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1.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1535004

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the salivary metabolites profile of Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types I, II, IV, and VI patients. Material and Methods: The participants were asked to refrain from eating and drinking for one hour before sampling, performed between 7:30 and 9:00 a.m. Samples were centrifuged at 10.000 × g for 60 min at 4°C, and the supernatants (500µl) were stored at −80°C until NMR analysis. The salivary proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectra were acquired in a 500 MHz spectrometer, and TOCSY experiments were used to confirm and assign metabolites. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results: Differences in salivary metabolites were found among MPS types and the control, such as lactate, propionate, alanine, and N-acetyl sugar. Understanding these metabolite changes may contribute to precision medicine and early detection of mucopolysaccharidosis and its monitoring. Conclusion: The composition of low molecular weight salivary metabolites of mucopolysaccharidosis subjects may present specific features compared to healthy controls.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Saliva , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/instrumentation , Mucopolysaccharidoses/pathology , Metabolomics , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/instrumentation , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods
2.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 521-528, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985522

ABSTRACT

Identifying risk factors of the disease are one of the main tasks of epidemiology. With the advancement of omics technologies (e.g., genome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and exposome), cancer etiology research has entered the stage of systems epidemiology. Genomic research identifies cancer susceptibility loci and uncovers their biological mechanisms. Exposomic research investigates the impact of environmental factors on biological processes and disease risks. The metabolome is downstream of biological regulatory networks, reflecting the effects of the gene, environment, and their interactions, which can help elucidate the biological mechanisms of genetic and environmental risk factors and identify new biomarkers. Here, we reviewed the applications of genomic, exposomic, and metabolomic studies in the etiologic research on cancer. We summarized the importance of multi-omics approaches and systems epidemiology in cancer etiology research and outlined future perspectives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiomics , Genomics , Metabolomics , Neoplasms/genetics , Biomarkers
3.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 722-730, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984710

ABSTRACT

Objective: To reveal the similarities and differences in myocardial metabolic characteristics between heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) mice using metabolomics. Methods: The experimental mice were divided into 4 groups, including control, HFpEF, sham and HFrEF groups (10 mice in each group). High fat diet and Nω-nitroarginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) were applied to construct a"two-hit"HFpEF mouse model. Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery was used to construct the HFrEF mouse model. The differential expression of metabolites in the myocardium of HFpEF and HFrEF mice was detected by untargeted metabolomics (UHPLC-QE-MS). Variable importance in projection>1 and P<0.05 were used as criteria to screen and classify the differentially expressed metabolites between the mice models. KEGG functional enrichment and pathway impact analysis demonstrated significantly altered metabolic pathways in both HFpEF and HFrEF mice. Results: One hundred and nine differentially expressed metabolites were detected in HFpEF mice, and 270 differentially expressed metabolites were detected in HFrEF mice. Compared with the control group, the most significantly changed metabolite in HFpEF mice was glycerophospholipids, while HFrEF mice presented with the largest proportion of carboxylic acids and their derivatives. KEGG enrichment and pathway impact analysis showed that the differentially expressed metabolites in HFpEF mice were mainly enriched in pathways such as biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, ether lipid metabolism, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism and arginine and proline metabolism. The differentially expressed metabolites in HFrEF mice were mainly enriched in arginine and proline metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, glycerophospholipid metabolism, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism, etc. Conclusions: HFpEF mice have a significantly different myocardial metabolite expression profile compared with HFrEF mice. In addition, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism and arginine and proline metabolism are significantly altered in both HFpEF and HFrEF mice, suggesting that these metabolic pathways may play an important role in disease progression in both types of heart failure.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Heart Failure/metabolism , Stroke Volume , Chromatography, Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Metabolomics , Arachidonic Acids , Proline
4.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 596-600, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009392

ABSTRACT

Wound age estimation is the core content in the practice of forensic medicine. Accurate estimation of wound age is a scientific question that needs to be urgently solved by forensic scientists at home and abroad. Metabolomics techniques can effectively detect endogenous metabolites produced by internal or external stimulating factors and describe the dynamic changes of metabolites in vivo. It has the advantages of strong operability, high detection efficiency and accurate quantitative results. Machine learning algorithm has special advantages in processing high-dimensional data sets, which can effectively mine biological information and truly reflect the physiological, disease or injury state of the body. It is a new technical means for efficiently processing high-throughput big data. This paper reviews the status and advantages of metabolomic techniques combined with machine learning algorithm in the research of wound age estimation, and provides new ideas for this research.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Machine Learning , Forensic Medicine , Metabolomics , Big Data
5.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 373-381, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009368

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of primary brain stem injury (PBSI) by using metabonomics method to observe the changes of metabolites in rats with PBSI caused death.@*METHODS@#PBSI, non-brain stem brain injury and decapitation rat models were established, and metabolic maps of brain stem were obtained by LC-MS metabonomics method and annotated to the HMDB database. Partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and random forest methods were used to screen potential biomarkers associated with PBSI diagnosis.@*RESULTS@#Eighty-six potential metabolic markers associated with PBSI were screened by PLS-DA. They were modeled and predicted by random forest algorithm with an accuracy rate of 83.3%. The 818 metabolic markers annotated to HMDB database were used for random forest modeling and prediction, and the accuracy rate was 88.9%. According to the importance in the identification of cause of death, the most important metabolic markers that were significantly up-regulated in PBSI group were HMDB0038126 (genipinic acid, GA), HMDB0013272 (N-lauroylglycine), HMDB0005199 [(R)-salsolinol] and HMDB0013645 (N,N-dimethylsphingosine).@*CONCLUSIONS@#GA, N-lauroylglycine, (R)-salsolinol and N,N-dimethylsphingosine are expected to be important metabolite indicators in the diagnosis of PBSI caused death, thus providing clues for forensic medicine practice.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Metabolomics/methods , Brain Injuries , Biomarkers/metabolism , Brain Stem/metabolism
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6730-6739, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008871

ABSTRACT

This article analyzed the mechanism of Danggui Sini Decoction(DSD) in improving kidney injury caused by blood stasis syndrome(BSS) in rats. Firstly, 32 female SD rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: a normal group and a BSS group, both receiving an equal amount of distilled water by gavage; a normal+DSD group and a BSS+DSD group, both receiving 5.103 g·kg~(-1) DSD orally for a total of 14 days. Daily cold water bath was given to establish the BSS model, and on the 14th day, BSS rats were subcutaneously injected with 0.8 mg·kg~(-1) adrenaline. Normal rats were subjected to the water bath at 37 ℃ and injected with an equal volume of distilled water. After the experiment, 24-hour urine, serum, and kidney samples were collected for metabolomic analysis, biochemical measurements, and hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The study then employed ~1H-NMR metabolomic technology to reveal the metabolic network regulated by DSD in improving BSS-induced kidney injury and used network pharmacology to preliminarily elucidate the key targets of the effectiveness of DSD. Pathological and biochemical analysis showed that DSD intervention significantly reduced inflammation and abnormal levels of blood creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and urine protein in the kidneys. Metabolomic analysis indicated that DSD attenuated BSS-induced kidney injury primarily by regulating 10 differential metabolites and three major metabolic pathways(taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, citrate cycle, and acetaldehyde and dicarboxylic acid metabolism). Network pharmacology analysis suggested that the protective effect of DSD against BSS-induced kidney injury might be related to two key genes, ATP citrate lyase(ACLY) and nitric oxide synthase 2(NOS2), and two main metabolic pathways, i.e., arginine biosynthesis, and arginine and proline metabolism. This study, from the perspective of network regulation, provides initial insights and evidence into the mechanism of DSD in improving kidney injury induced by BSS, offering a basis for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms underlying its efficacy.


Subject(s)
Rats , Female , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Network Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Metabolomics , Kidney , Arginine , Water
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6663-6675, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008864

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the effects of different processed products of Polygonati Rhizoma(black bean-processed Polygonati Rhizoma, BBPR; stewed Polygonati Rhizoma, SPR) on the urinary metabolites in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease(AD). Sixty SPF-grade male SD rats were randomized into a control group, a model group, a donepezil group, a BBPR group, and a SPR group, with twelve rats in each group. Other groups except the control group were administrated with D-galactose injection(100 mg·kg~(-1)) once a day for seven weeks. The control group was administrated with an equal volume of normal saline once a day for seven consecutive weeks. After three weeks of D-galactose injection, bilateral hippocampal Aβ_(25-35) injections were performed for modeling. The rats were administrated with corresponding drugs(10 mL·kg~(-1)) by gavage since week 2, and the rats in the model and control group with an equal volume of double distilled water once a day for 35 continuous days. The memory behaviour and pathological changes in the hippocampal tissue were observed. The untargeted metabolites in the urine were detected by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q/TOF-MS). Principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were employed to characterize and screen differential metabolites and potential biomarkers, for which the metabolic pathway enrichment analysis was conducted. The results indicated that BBPR and SPR increased the new object recognition index, shortened the escape latency, and increased the times of crossing the platform of AD rats in the Morris water maze test. The results of hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining showed that the cells in the hippocampal tissue of the drug administration groups were closely arranged. Moreover, the drugs reduced the content of interleukin-6(IL-6, P<0.01) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in the hippocampal tissue, which were more obvious in the BBPR group(P<0.05). After screening, 15 potential biomarkers were identified, involving two metabolic pathways: dicoumarol pathway and piroxicam pathway. BBPR and SPR may alleviate AD by regulating the metabolism of dicoumarol and piroxicam.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Dicumarol , Galactose , Piroxicam , Metabolomics/methods , Biomarkers/urine
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6164-6172, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008815

ABSTRACT

This study used nasal lavage fluid for metabolomics to explore its feasibility, and applied it to the clinical metabolomics study of Xiaoqinglong Decoction in the treatment of allergic rhinitis(AR), aiming to investigate the molecular mechanism of Xiaoqing-long Decoction in the treatment of AR through differential changes in local nasal metabolism. AR patients were selected as the research subjects, and nasal lavage fluid was collected as the sample. Metabolomics analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed on normal group, AR group, and Xiaoqinglong Decoction group. The differences in metabolic profiles among the groups were compared using principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis, and differential metabolites were identified and subjected to corresponding metabolic pathway analysis. The results showed that Xiaoqinglong Decoction significantly improved the symptoms of AR patients. The metabolomics analysis revealed 20 differential metabolites between AR group and Xiaoqinglong Decoction group. The core metabolite with a trending return in comparison to normal group was trimethyladipic acid. The metabolites were involved in multiple pathways, including β-alanine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis. The feasibility of applying nasal lavage fluid in nasal metabolomics was preliminarily demonstrated. Differential metabolites and enriched pathways in the treatment of AR patients with Xiaoqinglong Decoction were identified, indicating that it may improve rhinitis symptoms through the regulation of various metabolites, including antioxidant effects and correction of Th1/Th2 imbalance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nasal Lavage Fluid , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Metabolomics/methods , Metabolome
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5898-5907, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008788

ABSTRACT

This study aims to reveal the endogenous metabolic characteristics of acteoside in the young rat model of purinomycin aminonucleoside nephropathy(PAN) by non-targeted urine metabolomics and decipher the potential mechanism of action. Biochemical indicators in the urine of rats from each group were determined by an automatic biochemical analyzer. The potential biomarkers and related core metabolic pathways were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry(UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS) combined with principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA). MetaboAnalyst 5.0 was used to establish the receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve for evaluating the clinical diagnostic performance of core metabolites. The results showed that acteoside significantly decreased urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio in PAN young rats. A total of 17 differential metabolites were screened out by non-targeted urine metabolomics in PAN young rats and they were involved in phenylalanine metabolism and phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis. Thirtten differential metabolites were screened by acteoside intervention in PAN young rats, and they were involved in phenylalanine metabolism and arginine and proline metabolism. Among them, leucylproline and acetophenone were the differential metabolites that were significantly recovered after acteoside treatment. These pathways suggest that acteoside treats PAN in young rats by regulating amino acid metabolism. The area under the curve of two core biomarkers, leucylproline and acetophenone, were both greater than 0.9. In summary, acteoside may restore amino acid metabolism by regulating endogenous differential metabolites in PAN young rats, which will help to clarify the mechanism of acteoside in treating chronic glomerulonephritis in children. The characteristic biomarkers screened out have a high diagnostic value for evaluating the treatment of chronic glomerulonephritis in children with acteoside.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Rats , Animals , Puromycin Aminonucleoside , Metabolomics/methods , Biomarkers/urine , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Acetophenones , Glomerulonephritis , Phenylalanine , Amino Acids
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5632-5640, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008760

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of Xihuang Pills in improving hyperplasia of mammary gland(HMG) in rats based on urine metabolomics using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS). The HMG rat model was established by intramuscular injection of estradiol benzoate solution(0.5 mg·kg~(-1), 25 days) followed by progesterone injection(5 mg·kg~(-1), 5 days). UPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS technology was used to establish the endogenous small-molecule metabolic profiles in urine samples of rats in the blank group, the HMG model group, and Xihuang Pills group. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed for pattern recognition, t test and variable importance in the projection(VIP) were used to screen potential biomarkers. The significantly changed differential metabolites were identified using the online database Human Metabolome Database(HMDB). Metabolic pathway enrichment analysis was conducted using the MetaboAnalyst 5.0 database. The results showed that 90 differential metabolites with significant changes(P<0.05) were identified between the blank group and the HMG model group using the HMDB. Among them, 48 metabolites significantly reverted(P<0.05) after administration of Xihuang Pills, which may be related to the regulatory effect of Xihuang Pills. Thirteen metabolic pathways significantly associated with HMG were identified when the differential metabolites were imported into the MetaboAnalyst 5.0 database, and Xihuang Pills could modulate seven of these pathways. These metabolic pathways mainly involved histidine metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, β-alanine metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, and amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism. This study utilized UPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS and urine metabolomics technology to analyze the mechanism of Xihuang Pills in improving HMG, laying the foundation for further in-depth research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rats , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Hyperplasia , Metabolomics/methods , Metabolome , Biomarkers/urine
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5623-5631, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008759

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effects of Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction on myocardial metabolites in a rat model of coronary heart disease with heart blood stasis syndrome and explored the therapeutic mechanism of blood circulation-promoting and blood stasis-removing therapy. SD rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group, a Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction group(14.04 g·kg~(-1)), and a trimetazidine group(5.4 mg·kg~(-1)). The sham operation group underwent thread insertion without ligation, while the other groups underwent coronary artery left anterior descending branch ligation to induce a model of coronary heart disease with heart blood stasis syndrome. Three days after modeling, drug intervention was performed, and samples were taken after 14 days of intervention. General conditions were observed, and electrocardiogram and cardiac ultrasound indices were measured. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and Masson staining were used to observe tissue pathological morphology. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to measure the levels of triglyceride(TG) and total cholesterol(TC) in the serum. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-quantitative exactive-mass spectrometry(UHPLC-QE-MS) technology was used to screen differential metabolites in myocardial tissue and conduct metabolic pathway enrichment analysis. The results showed that Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction significantly improved the general condition of the model rats, reduced heart rate and ST segment elevation in the electrocardiogram, increased left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) and left ventricular fractional shortening(LVFS), and decreased left ventricular internal diameter in diastole(LVIDd) and left ventricular internal diameter in systole(LVIDs). HE staining and Masson staining showed that Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction effectively alleviated myocardial tissue structural disorders, inflammatory cell infiltration, and collagen fiber deposition in the model rats. ELISA results showed that Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction effectively regulated serum TG and TC levels in the model rats. There were significant differences in the metabolic phenotypes of myocardial samples in each group. Fourteen differential metabolites were identified in the Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction group, involving five metabolic pathways, including arginine and proline metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, ether lipid metabolism, and alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism. Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction improved cardiac function and myocardial structural damage in the rat model of coronary heart disease with heart blood stasis syndrome, and its biological mechanism involved the regulation of lipid metabolism, choline metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, and protein synthesis pathways.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Stroke Volume , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ventricular Function, Left , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Metabolomics
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5345-5355, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008732

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the effect of Buyang Huanwu Decoction(BYHWD) on endogenous biomarkers in the urine of rats with chronic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide(LPS) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), aiming to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of BYHWD on chronic inflammation from a metabolomics perspective. Male SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, and low-, medium-, and high-dose BYHWD groups(7.5, 15, and 30 g·kg~(-1)). The model group and BYHWD groups received tail intravenous injection of LPS(200 μg·kg~(-1)) on the first day of each week, followed by oral administration of BYHWD once a day for four consecutive weeks. Urine samples were collected at the end of the administration period, and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to analyze the metabolic profiles of the rat urine in each group. Multivariate statistical analysis methods such as principal component analysis(PCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis(PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were used to analyze the effect of BYHWD on endogenous metabolites. One-way ANOVA and variable importance for the projection(VIP) were used to screen for potential biomarkers related to chronic inflammation. The identified biomarkers were subjected to pathway and enrichment analysis using MetaboAnalyst 5.0. A total of 25 potential biomarkers were screened and identified in the rat urine in this experiment. Compared with the normal group, the model group showed significant increases in the levels of 14 substances(P<0.05) and significant decreases in the levels of 11 substances(P<0.05). BYHWD was able to effectively reverse the trend of most endogenous biomarkers. Compared with the model group, BYHWD significantly down-regulated 13 biomarkers(P<0.05) and up-regulated 10 biomarkers(P<0.05). The metabolic products were mainly related to the biosynthesis of pantothenic acid and coenzyme A, tryptophan metabolism, retinol metabolism, and propionate metabolism. BYHWD has therapeutic effect on chronic inflammation induced by LPS, which may be related to its ability to improve the levels of endogenous metabolites, enhance the body's anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capabilities, and restore normal metabolic activity.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Lipopolysaccharides , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Metabolomics/methods , Inflammation/drug therapy , Biomarkers/urine
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4747-4760, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008642

ABSTRACT

In this study, untargeted metabolomics was conducted using the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS) technique to analyze the potential biomarkers in the plasma of mice with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction(HFpEF) induced by a high-fat diet(HFD) and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor(Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, L-NAME) and explore the pharmacological effects and mechanism of Jiming Powder in improving HFpEF. Male C57BL/6N mice aged eight weeks were randomly assigned to a control group, a model group, an empagliflozin(10 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) group, and high-and low-dose Jiming Powder(14.3 and 7.15 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) groups. Mice in the control group were fed on a low-fat diet, and mice in the model group and groups with drug intervention were fed on a high-fat diet. All mice had free access to water, with water in the model group and Jiming Powder groups being supplemented with L-NAME(0.5 g·L~(-1)). Drugs were administered on the first day of modeling, and 15 weeks later, blood pressure and cardiac function of the mice in each group were measured. Heart tissues were collected for hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining to observe pathological changes and Masson's staining to observe myocardial collagen deposition. Untargeted metabolomics analysis was performed on the plasma collected from mice in each group, and metabolic pathway analysis was conducted using MetaboAnalyst 5.0. The results showed that the blood pressure was significantly lower and the myocardial concentric hypertrophy and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction were significantly improved in both the high-dose and low-dose Jiming Powder groups as compared with those in the model group. HE and Masson staining showed that both high-dose and low-dose Jiming Powder significantly alleviated myocardial fibrosis. In the metabolomics experiment, 23 potential biomarkers were identified and eight strongly correlated metabolic pathways were enriched, including linoleic acid metabolism, histidine metabolism, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, purine metabolism, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and pyrimidine metabolism. The study confirmed the pharmacological effects of Jiming Powder in lowering blood pressure and ameliorating HFpEF and revealed the mechanism of Jiming Powder using the metabolomics technique, providing experimental evidence for the clinical application of Jiming Powder in treating HFpEF and a new perspective for advancing and developing TCM therapy for HFpEF.


Subject(s)
Male , Mice , Animals , Heart Failure/metabolism , Powders , Stroke Volume/physiology , Chromatography, Liquid , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Metabolomics , Biomarkers , Water
14.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1111-1115, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010915

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is caused by a variety of diseases, which leads to acute renal function decline, azotemia, water and electrolyte disorders and acid-base balance disorders. Metabolomics is a research method that can quantitatively analyze all metabolites in an organism and find the relative relationship between metabolites and physiological and pathological changes. In recent years, several metabolites screened based on metabolomics have been proposed as potential biomarkers to assess the early development and prognosis of AKI and for the discovery of unknown potential therapeutic targets. Based on metabolomics, this paper reviews the risk prediction, early diagnosis, disease monitoring, prognosis assessment and the application of corresponding drugs for AKI, so as to provide reference for precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Metabolomics , Prognosis , Biomarkers , Precision Medicine
15.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 323-332, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982704

ABSTRACT

Pharmacodynamics material basis and effective mechanisms are the two main issues to decipher the mechnisms of action of Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) for the treatment of diseases. TCMs, in "multi-component, multi-target, multi-pathway" paradigm, show satisfactory clinical results in complex diseases. New ideas and methods are urgently needed to explain the complex interactions between TCMs and diseases. Network pharmacology (NP) provides a novel paradigm to uncover and visualize the underlying interaction networks of TCMs against multifactorial diseases. The development and application of NP has promoted the safety, efficacy, and mechanism investigations of TCMs, which then reinforces the credibility and popularity of TCMs. The current organ-centricity of medicine and the "one disease-one target-one drug" dogma obstruct the understanding of complex diseases and the development of effective drugs. Therefore, more attentions should be paid to shift from "phenotype and symptom" to "endotype and cause" in understanding and redefining current diseases. In the past two decades, with the advent of advanced and intelligent technologies (such as metabolomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, single-cell omics, and artificial intelligence), NP has been improved and deeply implemented, and presented its great value and potential as the next drug-discovery paradigm. NP is developed to cure causal mechanisms instead of treating symptoms. This review briefly summarizes the recent research progress on NP application in TCMs for efficacy research, mechanism elucidation, target prediction, safety evaluation, drug repurposing, and drug design.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Network Pharmacology , Artificial Intelligence , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Metabolomics
16.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 308-320, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982702

ABSTRACT

Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai is a well-known medicinal plant. However, the optimal harvest time for V. coloratum is unknown. Few studies were performed to analyze compound variation during storage and to improve post-harvest quality control. Our study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the quality of V. coloratum in different growth stages, and determine the dynamic variation of metabolites. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify 29 compounds in V. coloratum harvested in six growth periods, and the associated biosynthetic pathways were explored. The accumulation of different types of compounds were analyzed based on their synthesis pathways. Grey relational analysis was used to evaluate the quality of V. coloratum across different months. The compound variation during storage was analyzed by a high-temperature high-humidity accelerated test. The results showed that the quality of V. coloratum was the hightest in March, followed by November, and became the lowest in July. During storage, compounds in downstream steps of the biosynthesis pathway were first degraded to produce the upstream compounds and some low-molecular-weight organic acids, leading to an increase followed by a decrease in the content of some compounds, and resulted in a large gap during the degradation time course among different compounds. Due to the rapid rate and large degree of degradation, five compounds were tentatively designated as "early warning components" for quality control. This report provides reference for better understanding the biosynthesis and degradation of metabolites in V. coloratum and lays a theoretical foundation for rational application of V. coloratum and better quality control of V. coloratum during storage.


Subject(s)
Viscum/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid , Mass Spectrometry , Metabolomics
17.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 795-808, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy occurring in middle and old age. MM is still an incurable disease due to its frequent recurrence and drug resistance. However, its pathogenesis is still unclear. Abnormal amino acid metabolism is one of the important characteristics of MM, and the important metabolic pathway of amino acids participates in protein synthesis as basic raw materials. Aminoacyl transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase (ARS) gene is a key regulatory gene in protein synthesis. This study aims to explore the molecular mechanism for ARS, a key factor of amino acid metabolism, in regulating amino acid metabolism in MM and affecting MM growth.@*METHODS@#The corresponding gene number was combined with the gene expression profile GSE5900 dataset and GSE2658 dataset in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to standardize the gene expression data of ARS. GSEA_4.2.0 software was used to analyze the difference of gene enrichment between healthy donors (HD) and MM patients in GEO database. GraphPad Prism 7 was used to draw heat maps and perform data analysis. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression model were used to analyze the expression of ARS gene and the prognosis of MM patients, respectively. Bone marrow samples from 7 newly diagnosed MM patients were collected, CD138+ and CD138- cells were obtained by using CD138 antibody magnetic beads, and the expression of ARS in MM clinical samples was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Human B lymphocyte GM12878 cells and human MM cell lines ARP1, NCI-H929, OCI-MY5, U266, RPMI 8266, OPM-2, JJN-3, KMS11, MM1.s cells were selected as the study objects. The expression of ARS in MM cell lines was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviruses were used to construct gene knock-out plasmids (VARS-sh group). No-load plasmids (scramble group) and gene knock-out plasmids (VARS-sh group) were transfected into HEK 293T cells with for virus packaging, respectively. Stable expression cell lines were established by infecting ARP1 and OCI-MY5 cells, and the effects of knockout valyl-tRNA synthetase (VARS) gene on proliferation and apoptosis of MM cells were detected by cell counting and flow cytometry, respectively. GEO data were divided into a high expression group and a low expression group according to the expression of VARS. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to explore the downstream pathways affected by VARS. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to detect the valine content in CD138+ cells and ARP1, OCI-MY5 cells and supernatant of knockdown VARS gene in bone marrow samples from patients, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Gene enrichment analysis showed that tRNA processing related genes were significantly enriched in MM compared with HD (P<0.0001). Further screening of tRNA processing-pathway related subsets revealed that cytoplasmic aminoacyl tRNA synthetase family genes were significantly enriched in MM (P<0.0001). The results of gene expression heat map showed that the ARS family genes except alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS), arginyl-tRNA synthetase (RARS), seryl-tRNA synthetase (SARS) in GEO data were highly expressed in MM (all P<0.01). With the development of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to MM, the gene expression level was increased gradually. Kaplan-Meier univariate analysis of survival results showed that there were significant differences in the prognosis of MM patients in methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MARS), asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (NARS) and VARS between the high expression group and the low expression group (all P<0.05). Cox regression model multivariate analysis showed that the high expression of VARS was associated with abnormal overall survival time of MM (HR=1.83, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.06, P=0.021). The high expression of NARS (HR=0.90, 95% CI 0.34 to 2.38) and MARS (HR=1.59, 95% CI 0.73 to 3.50) had no effect on the overall survival time of MM patients (both P>0.05). Real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that VARS, MARS and NARS were highly expressed in CD138+ MM cells and MM cell lines of clinical patients (all P<0.05). Cell counting and flow cytometry results showed that the proliferation of MM cells by knockout VARS was significantly inhibited (P<0.01), the proportion of apoptosis was significantly increased (P<0.05). Bioinformatics analysis showed that in addition to several pathways including the cell cycle regulated by VARS, the valine, leucine and isoleucine catabolic pathways were upregulated. Non-targeted metabolomics data showed reduced valine content in CD138+ tumor cells in MM patients compared to HD (P<0.05). HPLC results showed that compared with the scramble group, the intracellular and medium supernatant content of ARP1 cells and the medium supernatant of OCI-MY5 in the VARS-shRNA group was increased (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#MM patients with abnormal high expression of VARS have a poor prognosis. VARS promotes the malignant growth of MM cells by affecting the regulation of valine metabolism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Valine-tRNA Ligase , Multiple Myeloma/genetics , Metabolomics , Amino Acids , RNA, Transfer
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1805-1816, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007562

ABSTRACT

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with significant physical and psychological burdens. The interplay between the innate and adaptive immune systems is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis; however, the details of the pathogenesis remain unclear. In addition, reliable biomarkers for diagnosis, assessment of disease activity, and monitoring of therapeutic response are limited. Metabolomics is an emerging science that can be used to identify and analyze low molecular weight molecules in biological systems. During the past decade, metabolomics has been widely used in psoriasis research, and substantial progress has been made. This review summarizes and discusses studies that applied metabolomics to psoriatic disease. These studies have identified dysregulation of amino acids, carnitines, fatty acids, lipids, and carbohydrates in psoriasis. The results from these studies have advanced our understanding of: (1) the molecular mechanisms of psoriasis pathogenesis; (2) diagnosis of psoriasis and assessment of disease activity; (3) the mechanism of treatment and how to monitor treatment response; and (4) the link between psoriasis and comorbid diseases. We discuss common research strategies and progress in the application of metabolomics to psoriasis, as well as emerging trends and future directions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Skin/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Metabolomics/methods
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3922-3933, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981525

ABSTRACT

Through the non-targeted metabolomics study of endogenous substances in the liver and serum of hyperlipidemia rats, the biomarkers related to abnormal lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia rats were found, and the target of ginsenoside Rb_1 in improving hyperlipidemia was explored and its mechanism was elucidated. The content of serum biochemical indexes of rats in each group was detected by the automatic biochemical analyzer. The metabolite profiles of liver tissues and serum of rats were analyzed by HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were used to compare and analyze the metabolic data in the normal group, the hyperlipidemia group, and the ginsenoside Rb_1 group, and screen potential biomar-kers. The related metabolic pathways were further constructed by KEGG database analysis. The results showed that hyperlipemia induced dyslipidemia in rats, which was alleviated by ginsenoside Rb_1. The non-targeted metabolomics results showed that there were 297 differential metabolites in the liver tissues of hyperlipidemia rats, 294 differential metabolites in the serum samples, and 560 diffe-rential metabolites in the hyperlipidemia rats treated by ginsenoside Rb_1. Perillic acid and N-ornithyl-L-taurine were common metabolites in the liver and serum samples, which could be used as potential biomarkers for ginsenoside Rb_1 in the improvement of hyperlipidemia. As revealed by pathway enrichment in the liver and serum, ginsenoside Rb_1 could participate in the metabolic pathway of choline in both the liver and serum. In addition, ginsenoside Rb_1 also participated in the ABC transporter, alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamate metabolism, protein digestion and absorption, β-alanine metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, caffeine metabolism, valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism, and methionine and cysteine metabolism to improve dyslipidemia in rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Metabolome , Ginsenosides/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Metabolomics/methods , Liver/metabolism , Biomarkers , Taurine
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3612-3622, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981492

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the effect of Bletilla striata polysaccharide(BSP) on endogenous metabolites in serum of tumor-bearing mice treated with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU) by untargeted metabolomics techniques and explore the mechanism of BSP in alleviating the toxic and side effects induced by 5-FU. Male BALB/C mice were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a 5-FU group, and a 5-FU + BSP group, with eight mice in each group. Mouse colon cancer cells(CT26) were transplanted into the mice except for those in the normal group to construct the tumor-bearing mouse model by subcutaneous injection, and 5-FU chemotherapy and BSP treatment were carried out from the second day of modeling. The changes in body weight, diarrhea, and white blood cell count in the peripheral blood were recorded. The mice were sacrificed and sampled when the tumor weight of mice in the model group reached approximately 1 g. TUNEL staining was used to detect the cell apoptosis in the small intestine of each group. The proportions of hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitor cells in bone marrow were measured by flow cytometry. Five serum samples were selected randomly from each group for untargeted metabolomics analysis. The results showed that BSP was not effective in inhibiting colon cancer in mice, but diarrhea, leukopenia, and weight loss caused by 5-FU chemotherapy were significantly improved after BSP intervention. In addition, apoptotic cells decreased in the small intestinal tissues and the percentages of hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitor cells in bone marrow were significantly higher after BSP treatment. Metabolomics results showed that the toxic and side effects of 5-FU resulted in significant decrease in 29 metabolites and significant increase in 22 metabolites in mouse serum. Among them, 19 disordered metabolites showed a return to normal levels in the 5-FU+BSP group. The results of pathway enrichment indicated that metabolic pathways mainly involved pyrimidine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and steroid hormone biosynthesis. Therefore, BSP may ameliorate the toxic and side effects of 5-FU in the intestinal tract and bone marrow presumably by regulating nucleotide synthesis, inflammatory damage, and hormone production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Diarrhea , Fluorouracil/adverse effects , Hormones , Metabolomics , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Polysaccharides/pharmacology
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