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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339410


Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.

RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.

Animals , Female , Oligochaeta , Soil Pollutants , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Cadmium , Cattle , Bioaccumulation
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249641, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339363


Abstract Estuaries receive daily inputs of chemical elements which can impact the quality of water and sediment, as well as the health of biota. In addition to the sediment, bivalve mollusks have been used in the chemical monitoring of these systems. This study investigated the presence and contents of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in superficial sediment and in bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae and Mytella guyanensis) from estuaries in the south / extreme south of Bahia State, northeast Brazil. The samples were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Except for Cd, all other elements were found in the samples, being that Co was exclusive in the sediment. The estuaries equivalent to sampling stations #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus and #4 - Belmonte showed levels of metals compatibles with those established by the Brazilian legislation, however, the #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, in addition to the presence of As, presented a high level of Pb and Cu in C. gasar, which was attributed to the impacts of nautical activities in that locality.

Resumo Estuários recebem entradas diárias de elementos químicos, que podem impactar a qualidade de água e do sedimento, assim como a saúde da biota. Além do sedimento, moluscos bivalves têm sido utilizados no monitoramento químico desses sistemas. Neste estudo investigou-se a presença e os teores de As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn no sedimento superficial e em bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae e Mytella guyanensis) de estuários do sul / extremo sul do estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil. As amostras foram avaliadas por espectrometria de emissão óptica de plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Exceto Cd, todos os demais elementos foram encontrados nas amostras, sendo que Co foi exclusivo no sedimento. Os estuários equivalentes às estações amostrais #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus e #4 - Belmonte mostraram níveis de metais compatíveis com os estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, porém, a #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, além da presença de As, apresentou alto nível de Pb e de Cu em C. gasar, o que foi atribuído aos impactos por atividades náuticas nesse local.

Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Bivalvia , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Estuaries , Geologic Sediments
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242536, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339356


Abstract Chromium (VI) a highly toxic metal, a major constituent of industrial waste. It is continuously release in soil and water, causes environmental and health related issues, which is increasing public concern in developing countries like Pakistan. The basic aim of this study was isolation and screening of chromium resistant bacteria from industrial waste collected from Korangi and Lyari, Karachi (24˚52ʹ46.0ʺN 66˚59ʹ25.7ʺE and 24˚48ʹ37.5ʺN 67˚06ʹ52.6ʺE). Among total of 53 isolated strains, seven bacterial strains were selected through selective enrichment and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics. These strains were designated as S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 and S48, resistance was determined against varying concentrations of chromium (100-1500 mg/l). Two bacterial strains S35 and S48 showed maximum resistance to chromium (1600 mg/l). Bacterial strains S35 and S48 were identified through 16S rRNA sequence and showed 99% similarity to Bacillus paranthracis and Bacillus paramycoides. Furthermore, growth condition including temperature and pH were optimized for both bacterial strains, showed maximum growth at temperature 30ºC and at optimum pH 7.5 and 6.5 respectively. It is concluded that indigenous bacterial strains isolated from metal contaminated industrial effluent use their innate ability to transform toxic heavy metals to less or nontoxic form and can offer an effective tool for monitoring heavy metal contamination in the environment.

Resumo O cromo (VI), metal altamente tóxico, é um dos principais constituintes dos resíduos industriais. É liberado no solo e na água, causa problemas ambientais e de saúde de crescente preocupação pública em países em desenvolvimento como o Paquistão. O objetivo básico deste estudo foi o isolamento e a triagem de bactérias resistentes ao cromo de resíduos industriais coletados em Korangi e Lyari, Karachi (24˚52'46,0"N 66˚59'25,7"E e 24˚48'37,5"N 67˚06'52,6"E). Do total de 53 cepas isoladas, sete cepas bacterianas foram selecionadas por enriquecimento seletivo e identificadas com base em características morfológicas e bioquímicas. Essas cepas foram designadas como S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 e S48, apresentaram alta resistência aos metais contra concentrações variáveis (100-1500 mg / l) de cromo. Já as cepas S35 e S48 foram identificadas por meio da sequência 16S rRNA e apresentaram 99% de similaridade com Bacillus paranthracis e Bacillus paramycoides. Além disso, as condições de crescimento incluindo temperatura e pH foram otimizadas e ambas as cepas bacterianas apresentaram crescimento máximo na temperatura de 30 ºC, enquanto seu pH ótimo foi observado em 7,5 e 6,5, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o potencial de resistência dessas bactérias resistentes ao cromo pode ser efetivamente utilizado na remoção de cromo de efluentes industriais contaminados. Técnicas de base biológica usando bactérias ajudarão a fornecer métodos mais baratos e ecológicos de remoção, recuperação e desintoxicação de cromo.

Chromium , Metals, Heavy , Bacillus , Bacteria/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Industrial Waste/analysis
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243633, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249273


Abstract Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc:

Resumo A truta das neves (Schizothorax plagiostomus) é um peixe de água doce economicamente importante, encontrado principalmente nas áreas ao norte de reservatórios de água do Paquistão. O presente estudo foi realizado em River Swat para analisar a bioacumulação de metais pesados (Pb, Cr, Ni e Zn) em tecidos de Schizothorax plagiostomus. Os tecidos foram extraídos e dissolvidos em ácido perclórico (HClO4) e ácido nítrico (HNO3) com placa de aquecimento. Os metais pesados zinco (Zn), chumbo (Pb), cromo (Cr) e níquel (Ni) foram determinados usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica Perkin Elmer 2380. Os resultados mostram grande variação no conteúdo do metal relacionado ao tipo de tecido e locais de amostragem. Uma alta concentração de bioacumulação foi relatada em Charbagh, enquanto a mais baixa, em Odigram: Charbagh > Landakai > Odigram. Da mesma forma, Cr foi o metal pesado mais acumulado, seguido por Pb, Ni e Zn.

Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Cyprinidae , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Pakistan , Environmental Monitoring , Rivers , Bioaccumulation
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e230147, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153479


Abstract Metals and agrochemicals are among the main aquatic contaminants, being able to trigger oxidative stress in exposed organisms. The objective of this work was to evaluate the correlation between the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in Aegla crabs (Crustacea, Anomura) with (i) the set of metals present in the streams sediment and (ii) with land uses of three hydrographic basins. The study was carried out in streams (≤ 2nd order) of hydrographic basins in southern Brazil (Basins of Rio Suzana, Rio Ligeirinho-Leãozinho and Rio Dourado). In these streams were quantified the land uses and Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations in the sediment. The enzymes Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Reductase (GR), as well as the level of membrane lipid peroxidation (TBARS), were analyzed in adult females. The PCA analysis showed that the distribution of metals was different between the basins. Cd, Cr and Fe were correlated positively with CAT and negatively with TBARS and GR. The Dourado basin had the lowest concentrations of these three metals and the highest levels of TBARS. However, in Dourado basin there is predominance of agriculture land use, and TBARS was positively correlated with agricultural land use. Besides in Dourado basin, GR activity was higher than in the others basins, indicating a compensatory response in relation to CAT inhibition. The basins of Suzana and Ligeirinho-Leãozinho rivers had lower TBARS values, which may be due to the induction of CAT in response to metals accumulated in sediment. In summary, this work indicates that in the basins with a higher concentration of toxic metals there is an adaptive response of CAT induction, which reduces TBARS in Aegla. On the other hand, in the basin with lower metallic contamination, TBARS occurrence was primarily influenced by agricultural land use.

Resumo Os metais e agroquímicos estão entre os principais contaminantes aquáticos, podendo desencadear estresse oxidativo em organismos expostos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar uma possível correlação entre o nível de biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo em Aegla (Crustacea, Anomura) com (i) o conjunto de metais presentes no sedimento e (ii) com os usos da terra, em três bacias hidrográficas distintas. O estudo foi realizado em riachos (≤ 2ª ordem) de bacias hidrográficas do Sul do Brasil (Bacias do Rio Suzana, do Rio Ligeirinho-Leãozinho e do Rio Dourado), as quais foram caracterizadas em função do percentual de usos da terra e do nível de Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Mn e Zn no sedimento. As enzimas Catalase (CAT) e Glutationa Redutase (GR), bem como o nível de peroxidação lipídica das membranas (TBARS), foram analisadas em fêmeas adultas. Uma análise de PCA mostrou que a distribuição de metais foi distinta entre as bacias. Cd, Cr e Fe no sedimento correlacionaram positivamente com a CAT e negativamente com TBARS e GR. Entretanto, a bacia do Dourado apresentou os menores níveis destes três metais e os maiores níveis de TBARS, o que pode ser justificado pelo predomínio da agricultura nesta bacia, já que o TBARS correlacionou positivamente com o percentual de uso agrícola. Nesta bacia, a atividade da GR foi mais alta do que nas outras, indicando uma resposta compensatória em relação a inibição da CAT. As bacias do rio Suzana e rio Ligeirinho-Leãozinho apresentaram valores menores de TBARS, o que pode decorrer da indução da CAT em função dos metais acumulados no sedimento. Em síntese, este trabalho indica que nas bacias com maior concentração de metais tóxicos ocorre uma resposta adaptativa de indução da CAT, o que reduz os níveis de TBARS em Aegla. Por outro lado, na bacia com menor contaminação metálica os níveis de TBARS foram primariamente influenciados pelo uso agrícola.

Animals , Female , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Anomura , Brazil , Biomarkers/metabolism , Environmental Monitoring , Oxidative Stress , Rivers , Agriculture
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237604, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285586


Abstract This study goal to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) and silver (Ag) on germination, initial growth and anatomical alterations of Lactuca sativa L. Plants use various mechanisms to reduce the impacts caused by anthropic action, such as xenobiotic elements of soils and water contaminated by heavy metals. These metals were supplied as lead nitrate and silver nitrate and the following treatments were established: control for both metals, maximum dose of heavy metals, for arable soils, allowed by the National Council of the Environment (Ag = 25 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 180 mg. Kg-1), double (Ag = 50 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 360 mg. Kg-1) and triple (Ag = 75 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 540 mg. Kg -1) of this dosage. Vigor and germination tests of the seeds and possible anatomical changes in the leaves and roots of lettuce plants were performed. The species showed a high capacity to germinate under Pb and Ag stress, and the germination was never completely inhibited; however, the germination decreased with increasing Pb concentrations, but not under Ag stress. The use of increasing doses of metals reduced seed vigor and increased chlorophyll content. An increase in biomass was also observed in plants from treatments submitted to Pb. The phytotoxic effects of metals were more pronounced at 15 days after sowing. Anatomically, L. sativa was influenced by metal concentrations, and had a reduction of up to 79.9% in root epidermis thickness at the highest Pb concentration, although some structures did not suffer significant changes. The results suggest that L. sativa presents tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals, showing possible mechanisms to overcome the stress caused by these metals. In this research lettuce possibly used the mechanism of exclusion of metals retaining Pb and Ag in the roots preserving the photosynthetic apparatus in the aerial part of the plants. In general, the chemical element Pb was more toxic than Ag, in these experimental conditions.

Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de chumbo (Pb) e prata (Ag) na germinação, crescimento inicial e alterações anatômicas de Lactuca sativa L. As plantas utilizam vários mecanismos para reduzir os impactos causados pela ação antrópica, como elementos xenobióticos de solos e água contaminada por metais pesados. Esses metais foram fornecidos como nitrato de chumbo e nitrato de prata e foram estabelecidos os seguintes tratamentos: controle para ambos os metais, dose máxima de metais pesados, para solos cultiváveis, permitida pelo Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (Ag = 25 mg.Kg-1, Pb = 180 mg.Kg-1), dobro (Ag = 50 mg.Kg-1, Pb = 360 mg.Kg-1) e triplo (Ag = 75 mg.Kg-1, Pb = 540 mg.Kg -1) desta dosagem. Foram realizados testes de vigor e germinação das sementes e possíveis alterações anatômicas nas folhas e raízes das plantas de alface. A espécie apresentou alta capacidade de germinar sob estresse de Ag e Pb, e a germinação nunca foi completamente inibida; entretanto, a germinação diminuiu com o aumento das concentrações de Pb, mas não sob estresse de Ag. O uso de doses crescentes dos metais, reduziu o vigor das sementes e aumentou o teor de clorofila. Também foi observado aumento da biomassa nas plantas a partir dos tratamentos submetidos ao Pb. Os efeitos fitotóxicos dos metais foram mais acentuados aos 15 dias após a semeadura. Anatomicamente, L. sativa foi influenciada pelas concentrações de metais, e teve uma redução de até 79,9% na espessura da epiderme radicular na maior concentração de Pb, embora algumas estruturas não tenham sofrido alterações significativas. Os resultados sugerem que L. sativa apresenta tolerância a altas concentrações de metais pesados, mostrando possíveis mecanismos para superar o estresse causado por esses metais. Nesta pesquisa a alface possivelmente utilizou o mecanismo de exclusão de metais retendo Pb e Ag nas raízes preservando o aparato fotossintético na parte aérea das plantas. De forma geral o elemento químico Pb se mostrou mais tóxico que Ag, nestas condições experimentais.

Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Silver Nitrate , Soil , Lettuce , Lead/toxicity , Nitrates/toxicity
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246979, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278466


Abstract The influence of pharmaceutical residues and heavy metals on living organisms has received global attention. The present study assessed the interactive effect of antibiotic residues and heavy metals in soil, as contaminated food with cadmium (Cd) and oxytetracycline (OTC) on the isopod Porcellio leavis. It was fed on fresh plant leaves contaminated with different concentrations of cadmium, Cd+OTC1000 ppm, Cd+OTC2000 ppm and Cd+OTC3000 ppm for 4 weeks. The changes in the feeding patterns, protein, lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase activity (CAT), and total free amino acids (TFAA) were recorded. There were significant differences in the obtained results where Cd reduced the egestion ratio (ER) however, OTC enhanced this ratio. Biochemical analysis illustrated that combination between OTC and Cd inhibits the toxic effects of Cd at low concentration (1000 ppm), while at high concentration (3000 ppm) raise the toxicity. Detailed studies are required for further understanding of the interaction between OTC and heavy metals, and also its impact on soil animals and for improving soil risk evaluation.

Resumo A influência de resíduos farmacêuticos e metais pesados ​​em organismos vivos tem recebido atenção global. O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de resíduos de antibióticos e metais pesados ​​no solo, como alimentos contaminados com cádmio (Cd) e oxitetraciclina (OTC), sobre o isópode Porcellio laevis, o qual foi alimentado com folhas frescas de plantas contaminadas com diferentes concentrações de cádmio, Cd + OTC1000 ppm, Cd + OTC2000 ppm e Cd + OTC3000 ppm, por quatro semanas. As mudanças nos padrões de alimentação, proteína, peroxidação lipídica (LPO), atividade da catalase (CAT) e aminoácidos livres totais (TFAA) foram registradas. Houve diferenças significativas nos resultados obtidos, em que o Cd reduziu a taxa de excreção (ER), no entanto o OTC aumentou essa proporção. A análise bioquímica mostrou que a combinação entre OTC e Cd inibe os efeitos tóxicos do Cd em baixa concentração (1.000 ppm), enquanto, em alta concentração (3.000 ppm), aumenta a toxicidade. Estudos detalhados são necessários para uma maior compreensão da interação entre OTC e metais pesados, e seu impacto sobre os animais do solo, bem como para melhorar a avaliação de risco do solo.

Animals , Oxytetracycline/toxicity , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Isopoda , Soil , Cadmium/toxicity
Actual. osteol ; 17(1): [35-44], 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1292117


The masticatory apparatus is a functional unit of the human body, which is mainly responsible for speech, chewing, and swallowing. It is built of bones, joints, ligaments, teeth, and muscles. In addition, the oral cavity and its hard tissues are the first ones to be exposed to exogenous factors during feeding and breathing. The aim of the work was to review the literature of recent years on the toxicology of metals and their possible negative and sometimes positive effects on the metabolism of bones of the masticatory apparatus. In summary, metals commonly found in the environment affect the bones of the masticatory apparatus to varying degrees. Attention should be paid to the sources of individual metals in the environment and to prevent their excessive, unwanted effects on the bones of the masticatory apparatus. (AU)

El aparato masticatorio constituye una unidad funcional del cuerpo humano especializada en la regulación y coordinación de los procesos del habla, la masticación y la deglución. Está constituida por huesos, ligamentos, articulaciones, músculos y dientes. El tejido óseo de la cavidad bucal es el primero en estar expuesto a factores exógenos durante la alimentación y la respiración. El objetivo del presente trabajo es realizar una revisión de lo reportado en la literatura en los últimos años, con respecto a los efectos beneficiosos o nocivos de los metales pesados sobre el metabolismo de los huesos del aparato masticatorio. En resumen, se evidencia que los metales presentes en el medioambiente afectan a estos huesos en diferentes grados. Se debe prestar especial atención a identificar las fuentes de donde provienen estos metales, para prevenir los efectos no deseados sobre el tejido óseo masticatorio generados por una excesiva exposición a ellos. (AU)

Humans , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Stomatognathic System/metabolism , Metals, Heavy , Jaw/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/toxicity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922195


BACKGROUND@#Previous studies have suggested that exposures to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and selenium) may be associated with differences in blood pressure. However, the findings of these studies have been inconsistent. This study was performed to examine the associations between urinary heavy metal concentrations and blood pressure among residents of four Asian countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, and Vietnam).@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study examined 1899 adults in four Asian countries. Urinary concentrations of heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A questionnaire survey was administered regarding individual characteristics. Anthropometric measurements (height and weight) were performed. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured after a short rest. Multiple linear regression models were applied to investigate associations between urinary heavy metal concentrations and blood pressure after adjustments for age, sex, and body mass index.@*RESULTS@#The geometric means of the urinary concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and selenium were 84.6, 0.885, 2.09, and 16.5 μg/g creatinine, respectively. The urinary arsenic concentrations were slightly higher than those typically reported in non-polluted populations, while urinary cadmium, lead, and selenium concentrations were equivalent or slightly lower. The urinary lead concentrations were positively associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but urinary selenium concentrations were negatively associated with them.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Variations in the urinary concentrations of lead and selenium were associated with blood pressure at low levels of exposure/intake.

Adult , Arsenic/urine , Bangladesh , Blood Pressure , Cadmium/urine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Exposure , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Lead/urine , Linear Models , Male , Metals, Heavy/urine , Middle Aged , Nepal , Selenium/urine , Vietnam
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921699


Whitmania pigra is the most widely distributed species of leeches in the market. In this study, the effect of heavy metal lead pollution on the anticoagulant activity of Wh. pigra was studied and the potential mechanism was explored. Pb(NO_3)_2 was used to contaminate the breeding soil which was then used to rear Wh. pigra for 50 days(lead-contaminated group, LC group), and meanwhile the blank control group(CG group) was set. Proteins were extracted from the obtained leech samples, and the differentially expressed proteins between LC and CG groups were analyzed by label-free proteomics technology. In this study, a total of 152 differentially expressed proteins were screened out, of which 93 proteins were up-regulated and 59 proteins were down-regulated in LC group. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the biological processes enriched with the differentially expressed proteins were mainly vesicle-mediated transport and transport positive regulation; the enriched cell components were mainly endocytosis vesicles and apical plasma membrane; the enriched molecular functions mainly included carbohydrate binding. The differentially expressed proteins were enriched in 76 KEGG pathways, which mainly involved metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and bacterial invasion of epithelial cells. In this study, two differentially expressed proteins with Antistasin domain were presumed, which provides reference for further exploring the regulatory mechanism and signal transduction underlying the effect of lead pollution on the anticoagulant activity of leech.

Animals , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Environmental Pollution , Leeches , Metals, Heavy , Proteomics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921631


The effects of four natural organic soil amendments on the quality and pesticide residues of Panax notoginseng were investigated through field experiments and the suitable dosage ratio of each soil amendment was selected to provide a new idea for the pollution-free cultivation of P. notoginseng. The four natural organic soil amendments used in this study were Jishibao, Jihuo, Fudujing, and omnipotent nutrients, which were produced by mixed fermentation of aboveground parts of different plants, biological waste residue, and biochar. During the experiments, only four soil amendments were applied to P. notoginseng instead of any pesticides and fertilizers. The experiment was designed as four factors and three levels. There were three dosage gradients(low, medium, and high) for Jishibao(A), Jihuo(B), Fudujing(C), and omnipotent nutrients(D). When the dosage of one soil amendment changed, the do-sage of the other soil amendments remained medium. There were 10 groups in addition to the soil amendment-free group as control(CK). The results showed that the four soil amendments could significantly improve the growth environment of P. notoginseng and increase the seedling survival rate and saponin content of P. notoginseng. The seedling survival rates of the treatment groups increased by 8.24%-30.05% as compared with the control group. Furthermore, the content of pesticide residues in P. notoginseng was too low to be detected, and that of heavy metals in P. notoginseng was far lower than the specified content in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020). The optimal effect was achieved at medium dosage for all the soil amendments with the highest content of saponins, high seedling survival rate, and significantly reduced heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury.

Arsenic , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Panax notoginseng , Soil , Soil Pollutants/analysis
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3604-3621, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921451


The remediation of heavy-metal (HM) contaminated soil using hyperaccumulators is one of the important solutions to address the inorganic contamination widely occurred worldwide. Hyperaccumulators are able to hyperaccumulate HMs, but their planting, growth, and extraction capacities are greatly affected by HM stress. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhances the function of hyperaccumulators by combining the functional advantages of both, improving the efficiency of remediation, shortening the remediation cycle, and maintaining the stability and persistence of the remediation. Thus, the combined use of AMF with hyperaccumulators has broad prospects for application in the management of increasingly complex and severe HM pollution. This review starts by defining the concept of hyperaccumulators, followed by describing the typical hyperaccumulators that were firstly reported in China as well as those known to form symbioses with AMF. This review provides a systematic and in-depth discussion of the effects of AMF on the growth of hyperaccumulators, as well as the absorption and accumulation of HMs, the effects and mechanism on the hyperaccumulator plus AMF symbiosis to absorb and accumulate HMs. AMF enhances the function of hyperaccumulators on the absorption and accumulation of HMs by regulating the physicochemical and biological conditions in the plant rhizosphere, the situation of elements homeostasis, the physiological metabolism and gene expression. Moreover, the symbiotic systems established by hyperaccumulators plus AMF have the potential to combine their abilities to remediate HMs-contaminated habitat. Finally, challenges for the combined use of remediation technologies for hyperaccumulator plus AMF symbiosis and future directions were prospected.

Biodegradation, Environmental , Metals, Heavy , Mycorrhizae/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Soil Pollutants , Symbiosis
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3020-3030, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921403


P1B-ATPases are a group of proteins that can transport heavy metal ions across membranes by hydrolyzing ATP and they are a subclass of the P-type ATPase family. It was found that P1B-ATPases are mainly responsible for the active transport of heavy metal ions in plants and play an important role in the regulation of heavy metal homeostasis in plants. In this paper, we dissusses the mechanism of P1B-ATPases from the structure and classification of P1B-ATPases, and review the current research progress in the function of P1B-ATPases, in order to provide reference for future research and application of P1B-ATPases in improving crop quality and ecological environment management.

Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism , Biological Transport , Metals, Heavy , Plants/enzymology
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 398-405, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153348


Continuous occurrence of heavy metals is a major cause of environmental pollution due to its toxic effects. At minimum concentrations, these metals are highly reactive and can gather in the food chains and food web, causing major dangers to public health concerns. Soil samples were collected from Paharang drain, Faisalabad. Cadmium tolerant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Cd. The isolated bacterial strain GCFSD01 showed MIC value upto 30 mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Cd was selected for further study. Molecular characterization of bacterial isolate GCFSD01 was performed by 16S rRNA which confirmed it as Bacillus cereus. Optimum growth conditions of bacterial strain were also evaluated. Strain GCFSD01 showed optimum growth at pH 7 and 37 °C temperature. Our result revealed that B. cereus strain GCFSD01 reduced 61.3% Cd after 48 hrs. Multiple metal tolerance and Cd reduction by B. cereus indicate its potential for further use for decontamination of polluted soil.

A ocorrência contínua de metais pesados é uma das principais causas de poluição ambiental devido aos seus efeitos tóxicos. A contaminação por metais pesados representa um grande risco para todas as formas de vida encontradas no meio ambiente. Em concentrações mínimas, esses metais são altamente reativos e podem se acumular nas cadeias alimentares e na cadeia alimentar, causando grandes perigos às preocupações com a saúde pública. Amostras de solo foram coletadas no esgoto de Paharang, Faisalabad. Bactérias tolerantes ao cádmio foram isoladas da amostra coletada pelo método da placa de ágar. As colônias separadas individuais selecionadas foram avaliadas quanto às suas concentrações inibitórias mínimas contra Cd. A cepa bacteriana isolada GCFSD01 apresentou valores de CIM de 30 mM/L. A colônia bacteriana que apresentou maior resistência contra o Cd foi selecionada para identificação. Após seleção da maior colônia bacteriana resistente ao Cd, coloração de Gram e diferentes testes bioquímicos foram realizados para a caracterização da bactéria isolada. A caracterização molecular do isolado bacteriano GCFSD01 foi realizada por PCR 16S rRNA confirmando a presença de Bacillus cereus. Após a identificação molecular, as condições ótimas de crescimento da cepa bacteriana também foram verificadas. A cepa GCFSD01 apresentou crescimento ótimo em pH 7 e temperatura de 37 °C. Nosso resultado revelou que a cepa de B. cereus GCFSD01 reduziu 61,3% de Cd após 48 horas. A tolerância a múltiplos metais e a redução de Cd por B. cereus indicam seu potencial para uso posterior na descontaminação do solo poluído.

Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Bacillus cereus/genetics , Cadmium/toxicity , Industrial Effluents/adverse effects , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2463-2473, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887812


The hydroponic culture test method was used to study the physiological and biochemical responses of Paulownia fortunei seedlings under Zn stress, Cd stress, and combined Zn and Cd stress as well as changes in the enrichment and transfer characteristics of heavy metals. Under single and combined heavy metal stress, the biomass, plant height, and peroxidase (POD) activity of P. fortunei decreased as the treatment concentration increased. Combined Zn and Cd affected adversely plant height and biomass. As the concentration of Zn increased when applied alone, the chlorophyll content and catalase (CAT) activity of P. fortunei first increased and then decreased, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased, and the aboveground malondialdehyde (MDA) content first decreased and then increased. As the concentration of Cd increased when applied alone, chlorophyll content and CAT activity increased, and SOD activity and aboveground MDA content first increased and then decreased. Under both Cd and Zn, the physiological response was more complex. Cd in the seedlings of P. fortunei was concentrated in the root. In contrast, Zn was concentrated in the upper part of the ground, and its transfer coefficient was greater than 1.00. Thus, the addition of Zn promotes the transfer of heavy metals to the above-ground portions of plants. Generally, P. fortunei can effectively promote ecological restoration under complex forms of heavy metal pollution.

Cadmium , Chlorophyll , Metals, Heavy , Plant Roots/chemistry , Seedlings , Soil Pollutants , Stress, Physiological , Superoxide Dismutase , Zinc
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887736


Objective@#This study aimed to assess the risk of cumulative exposure to Pb, Cd, Hg, and iAs through aquatic products consumed by Chinese people.@*Methods@#Heavy metal concentration data were obtained from the national food contamination monitoring program during 2013-2017. Consumption data were derived from the China National Food Consumption Survey in 2014 and the relative potency factor (RPF) method was used to estimate cumulative exposure for neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.@*Results@#The results demonstrated that the cumulative exposure based on neurotoxicity was below the lower confidence limit on benchmark doses of lead (BMDL @*Conclusion@#The cumulative exposures of the 2-6 year-old group to the four heavy metals did not reach (but came close to) the corresponding safety threshold for both neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Given that there are still other food sources of these four heavy metals, it is necessary to more closely study their cumulative health effects.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Arsenic/analysis , Child , Child, Preschool , Dietary Exposure/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Food Contamination/analysis , Humans , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Seafood/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Young Adult
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 823-828, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142532


Abstract This study was conducted to assess water pollution by examining DNA fragmentation in selected fish organs (kidney, liver, gills, and muscle tissue) from Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris, and Labeo rohita collected from a known polluted section of the Chenab River, Pakistan, and from a control site. The fish were caught using a gill net and were assigned to three different weight groups (W1, W2, and W3) to study the degree of variation in DNA fragmentation in relation to body weight. In fish from the polluted site, DNA fragmentation was higher in kidney, liver, gills, and muscles, compared to the control. No significant DNA fragmentation was observed in fish collected from the control site. Highly significant (P < 0.01) relationship between body weight and DNA fragmentation was found in the organs of fish procured at the contaminated site. DNA fragmentation in body organs was found to be affected by the concentrations of lead, copper, nickel, and cadmium in W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita, and V. vulgarus harvested from Chenab River. DNA fragmentation in different freshwater fish species is therefore a reliable biomarker of water pollution.

Resumo Este estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a poluição da água examinando a fragmentação do DNA em órgãos de peixes selecionados (rim, fígado, brânquias e tecido muscular) de Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris e Labeo rohita coletados de uma conhecida área poluída do rio Chenab, Paquistão e de um local de controle. Os peixes foram capturados usando uma rede branquial e foram divididos em três grupos de pesos diferentes (W1, W2 e W3) para estudar o grau de variação na fragmentação do DNA em relação ao peso corporal. Nos peixes do local poluído, a fragmentação do DNA foi maior nos rins, fígado, brânquias e músculos, em comparação ao controle. Não foi observada fragmentação significativa do DNA em peixes coletados no local de controle. Relação altamente significativa (P <0,01) entre o peso corporal e a fragmentação do DNA foi encontrada nos órgãos dos peixes adquiridos no local contaminado. Verificou-se que a fragmentação do DNA nos órgãos do corpo é afetada pelas concentrações de chumbo, cobre, níquel e cádmio em W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita e V. vulgarus colhidos no rio Chenab. A fragmentação do DNA em diferentes espécies de peixes de água doce é, portanto, um biomarcador confiável da poluição da água.

Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Pakistan , Environmental Monitoring , Rivers , DNA Fragmentation , Gills
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 746-754, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139367


Background: The presence of toxic metals in human populations is strongly associated with chronic diseases. Aim: To determine levels of lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury and inorganic arsenic (AsIn) in the general population aged over 5 years in Antofagasta, Chile. Material and Methods: People living in Urban Antofagasta for at least five years were considered eligible. Biological samples were obtained to measure heavy metals. Results: One thousand two hundred three participants with a median age of 43 years (656 women) were studied. Their mean time of residence in the city was 30 years, and 52% smoked. Eight percent of the adult population and 12% of children had AsIn values above 35 µg/L, while 75% of the population had levels below 21.9 µg/L. The other metals were below the risk levels defined by the health authority (10 µg/L for chromium, 10 µg/L for mercury, 2 µg/L for cadmium, 5 and 10 μg/dL for blood lead for children and adults, respectively). The factors associated with high levels of AsIn in adults were male sex, living more than 200 meters from monitoring points, and low schooling. In children, the associated variables were high intake of seafood products and having a caregiver with less than 8 years of schooling. Contrary to expectations, the greatest risk of presenting altered levels of the metals occurred in the population living more than 500 meters from the identified risk sources (90% of the population). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that all potential sources of exposure to AsIn should be evaluated, and surveillance actions should be established to reduce involuntary exposure to this metalloid.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Metals, Heavy/urine , Lead/blood , Chile/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring
Acta amaz ; 50(2): 142-148, abr - jun. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118376


This is the first study to investigate mercury (Hg) contamination in felid species in the Brazilian Amazon. We collected 26 fur samples from wild felids of four species (Puma concolor, Panthera onca, Leopardus pardalis and Leopardus wiedii) occurring in the Mamirauá and Amanã sustainable development reserves, in the state of Amazonas. Samples were from museum specimens, except for five P. onca samples collected from free-living individuals. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.12 to 48.1 µg g-1. Concentrations of Hg did not differ significantly between museum specimens and live individuals of P. onca, but varied significantly among species, with significantly higher concentrations for P. onca and L. pardalis, which could be related to factors such as diet and habitat. (AU)

Metals, Heavy , Bioaccumulation , Mammals , Amazonian Ecosystem , Mercury/toxicity
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 992-1002, 01-05-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147189


The confinement of pigs stands out as a great generator of swine wastewater (SW). The final destination of waste generated is currently a concern of society, since if handled improperly, it can cause serious impacts to the environment. One of the alternatives is the use of SW as a source of nutrients, which are made available to the plants, after the mineralization of organic matter. The objective of this work was to compare soil chemical attributes under two planting arrangements, in single and double lines of Corymbia citriodora. Two experiments were carried out at the Bonsucesso farm, in Uberlândia-MG, the first with C. citriodora in simple lines, with five plants per plot, spacing two meters between plants and 15 meters between rows. The second experiment was with C. citriodora in double lines, with two meters between plants in the line, three meters between lines in the plot and 15 meters between the double lines of C. citriodora. The statistical design was in randomized blocks. The treatments used were five doses of SW (0; 200; 400; 600 and 800 m³ ha-1) with five replicates. The application of SW rates was divided in the dry season, in the months of June, July and August. The chemical characteristics of the soil were evaluated in the 0-20 cm depth layer. Planting on double lines of C. citriodora provided higher soil nutrient contents. The application of swine wastewater raised the levels of potassium and heavy metals such as copper and zinc. The dose of 200 m3ha-1provided adequate levels for most nutrients present in the soil.

O confinamento de suínos destaca-se como grande gerador de águas residuárias de suinocultura (ARS). O destino final de resíduos gerados é atualmente uma preocupação da sociedade, uma vez que, se manejados de forma inadequada, podem provocar sérios impactos ao meio ambiente. Uma das alternativas é o uso da ARS como fonte de nutrientes, que após a mineralização da matéria orgânica, são disponibilizados para as plantas. O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar os atributos químicos do solo sob dois arranjos de plantio, em linhas simples e duplas de Corymbia citriodora. Foram implantados dois experimentos na fazenda Bonsucesso, em Uberlândia-MG, sendo o primeiro com C. citriodora em linhas simples, com cinco plantas por parcela, com espaçamento de dois metros entre plantas e 15 metros entre linhas. O segundo experimento foi com C. citriodora em linhas duplas, com dois metros entre plantas na linha, três metros entre linhas na parcela e 15 metros entre as linhas duplas de C. citriodora. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos utilizados foram cinco doses de ARS (0; 200; 400; 600 e 800 m³ ha-1) com cinco repetições. A aplicação das doses de ARS foram parceladas na estação da seca, nos meses de junho, julho e agosto. Foram avaliadas as características químicas do solo, na camada de 0-20 cm de profundidade. O plantio realizado em linhas duplas de C. citriodora proporcionou maiores teores de nutrientes no solo. A aplicação de água residuária de suinocultura elevou os teores de potássio e de metais pesados como o cobre e o zinco. A dose de 200 m3 ha-1 proporcionou teores adequados para maioria dos nutrientes presentes no solo.

Soil , Swine , Metals, Heavy , Waste Water