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1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387713

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los protistas del género Labyrinthula causan la denominada "Enfermedad del desgaste" en el pasto marino, Thalassia testudinum. Desde el 2008 los monitoreos en el Caribe colombiano han mostrado variación espacial y temporal en la incidencia de la enfermedad, pero sin la alta mortalidad observada en otras regiones del mundo. Objetivo: Analizar algunos parámetros epidemiológicos en T. testudinum y comparar metabolitos entre plantas sanas e infectadas. Métodos: Registramos la severidad, incidencia y prevalencia de esta enfermedad en el Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona e Isla de Providencia, y analizamos muestras de agua y sedimentos. Además, aplicamos cromatografía líquida y de gases, junto con espectrometría de masas, a extractos metanólicos de muestras de hojas y rizomas de brotes sanos e infectados. Resultados: Las praderas se encontraban en buen estado, a pesar de la escasez de brotes de fanerógamas marinas en Tayrona y una alta incidencia (15 %) y severidad (355 %) de la enfermedad en Providencia. Las plantas infectadas tenían niveles más bajos de fenoles, flavonoides y azúcares. Las flavonas sulfatadas con aglicona luteolina y diosmetina, los esteroles (sitosterol y estigmasterol) y las oxilipinas volátiles se acumularon en las hojas (3-hidroxi-2-isopentanona) y los ácidos isopentanoico y octadecatrienoico en los rizomas. Conclusiones: Estos pastos marinos colombianos tienen producción diferencial de metabolitos. Probablemente como una defensa exitosa, aún a niveles bajos de severidad (0.1 %) e incidencia (1 %) de la enfermedad.


Abstract Introduction: Protists of the genus Labyrinthula cause the so-called "Wasting Disease" in seagrass, Thalassia testudinum. Monitoring in the Colombian Caribbean since 2008 has shown spatial and temporal variation in the disease's incidence, but without the high mortality observed in other regions of the world. Objective: To analyze some epidemiological parameters in T. testudinum and to compare metabolites between healthy and infected plants. Methods: We recorded severity, incidence and prevalence of this disease in Tayrona National Natural Park and Providencia Island, and we analyze water and sediment samples. Additionally, we applied gas and liquid chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry, to methanolic extracts from leaf and rhizome samples of healthy and infected shoots. Results: The meadows were in good condition, despite the scarce seagrass shoots in Tayrona and a high incidence (15 %) and severity (35.5 %) of the disease in Providencia. Infected plants had lower levels of phenols, flavonoids and sugars. Sulphated flavones with aglycone luteolin and diosmetin, sterols (sitosterol and stigmasterol) and volatile oxylipins are accumulated in leaves (3-hydroxy-2-isopentanone) and isopentaenoic and octadecatrienoic acids in rhizomes. Conclusions: These Colombian seagrasses have differential production of metabolites. Probably as a successful defense, even at low levels of severity (0.1 %) and incidence (1 %) of the disease.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases , Hydrocharitaceae , Metabolism , Musa
2.
Rev. cientif. cienc. med ; 25(1): 42-48, sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399908

ABSTRACT

Mucopolisacaridosis de tipo III es una enfermedad rara, con una incidencia de 1 en 70 000 nacidos vivos, es la más frecuente dentro del grupo de Mucopolisacaridosis y se produce por un defecto en la vía del metabolismo del heparan sulfato. Se caracteriza por afectar a mayor profundidad el sistema nervioso central, el paciente tiene un desarrollo normal hasta aproximadamente los 1 a 3 años de edad y posteriormente empieza con deterioro progresivo, cursa con retraso del desarrollo, alteración del comportamiento y trastorno del sueño agregándose déficit motor y cuadros infecciosos, culminando en un estado de postración. La esperanza de vida oscila entre los 20 a 30 años, aunque depende del fenotipo y la principal causa de muerte fue la neumonía. El diagnóstico definitivo se consigue mediante pruebas genómicas y ensayo enzimático. No cuenta con tratamiento curativo, únicamente con paliación y soporte ante las complicaciones que va desarrollando


Mucopolysaccharidosis III is a rare disease, with an incidence of 1 in 70 000 live births, it is the most frequent within the group of Mucopolysaccharidosis and is caused by a defect in the heparan sulfate metabolism pathway. It is characterized by affecting the central nervous system in greater depth, the patient has a normal development until approximately 1 to 3 years of age and later begins with progressive deterioration, courses with developmental delay, behavioral alteration and sleep disorder, adding motor deficits and infectious pictures, culminating in a state of prostration. Life expectancy ranges from 20 to 30 years, although it depends on the phenotype, and the main cause of death is pneumonia. Definitive diagnosis is achieved by genomic tests and enzymatic assay. It does not have curative treatment, only palliation and support in the face of the complications that it develops.


Subject(s)
Rare Diseases , Metabolism
3.
Diaeta (B. Aires) ; 40(177)2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1396664

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la fenilcetonuria (PKU) es el error congénito del metabolismo de las proteínas más frecuente. El tratamiento dietético consiste en un plan de alimentación con una ingesta de proteínas naturales restringida, un sustituto proteico libre o de bajo contenido en fenilalanina (Phe) y el aporte de alimentos muy bajos en proteínas. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue investigar si es posible aumentar la ingesta de proteína natural (PN) que se indica a los pacientes con PKU manteniendo los dosajes de Phe en sangre en rangos de seguridad. Materiales y método: se buscaron en 6 bases de datos electrónicas artículos publicados. Se identificaron un total de 154 artículos de Pub Med por intervalo de años desde 1999 a 2020. Se eligieron 15 artículos que se adaptaron a los criterios de inclusión y exclusión y respondían al objeto de estudio de esta revisión bibliográfica. Resultados: hay varios factores que pueden influenciar la estimación de la tolerancia de Phe como la severidad del fenotipo del paciente, la edad, el rango de seguridad de Phe en sangre, la prescripción de Phe y la adherencia al sustituto proteico. Si los niveles de Phe en sangre se mantienen en forma constante dentro del rango adecuado y por un período determinado, se debería considerar un incremento de la ingesta de Phe. El aumento de la ingesta de PN deberá ser realizado de manera controlada, individual y evaluando en forma constante el impacto en los dosajes de Phe en sangre. Conclusión: optimizar la ingesta de PN ofrece una mejora en la calidad de vida de pacientes con PKU, facilita la capacidad del paciente para socializar y contribuye a una mejor adherencia a la dieta(AU).


Introduction: phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most frequent inborn error of protein metabolism. The dietary treatment consists of a diet with a restricted natural protein intake, a free or low phenylalanine (Phe) protein substitute, and the intake of low protein food. The main objective of this work is to analyze if it is possible to increase the natural protein (NP) intake prescribed to PKU patients while maintaining blood Phe dosages within safe range. Materials and method: studies published were searched in 6 electronic data- basis. A total of 154 Pub Med articles were identified by range of years from 1999 to 2020. Fifteen articles which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and responded to the objective of this bibliographic review were chosen. Results: several factors may influence Phe tolerance, such as severity of the patient´s phenotype, age, blood Phe safe range, Phe prescription and adherence to protein substitute. If Phe blood levels remain constantly within safe range and for a certain period, an increase of Phe intake should be considered. Increase of NP intake must be carried out in a controlled manner, individually and constantly evaluating blood Phe levels. Conclusion: optimizing NP intake offers the PKU patient an improvement in quality of life, facilitates the patient´s ability to socialize and contributes to a better adherence to the diet(AU).


Subject(s)
Phenylketonurias , Phenylketonurias/diet therapy , Proteins , Eating , Metabolism
4.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 69(4): e208, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376282

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Dental caries is a disease caused by the interaction of several factors, including diet, since the development of the biological environment that promotes cariogenic bacterial metabolism often depends on it. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of caries in preschool children from Huaura, Peru, and to confirm if there is an association between their salivary pH and body mass index (BMI) and the level of knowledge about oral health of one of their parents. Materials and methods: A non-experimental, correlational, and cross-sectional study was conducted in 126 preschoolers equally distributed in 3 age groups (3, 4, and 5 years old). The association between the presence of caries and the variables considered was determined by means of the chi-square test of independence, with a confidence level of 95% and a type I error of 5%. In addition, a multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the probability of caries development in relation to each risk factor. Results: The prevalence of caries was 80.2% (95%CI:73.2-87.2); furthermore, salivary pH (p=0.012) and the level of parental knowledge (p<0.001) were significantly associated with caries occurrence. Regarding the multiple regression analysis, an OR=0.12 (95%CI:0.02-0.63) was obtained for pH and an OR=0.50 (95%CI:0.35-0.74) for the level of parental knowledge in relation to the probability of caries development. Conclusion: The level of parental knowledge about oral health and high salivary pH levels of preschoolers were protective factors against caries development in the study population. On the other hand, no association was found between BMI and the presence of caries in 5-year-old preschoolers.


Resumen Introducción. La caries dental es una condición causada por la interacción de múltiples factores, entre ellos la dieta, ya que, con frecuencia, de ella depende el desarrollo del medio biológico propicio para el metabolismo bacteriano cariogénico. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de caries en preescolares de Huaura, Perú, y confirmar si hay una asociación con el pH salival y el índice de masa corporal (IMC) de los preescolares, y con el nivel de conocimiento en salud bucal de uno de sus padres. Materiales y métodos. Estudio no experimental, correlacional y transversal realizado en 126 preescolares distribuidos equitativamente en 3 grupos etarios (3, 4 y 5 años). La asociación entre presencia de caries y las variables consideradas se determinó mediante la prueba de independencia de chi cuadrado, con un nivel de confianza del 95% y error tipo I del 5%; además, se realizó un análisis de regresión logística múltiple para calcular la probabilidad de ocurrencia de caries en relación con cada factor de riesgo. Resultados. La prevalencia de caries fue de 80.2% (IC95%:73.2-87.2); además, el pH salival (p=0.012) y el nivel de conocimiento de los padres (p<0.001) se asociaron significativamente con la ocurrencia de caries. En cuanto al análisis de regresión múltiple, se obtuvo un 0R=0.12 (IC95%:0.02-0.63) para el pH y un 0R=0.50 (IC95%:0.35-0.74) para el nivel de conocimiento de los padres en relación con la probabilidad de presentar caries. Conclusión. El nivel de conocimiento sobre salud bucal de los padres y los niveles altos de pH salival de los preescolares fueron factores protectores frente al desarrollo de caries en la población de estudio. Por otra parte, no se encontró asociación entre IMC y presencia de caries en los preescolares de 5 años.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Caries , Diet , Metabolism
5.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 29(1): [1-12], nov. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344047

ABSTRACT

: O número de crianças e adolescentes com índice de sobrepeso e obesidade está aumentando. Já é consolidado que o baixo condicionamento cardiorrespiratório tem relação com riscos cardiovasculares e metabólicos. O objetivo desse trabalho é avaliar o nível de condicionamento cardiorrespiratório em adolescentes do ensino médio e relacionar com indicadores de sobrepeso e obesidade e a maturação somática. O método utilizado caracteriza-se como transversal com método associativo e abordagem quantitativa. Participaram do estudo 51 adolescentes de duas escolas (privada e pública) de uma cidade da região serrana do RS. Após medição dos índices antropométricos foi realizado um teste de campo para medição do VO2pico. As associações indicaram que a razão cintura/quadril foi o indicador antropométrico que mais se associou com o VO2pico, independente da distância para o pico de velocidade do crescimento. Todavia quando analisamos os sexos em separado, essa associação manteve o padrão apenas nas meninas, indicando que o sexo é um moderador na associação entre razão cintura/quadril, maturação somática e VO2pico em adolescentes.(AU)


The number of overweight and obese children and adolescents is increasing. It is already established that low cardiorespiratory conditioning is related to cardiovascular and metabolic risks. The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of cardiorespiratory fitness in high school adolescents and to relate with indicators of overweight and obesity and somatic maturation. This is a cross-sectional study with an associative method and quantitative approach. The study included 51 adolescents from two schools (private and public) at a countryside of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. After measuring the anthropometric variables, a field test was performed to measure VO²Peak. The associations indicated that the waist/hip ratio was the anthropometric indicator that was most associated with VO2peak, regardless of the distance to the peak growth velocity. However, when we analyzed the sexes separately, this association maintained the pattern only in girls, indicating that sex is a moderator in the association between waist/hip ratio, somatic maturation and VO2peak in adolescents.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Exercise , Adolescent , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Growth , Physical Education and Training , Education, Primary and Secondary , Overweight , Exercise Test , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Metabolism , Obesity
6.
Acta amaz ; 51(3): 207-213, set 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353494

ABSTRACT

O pirarucu, Arapaima gigas é um peixe carnívoro nativo da bacia amazônica. Como peixes carnívoros possuem baixa atividade de amilase, enzimas exógenas melhoram a digestibilidade de carboidratos em rações para aquacultura. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a digestibilidade de níveis crescentes de complexo enzimático em dietas para juvenis de pirarucu (65,2 ± 0,4 g). O desenho experimental foi randomizado com quatro tratamentos [dietas contendo 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 e 1 g kg-1 de complexo enzimático adicionado (Allzyme® SSF®, EUA)] e um controle, com três réplicas com densidade de cinco peixes por unidade e 30 dias de duração. A digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e energia bruta foi calculada por quantificação de nutrientes e óxido de cromo nas dietas e fezes. A atividade enzimática, o glicogênio hepático e a proteína total foram determinados a partir de amostras do fígado e intestino anterior. A dieta com 1 g kg-1 de complexo enzimático resultou em um aumento da digestibilidade aparente de proteina bruta, energia bruta, matéria seca, glicogênio hepático e proteínas totais no fígado e intestino, mostrando a eficácia do complexo enzimático na dieta dos pirarucus. A acumulação mais alta de matéria seca, energia bruta e extrato etéreo na carcaça indicou o aumento de peso dos peixes tratados com complexo enzimático. A redução da atividade enzimática endógena (protease, lipase e amilase) sugeriu um aumento da eficácia do processo digestivo. Nossos resultados indicam que a inclusão de 1 g kg-1 do complexo enzimático na dietas de juvenis de pirarucu pode ser recomendada para obter maior digestibilidade de nutientes e performance produtiva. (AU)


Subject(s)
Enzymes , Fishes/metabolism , Food Additives , Metabolism
7.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(2): 114-126, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1290833

ABSTRACT

La mayoría de los estudios apoyan la tesis de que el desayuno es la comida más importante del día. Un desayuno adecuado contribuye a lograr un patrón dietético global saludable y a mejorar la calidad de la dieta. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los principales patrones de desayuno en tres poblaciones universitarias de España, Túnez y Estados Unidos, analizar sus semejanzas y diferencias y estudiar la influencia de factores antropométricos, sociodemográficos y de estilo de vida en la adherencia a cada patrón. Se realizó un estudio transversal con datos de 730 estudiantes matriculados en las Universidades de Castilla-La Mancha, Cartago e Internacional de Florida en 2013. El consumo de alimentos se obtuvo mediante dos recordatorios de 24 horas, no consecutivos, uno de ellos en fin de semana. Los patrones se identificaron mediante análisis factorial exploratorio. La adherencia de los estudiantes a cada patrón se evaluó usando las puntuaciones factoriales. Se obtuvieron cuatro patrones para cada país. El principal patrón de los universitarios españoles incluyó pan, tomate, sal y aceite de oliva (varianza explicada: 20,85%); el principal de los tunecinos contenía pan, mermelada, nata y mantequilla (varianza explicada: 12,73%) y el principal de los americanos incluyó huevos, leche entera y azúcares (varianza explicada: 10,77%). Género, peso, IMC o comer fuera de casa fueron factores que influyeron en la adherencia a diferentes patrones. El estudio mostró la coexistencia de patrones tradicionales con otros occidentalizados y modelos transicionales intermedios. No se determinó un patrón generalizable asociado a mejores resultados del IMC(AU)


Most studies support the conclusion that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. An adequate breakfast contributes to achieving a healthy global dietary pattern and improving quality of diet. The objective of this study was to determine the main breakfast patterns of three university populations from Spain, Tunisia, and The United States of America, analyze their similarities and differences, and study the impact of anthropometric, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on the adherence to each pattern. A cross-sectional study was developed with data from 730 students enrolled at the University of Castilla-La Mancha, University of Carthage, and Florida International University, during 2013. Food consumption data were obtained by means of two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls including one weekend day. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify breakfast patterns. Factor scores were used to assess students' adherence to each pattern. Four breakfast patterns were obtained for each country. The main pattern of the Spanish students included bread, tomato, salt, and olive oil (explained variance: 20.85%); the main model of the Tunisians included bread, jam, cream and butter (explained variance: 12.73%); and the first pattern of the Americans was characterized by eggs, whole milk and sugars (explained variance: 10.77%). Gender, weight, BMI or eating out of home were factors that influenced the adherence to different patterns. Breakfast patterns obtained in this work showed the coexistence of traditional models with westernized and transitional ones. It was not determined a generalizable pattern associated with better BMI results(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Breakfast , Life Style , Body Mass Index , Nutrients , Anthropometry , Metabolism
8.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 99-106, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292979

ABSTRACT

En la actualidad, la obesidad es conside-rada una pandemia, cuya incidencia se ha triplicado en los últimos 30 años, y ha ge-nerado problemas de salud pública cada vez mayores. Tomando como base las guías de la Asociación Americana de Endocrinólogos (AACE), la Sociedad para la Obesidad, la Sociedad Americana de Cirugía Bariátrica y Metabólica (ASMBS), la Asociación para Medicina de la Obe-sidad y la Asociación Americana de Anes-tesiólogos, se realiza el presente docu-mento, con el fin de que se constituya en la hoja de ruta que guíe el procedimiento a seguir en los pacientes que padecen de esta enfermedad crónica y que acuden al Hospital General San Francisco (HGSF)1. La obesidad se caracteriza por el uso de varios medicamentos debido a las co-morbilidades relacionadas: enfermedad cardiovascular, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, enfermedad renal crónica, hígado graso no alcohólico, síndrome metabólico y varios tipos de cánceres2. Este protocolo contiene el más alto nivel de evidencia disponible hasta la fecha, en relación al manejo quirúrgico y no quirúrgico del paciente con diagnóstico de obesidad, incluyendo temas como la identificación de los pacientes candidatos para los pro-cedimientos bariátricos, tipo de proce-dimientos que deberían ser ofertados, el manejo preoperatorio, transoperatorio y el cuidado post operatorio de seguimiento2-4.Desde la publicación por parte de la Ame-rican Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) en el año 2013 de las guías de manejo del paciente con obe-sidad, se ha evidenciado un incremento significativo en las publicaciones que avalan excelentes resultados para el tra-tamiento de los pacientes con obesidad y con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 mediante la cirugía bariátrica y metabólica 2,5,6. En el año 2016 la publicación del Diabetes Sur-gery Summit (DSS2)7 marca diferencia en el manejo de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2, es así que las mismas han crecido sustancialmente y la evidencia demuestra que el manejo metabólico ba-riátrico de estos pacientes es superior al manejo médico y cambios de estilo de vida cuando se evalúa el control glucémico y remisión de las comorbilidades. Con la evaluación previa del equipo mul-tidisciplinario, tendremos información científica del más alto nivel que nos per-mita tener un paciente con recuperación óptima aplicando los criterios de En-hanced Recovery after Bariatric Surgery (ERASB)8. En el Ecuador, la obesidad se ha conver-tido en un problema de salud pública, es así que en la población pediátrica ha au-mentado desde el año 1986 pasando del 8,0% al 26,0% para el año 2012 en el grupo de 11 a 19 años. La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en población adulta en el Ecuador es del 62,8%, según el sexo es 5,5% mayor en las mujeres (65,5%) que en los hombres (60,0%), y el mayor índice de obesidad y sobrepeso se pre-senta entre la cuarta y quinta décadas de vida, con prevalencias superiores a 73,0%9,10.


Currently, obesity is considered a pan-demic, the incidence of which has tripled in the last 30 years, and has generated in-creasing public health problems. Based on the guidelines of the American As-sociation of Endocrinologists (AACE), the Obesity Society, the American So-ciety for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS), the Association for Obesity Medicine and the American Association of Anesthesiologists, this document is intended to serve as a roadmap to guide the procedure to be followed in patients suffering from this chronic disease who come to San Francisco General Hospital (HGSF)1.Obesity is characterized by the use of se-veral medications due to related comor-bidities: cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, meta-bolic syndrome and several types of can-cers2. This protocol contains the highest level of evidence available to date, in relation to the surgical and non-surgical management of the patient with a diag-nosis of obesity, including issues such as the identification of candidate patients for bariatric procedures, type of proce-dures that should be offered, preopera-tive, trans-operative management and fo-llow-up post-operative care2-4.Since the publication by the American So-ciety for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) in 2013 of the guidelines for the management of patients with obesity, there has been a significant increase in publications that support excellent results for the treatment of patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus through bariatric and metabolic surgery2,5,6. In 2016 the pu-blication of the Diabetes Surgery Summit (DSS2)7 makes a difference in the mana-gement of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is so that the same have grown substantially and the evidence shows that bariatric metabolic management of these patients is superior to medical manage-ment and lifestyle changes when glycemic control and remission of comor-bidities are evaluated. With the previous evaluation of the multidisciplinary team, we will have scientific information of the highest level that will allow us to have a patient with optimal recovery applying the criteria of Enhanced Recovery after Bariatric Surgery (ERASB)8.In Ecuador, obesity has become a public health problem; thus, in the pediatric population it has increased since 1986 from 8,0% to 26,0% in 2012 in the 11 to 19 years age group. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult po-pulation in Ecuador is 62,8%, according to sex is 5,5% higher in women (65,5%) than in men (60,0%), and the highest rate of obesity and overweight occurs between the fourth and fifth decades of life, with prevalences higher than 73,0%9,10.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bariatric Surgery , Weight Reduction Programs , Obesity Management , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases , Obesity , Body Weight , Weight Loss , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Body Mass Index , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Metabolism
9.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280432

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Varias enfermedades neurodegenerativas están asociadas a alteraciones en el metabolismo del folato, lo que tiene sustanciales implicaciones fisiopatológicas, clínicas y terapéuticas potenciales. Objetivo: Reflejar la relevancia del metabolismo del folato para enfermedades neurodegenerativas, destacando su significación fisiopatológica y clínica, y sus implicaciones terapéuticas. Material y métodos: Se consultaron las bases de datos especializadas en busca de artículos publicados hasta marzo de 2020. Se emplearon descriptores específicos y operadores booleanos. Se empleó la estrategia de búsqueda avanzada para la selección de los artículos, teniendo en cuenta la calidad metodológica o validez de los estudios. Desarrollo: Fueron identificadas evidencias de asociación entre alteraciones del metabolismo del folato y enfermedades neurodegenerativas. Se han identificado variantes en genes que codifican enzimas involucradas en el metabolismo del folato, y modificaciones en patrones de metilación de ADN, asociadas al riesgo o a la gravedad clínica de las enfermedades de Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington, Temblor Esencial y Ataxia Espinocerebelosa tipo 2. Fueron encontradas asociaciones entre enfermedades neurodegenerativas y alteraciones en los niveles de metabolitos del folato, y la frecuencia de micronúcleos. Se han realizado varios estudios observacionales o experimentales que indican que la suplementación con ácido fólico y vitaminas B6 y B12, tiene utilidad terapéutica potencial en el contexto de enfermedades neurodegenerativas. Conclusiones: El metabolismo del folato es de relevancia fisiopatológica, clínica y terapéutica para enfermedades neurodegenerativas. El uso de estrategias dirigidas a restaurar los niveles normales de folatos o de co-factores enzimáticos involucrados en el metabolismo del folato, o a reducir la acumulación de homocisteína, tiene potenciales aplicaciones terapéuticas en el contexto de estas enfermedades(AU)


Introduction: Several neurodegenerative disorders are associated with alterations in folate metabolism, having essential physiopathological, clinical and therapeutic implications. Objective: To assess the relevance of folate metabolism in neurodegenerative disorders, highlighting its physiopathological, clinical and therapeutic significance. Material and Methods: Specialized biomedical databases were searched for studies published up to March 2020. Descriptors and Boolean operators were used. Advanced search strategy was used for the selection of articles, taking into account the methodological quality and validity of the studies. Results: Strong evidence of the association between folate metabolism and neurodegenerative disorders were identified. Enzyme-coding genes involved in folate metabolism and epigenetic DNA modifications associated with increased risk or disease severity in Alzheimer´s, Parkinson´s, and Huntington´s diseases, Essential Tremor, and Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 were also identified. Associations between neurodegenerative disorders and altered levels of folate metabolites and the frequency of micronuclei were found. A number of observational and experimental studies have demonstrated that the supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B6 and B12 has therapeutic potential in the context of neurodegenerative disorders. Conclusions: Folate metabolism is of physiopathological, clinical and therapeutic relevance for neurodegenerative disorders. The use of strategies to normalize folate levels or enzyme cofactors involved in folate metabolism or to reduce homocysteine levels has potential therapeutic applications for these disorders(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Severity of Illness Index , DNA , Neurodegenerative Diseases/prevention & control , Spinocerebellar Ataxias , Epigenomics , Clinical Coding , Folic Acid/therapeutic use , Metabolism , Intervention Studies , Folic Acid/metabolism
10.
NOVA publ. cient ; 19(36): 49-94, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356542

ABSTRACT

Resumen La nutrición es un conjunto procesos y reacciones mediante las cuales los seres vivos toman del medio, en el que habitan, las sustancias químicas que necesitan para crecer, multiplicarse y hacer uso de la energía. Las sustancias mencionadas anteriormente, se denominan nutrientes y son utilizadas con dos fines: energéticos cuando se requieren para el mantenimiento y biosintéticos cuando se demandan para la síntesis de componentes (anabolismo) En el primer caso (energéticos) las bacterias se dividen en litótrofas cuando hacen uso de sustancias inorgánicas simples como (SH2, S, NH3, NO2-, Fe, entre otras); y organótrofas cuando su requerimiento es de sustancias orgánicas (carbohidratos, hidrocarburos, lípidos, proteínas y alcoholes entre otras). En el segundo caso (biosintéticos), se pueden diferenciar en: autótrofas, cuando la síntesis la realizan a partir de sustancias inorgánicas simples (CO2) y heterótrofas cuando su fuente de carbono es orgánica, pero también pueden utilizar otros elementos distintos al C, que pueden ser captados en forma inorgánica. Sean autótrofas o heterótrofas, todas las bacterias requieren de una serie de sustancias químicas, que se pueden clasificar en macronutrientes o micronutrientes de acuerdo con la cantidad que de estas se requieran.


Abstract Nutrition is a set of processes and reactions by which living beings take from the environment, in which they inhabit, the chemical substances they need to grow, multiply and make use of energy. The aforementioned substances are called nutrients and are used for two purposes: energetic when required for maintenance and biosynthetics when required for the synthesis of components (anabolism). In the first case (energetic) the bacteria are divided into lithotrophs when they make use of simple inorganic substances such as (SH2, S, NH3, NO2-, Fe, among others); and organotrophs when their requirement is for organic substances (carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, lipids, proteins and alcohols, among others). In the second case (biosynthetics), they can be differentiated into: autotrophs, when the synthesis is carried out from simple inorganic substances (CO2) and heterotrophs when their carbon source is organic, but they can also use other elements than C, which they can be captured in inorganic form. Whether autotrophic or heterotrophic, all bacteria require a series of chemical substances, which can be classified into macronutrients or micronutrients according to the amount of these required of these substances that are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nutritional Sciences , Nutrients , Growth , Metabolism
11.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 15(2): 115-136, 20210516.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252504

ABSTRACT

Blastocystis es un stramenopile o cromista, pleomórfico no móvil. Se han identificado diecinue-ve subtipos de este organismo (ST1-ST19). Tiene una presencia a nivel mundial. Este microor-ganismo tiene un metabolismo intermediario anaeróbico. Un aspecto interesante de la bioquími-ca de este stramenopile está dado por la presencia de organelas similares a mitocondrias con un conjunto de rutas: cadena de fosforilación oxidativa incompleta, ciclo de Krebs parcial, metabo-lismo de ácidos grasos (anabolismo y catabolismo), metabolismo de aminoácidos y ensamblaje de proteínas con centros hierro/azufre. El tratamiento se ha basado tradicionalmente en metroni-dazol y otros imidazoles. Sin embargo, hay un número creciente de cepas resistentes a esos medicamentos. La reciente obtención del genoma nuclear y los estudios bioquímicos, proteómi-cos, metabolómicos, interactómicos permitirán el desarrollo racional de nuevos fármacos curati-vos. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir el metabolismo de Blastocystis spp


Blastocystis is a stramenopile or chromist, nonmobile pleomorphic. Nineteen subtypes of this organism (ST1-ST19) have been identified worldwide. This microorganism has an intermediate anaerobic metabolism. An interesting aspect of the biochemistry of this stramenopile is given by the presence of mitochondrial-like organelles with a set of pathways: incomplete oxidative phos-phorylation chain, partial Krebs cycle, fatty acid metabolism (anabolism and catabolism), amino acid metabolism and protein assembly with iron / sulfur centers. Treatment has traditionally been based on metronidazole and other imidazoles. However, there are a growing number of strains resistant to these drugs. The recent obtaining of the nuclear genome and the biochemical, proteomic, metabolomic and interactomic studies will allow the rational development of new curative drugs. The objective of this review is to describe the metabolism of Blastocystis spp.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Parasitic Diseases , Blastocystis , Metabolism , Anaerobiosis , Metronidazole , Antigens, Protozoan
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 639-646, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278369

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the impact of different post-partum disorders on milk yield and composition. One hundred and fifteen Holstein cows from a commercial dairy farm located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil were monitored up to 62 days post-partum. During this period, body condition score evaluation and animal clinical examination were conducted. Percentages of fat, protein, and lactose, as well as somatic cells score, were determined in milk samples. The AST activity and concentrations of NEFA, calcium, and BHBA, were analyzed in blood samples. The occurrence of clinical disorders was identified in 30 (26%) cows. Subclinical disorders were identified in 64 (56%) cows. Only 21 (18%) cows did not suffer any kind of disorder within the studied period. In this study, no significant differences were found in milk production, protein, and somatic cell count in clinical, subclinical, and healthy cows. Milk fat and the fat: protein quotient (F:P) were higher in cows with clinical disorders and the 6 to 21 days in milk, and lactose were lower in cows with clinical disorders and the 22 to 42 days in milk (P<0.05).(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o impacto de diferentes distúrbios após o parto na produção de leite e em sua composição. Cento e quinze vacas Holandesas de uma fazenda de gado leiteiro, localizada em estado da região Sul do Brasil, foram monitoradas até 62 dias após o parto. Durante esse período, foram realizadas avaliações do escore de condição corporal e exame clínico nos animais. As porcentagens de gordura, proteína e lactose, bem como o escore de células somáticas, foram determinadas nas amostras de leite. A atividade do AST e as concentrações de NEFA, cálcio e BHBA foram analisadas em amostras de sangue. A ocorrência de distúrbios clínicos foi identificada em 30 (26%) vacas, os distúrbios subclínicos foram identificados em 64 (56%) vacas. Apenas 21 (18%) vacas não sofreram nenhum tipo de distúrbio ao longo do período estudado. Neste estudo, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas na produção do leite, proteína e na contagem de células somáticas em vacas com doenças clínicas, subclínicas e saudáveis. No leite, a gordura e o quociente gordura e proteína (G:P) foram maiores em vacas com doença clínica no período de seis a 21 dias de lactação, e a lactose foi menor em vacas com doença clínica no período de 22 a 42 dias de lactação (P<0,05).(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Milk/chemistry , Postpartum Period , Metabolic Diseases/veterinary , Metabolism
13.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 11(2): 328-333, Maio 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253509

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos do treinamento de escada e atividade física na histomorfometria do tecido adiposo marrom em camundongos C57BL/6. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Amostra composta por 16 camundongos, divididos aleatoriamente: controle (n=4), exercício de escada com estímulo elétrico (n=4), exercício de escada (n=4) e atividade física em ambiente enriquecido (n=4). Grupo de atividade física em ambiente enriquecido foi realizada em caixa com brinquedos. Grupo exercício de escada e escada com estímulo elétrico foram realizadas com escada vertical. Com a utilização da escada os animais realizaram 6 séries, 8 repetições com intervalos de 90 segundos entre séries, sendo 10 sessões. No exercício de escada com estimulo elétrico, o animal foi estimulado a subir usando uma placa de aço na base da escada, com uma corrente elétrica de 20V de intensidade e 45 hz de frequência. A coleta de tecido adiposo marrom foi feita na região escapular e manchado em Hematoxilina-Eosina (HE). O nível de significância das análises era 95% (p < 0.05). RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa no comparativo do tamanho da célula de TAM em comparação com o tecido recolhido dos camundongos dos quatro grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A atividade física e o exercício resistido não promoveram diferenças morfometricas no TAM dos camundongos C57BL/6.


OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of stair training and physical activity on brown adipose tissue histomorphometry in C57BL / 6 mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sample composed of 16 mice, randomly divided: control (n = 4), stair exercise with electrical stimulus (n = 4), stair exercise (n = 4) and physical activity in an enriched environment (n = 4). A Group of physical activity in an enriched environment was performed in a box with toys. Ladder exercise group and ladder with electrical stimulus were performed with vertical ladder. With the ladder's use, the animals performed six sets, eight repetitions with 90-second intervals between sets, with ten sessions. In the stairway exercise with electrical stimulation, the animal was encouraged to climb using a steel plate at the base of the stairs, with an electric current of 20V intensity and 45Hz frequency. Brown adipose tissue collection was performed in the scapular region and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). The level of significance of the analyzes was 95% (p <0.05). RESULTS: There was no significant difference when comparing the TAM cell size compared to the tissue collected from the mice in the four groups. CONCLUSION: Physical activity and resistance exercise did not promote morphometric differences in the TAM of C57BL/6 mice.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Metabolism , Mice
14.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 61-77, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151421

ABSTRACT

A obesidade é caracterizada pelo aumento excessivo da gordura corporal e está ligada ao estilo de vida, ao meio ambiente e a genética do indivíduo. O equilíbrio entre ingestão e gasto energético é controlado por mecanismos neurais, hormonais, químicos e genéticos. Estudos sugerem que o gene FTO (Fat mass and obesity associated) atua como regulador primário do acúmulo de gordura corporal, quando associado a SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) específicos, predispõe à obesidade. O propósito deste trabalho foi verificar a produção científica, analisar e catalogar os estudos de polimorfismos no gene FTO associados à obesidade e suas comorbidades. A busca por publicações entre 2009 e 2018 foi realizada na base de dados SciELO com a palavra-chave "FTO". Foram encontrados 23 artigos originais dentro dos critérios da pesquisa que correlacionam o FTO à obesidade. O nome do autor principal, país, idioma, ano de publicação, título, objetivo, polimorfismo associado e os resultados dos estudos foram extraídos e organizados para facilitar a tabulação dos dados. Também foram pesquisados os números de citações de cada artigo, utilizando-se a plataforma Google Acadêmico. Embora o Brasil se encontre em primeiro lugar em produção científica para o gene FTO na base de dados prospectada, o número de artigos originais ainda é muito modesto. Assim, os resultados encontrados podem servir de subsídio no delineamento de novas pesquisas sobre os polimorfismos do gene FTO e as causas da obesidade.


Obesity is characterized by the excessive increase in body fat and is correlated to the lifestyle, environment, and also to the genetics of the individual. The balance between energy intake and expenditure is controlled by neural, hormonal, chemical, and genetic mechanisms. Studies suggest that the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated), a gene associated with fat mass, plays a role as a primary regulator of body fat buildup, when associated to specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), causing predisposition to obesity. This paper aimed at reviewing, analyzing, and cataloguing the studies on FTO gene polymorphisms associated with obesity and its comorbidities. The search was carried out in SciELO database, checking articles published between 2009 and 2018 using the keyword "FTO". Twenty-three original articles, matching the research criteria, correlating FTO either positively or negatively with obesity, were found. The main author's name, country, language, year of publication, title, objective, associated polymorphism, and the study results were extracted and organized to facilitate data tabulation. The citation numbers for each article were also searched by using the Google Scholar platform. Although Brazil ranks first in scientific production on the FTO gene in the surveyed database, the number of original articles is still very modest. Therefore, the results found in this paper may be used as a basis for the design of new research on the FTO gene polymorphisms and the causes of obesity.


Subject(s)
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genetics , Obesity/genetics , Satiety Response , Energy Intake/genetics , Body Mass Index , Adipose Tissue , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Nutrigenomics , Fats , Genotype , Life Style , Metabolism/genetics
15.
Rev. bras. promoç. saúde (Impr.) ; 34(1): 1-12, 17/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292269

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre sentido de coherencia y control glucémico en adultos con Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: Estudio de tipo transversal desarrollado durante el año 2018 en el cual fueron encuestados 220 diabéticos de tres unidades de Salud de la Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Jalisco en Ciudad Guzmán, México. Se les aplicó el instrumento SOC-13 para sentido de coherencia y el control glucémico se evaluó por medio del nivel de hemoglobina glucosilada que se obtuvo del expediente médico. Los datos se analizaron por medio del análisis de regresión logística. Resultados: Se obtuvieron resultados con un total de 220 participantes en un rango de edad entre 23 y 69 años de los que el 67% presentó control glucémico inadecuado y el 33% control glucémico adecuado; de los encuestados con control glucémico inadecuado el 24% refirió puntuaciones bajas de sentido de coherencia, mientras que el 96% de quienes tienen control glucémico adecuado obtuvo puntuaciones medio/alta de sentido de coherencia. Los análisis de regresión logística arrojan que el sentido de coherencia se asocia significativamente con el control glucémico (OR = 7.2; 95% C.I: 2.0-24.7; p = 0.002) después de ajustar los análisis por diversas variables confusoras como sexo, apego al plan alimenticio, actividad física, ausencia de complicaciones y ausencia de tabaquismo. Conclusión: Los diabéticos con puntuaciones medio/altas de sentido de coherencia tienen hasta 7 veces más probabilidad de tener control glucémico adecuado que diabéticos con puntuaciones bajas de sentido de coherencia independientemente de variables intervinientes.


Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre senso de coerência e controle glicêmico em adultos com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: Estudo transversal desenvolvido durante 2018, com 220 diabéticos de três unidades de saúde da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado de Jalisco na cidade de Guzmán, México. Aplicou-se o instrumento SOC-13 para senso de coerência, e avaliou-se o controle glicêmico por meio do nível de hemoglobina glicosada obtido nos prontuários. Assim, obtiveram-se os dados por análise de regressão logística. Resultados: Os 220 participantes tinham faixa etária de 23 a 69 anos, dos quais 148 (67%) apresentavam controle glicêmico inadequado e 72 (33%) controle glicêmico adequado; 24% dos pesquisados com controle glicêmico inadequado relataram escores baixos para senso de coerência, enquanto 96% daqueles com controle glicêmico adequado obtiveram escores médios/ altos para senso de coerência. As análises de regressão logística mostram que o senso de coerência está significativamente associado ao controle glicêmico (OR=7,2; IC 95%: 2,0-24,7; p=0,002) após ajustar as análises para variáveis de confusão, como sexo, adesão ao plano alimentar, atividade física, ausência de complicações e ausência de tabagismo. Conclusão: Diabéticos, com escores médios/altos de senso de coerência, têm até 7 vezes mais chances de apresentar controle glicêmico adequado do que diabéticos com baixos escores de senso de coerência, independentemente das variáveis intervenientes.


Objective: To evaluate the association between a sense of coherence and glycemic control in adults with type 2 Mellitus Diabetes. Methods: Cross-sectional study, developed during 2018, 220 diabetics from three health units of the Secretaria de Salud del Estado de Jalisco in Ciudad Guzmán, Mexico, the SOC-13 instrument was applied for a sense of coherence, glycemic control was evaluated through the level of glycosylated hemoglobin obtained from the medical record, the data was analyzed through logistic regression analysis. Results: Results were obtained with a total of 220 participants in an age range of 23 to 69 years of which 67% presented inadequate glycemic control and 33% adequate glycemic control; 24% of those surveyed with inadequate glycemic control reported low scores for a sense of coherence, while 96% of those with adequate glycemic control obtained medium/high scores for a sense of coherence. The logistic regression analyzes show that the sense of coherence is significantly associated with glycemic control (OR=7.2; 95% CI: 2.0-24.7; p=0.002) after adjusting the analyzes for various confounding variables such as sex, adherence to eating plan, physical activity, absence of complications and absence of smoking. Conclusion: Diabetics with medium/high scores of coherence sense are up to 7 times more likely to have adequate glycemic control than diabetics with low scores of coherence sense regardless of intervening variables.


Subject(s)
Glycated Hemoglobin A , Sense of Coherence , Health Promotion , Metabolism
16.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e48747, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368155

ABSTRACT

Although malnutrition and risk of falls in the elderly have increased in recent years, uncertainties exist as to whether these conditions are associated after controlling for sociodemographic variables, body composition, metabolic condition, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to analyze the association between nutritional status and risk of fall in the elderly population. Participants were matched by gender and age, after they had been grouped on the basis of diagnosis of AD. The risk of falls, nutritional status, and mental status were assessed using the Downton Fall Risk Score (FRS), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE), respectively. Logistic regression modelsadjusted for the main confounders were used in the analyses. Among the 68 elderly individuals studied, participants who were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition were more likely to fall (odds ratio = 8.29; 95% confidence interval = 1.49-46.04) than those with normal nutritional status, regardless of gender, age, education, body composition, and metabolic condition. This association did not remain significant after adjustment for AD, a potential confounder in this association. Malnutrition or its risk was independently associated with high risk of fall; thus, malnutrition should be considered in the prevention of falls among the elderly population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Elderly Nutrition , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Body Composition/physiology , Aged/physiology , Aging/physiology , Nutritional Status/physiology , Dementia/complications , Malnutrition/complications , Metabolism/physiology
17.
Metro cienc ; 29(1 (2021): Enero- Marzo): 23-27, 2021-01-29. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222467

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos: Describir el soporte nutricional que se administra en la UCI Pediátrica del Hospital Metropolitano y evaluar nuestra capacidad de alcanzar los objetivos nutricionales recomendados en guías clínicas internacionales. Métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de datos recolectados prospectivamente desde el 09/01/2018 hasta el 12/31/2019 de todos los pacientes con soporte nutricional. Resultados: Durante el periodo de estudio ingresaron a la UCIP 124 pa-cientes y, de éstos, 31% requirieron soporte nutricional. La edad promedio fue 40 meses, los varones fueron 63%, el diagnóstico fue médico en 63% de los casos, la estadía promedio fue de 3 días y la mortalidad de esta cohorte fue de 4,8%. Se implementó nutrición enteral (NE) en 71,8% de los niños, nutrición parenteral (NP) 15,4%, y nutrición mixta, enteral y parenteral en 12,8%. La NE se inició dentro de las primeras 48 horas en 56,4% de los casos. Al comparar el soporte administrado frente a los objetivos nutricionales, el aporte de energía alcanzó el 75% del objetivo calculado mediante la ecuación de Schofield al día 4 y el 100% al día 8. En los niños desnutridos el 75% del objetivo calórico se alcanzó al día 8. Mediante la NE, el 75% del objetivo se alcanzó al día 4 y el 100% al día 5. El objetivo proteico mínimo se alcanzó al día 7 con NE y al día 3 con NP. El aporte promedio de energía a la población estudiada fue de 42,6 kcal/kg/día y 18,5% de los pacientes recibió un promedio de 57 kcal/kg/día. El aporte promedio de proteínas a esta cohorte fue de 1,43 g/kg/día y 42% de ellos recibió un promedio de 1,5 g/kg/día. Conclusiones: Los objetivos recomendados mínimos de energía y proteínas de 57 kcal/kg/día y 1,5 g/kg/día, respectivamente, para alcanzar anabolismo y balance nitrogenado positivo, no fueron alcanzados en nuestros pacientes durante la primera semana después del ingreso.


ABSTRACT Aims & Objectives: To describe the nutritional support (NS) implemented in our PICU and to evaluate our capacity to achieve the recommended nutritional goals (NG). Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively recollected data from 09/01/2018-12/31/2019 of all patients on NS. Results: During the study period 124 patients were admitted and 31% needed NS, mean age 40 months, males 63%, medical diagnosis 63%, surgical diagnosis 22%, length of stay 3 days, mortality 4,8%. Enteral nutrition (EN) was implemented in 71,8%, parenteral nutrition (PN) in 15,4%, and mixed EN/PN in 12,8%. EN was started ≤ 48 hours in 56,4%. In the comparison between intake and recommended NG, energy intake achieved 75% of NG (Schofield) at day 4 and ≥ 100% at day 8. In malnourished patients 75% of NG was achieved at day 8. With EN, 75% of NG were achieved at day 4 and ≥ 100% at day 5. Minimum protein goal was achieved at day 5, in malnourished patients, at day 4. Protein goal was achieved with EN at day 7 and with PN at day 3. Average energy administered was 42,6 kcal/kg/day and 18.5% of the patients reached 57 kcal/kg/day. Average protein administered was 1,43 g/kg/day and 42% reach a mean of 1,5 g/kg/day. Conclusions: Minimum recommended energy and protein goals of 57 kcal/kg/d and 1,5 g/kg/d (to achieve anabolism and positive nitrogen balance) were not accomplished in our patients during the first week after admission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Enteral Nutrition , Parenteral Nutrition , Nutritional Support , Intensive Care Units , Proteins , Diagnosis , Nutritional Sciences , Metabolism
18.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e183731, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1344763

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to verify if the process of artificial insemination (AI) characterized here as animal immobilization, the passage of the semen applicator through the cervix, and deposition of the semen in the uterus, affected cows' welfare. For this, 18 beef calved cows were selected and divided into two groups: inseminated cows (AIG, n = 9), and not inseminated cows, the control group (CG, n = 9). Body condition score, uterus, and ovary evaluation were performed. Later, both groups were submitted into an estrus synchronization protocol and only the AIG group was inseminated. Blood components of urea, creatinine, AST, GGT, CK, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, NEFA, BHB, cortisol, estradiol, progesterone, albumin, and total protein were measured 30 h before AI, and 4, 24, 48 and 168 h after AI. Statistical differences were considered when P <0.05. No differences between AIG and CG were observed. On the other hand, when the moment of insemination was evaluated, differences were observed for urea, creatinine, AST, GGT, CK, glucose, triglycerides, NEFA, BHB, albumin, and total protein. There was an oscillation of metabolic profiles depending on the time and procedures to which animals were exposed, even though it could be inferred that the AI process was incapable of altering those metabolic components on animals that were inseminated. Still, we can affirm that artificial insemination cannot be categorized as a negative reproduction tool on animal welfare. However, the containment and management procedures for AI may alter the metabolic profile of cows, especially the increase of CK.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se o processo de inseminação artificial (IA) caracterizado como imobilização do animal, passagem do aplicador de sêmen pelo colo do útero e deposição do sêmen no útero, afetou o bem-estar de bovinos. Para tanto, foram selecionadas 18 vacas de corte paridas, divididas em dois grupos: grupo de animais inseminados (AIG, n = 9) e grupo de animais não inseminados, grupo controle (GC, n = 9). Foram avaliados o escore de condição corporal, útero e ovário. Posteriormente, ambos os grupos foram submetidos a um protocolo de sincronização de cio e apenas o grupo AIG foi inseminado. Componentes metabólicos como ureia, creatinina, AST, GGT, CK, glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, NEFA, BHB, cortisol, estradiol, progesterona, albumina e proteína total foram mensurados 30 horas antes da IA e 4, 24, 48 e 168 horas após a IA. Diferenças estatísticas foram consideradas quando P <0,05. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os dois grupos, por outro lado, quando o momento da inseminação foi avaliado, diferenças foram observadas para ureia, creatinina, AST, GGT, CK, glicose, triglicerídeos, NEFA, BHB, albumina e proteína total. Houve uma variação dos perfis metabólicos em função do tempo e dos procedimentos que os animais foram submetidos, embora pode-se inferir que o processo de IA não foi capaz de alterar esses componentes metabólicos os animais inseminados. Ainda assim, observou-se que o processo de IA não foi categorizado como uma ferramenta negativa de reprodução com relação ao bem-estar animal. Porém, ainda assim, os procedimentos de contenção e manejo da IA podem alterar o perfil metabólico das vacas, principalmente o aumento da CK.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Animal Welfare , Cattle/embryology , Insemination, Artificial/veterinary , Human-Animal Interaction , Metabolism
19.
Repert.Med.Cir ; 30(3): 219-255, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362933

ABSTRACT

Introducción: revisión narrativa que explica el panorama actual de la hipocalcemia y el hipoparatiroidismo como complicaciones de la tiroidectomía, su diagnóstico y tratamiento; con una descripción de las nuevas estrategias de prevención y tratamiento. Métodos: los motores de búsqueda utilizados fueron PubMed, Clinical Key, Embase, Cochrane y Lilacs, se incluyeron referencias en español e inglés, publicadas entre 2016 y 2020. Los artículos seleccionados se revisaron utilizando CONSORT, STROBE o PRISMA, según el caso. Resultados: fueron seleccionados 35 artículos que tenían relación directa con el tema, entre ellos: metanálisis, revisiones sistemáticas, estudios prospectivos y observacionales, revisiones narrativas y consensos de expertos, procedentes de los cinco continentes. La hipocalcemia y el hipotiroidismo en sus dos formas se relacionan con la afectación de la vascularización de las glándulas paratiroides o su exérecis accidental, existiendo factores predisponentes propios del paciente, derivados de la técnica quirúrgica o la característica patológica de la lesión en el tiroides. Como estrategias de prevención disponemos de herramientas ópticas para definir en el perioperatorio la disposición de las paratiroides; además existe la posibilidad de autotrasplantarlas al identificarlas en la pieza anatómica. El mejor marcador del estado metabólico del calcio es la PTHi. Conclusiones: la preservación de las paratiroides y de su irrigación es la mejor estrategia para prevenir los trastornos posoperatorios del calcio


Introduction: narrative review explaining the current picture of hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism as complications of thyroidectomy, describing new strategies employed for their diagnosis and treatment. Methods: searches in the PubMed, Clinical Key, Embase, Cochrane and Lilacs databases; references in Spanish and English, published between 2016 and 2020 were included. The selected articles were reviewed using CONSORT, STROBE or PRISMA, as appropriate. Results: 35 articles directly related with the topic were selected, including meta-analyses, systematic reviews, prospective and observational studies, narrative reviews and expert consensus, on all five continents. The two forms of hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism can result from devascularization or accidental removal of the parathyroid glands, patient-specific factors, or from the surgical technique or the pathological characteristics of the thyroid lesion. Preventive strategies include the use of optical tools for preoperative determination of parathyroid glands location; as well as the possibility of autotransplantation after confirming parathyroid tissue in the biopsy specimen. The best marker of calcium metabolism is iPTH. Conclusions: preservation of the parathyroid glands and their irrigation is the best strategy to prevent postoperative calcium disorders.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Hypocalcemia , Hypoparathyroidism , Metabolism , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms , Neck/surgery
20.
Ciencia Tecnología y Salud ; 8(2): 211-219, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1353114

ABSTRACT

El proyecto HapMap ha generado información y preguntas sobre la diversidad genética en las distintas poblaciones del mundo. En las últimas décadas, proyectos como la elucidación del genoma del mestizo mexicano han revelado las distancias genéticas entre mestizos y amerindios en México. Cerca de 20 genes son actualmente estudiados en paneles comerciales asociados al metabolismo de fármacos, uno de ellos el gen que expresa la enzima CY P2C19, la cual metaboliza cerca de 26 fármacos de importancia clínica. El objetivo fue revisar la literatura científica en Google Scholar, PubMed y ScienceDirect que reporta resultados sobre estudios farmacogenéticos en Guatemala, otros que presentan hallazgos sobre distancias genéticas en el guatemalteco y se compara con lo que se conoce de otras poblaciones del continente y el mundo, haciendo énfasis en CY P2C19. El mestizaje en Guatemala fue único, por ello es importante investigar sus variantes alélicas asociadas al metabolismo de fármacos, para permitir una terapéutica más efectiva y segura que mejore la calidad de vida del guatemalteco.


The HapMap project has generated information and queries about genetic diversity in the different populations around the world. In recent decades, research projects such as the elucidation of the genome of the Mexican Mestizo, have exposed the genetic distances between mestizos and Amerindians in Mexico. About 20 genes are currently studied in commercial panels associated with drug metabolism. One of them CY P2C19, that expresses the CY P2C19 enzyme, that metabolizes about 26 drugs of clinical importance. The objective was to review the scientific literature in Google Scholar, PubMed and ScienceDirect that reports results on pharmacogenetic studies in Guatemala, others that presented findings over genetic distances in Guatemala, as well as a comparison with the knowledge about other populations of the continent and world, with emphasis in CY P2C19 gen. Miscegenation in Guatemala was unique and is important to investigate the Guatemalan allelic variants associated with drug metabolism to allow a more effective and safe therapeutic and improve their quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacogenetics , Cytochrome P450 Family 19 , American Native Continental Ancestry Group/genetics , Pharmacogenomic Testing , Guatemala , Metabolism/drug effects
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