-sensitizing properties, and lower levels seems to be associated with the development of DM2 and MS. The purpose of this review is to clarify the mechanisms whereby adiponectin relates to the development of DM2 and MS and the association between polymorphisms of the adiponectin gene, circulating levels of the hormone, and its relationships with DM2. In addition, the impact of dietary lipids in the circulating levels of adiponectin will be addressed. According to the literature, circulating adiponectin levels seem to decrease as the number of MS components increases. Lower adiponectin concentrations are associated with higher intra-abdominal fat content. Therefore, adiponectin could link intra-abdominal fat with insulin resistance and development of MS. Therapeutic strategies that target the MS and its components, such as lifestyle modification through physical activity and weight loss, have been shown to increase adiponectin concentrations. Possible roles of diets containing either low or high amounts of fat, or different types of fat, have been analyzed in several studies, with heterogeneous results. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA modestly increases adiponectin levels, whereas conjugated linoleic acid supplementation appears to reduce concentrations when compared with unsaturated fatty acid supplementation used as an active placebo.

Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Adiponectin/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism
Medisan ; 21(10)oct.2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-995721


Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal de 93 pacientes hipertensos y diabéticos, con asociación de síndrome metabólico, ingresados en las salas de Medicina Interna del Hospital General Docente Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba, durante el bienio 2015-2016, con vistas a caracterizarles según algunas variables clínicas, imagenológicas y humorales. En la serie predominaron el sexo femenino (61,0 por ciento) y el grupo etario de 55-64 años (36,6 por ciento), en tanto las complicaciones, al igual que los parámetros radiológicos y humorales evaluados, estuvieron directamente relacionadas con el tiempo de evolución de las enfermedades; asimismo existió un mayor número de fallecidos a causa de la cardiopatía isquémica (55,0 por ciento). Pudo concluirse que en los pacientes con este síndrome existe un descontrol mayor desde el punto de vista humoral e imagenológico, con efecto proporcional al tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad y un consecuente desarrollo de complicaciones cardiovasculares, renales y cerebrovasculares, que incluso pueden conducir a la muerte.

A descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study of 93 hypertensive and diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome association was carried out, who were admitted to the Internal Medicine wards in Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teaching General Hospital from Santiago de Cuba during 2015-2016, aimed at characterizing them according to some clinical, imagenological and humoral variables. In the series there was a prevalence of female sex (61.0 percent) and 55-64 age group (36.5 percent), as for complications as well as radiological and humoral parameters evaluated, were directly related to timecourse of the diseases, likewise there was a higher number of deaths due to ischemic heart disease (55.0 percent). It was concluded that there is a higher lack of control in patients with this syndrome from the humoral and imagenological point of view with proportional efect to the disease timecourse and a consequent development of cardiovascular, renal and cerebrovascular complications, that can even lead to death.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Secondary Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
Rev. méd. (La Paz) ; 23(2): 24-28, 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-902428


OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico (SM) en mujeres embarazadas con preeclampsia, Hospital Materno Infantil de la Caja Nacional de Salud, La Paz-Bolivia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal de 181 mujeres embarazadas durante un periodo de 22 meses. Se determinó el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y la presión arterial sistémica en el brazo derecho. El diagnóstico de SM fue realizado de acuerdo con el consenso de la IDF y NCEP ATP III; de los 5 criterios para diagnóstico de SM, se excluyó la circunferencia abdominal debido al cambio fisiológico del útero. Los datos fueron procesados con paquetes estadísticos SPSS 15.0 y Epi Info 3.5. Los resultados fueron correlacionados con tablas de contingencia 2 x 2 y evaluados con la prueba del Chi cuadrado. RESULTADOS: De las 181 mujeres embarazadas con pre-eclampsia, 49.7% presentaron SM, 80.1% hipertrigliceridemia, 60.9% colesterol HDL menor a 50 mg/ dl, 19.2% glucemia mayor a 110 mg/dl y 75.6% de IMC mayor a 25. Se encontró asociaciones estadísticamente significativas entre SM/preeclampsia y IMC mayor a 25/preeclampsia (X²:12,83, p<0,05). CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de SM en mujeres con preeclampsia es alta, existe una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre ambas variables.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in pregnant women with preeclampsia at Materno Infantil Hospital, Caja Nacional de Salud in La Paz-Bolivia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was conducted an observational, descriptive and transversal study in 181 pregnant patients over a period of 22 months. Body mass index (BMI) and systemic blood pressure on rightarm were measured. MS diagnosis was based on the IDF and NCEP ATP III consensus, considering 5 criteria of MS diagnosis, it was excluded waist circumference due to the uterine physiological changes. All data were processed with SPSS 15.0 and Epi Info 3.5 statistical packages. Results were correlated with 2x2 contingency tables and evaluated with the chi-square test. RESULTS: Pregnant women displayed a 49.7% of metabolic syndrome, 80.1% hypertriglyceridemia, 60.9% HDL cholesterol less than 50 mg/dl, 19.2% of glucose higher than 110 mg/dl and 75.6% of BMI higher than 25. Statistically significant associations between SM/preeclampsia and BMI over 25/ preeclampsia (J² 12, 83, p<0, 05) were found. CONCLUSIONS: There is a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women with preeclampsia, stating a statistically significant relationship between variables.

Pregnancy , Metabolic Syndrome/mortality , Pre-Eclampsia , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48262


BACKGROUND: A biomarker that is of great interest in relation to adverse cardiovascular events is soluble ST2 (sST2), a member of the interleukin family. Considering that metabolic syndrome (MetS) is accompanied by a proinflammatory state, we aimed to assess the relationship between sST2 and left ventricular (LV) structure and function in patients with MetS. METHODS: A multicentric, cross-sectional study was conducted on180 MetS subjects with normal LV ejection fraction as determined by echocardiography. LV hypertrophy (LVH) was defined as an LV mass index greater than the gender-specific upper limit of normal as determined by echocardiography. LV diastolic dysfunction (DD) was assessed by pulse-wave and tissue Doppler imaging. sST2 was measured by using a quantitative monoclonal ELISA assay. RESULTS: LV mass index (β=0.337, P<0.001, linear regression) was independently associated with sST2 concentrations. Increased sST2 was associated with an increased likelihood of LVH [Exp (B)=2.20, P=0.048, logistic regression] and increased systolic blood pressure [Exp (B)=1.02, P=0.05, logistic regression]. Comparing mean sST2 concentrations (adjusted for age, body mass index, gender) between different LV remodeling patterns, we found the greatest sST2 level in the group with concentric hypertrophy. There were no differences in sST2 concentration between groups with and without LV DD. CONCLUSIONS: Increased sST2 concentration in patients with MetS was associated with a greater likelihood of exhibiting LVH. Our results suggest that inflammation could be one of the principal triggering mechanisms for LV remodeling in MetS.

Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Area Under Curve , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography, Doppler , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/diagnostic imaging , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/analysis , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , Sex Factors , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology
Perspect. nutr. hum ; 17(1): 55-66, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-773302


Antecedentes: se realizó una campaña de información, educación y comunicación (IEC) sobre síndrome metabólico para personal universitario del área de la salud, derivada de una investigación realizada en esta población. Objetivo: reconocer las dinámicas y aprendizajes generados en los profesionales ejecutores de la campaña "Somos salud". Metodología: sistematización de experiencia realizada por los ejecutores de la campaña, quienes definieron la pregunta orientadora, reconstruyeron la experiencia, hicieron la reflexión crítica, en la cual identificaron aspectos significativos que permitieron construir y validar el sistema categorial. La información se recolectó mediante grupos focales. Resultados: se identificó como categoría principal: "Aprender en la práctica de la estrategia IEC" y como subcategorías destacadas: la reflexión sobre IEC y educación, la relación extensión-investigación, asuntos críticos de la ejecución y el diseño de mensajes y materiales. Conclusiones: se reconoce que aunque los procesos de IEC no garantizan cambios inmediatos en prácticas individuales y colectivas, contribuyen a conocer y discutir problemáticas de salud. Se reflexionó críticamente sobre la manera como se hace educación para la salud, resaltando la necesidad de considerar aspectos individuales y contextuales, mediadores en las decisiones de salud y reconociendo al profesional de la salud como agente y sujeto de tales decisiones.

Background: An information, education and communication campaign (IEC) was carried out about the metabolic syndrome, for university professional of the health sector; it is derived from a research carried out in this population. Objective: Recognition of dynamics and learning created in the professionals who perform the "We are Health" campaign. Methodology: Systematization of the experience was carried out by the campaign performers; who have defined the guiding question, rebuilt the experience, made a critical reflection, and identified significant aspects in it that let to build and validate the categorical system. By means of focus groups the information was collected. Results: "Learning by doing of the IEC strategy" was identified as the main category, and as emphasized subcategories: the reflection about the IEC and education, the extension-research relationship, critical aspects of the execution and design of messages and materials. Conclusions: Although it is recognized that the IEC processes do not guarantee immediate changes in individual and collective practices, they contribute to know and discuss health related issues. It was critically reflected on the way as education for health is made, emphasizing the need to consider individual and contextual aspects that mediate on health decisions, and the recognition of the health care professional as an agent and subject of such decisions.

Humans , Health Education , Attitude to Health , Health Promotion , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(2): 168-174, feb. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742567


Background: Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) is a condition of dialysis patients associated with both morbidity and mortality. Management is based on clinical guidelines with goals that are hard to comply with. Aim: To describe and compare biochemical variables associated with this disorder in two different time periods. Material and Methods: Revision of medical records of 814 patients (49% females) dialyzed during 2009 and 1018 patients (48% females), dialyzed during 2012 in Southern Metropolitan Santiago. Information about serum calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and albumin was retrieved. Results: Median PTH values in 2009 and 2012 were 222.5 and 353.5 pg/ml respectively (p < 0.05). The figures for serum calcium corrected by albumin were 9.0 and 8.5 mg/dl respectively (p < 0.05). The figures for phosphorus were 4.7 and 5.0 mg/dl respectively (p < 0.05). The Calcium x Phosphorus product was 41.4 and 42.5 mg²/dl² (p < 0.05). Of note, the proportion patients with serum calcium below recommended levels (< 8.4 mg/dl) increased from 16% to 40% from 2009 to 2012. The proportion of patients with biochemical variables within recommended ranges was lower in 2012 than in 2009. Conclusions: There was a low proportion of patients with bone metabolism parameters within ranges recommended by clinical guidelines. These parameters were worst in 2012.

Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Adiposity/physiology , Animals, Suckling/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Maternal Deprivation , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Age Factors , Animals, Suckling/psychology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/psychology , Glucose Intolerance/etiology , Glucose Intolerance/metabolism , Glucose Intolerance/psychology , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/psychology , Phenotype
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 28(1): 44-47, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742755


BACKGROUND: Obesity is a chronic disease with high growth in population and bariatric surgery is currently considered the most effective treatment for weight reduction; on the other hand, nutritional deficiencies are observed after this procedure. AIM: To analyze weight loss progression and nutritional anemia in patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on use of vitamin and mineral supplementation. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 137 patients of both sexes, aged between 18-60 years, using supplemental multivitamins and minerals, were included; personal information, anthropometric and laboratory data in the preoperative, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months postoperatively were collected. RESULTS: Postoperatively, in both sexes, occurred weight loss compared to the pre-operative weight gain at 48 months and maintenance of body mass index. There was a decrease in the percentage of excess weight loss at 48 months postoperatively compared to the time of 12, 24 and 36 months in men and decreased at 48 postoperative months compared to the time of 24 months in females. There was a decreased in serum ferritin in both sexes and increased serum iron at 48 months postoperatively in males. There was a decreased in vitamin B12 and folic acid increased serum at 48 postoperative months in females. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment was effective for reducing weight, body mass index reduction and achievement of success in the late postoperative period along with multivitamin and mineral supplementation on prevention of serious nutritional deficiencies and anemia. .

RACIONAL: A obesidade é doença crônica com elevado crescimento na população. A cirurgia bariátrica é considerada o tratamento mais efetivo para redução de peso; por outro lado, deficiências nutricionais são observadas após esse procedimento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução da perda ponderal e a presença de anemias carenciais em pacientes submetidos ao bypass gástrico em Y-de-Roux em uso de suplementação de vitaminas e minerais. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de 137 pacientes de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 18-60 anos, em uso de suplementação de polivitaminas e minerais incluindo informações pessoais, dados antropométricos e laboratoriais nos períodos pré-operatório, 12, 24, 36 e 48 meses de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: No pós-operatório, em ambos os sexos, ocorreu perda de peso em relação ao pré-operatório, ganho de peso aos 48 meses e manutenção do índice de massa corporal. Houve diminuição do percentual de perda de excesso de peso aos 48 meses pós-operatórios comparado com os tempos 12, 24 e 36 meses em homens e diminuição aos 48 meses pós-operatórios em relação aos 24 meses no sexo feminino. Houve diminuição da ferritina sérica em ambos os sexos e aumento do ferro sérico aos 48 meses pós-operatório no sexo masculino. Houve diminuição da vitamina B12 e aumento do ácido fólico séricos aos 48 meses do pós-operatório no sexo feminino. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento cirúrgico mostrou-se eficaz para redução de peso, redução do índice de massa corporal e alcance do sucesso no pós-operatório tardio juntamente com a suplementação de polivitamínico e minerais na prevenção de deficiências nutricionais importantes e anemias. .

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Depression/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Cholesterol/blood , Depression/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology , Triglycerides/blood
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74487


A main symptom of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) in ponies is pathological obesity characterized by abnormal accumulation of fat deposits and inflammation. In this study, we analyzed the expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), in subcutaneous adipose tissue and the correlation with serum concentrations in peripheral blood of Welsh ponies. Based on clinical examination findings, the animals were divided into two groups: ponies affected with EMS (n = 8) and obese ponies (n = 8). The adipose tissue was examined using immunohistochemical analysis while concentrations IL-6 and TNF-alpha were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Additionally, histological characterization of the adipose tissue was performed. The results obtained showed that IL-6 expression in adipose tissue biopsies derived from animals with EMS was enhanced while TNF-alpha levels of both groups were comparable. Compared to the obese ponies, EMS animals also had significantly elevated levels of serum IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Histological analysis revealed macrophage infiltration and fibrosis in adipose tissue preparations from the EMS group. These data suggest that IL-6 may play a key role in the course of EMS in Welsh ponies. Our findings also demonstrated that analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in serum may serve as an additional tool for diagnosing EMS.

Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Animals , Female , Horse Diseases/blood , Horses , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35612


PURPOSE: This study identified effects of dietary and physical activity interventions including dietary interventions or physical activity interventions alone or combined dietary-physical activity interventions to improve symptoms in metabolic syndrome including abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose through meta-analysis. METHODS: Articles on metabolic syndrome X published from 1988 to 2013 were searched through electronic databases, Google Scholar, and reference reviews. Methodological quality was assessed by the checklist, SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network). RESULTS: In the meta-analysis, there were 9 articles reporting 13 interventions with 736 participants. Using random effect models, the dietary and/or physical activity interventions showed a lower mean difference in waist circumference ( - 1.30 cm, 95% CI: - 2.44~ - 0.15, p =.027). The combined dietary-physical activity interventions showed a lower mean difference in waist circumference ( - 2.77 cm, 95% CI: - 4.77~ - 0.76, p =.007) and systolic blood pressure ( - 5.44 mmHg, 95% CI: - 10.76~ - 0.12, p =.044). Additionally, interventions of over 24 weeks yielded a lower mean difference in waist circumference ( - 2.78 cm, 95% CI: - 4.69~ - 0.87, p =.004) and diastolic blood pressure ( - 1.93 mmHg, 95% CI: - 3.63~ - 0.22, p =.026). CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that dietary and/or physical activity interventions for metabolic syndrome reduce central obesity with no adverse effects. This finding provides objective evidences for dietary and physical activity management on metabolic syndrome as an efficient intervention.

Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Pressure , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Databases, Factual , Diet , Exercise , Health Behavior , Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Waist Circumference
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 90(6): 600-607, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-729837


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of insulin resistance and its association with other metabolic abnormalities in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: Retrospective study of 220 children and adolescents aged 5-14 years. Anthropometric measurements were performed (weight, height, and waist circumference) and clinical (gender, age, pubertal stage, and degree of obesity) and biochemical (glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, and fractions, triglycerides) data were analyzed. Insulin resistance was identified by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. The analysis of the differences between the variables of interest and the HOMA-IR quartiles was performed by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: Insulin resistance was diagnosed in 33.20% of the sample. It was associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; p = 0.044), waist circumference measurement (p = 0.030), and the set of clinical and metabolic (p = 0.000) alterations. Insulin-resistant individuals had higher mean age (p = 0.000), body mass index (BMI; p = 0.000), abdominal circumference (p = 0.000), median triglycerides (p = 0.001), total cholesterol (p ≤ 0.042), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; p ≤ 0.027); and lower HDL-C levels (p = 0.005). There was an increase in mean BMI (p = 0.000), abdominal circumference (p = 0.000), and median triglycerides (p = 0.002) as the values of HOMA -IR increased, with the exception of HDL-C, which decreased (p = 0.001). Those with the highest number of simultaneous alterations were between the second and third quartiles of the HOMA-IR index (p = 0.000). CONCLUSION: The results confirmed that insulin resistance is present in many obese children and adolescents, and that this condition is associated with alterations that represent an increased risk for developing metabolic disorders in adulthood. .

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de resistência à insulina e sua relação com outras alterações metabólicas, em crianças e adolescentes obesos. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 220 crianças e adolescentes de 5 a 14 anos. Foram realizadas avaliações antropométricas (peso, estatura e circunferência abdominal), clínicas (sexo, idade, estágio puberal e grau de obesidade) e bioquímicas (glicemia, insulina, colesterol total e frações, triglicerídeos). A resistência à insulina foi identificada pelo índice HOMA-IR. A análise das diferenças entre as variáveis de interesse e os quartis do HOMA-IR foi realizada pelos testes ANOVA ou Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTADOS: A resistência à insulina foi diagnosticada em 33,20% da amostra. Associou-se a níveis baixos de HDL-C (p = 0,044), medida da circunferência abdominal aumentada (p = 0,030) e ao conjunto de alterações clínicas e metabólicas (p = 0,000). Os indivíduos resistentes apresentaram maiores médias de idade (p = 0,000), IMC (p = 0,000), medida da circunferência abdominal (p = 0,000) e maiores medianas de triglicerídeos (p = 0,001), colesterol total (p ≤ 0,042), LDL-C (p ≤ 0,027) e menores de HDL-C (p = 0,005). Houve aumento das médias de IMC (p = 0,000), medida da circunferência abdominal (p = 0,000) e mediana de triglicerídeos (p = 0,002) à medida que os valores do HOMA-IR se elevavam, com exceção dos níveis de HDL-C que diminuíram (p = 0,001). Aqueles que apresentaram o maior conjunto de alterações simultâneas estavam entre o segundo e terceiro quartis do HOMA-IR (p = 0,000). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados confirmaram que a resistência à insulina está presente em muitas crianças e em muitos adolescentes obesos, e ...

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Obesity/complications , Body Mass Index , Brazil , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol/blood , Insulin , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Waist Circumference