Abstract Soil quality is usually determined by its physical-chemical characteristics without taking into account the bacterial communities that play a fundamental role in the chemical decomposition of plant nutrients. In this context, the objective of the study was to evaluate bacterial diversity in high Andean grassland soils disturbed with Lepidium meyenii cultivation under different gradients of use (first, second and third use) and crop development (pre-sowing, hypocotyl development and post-harvest). The sampling was carried out in the Bombón plateau in the central Andes of Peru, during the rainy and low water seasons, by the systematic method based on a specific pattern assigned in a geometric rectangular shape at a depth of 0 - 20 cm. The characterization of the bacterial communities was carried out through the metagenomic sequencing of the 16S rRNA. 376 families of bacteria were reported, of which it was determined that there was a significant change in bacterial composition and distribution in relation to use pressure. There were no major changes due to the development of Lepidium meyenii. The families most sensitive to use pressure and soil poverty indicators were Verrucomicrobiaceae, Acidobacteraceae and Aakkermansiaceae.
Resumo A qualidade do solo é normalmente determinada pelas suas características físico-químicas sem ter em conta as comunidades bacterianas que desempenham um papel fundamental na decomposição química dos nutrientes das plantas. Neste contexto, o objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a diversidade bacteriana em solos de prados andinos elevados perturbados pelo cultivo de Lepidium meyenii sob diferentes gradientes de utilização (primeira, segunda e terceira utilizações) e desenvolvimento das culturas (pré-semeadura, desenvolvimento do hipocótilo e pós-colheita). A amostragem foi realizada no planalto de Bombón, nos Andes centrais do Peru, durante as estações das chuvas e das águas baixas, pelo método sistemático baseado num padrão específico atribuído em forma geométrica retangular a uma profundidade de 0 - 20 cm. A caracterização das comunidades bacterianas foi realizada através da sequenciação metagenômica do rRNA 16S. Foram relatadas 376 famílias de bactérias, das quais se verificou uma alteração significativa na composição e distribuição bacteriana em relação à pressão de utilização. Não se registaram grandes alterações devido ao desenvolvimento do Lepidium meyenii. As famílias mais sensíveis à utilização de indicadores de pressão e pobreza do solo foram as Verrucomicrobiaceae, Acidobacteraceae e Aakkermansiaceae.
Subject(s)Lepidium/genetics , Peru , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Grassland , Metagenomics
OBJECTIVES@#To study the application value of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in children with severe infectious diseases.@*METHODS@#An analysis was performed on the clinical data and laboratory test results of 29 children with severe infection who were admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from June 2018 to December 2020. Conventional pathogen culture was performed for the 29 specimens (27 peripheral blood specimens and 2 pleural effusion specimens) from the 29 children, and mNGS pathogen detection was performed at the same time.@*RESULTS@#Among the 29 children, 2 tested positive by conventional pathogen culture with 2 strains of pathogen, and the detection rate was 7% (2/29); however, 20 children tested positive by mNGS with 38 strains of pathogen, and the detection rate was 69% (20/29). The pathogen detection rate of mNGS was significantly higher than that of conventional pathogen culture (P<0.05), and mNGS could detect the viruses, fungi, and other special pathogens that conventional pathogen culture failed to detect, such as Orientia tsutsugamushi. The univariate analysis showed that gender, routine blood test results, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, D-dimer, radiological findings, and whether antibiotics were used before admission did not affect the results of mNGS (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with conventional pathogen culture, mNGS is more sensitive for pathogen detection, with fewer interference factors. Therefore, it is a better pathogenic diagnosis method for severe infectious diseases in children.
Subject(s)Anti-Bacterial Agents , Child , Communicable Diseases , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Metagenomics/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
Infectious diseases are commonly seen in clinical practice, and pathogen diagnosis is the key link in diagnosis and treatment; however, conventional pathogen detection methods cannot meet clinical needs due to time-consuming operation and low positive rate. As a new pathogen detection method, metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has a wide detection range and can detect bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, rare pathogens, and even unknown pathogens. The technique of mNGS is unbiased and can rapidly, efficiently, and accurately obtain all nucleic acid information in test samples, analyze pathogens, and guide clinical diagnosis and treatment, thereby playing an important role in complicated infectious diseases. This article reviews the diagnostic advantages and clinical value of mNGS in bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections.
Subject(s)Bacteria , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Metagenomics/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
OBJECTIVES@#To study the application value of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) for pathogen detection in childhood agranulocytosis with fever.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the mNGS results of pathogen detection of 116 children with agranulocytosis with fever who were treated from January 2020 to December 2021. Among these children, 38 children with negative mNGS results were enrolled as the negative group, and 78 children with positive results were divided into a bacteria group (n=22), a fungal group (n=23), and a viral group (n=31). Clinical data were compared between groups.@*RESULTS@#For the 116 children with agranulocytosis and fever, the median age was 8 years at diagnosis, the median turnaround time of mNGS results was 2 days, and the positive rate of mNGS testing was 67.2% (78/116). Compared with the negative group, the bacterial group had a higher procalcitonin level (P<0.05), the fungal group had higher level of C-reactive protein and positive rate of (1,3)-β-D glucan test/galactomannan test (P<0.05), and the fungal group had a longer duration of fever (P<0.05). Among the 22 positive microbial culture specimens, 9 (41%) were consistent with the mNGS results. Among the 17 positive blood culture specimens, 8 (47%) were consistent with the mNGS results. Treatment was adjusted for 28 children (36%) with the mNGS results, among whom 26 were cured and discharged.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The mNGS technique has a shorter turnaround time and a higher sensitivity for pathogen detection and can provide evidence for the pathogenic diagnosis of children with agranulocytosis and fever.
Subject(s)Agranulocytosis/diagnosis , Bacteria , Child , Fever/diagnosis , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Metagenomics/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
This paper reported a case of severe Chlamydia psittaci pneumonia. The patient had a clear history of contact with sick poultry. The clinical manifestations were dry cough, fever and respiratory failure. Chest CT showed consolidation in the lower lobe of the right lung, and a small amount of exudative ground-glass opacity in the left lung. Chlamydia psittaci was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by metagenomic assay. After treatment with antibiotics such as nitroimidazoles and carbapenems, the patient was discharged with a better health condition.
Subject(s)Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Chlamydophila psittaci , Humans , Metagenomics , Pneumonia , Psittacosis/drug therapy
BACKGROUND: Lignocellulose is considered a renewable organic material, but the industrial production of biofuel from lignocellulose is challenging because of the lack of highly active hydrolytic enzymes. The guts of herbivores contain many symbiotic microorganisms that have evolved to hydrolyze plant lignocellulose. Chinese bamboo rats mainly consume high-fiber foods, indicating that some members of the intestinal tract microbiota digest lignocellulose, providing these rats with the energy required for growth. RESULTS: Here, we used metagenomics to analyze the diversity and functions of the gut microbiota in Chinese bamboo rats. We identified abundant populations of lignocellulose-degrading bacteria, whose main functions involved carbohydrate, amino acid, and nucleic acid metabolism. We also found 587 carbohydrate-active enzyme genes belonging to different families, including 7 carbohydrate esterase families and 21 glycoside hydrolase families. The glycoside hydrolase 3, glycoside hydrolase 1, glycoside hydrolase 43, carbohydrate esterase 4, carbohydrate esterase 1, and carbohydrate esterase 3 families demonstrated outstanding performance. CONCLUSIONS: The microbes and enzymes identified in our study expand the existing arsenal of proficient degraders and enzymes for lignocellulosic biofuel production. This study also describes a powerful approach for targeting gut microbes and enzymes in numerous industries.
Subject(s)Animals , Rats , Cecum/enzymology , Enzymes/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Cecum/microbiology , Cellulose/metabolism , Bacteroidetes , Biofuels , Metagenomics , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
SUMMARY: The insectivorous bat Myotis chiloensis is endemic of South America. Even though potentially pathogenic bacterial species of Mycoplasma have been reported from this species, there are no further studies regarding the bacterial communities they harbor. This may provide important insights for the better understanding of its ecology, diet and implications in cross-species pathogens transmission. Here we report a first survey on bacterial communities of M. chiloensis based on metagenomic analysis of fecal samples. We found that taxonomic profile is dominated by Proteobacteria (23.7 to 57.7 %) and Firmicutes (11.8 to 61.6 %), which main families are represented by Burkholderiaceae- Enterobacteriaceae and Veillonellaceae-Bacillaceae, respectively. Phyla Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria were also present with abundance above 1 % of the total reads. Variations among individuals could be observed at genus level and no significant differences were found between sex groups regarding taxonomic profiles and diversity. Potentially pathogenic species were also detected in all the samples, including Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium perfringens. Our results highlight the significance M. chiloensis as a reservoir of pathogenic bacteria and its microbiota as an interesting ecological model due to its wide distribution. Further metagenomic studies are necessary for a better understanding of M. chiloensis diet and its host-symbiont relationships.
RESUMEN: El murciélago insectívoro Myotis chiloensis es endémico de América del Sur. A pesar de que en esta especie se han reportado bacterias potencialmente patógenas tipo Mycoplasma, no existen estudios sobre sus comunidades bacterianas, lo cual podría proporcionar información importante para una mejor comprensión de su ecología, dieta e implicaciones en la transmisión de patógenos. En el presente trabajo se realiza una descripción de las comunidades bacterianas del murciélago M. chiloensis basada en análisis metagenómico de muestras fecales. El perfil taxonómico encontradofue dominado por Proteobacterias (23,7-57,7 %) y Firmicutes (11,8-61,6 %), cuyas principales familias fueron representadas por Burkholderiaceae-Enterobacteriaceae y Veillonellaceae-Bacillaceae, respectivamente. También se encontraron los filos Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes y Acidobacteria con una abundancia superior al 1 %. Se observaron variaciones entre los individuos a nivel de género, sin diferencias significativas de los perfiles taxonómicos y diversidad según sexo. Se detectaron especies potencialmente patógenas en todas las muestras, entre ellos Staphylococcus aureus y Clostridium perfringens. Nuestros resultados destacan la importancia de M. chiloensis como un reservorio de bacterias patógenas y el estudio de su microbiota como un modelo ecológico debido a su amplia distribución. Más estudios metagenómicos son necesarios para comprender la dieta de M. chiloensis y sus relaciones huésped-simbionte.
Subject(s)Animals , Chiroptera , Feces/microbiology , Manure/microbiology , Chile , Metagenomics , Microbiota
ABSTRACT This report shows the contribution of next-generation metagenomic sequencing (mNGS) as an alternative to challenging diagnostic infection in immunosuppressed individuals. Herein, we report three acute leukemia patients who developed severe invasive infections due to different etiologies: fungi, viruses, and protozoa. mNGS improved the diagnosis of the infections and provided the opportunity for adequate therapy. The mNGS is a hypothesis-free diagnostic platform, increasing potential in challenging diseases in hematological patients due to the extended diagnostic panel and the expedite access to the result.
Subject(s)Humans , Leukemia , Communicable Diseases , Metagenomics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Fungi
Subject(s)Humans , Microbiota , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Aquatic Microorganisms , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Metagenomics
Due to the special geographical location and the complex ecosystem types, plateau wetlands play important ecological roles in water supply, greenhouse gas regulation and biodiversity preservation. Napahai plateau wetland is a special wetland type with low latitude and high altitude, and its microbial diversity was rarely studied. The diversity of microbial communities in the Napahai plateau wetland was analyzed using metagenomics method. Among the microbes detected, 184 phyla, 3 262 genera and 24 260 species belong to the bacterial domain, 13 phyla and 32 genera belong to the archaeal domain, and 13 phyla and 47 genera belong to the fungal domain. Significant differences in species diversity between soil and water were observed. Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were dominant phyla in soil, while Proteobacteria and Bacteroides were dominant phyla in water. Since the carbon and nitrogen metabolism genes were abundant, the pathways of carbon fixation and nitrogen metabolism were analyzed. Calvin cycle, reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle and 3-hydroxypropionic acid cycle were the main carbon fixation pathways, while Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Crenarchaeota were the main carbon-fixing bacteria group. As for the nitrogen cycle, nitrogen fixation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction were dominant in water, while nitrification and denitrification were dominant in soil. Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota contributed to the nitrogen cycle. The study on microbial diversity of Napahai plateau wetlands provides new knowledge for the comprehensive management and protection of wetland environment in China.
Subject(s)Carbon , Ecosystem , Metagenomics , Nitrogen , Soil Microbiology , Wetlands
OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to compare and analyze the consistency and difference between metageno-mic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and conventional bacterial culture in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms in maxillofacial space infection, as well as to provide a new detection method for the early clinical identification of pathogenic bacteria in maxillofacial space infection.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 16 patients with oral and maxillofacial space infections in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from March 2020 to June 2020 were collected. mNGS and conventional bacterial culture methods were used to detect pus. We then analyzed and compared the test results of the two methods, including the test cycle, positive detection rate, anaerobic bacteria, facultative anaerobes and aerobic bacteria detection rates, distribution of pathogenic bacteria, relative species abundance, and resistance genes.@*RESULTS@#The average inspection period of mNGS was (18.81±3.73) h, and the average inspection period of bacterial culture was (83.25±11.64) h, the former was shorter than the latter (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with conventional bacterial culture, mNGS has the characteristics of short test time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy. Thus, it is a new detection method for the early identification of pathogenic bacteria in maxillofacial space infection and is beneficial to the early clinical diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
Subject(s)Bacteria/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Metagenomics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Technology
La metagenómica en el estudio de los ecosistemas bacterianos intestinales ha permitido definir un perfil genético funcional estándar en el recién nacido, de forma que un ecosistema bacteriano será tanto más "normal" cuanto más se parezca su perfil genético funcional a un estándar. El desarrollo de determinado enterotipo funcional en los primeros días de vida tras el parto es fundamental para que tenga lugar el cebado del sistema inmunológico con determinados antígenos bacterianos. Independientemente de si las primeras bacterias intestinales se adquieren antes o justo después del parto, la microbiota del recién nacido va a ser el resultado de una situación de simbiosis con la flora microbiana de su entorno, en especial, con la flora bacteriana de su madre. El tipo de parto, la administración de antibióticos perinatales, el entorno y la exposición nutricional, en especial, la lactancia materna, han demostrado relacionarse de forma importante con el microbioma intestinal predominante
The use of metagenomics in the study of gut bacterial ecosystems has helped to define a standard, functional genetic profile in newborn infants, so that a bacterial ecosystem will be deemed more "normal" the more similar its functional genetic profile is to a standard. The development of a specific functional enterotype in the first days of life after birth is critical for the priming of the immune system with certain bacterial antigens.Regardless of whether the first gut bacteria are acquired before or just after birth, the newborn microbiota will result from the symbiosis with the environmental microbial flora, especially with the bacterial flora of the mother. The type of delivery, the administration of perinatal antibiotics, the environment, and nutritional exposure, especially breastfeeding, have demonstrated an important relationship with the prevalent gut microbiome
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Microbiota , Bacteria , Breast Feeding , Parturition , Metagenomics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Infant Health
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, microbial genome sequencing has been restrained to the species grown in pure culture. The development of culture-independent techniques over the last decade allows scientists to sequence microbial communities directly from environmental samples. Metagenomics is the study of complex genome by the isolation of DNA of the whole community. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of metagenomic DNA gives information about the microbial and taxonomical characterization of a particular niche. The objective of the present research is to study the microbial and taxonomical characterization of the metagenomic DNA, isolated from the frozen soil sample of a glacier in the north western Himalayas through NGS. RESULTS: The glacier community comprised of 16 phyla with the representation of members belonging to Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The number of genes annotated through the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), GO, Pfam, Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs), and FIG databases were generated by COGNIZER. The annotation of genes assigned in each group from the metagenomics data through COG database and the number of genes annotated in different pathways through KEGG database were reported. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that the glacier soil taken in the present study, harbors taxonomically and metabolically diverse communities. The major bacterial group present in the niche is Proteobacteria followed by Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, etc. Different genes were annotated through COG and KEGG databases that integrate genomic, chemical, and systemic functional information.
Subject(s)Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/classification , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Microbiota/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cold Climate , Computational Biology , Ice Cover , Metagenomics , Genome, Microbial , India
Se estima que aproximadamente 100 trillones de microorganismos (incluidos bacterias, virus y hongos) residen en el intestino humano adulto y que el total del material genético del microbioma es 100 veces superior al del genoma humano. Esta comunidad, conocida como microbioma se adquiere al momento del nacimiento a través de la flora comensal de la piel, vagina y heces de la madre y se mantiene relativamente estable a partir de los dos años desempeñando un papel crítico tanto en el estado de salud como en la enfermedad. El desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías, como los secuenciadores de próxima generación (NGS), permiten actualmente realizar un estudio mucho más preciso de ella que en décadas pasadas cuando se limitaba a su cultivo. Si bien esto ha llevado a un crecimiento exponencial en las publicaciones, los datos sobre las poblaciones Latinoamérica son casi inexistentes. La investigación traslacional en microbioma (InTraMic) es una de las líneas que se desarrollan en el Instituto de Medicina Traslacional e Ingeniería Biomédica (IMTIB). Esta se inició en 2018 con la línea de cáncer colorrectal (CCR) en una colaboración con el Colorectal Cancer Research Group del Leeds Institute of Medical Research en el proyecto Large bowel microbiome disease network: Creation of a proof of principle exemplar in colorectal cancer across three continents. A fines de 2019 se cumplió el objetivo de comprobar la factibilidad de la recolección, envío y análisis de muestras de MBF en 5 continentes, incluyendo muestras provenientes de la Argentina, Chile, India y Vietnam. Luego de haber participado de capacitaciones en Inglaterra, se ha cumplido con el objetivo de la etapa piloto, logrando efectivizar la recolección, envío y análisis metagenómico a partir de la secuenciación de la región V4 del ARNr 16S. En 2019, la línea de enfermedad de hígado graso no alcohólico se sumó a la InTraMic iniciando una caracterización piloto en el marco de una colaboración con el laboratorio Novartis. Los resultados de ese estudio, así como el de cáncer colorrectal, están siendo enviados a publicación. En 2020, con la incorporación de la línea de trasplante alogénico de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas, fue presentado un proyecto para un subsidio del CONICET que ha superado la primera etapa de evaluación. En el presente artículo se brinda una actualización sobre la caracterización taxonómica de microbioma y se describen las líneas de investigación en curso. (AU)
It is estimated that approximately 100 trillion microorganisms (including bacteria, viruses, and fungi) reside in the adult human intestine, and that the total genetic material of the microbiome is 100 times greater than that of the human genome. This community, known as the microbiome, is acquired at birth through the commensal flora of the mother's skin, vagina, and feces and remains relatively stable after two years, playing a critical role in both the state of health and in disease. The development of new technologies, such as next-generation sequencers (NGS), currently allow for a much more precise study of it than in past decades when it was limited to cultivation. Although this has led to exponential growth in publications, data on Latin American populations is almost non-existent. Translational research in microbiome (InTraMic) is one of the lines developed at the Instituto de Medicina Traslacional e Ingeniería Biomédica (IMTIB). This started in 2018 with the Colorectal Cancer Line (CRC) in a collaboration with the Colorectal Cancer Research Group of the Leeds Institute of Medical Research in the project "Large bowel microbiome disease network: Creation of a proof of principle exemplar in colorectal cancer across three continents". At the end of 2019, the objective of verifying the feasibility of collecting, sending and analyzing MBF samples on 5 continents, including samples from Argentina, Chile, India and Vietnam, was met. After having participated in training in England, the objective of the pilot stage has been met, achieving the collection, delivery and metagenomic analysis from the sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA. In 2019, the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease line joined InTraMic, initiating a pilot characterization in the framework of a collaboration with the Novartis laboratory. The results of that study, as well as that of colorectal cancer, are being published. In 2020, with the incorporation of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation line, a project was presented for a grant from the CONICET that has passed the first stage of evaluation. This article provides an update on the taxonomic characterization of the microbiome and describes the lines of ongoing research. (AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Translational Research, Biomedical/organization & administration , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Transplantation, Homologous , Vietnam , Aztreonam/therapeutic use , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/microbiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Classification/methods , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Metagenomics , Translational Research, Biomedical/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/trends , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/microbiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , India , Latin America , Occult Blood
Strain is the fundamental unit in microbial taxonomy. The functional diversity among strains has great influence on host phenotypes. With the development of microbiome research, knowing the composition and functional capacities of complex microbial communities at the strain level has become increasingly valuable in scientific research and clinical applications. This review introduces the principles of bioinformatics algorithms for strain analysis based on metagenomic data, the applications in microbiome research and directions of future development.
Subject(s)Algorithms , Computational Biology , Metagenome , Metagenomics , Microbiota/genetics
Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) could be used for pathogen detection from nearly all types of clinical samples. Especially, the unique diagnostic capability of pathogen mNGS detecting unknown causative agent of infectious diseases makes this method become an importation complement and irreplaceable component for conventional routine laboratory test. However, the complexity of the testing process, the rapid product update, and the insufficiency in quality control and evaluation methods that all make clinical transformation, industry development, and regulation of this technology full of challenge and uncertainty. This review briefly introduces the technical advantages and challenges, and describes the general workflow and quality control steps in details. Finally, it focuses on current considerations regarding quality evaluation methods and standards for pathogen mNGS.
Subject(s)Communicable Diseases , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Metagenome , Metagenomics , Quality Control
Virome is the collective term for the viral collection or viral metagenomes that are distributed in various environments. Viruses can be found in bodies of water, glaciers, plants, animals, and even some viruses, which are classified as eukaryotes, prokaryotes and subviruses. Viruses play very important role in maintaining environmental homeostasis and ecosystem balance, and are especially closely related to human health. In recent years, with the advancement of sequencing technology and data analysis, we are able to gain more insights into the virome and explore its potential role in the ecological niche by metagenomic sequencing. A large amount of viral data have been obtained from glaciers, oceans, and various plants and animals, and numerous unknown viruses have been discovered. Virome has been studied mainly through metagenomic data mining, as well as virus-like particles separation and enrichment. To date, several different methods for viral isolation and enrichment exist, and numerous bioinformatic analyses of the virome have been performed. However, there is a lack of specific and complete reviews on the enrichment and data analysis methods for the virome. Thus, our review will summarize viral isolation and enrichment methods and data analysis, and present some of the landmark research conducted by the enrichment method, to provide a reference for researchers of interest and further advance the field of virome research.
Subject(s)Animals , Humans , Metagenome , Metagenomics , Microbiota/genetics , Virome , Viruses/genetics
Metagenomic sequencing provides a powerful tool for microbial research. However, traditional experimental DNA extraction process will inevitably mix with environmental microorganisms which float in the air. It is still unclear whether the mixed environmental microbial DNA will heavily affect the metagenomic results of samples with extremely low microbial content. In this study, we first collected environmental bacteria in the laboratory and quantified the mixed environmental microbial DNA content during DNA extraction based on a qPCR-based quantification assay. We then extracted DNA from pure water in order to determine the mixed microbial taxons during extraction under open environment. At last, we extracted total DNA from a skin sample in a Biosafety cabinet or under open laboratory environment, to assess the impact of the mixed environmental microorganisms on the metagenomic results. Our results showed that DNA extraction under open laboratory environment in Beijing region resulted in 28.9 pg contaminant, which may accout for 30% of total DNA amount from skin samples. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the main incorporated environmental taxons were Cutibacterium acnes and Escherichia coli. Tens of environmental bacteria were foisted in the skin DNA samples, which largely decreased the relative abundance of dominant species and thus deteriorated the result accuracy. Therefore, analyzing microbial composition of samples with extremely low DNA content should better performed under aseptic environment.
Subject(s)DNA , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Laboratories , Metagenomics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Sequence Analysis, DNA
Background: Microbial community analysis of electronic waste (e-waste)-polluted environments is of interest to understand the effect of toxic e-waste pollutants on the soil microbial community and to evaluate novel microorganisms resisting the toxic environment. The present study aims to investigate the bacterial community structure in soils contaminated with e-waste from various sites of Loni and Mandoli (National Capital Region (NCR), India) where e-waste dumping and recycling activities are being carried out for many years. Results: Interferences to soil metagenomic DNA extraction and PCR amplification were observed because of the presence of inhibiting components derived from circuit boards. Whole-metagenome sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform showed that the most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Deltaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were the most common classes under Proteobacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene showed that e-waste contamination altered the soil bacterial composition and diversity. There was a decrease in the number of predominant bacterial groups like Proteobacteria and Firmicutes but emergence of Actinobacteria in the contaminated soil samples. Conclusions: This is the first report describing the bacterial community structure of composite soil samples of ewaste-contaminated sites of Loni and Mandoli, Delhi NCR, India. The findings indicate that novel bacteria with potential bioremediating properties may be present in the e-waste-contaminated sites and hence need to be evaluated further.
Subject(s)Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/genetics , Electronic Waste/analysis , Soil Pollutants , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Metals, Heavy , Proteobacteria/isolation & purification , Metagenomics , Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis , Microbiota , Firmicutes/isolation & purification , India
The modern era of microbial genome analysis began in earnest in the 2000s with the generalization of metagenomics and gene sequencing techniques. Studying complex microbial community such as oral cavity and colon by a pure culture is considerably ineffective in terms of cost and time. Therefore, various techniques for genomic analysis have been developed to overcome the limitation of the culture method and to explore microbial communities existing in the natural environment at the gene level. Among these, DNA fingerprinting analysis and microarray chip have been used extensively; however, the most recent method of analysis is metagenomics. The study summarily examined the overview of metagenomics analysis techniques, as well as domestic and foreign studies on disease genomics and cluster analysis related to oral metagenome. The composition of oral bacteria also varies across different individuals, and it would become possible to analyze what change occurs in the human body depending on the activity of bacteria living in the oral cavity and what causality it has with diseases. Identification, isolation, metabolism, and presence of functional genes of microorganisms are being identified for correlation analysis based on oral microbial genome sequencing. For precise diagnosis and treatment of diseases based on microbiome, greater effort is needed for finding not only the causative microorganisms, but also indicators at gene level. Up to now, oral microbial studies have mostly involved metagenomics, but if metatranscriptomic, metaproteomic, and metabolomic approaches can be taken together for assessment of microbial genes and proteins that are expressed under specific conditions, then doing so can be more helpful for gaining comprehensive understanding.