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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248946, 2024. tab, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364502

ABSTRACT

Environmental pollutants may often alter the genetic components of natural populations. In this study, heavy metals and genetic diversity in land snail (Achatina achatina) from three populations of south-western Nigeria were investigated, using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and DNA Sequencing technology respectively. Metal analysis revealed that the snails accumulated lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in high concentrations in two of the three states, while cadmium (Cd) was the least detected. Editing and alignment of the sequences of all snail accessions generated a range of 384bp to 419 bp. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) in all 18 accessions was low at only 16%. The query coverage (QC) ranged between 96% and 100%, with 14 (77.8%) of the 18 accessions showing 100% identity. Pairwise comparison of the accessions studied also showed a high genetic similarity. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) generated two main clusters. Cluster I was unique and contain one sample (AaOy06) while the other cluster are very closely related and can be further sub-divided into sub-clusters. The similarity index of between the clusters is 0.5357. The close similarity among the accessions may be due to the geographical proximity of the three states. The uniqueness of accession AaOy06 in comparison to other accessions might be due to the negative influence of heavy metal, particularly lead. The determination of evolutionary relationships among snail populations may be useful towards the breeding efforts of the species in Nigeria.


Os poluentes ambientais podem frequentemente alterar os componentes genéticos das populações naturais. Neste estudo, metais pesados e diversidade genética em caramujos terrestres (Achatina achatina) de três populações do sudoeste da Nigéria foram investigados, usando a tecnologia de espectrometria de absorção atômica e sequenciamento de DNA, respectivamente. A análise dos metais revelou que os caramujos acumularam chumbo (Pb) e níquel (Ni) em altas concentrações em dois dos três estados, enquanto o cádmio (Cd) foi o menos detectado. A edição e o alinhamento das sequências de todos os acessos de caramujos geraram uma faixa de 384pb a 419pb. A análise de variância molecular (AMOVA) em todos os 18 acessos foi baixa em apenas 16%. A cobertura da consulta (QC) variou entre 96% e 100%, com 14 (77,8%) dos 18 acessos apresentando 100% de identidade. A comparação pareada dos acessos estudados também mostrou alta similaridade genética. O método de grupo de pares não ponderados com média aritmética (UPGMA) gerou dois clusters principais. O cluster I era único e contém uma amostra (AaOy06), enquanto o outro cluster está intimamente relacionado e pode ser subdividido em subclusters. O índice de similaridade entre os clusters é 0,5357. A grande semelhança entre os acessos pode ser devido à proximidade geográfica dos três estados. A singularidade do acesso AaOy06 em comparação com outros acessos pode ser devido à influência negativa de metais pesados, particularmente chumbo. A determinação das relações evolutivas entre as populações de caramujos pode ser útil para os esforços de reprodução da espécie na Nigéria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails , Genetic Variation , Metals, Heavy , Environmental Pollutants
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252143, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364526

ABSTRACT

Cadmium (Cd) is one of non-essential heavy metals which is released into environment naturally or anthropogenically. It is highly persistent toxic metals that are exceptionally distressing industrial and agriculture activities by contaminating soil, water and food. Its long-duration endurance in soil and water results in accumulation and uptake into plants, leading to the food chain. This becomes a serious global problem threatening humans and animals as food chain components. Living organisms, especially humans, are exposed to Cd through plants as one of the main vegetative food sources. This review paper is concentrated on the symptoms of the plants affected by Cd toxicity. The absorption of Cd triggers several seen and unseen symptoms by polluted plants such as stunted growth, chlorosis, necrosis and wilting. Apart from that, factors that affect the uptake and translocation of Cd in plants are elaborated to understand the mechanism that contributes to its accumulation. By insight of Cd accumulation, this review also discussed the phytoremediation techniques-phytoextraction, phytostimulation, phytostabilization, phytovolatization and rhizofiltration in bioremediating the Cd.


O cádmio (Cd) é um dos metais pesados ​​não essenciais que é liberado no meio ambiente de forma natural ou antropogênica. São metais tóxicos altamente persistentes que prejudicam excepcionalmente as atividades industriais e agrícolas, contaminando o solo, a água e os alimentos. Sua resistência de longa duração no solo e na água resulta em acúmulo e absorção pelas plantas, levando à cadeia alimentar. Isso se torna um sério problema global que ameaça humanos e animais como componentes da cadeia alimentar. Os organismos vivos, principalmente os humanos, são expostos ao Cd através das plantas como uma das principais fontes de alimento vegetativo. Este artigo de revisão concentra-se nos sintomas das plantas afetadas pela toxicidade do Cd. A absorção de Cd desencadeia vários sintomas visíveis e invisíveis por plantas poluídas, como crescimento atrofiado, clorose, necrose e murcha. Além disso, são elaborados fatores que afetam a absorção e translocação de Cd nas plantas para entender o mecanismo que contribui para o seu acúmulo. A partir do conhecimento do acúmulo de Cd, esta revisão também discutiu as técnicas de fitorremediação - fitoextração, fitoestimulação, fitoestabilização, fitovolatização e rizofiltração na biorremediação do Cd.


Subject(s)
Plants/toxicity , Cadmium , Metals, Heavy , Food/toxicity
3.
The Nigerian Health Journal ; 23(3): 717-733, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1518991

ABSTRACT

Background: Environmental exposure to toxins has been strongly implicated in its multi-faceted etiology of chronic kidney disease, a serious public health problem affecting individuals, families, and communities. There is a need to synthesize available studies on the effect of heavy metal exposure on renal function, considering the rising global burden of kidney disease. The objective of this study is to determine the association between exposure to heavy metals and renal disease. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) were used to conduct the review. A comprehensive independent search, title, abstract, and full-text screening of available literature on Google Scholar, PubMed, and OAREScience was done between March 2021 and May 2021. The criteria for study inclusion were full-text articles published in English language in the last 20 years (2001-2020), and observational primary human studies reporting the association between heavy metal exposure and renal disease. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Results: A total of 552 studies were identified following the search from the different databases. A total of 13 studies were finally included in the review. Heavy metals implicated in the studies include cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic, with ten studies showing environmental exposure as the primary source. Ten (10) studies showed an association between heavy metal exposure and renal impairment (p<0.05) while only 3 studies reported no association. Conclusion: Environmental monitoring is needed to stem the tide of heavy metal exposure in view of the growing burden of chronic kidney disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Metals, Heavy , Environmental Exposure , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Systematic Review
4.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 71-74, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971152

ABSTRACT

On May 13, 2020, a 56-year-old man with extensive burns caused by flames and heavy metal-containing hydrothermal fluids was admitted to the General Hospital of Western Theater Command. After being admitted to the hospital, most of the burn wounds healed after treatments such as debridement, expansion, skin grafting, anti-shock, anti-infection, fluid replacement, and wound dressing change, etc. However, in the middle and late stages of treatment, the patient's burn wounds gradually showed repeated skin ulceration and inflammation. After excluding the cause of physical, bacterial infection and others, IgG4-related skin diseases was finally diagnosed by histopathological examination of tissue biopsy and concentration measurement of IgG4 in interstitial fluid, and the condition was improved after hormone treatment. This suggests that extensive burns may lead to the occurrence of autoimmune skin diseases. For the diagnosis of such diseases, it is necessary to combine clinical manifestations, serological examinations, and histopathological biopsy, etc. to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and draw correct conclusions.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Wound Healing , Treatment Outcome , Burns/surgery , Skin Transplantation , Skin Ulcer , Metals, Heavy
5.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 271-276, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971005

ABSTRACT

Literature regarding the impacts of heavy metal exposure on erectile dysfunction (ED) is scarce. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between 10 urinary metals and ED in a large, nationally representative adult male sample. The dataset was extracted from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during the period of 2001-2002 and 2003-2004. Weighted proportions and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounding variables were utilized to determine the relationship between metal exposure and ED. Weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression was utilized to evaluate the impact of a mixture of urinary metals on ED. A total of 1328 participants were included in our study. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, cobalt (Co) and antimony (Sb) were positively associated with ED (odds ratio [OR]: 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-1.73, P = 0.020; and OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.12-1.77, P = 0.018, respectively) after full adjustment. Men in tertile 4 for Co (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.02-2.41, P for trend = 0.012) and Sb (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.08-2.40, P for trend = 0.041) had significantly higher odds of ED than those in tertile 1. Furthermore, the WQS index was significantly linked with increased odds of ED after full adjustment (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.04-1.72, P < 0.05). Our study expanded on previous literature indicating the possible role of heavy metal exposure in the etiology of ED. The evaluation of heavy metal exposure should be included in the risk assessment of ED.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , United States , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Nutrition Surveys , Metals, Heavy , Risk Assessment
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 425-445, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970383

ABSTRACT

Phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway is one of the most important secondary metabolic pathways in plants. It directly or indirectly plays an antioxidant role in plant resistance to heavy metal stress, and can improve the absorption and stress tolerance of plants to heavy metal ions. In this paper, the core reactions and key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway were summarized, and the biosynthetic processes of key metabolites such as lignin, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins and relevant mechanisms were analyzed. Based on this, the mechanisms of key products of phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in response to heavy metal stress were discussed. The perspectives on the involvement of phenylpropanoid metabolism in plant defense against heavy metal stress provides a theoretical basis for improving the phytoremediation efficiency of heavy metal polluted environment.


Subject(s)
Plants/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Antioxidants
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242536, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339356

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chromium (VI) a highly toxic metal, a major constituent of industrial waste. It is continuously release in soil and water, causes environmental and health related issues, which is increasing public concern in developing countries like Pakistan. The basic aim of this study was isolation and screening of chromium resistant bacteria from industrial waste collected from Korangi and Lyari, Karachi (24˚52ʹ46.0ʺN 66˚59ʹ25.7ʺE and 24˚48ʹ37.5ʺN 67˚06ʹ52.6ʺE). Among total of 53 isolated strains, seven bacterial strains were selected through selective enrichment and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics. These strains were designated as S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 and S48, resistance was determined against varying concentrations of chromium (100-1500 mg/l). Two bacterial strains S35 and S48 showed maximum resistance to chromium (1600 mg/l). Bacterial strains S35 and S48 were identified through 16S rRNA sequence and showed 99% similarity to Bacillus paranthracis and Bacillus paramycoides. Furthermore, growth condition including temperature and pH were optimized for both bacterial strains, showed maximum growth at temperature 30ºC and at optimum pH 7.5 and 6.5 respectively. It is concluded that indigenous bacterial strains isolated from metal contaminated industrial effluent use their innate ability to transform toxic heavy metals to less or nontoxic form and can offer an effective tool for monitoring heavy metal contamination in the environment.


Resumo O cromo (VI), metal altamente tóxico, é um dos principais constituintes dos resíduos industriais. É liberado no solo e na água, causa problemas ambientais e de saúde de crescente preocupação pública em países em desenvolvimento como o Paquistão. O objetivo básico deste estudo foi o isolamento e a triagem de bactérias resistentes ao cromo de resíduos industriais coletados em Korangi e Lyari, Karachi (24˚52'46,0"N 66˚59'25,7"E e 24˚48'37,5"N 67˚06'52,6"E). Do total de 53 cepas isoladas, sete cepas bacterianas foram selecionadas por enriquecimento seletivo e identificadas com base em características morfológicas e bioquímicas. Essas cepas foram designadas como S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 e S48, apresentaram alta resistência aos metais contra concentrações variáveis (100-1500 mg / l) de cromo. Já as cepas S35 e S48 foram identificadas por meio da sequência 16S rRNA e apresentaram 99% de similaridade com Bacillus paranthracis e Bacillus paramycoides. Além disso, as condições de crescimento incluindo temperatura e pH foram otimizadas e ambas as cepas bacterianas apresentaram crescimento máximo na temperatura de 30 ºC, enquanto seu pH ótimo foi observado em 7,5 e 6,5, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o potencial de resistência dessas bactérias resistentes ao cromo pode ser efetivamente utilizado na remoção de cromo de efluentes industriais contaminados. Técnicas de base biológica usando bactérias ajudarão a fornecer métodos mais baratos e ecológicos de remoção, recuperação e desintoxicação de cromo.


Subject(s)
Chromium , Metals, Heavy , Bacillus , Bacteria/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Industrial Waste/analysis
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249641, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339363

ABSTRACT

Abstract Estuaries receive daily inputs of chemical elements which can impact the quality of water and sediment, as well as the health of biota. In addition to the sediment, bivalve mollusks have been used in the chemical monitoring of these systems. This study investigated the presence and contents of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in superficial sediment and in bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae and Mytella guyanensis) from estuaries in the south / extreme south of Bahia State, northeast Brazil. The samples were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Except for Cd, all other elements were found in the samples, being that Co was exclusive in the sediment. The estuaries equivalent to sampling stations #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus and #4 - Belmonte showed levels of metals compatibles with those established by the Brazilian legislation, however, the #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, in addition to the presence of As, presented a high level of Pb and Cu in C. gasar, which was attributed to the impacts of nautical activities in that locality.


Resumo Estuários recebem entradas diárias de elementos químicos, que podem impactar a qualidade de água e do sedimento, assim como a saúde da biota. Além do sedimento, moluscos bivalves têm sido utilizados no monitoramento químico desses sistemas. Neste estudo investigou-se a presença e os teores de As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn no sedimento superficial e em bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae e Mytella guyanensis) de estuários do sul / extremo sul do estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil. As amostras foram avaliadas por espectrometria de emissão óptica de plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Exceto Cd, todos os demais elementos foram encontrados nas amostras, sendo que Co foi exclusivo no sedimento. Os estuários equivalentes às estações amostrais #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus e #4 - Belmonte mostraram níveis de metais compatíveis com os estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, porém, a #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, além da presença de As, apresentou alto nível de Pb e de Cu em C. gasar, o que foi atribuído aos impactos por atividades náuticas nesse local.


Subject(s)
Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Bivalvia , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Estuaries , Geologic Sediments
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339410

ABSTRACT

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oligochaeta , Soil Pollutants , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Cadmium , Cattle , Bioaccumulation
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. map, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468945

ABSTRACT

Estuaries receive daily inputs of chemical elements which can impact the quality of water and sediment, as well as the health of biota. In addition to the sediment, bivalve mollusks have been used in the chemical monitoring of these systems. This study investigated the presence and contents of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in superficial sediment and in bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae and Mytella guyanensis) from estuaries in the south / extreme south of Bahia State, northeast Brazil. The samples were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Except for Cd, all other elements were found in the samples, being that Co was exclusive in the sediment. The estuaries equivalent to sampling stations #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus and #4 - Belmonte showed levels of metals compatibles with those established by the Brazilian legislation, however, the #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, in addition to the presence of As, presented a high level of Pb and Cu in C. gasar, which was attributed to the impacts of nautical activities in that locality.


Estuários recebem entradas diárias de elementos químicos, que podem impactar a qualidade de água e do sedimento, assim como a saúde da biota. Além do sedimento, moluscos bivalves têm sido utilizados no monitoramento químico desses sistemas. Neste estudo investigou-se a presença e os teores de As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn no sedimento superficial e em bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae e Mytella guyanensis) de estuários do sul / extremo sul do estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil. As amostras foram avaliadas por espectrometria de emissão óptica de plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Exceto Cd, todos os demais elementos foram encontrados nas amostras, sendo que Co foi exclusivo no sedimento. Os estuários equivalentes às estações amostrais #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus e #4 - Belmonte mostraram níveis de metais compatíveis com os estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, porém, a #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, além da presença de As, apresentou alto nível de Pb e de Cu em C. gasar, o que foi atribuído aos impactos por atividades náuticas nesse local.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bivalvia , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Estuary Pollution/analysis , Sediments/analysis
11.
Med. UIS ; 35(2): e300, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422044

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los artefactos explosivos improvisados son armas no convencionales que pueden provocar múltiples lesiones y dejar esquirlas a modo de cuerpos extraños que pueden contener metales tóxicos, con potencial afectación a la salud de las víctimas según reportes datados desde 1977, los cuales mencionan alta mortalidad por cáncer y otros síntomas compatibles con toxicidad crónica Objetivo: Describir los resultados de investigación que informen sobre la toxicidad crónica producida por metales en personas víctimas de artefactos explosivos improvisados con esquirlas internalizadas, y sus posibles relaciones con cáncer. Metodología: Revisión sistemática exploratoria de literatura publicada y gris que se realizó entre los meses de marzo a mayo de 2021 en diferentes repositorios de tesis y bases de datos (Scielo, Pubmed, Academic Search Complete, JSTOR, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, Freepdf, Google Académico, Open Grey); sin límite temporal o geográfico. Se incluyeron artículos originales de revistas indexadas o informes finales no publicados, correspondientes a investigaciones científicas con texto completo, en inglés, español y portugués. Resultados: De 56 documentos evaluados, solamente tres cumplieron criterios de inclusión. Todos estaban escritos en idioma inglés. Solo un estudio iraquí abordó población civil y los otros trabajos aludían a veteranos norteamericanos. Los niveles elevados de metales tóxicos, asociados con alteraciones tisulares circunscritas, fueron hallazgos recurrentes. No hubo reportes de patologías instauradas o manejos clínicos. Conclusión: Fue escasa la evidencia científica recabada; sin embargo, sí se han reportado cambios tisulares circundantes a esas esquirlas. Se considera necesario realizar más estudios relacionados con el tema, incluyendo seguimientos a largo plazo de las afectaciones tisulares detectadas.


Abstract Introduction: Improvised explosive devices are unconventionalweapons that can cause multiple injuries and splinters internalized containing heavy metals, potentially affecting the victim's health, according to reports dating from 1977, which mention high mortality from cancer and other symptoms suggestive of chronic metal toxicity. Objective: To describe the research results that report on the chronic toxicity produced by heavy metals in people who are victims of improvised explosive devices with internalized splinters, and its possible links with cancer. Methodology: Systematic exploratory review of published and grey literature which was carried out between march and may of 2021, in thesis repositories and different databases (Scielo, Pubmed, Academic Search Complete, JSTOR, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, Freepdf, Google Académico, Open Grey); without time or geographical limit. Original articles from indexed scientific research journals or unpublished final reports were included, corresponding to scientific research with full text, in english, spanish and portuguese. Results: 56 documents were evaluated, three were selected fulfilling the inclusion criteria. They were all written in the english language. Only one Iraqi study addressed the civilian population and the other studies referred to North American veterans. Elevated heavy metal levels, associated with circumscribed tissue abnormalities, were recurrent findings. There were no reports of established pathologies or clinical management. Conclusion: The scientific evidence was scarce; as well as its relationship with established cancer, however, tissue changing surrounding these splinters have been reported. It is considered necessary to carry out more studies related to the subject, including long-term follow-up of detected tissue damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blast Injuries , Toxicity Tests, Chronic , Review Literature as Topic , Metals, Heavy , Armed Conflicts , Neoplasms
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38085, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397168

ABSTRACT

The development of anthropogenic activities such as industry, mining, agriculture, urban waste discard has been, the main actions that result in increased contamination by heavy metals in soil, water and air. One of the most harmful metals made available by these activities is cadmium, and even at low concentrations it is very toxic mainly in plant structures. The objective of this work was to verify the biochemical behavior of nitrogen and carbon metabolism in young plants of paricá when submitted to increasing cadmium application. For this, a completely randomized experiment was carried out with five treatments (control, CdCl2 178 µM, CdCl2 356 µM, CdCl2 534 µM, CdCl2 712 µM), with seven replicates, totaling 35 experimental units. The sensitivity of this vegetable to the increasing concentrations of cadmium was evident. The root system it presents'' saw where the most toxic element accumulated, solutes such as carbohydrates, sucrose were affected in their concentrations, mainly in the leaves. The root system saw in its concentrations of glycine betaine a possibility of osmoprotection, but this did not reflect an increase in the concentration of nitrate in both leaf and roots. In the other hand, this fact not observed by the concentration of ammonium that increased in the root system. The results showed that the cadmium was transported to aerial part, however, concentrated mainly in the root system characterizing as a phytoextractor species.


Subject(s)
Biochemistry , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cadmium Chloride , Metals, Heavy
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e230147, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153479

ABSTRACT

Metals and agrochemicals are among the main aquatic contaminants, being able to trigger oxidative stress in exposed organisms. The objective of this work was to evaluate the correlation between the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in Aegla crabs (Crustacea, Anomura) with (i) the set of metals present in the streams sediment and (ii) with land uses of three hydrographic basins. The study was carried out in streams (≤ 2nd order) of hydrographic basins in southern Brazil (Basins of Rio Suzana, Rio Ligeirinho-Leãozinho and Rio Dourado). In these streams were quantified the land uses and Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations in the sediment. The enzymes Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Reductase (GR), as well as the level of membrane lipid peroxidation (TBARS), were analyzed in adult females. The PCA analysis showed that the distribution of metals was different between the basins. Cd, Cr and Fe were correlated positively with CAT and negatively with TBARS and GR. The Dourado basin had the lowest concentrations of these three metals and the highest levels of TBARS. However, in Dourado basin there is predominance of agriculture land use, and TBARS was positively correlated with agricultural land use. Besides in Dourado basin, GR activity was higher than in the others basins, indicating a compensatory response in relation to CAT inhibition. The basins of Suzana and Ligeirinho-Leãozinho rivers had lower TBARS values, which may be due to the induction of CAT in response to metals accumulated in sediment. In summary, this work indicates that in the basins with a higher concentration of toxic metals there is an adaptive response of CAT induction, which reduces TBARS in Aegla. On the other hand, in the basin with lower metallic contamination, TBARS occurrence was primarily influenced by agricultural land use.


Os metais e agroquímicos estão entre os principais contaminantes aquáticos, podendo desencadear estresse oxidativo em organismos expostos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar uma possível correlação entre o nível de biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo em Aegla (Crustacea, Anomura) com (i) o conjunto de metais presentes no sedimento e (ii) com os usos da terra, em três bacias hidrográficas distintas. O estudo foi realizado em riachos (≤ 2ª ordem) de bacias hidrográficas do Sul do Brasil (Bacias do Rio Suzana, do Rio Ligeirinho-Leãozinho e do Rio Dourado), as quais foram caracterizadas em função do percentual de usos da terra e do nível de Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Mn e Zn no sedimento. As enzimas Catalase (CAT) e Glutationa Redutase (GR), bem como o nível de peroxidação lipídica das membranas (TBARS), foram analisadas em fêmeas adultas. Uma análise de PCA mostrou que a distribuição de metais foi distinta entre as bacias. Cd, Cr e Fe no sedimento correlacionaram positivamente com a CAT e negativamente com TBARS e GR. Entretanto, a bacia do Dourado apresentou os menores níveis destes três metais e os maiores níveis de TBARS, o que pode ser justificado pelo predomínio da agricultura nesta bacia, já que o TBARS correlacionou positivamente com o percentual de uso agrícola. Nesta bacia, a atividade da GR foi mais alta do que nas outras, indicando uma resposta compensatória em relação a inibição da CAT. As bacias do rio Suzana e rio Ligeirinho-Leãozinho apresentaram valores menores de TBARS, o que pode decorrer da indução da CAT em função dos metais acumulados no sedimento. Em síntese, este trabalho indica que nas bacias com maior concentração de metais tóxicos ocorre uma resposta adaptativa de indução da CAT, o que reduz os níveis de TBARS em Aegla. Por outro lado, na bacia com menor contaminação metálica os níveis de TBARS foram primariamente influenciados pelo uso agrícola.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Anomura , Brazil , Biomarkers/metabolism , Environmental Monitoring , Oxidative Stress , Rivers , Agriculture
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1913-1920, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928188

ABSTRACT

This study explored whether Sagittaria sagittifolia polysaccharides(SSP) activates the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor2(Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) signaling pathway to protect against liver damage jointly induced by multiple heavy metals. First, based on the proportion of dietary intake of six heavy metals in rice available in Beijing market, a heavy metal mixture was prepared for inducing mouse liver injury and HepG2 cell injury. Forty male Kunming mice were divided into five groups: control group, model group, glutathione positive control group, and low-and high-dose SSP groups, with eight mice in each group. After 30 days of intragastric administration, the liver injury in mice was observed by HE staining. In the in vitro experiment, MTT assay was conducted to detect the effects of SSP at 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg·mL~(-1) on HepG2 cell survival at different time points. The content of alanine transaminase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in the 48-h cell culture fluid was measured using micro-plate cultivation method, followed by the detection of the change in reactive oxygen species(ROS) content by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in cells were determined by RT-PCR, and their protein expression by Western blot. HE staining results showed that compared with the model group, the SSP administration groups exhibited significantly alleviated inflammatory cell infiltration and fatty infiltration in the liver, with better outcomes observed in the high-dose SSP group. In the in vitro MTT assay, compared with the model group, SSP at four concentrations all significantly increased the cell survival rate, decreased the ALT, AST, and ROS content(P<0.05), and down-regulated Nrf2 and HO-1 mRNA and protein expression(P<0.05). SSP significantly improves inflammatory infiltration in the liver tissue of mice exposed to a variety of heavy metals and corrects the liver fat degeneration, which may be related to its regulation of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, reduction of ROS, and alleviation of oxidative damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Liver , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Sagittaria/metabolism
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 643-650, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927946

ABSTRACT

In this study, the content of five heavy metals(Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Cu) in 59 batches of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos(LJF) medicinal materials and pieces were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). The health risk assessment was processed using the maximum estimated daily intake(EDI), target hazard quotients(THQ), and carcinogenic risks(CR) assessment models. With reference to the limit standard for heavy metal content in LJF specified in 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, five batches produced in Hebei were found to contain excessive Pb, and the remaining 54 batches met the specifications, with the unqualified rate of 8.47%. Comparative analysis of heavy metal content in LJF samples from three different producing areas, namely Shandong, Henan, and Hebei showed that the levels of Pb, As, and Hg in LJF from Hebei were significantly higher than those from Henan and Shandong. The samples produced in Shandong contained the highest content of Cd. The samples from Hebei contained the highest content of Cu while those from Shandong had the lowest content of Cu. As demonstrated by health risk assessment based on the EDI, THQ and CR models, these 59 batches of LJF samples did not cause significant health hazards for the exposed population, and there was no potential non-carcinogenic or carcinogenic risk. In conclusion, a few of LJF samples contained excessive heavy metals, so some measures, including controlling production environment, cultivating management mode, and optimizing processing methods, should be taken for ensuring the medication safety of LJF.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Mercury/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Risk Assessment
16.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 147-154, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the association of the levels of heavy metals and trace elements during pregnancy with congenital heart defects (CHD) in offspring, and to establish a model for predicting the probability of CHD based on the levels of heavy metals and trace elements during pregnancy.@*METHODS@#Based on the prospective birth cohort study in Gansu Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital in 2010-2012, a nested case-control study was conducted for the follow-up observation of 14 359 pregnant women. Among the pregnant women, 97 pregnant women whose offspring were diagnosed with CHD during follow-up were enrolled as the CHD group, and 194 pregnant women whose offspring had no CHD were selected as the control group. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure the levels of heavy metals and trace elements in maternal blood samples and fetal umbilical cord blood samples. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between heavy metal and trace elements and CHD in offspring. A nomogram model for predicting the probability of CHD in offspring was established based on the levels of heavy metals and trace elements during pregnancy.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the CHD group had significantly higher levels of aluminum (Al), natrium (Na), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), stannum (Sn), stibium (Sb), barium (Ba), and thorium (Th) in maternal blood samples (P<0.05), as well as significantly higher levels of Al, zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), kalium (K), Ca, Ti, chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), Se, Sr, argentum (Ag), cadmium (Cd), Sn, and plumbum (Pb) in umbilical cord blood (P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the increase in the Sb level in maternal blood was associated with the increase in the risk of CHD in offspring [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=4.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65-14.07, P=0.004], while in umbilical cord blood, the high levels of Al (aOR=4.22, 95%CI: 1.35-13.16, P=0.013), Mg (aOR=8.00, 95%CI: 1.52-42.08, P=0.014), and Pb (aOR=3.82, 95%CI: 0.96-15.23, P=0.049) were significantly associated with the risk of CHD in offspring. The levels of Al, Th, and Sb in maternal blood and levels of Al, Mg, and Pb in umbilical cord blood were included in the predictive model for CHD in offspring based on the levels of heavy metals and trace elements during pregnancy, and the calibration curve of the nomogram predictive model was close to the ideal curve.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Increases in the levels of Al, Th, Sb, Mg, and Pb during pregnancy may indicate the increase in the risk of CHD in offspring, and the nomogram predictive model based on these indices can be used to predict the probability of CHD in offspring.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Metals, Heavy , Prospective Studies , Trace Elements/analysis
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1903-1914, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927826

ABSTRACT

A microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based microbial electrochemical sensor was developed for real-time on-line monitoring of heavy metals in water environment. The microbial electrochemical sensor was constructed with staggered flow distribution method to optimize the parameters such as external resistance value and external circulation rate. The inhibition of concentration of simulated heavy metal wastewater on voltage under optimal parameters was analyzed. The results showed that the best performance of MFC electrochemical sensor was achieved when the external resistance value was 130 Ω and the external circulation rate was 1.0 mL/min. In this case, the microbial electrochemical sensors were responsive to 1-10 mg/L Cu2+, 0.25-1.25 mg/L Cd2+, 0.25-1.25 mg/L Cr6+ and 0.25-1.00 mg/L Hg2+ within 60 minutes. The maximum rejection rates of the output voltage were 92.95%, 73.11%, 82.76% and 75.80%, respectively, and the linear correlation coefficients were all greater than 0.95. In addition, the microbial electrochemical sensor showed a good biological reproducibility. The good performance for detecting heavy metals by the newly developed microbial electrochemical sensor may facilitate the real-time on-line monitoring of heavy metals in water environment.


Subject(s)
Bioelectric Energy Sources , Electrodes , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Wastewater , Water
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-6, 2022. map, ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468476

ABSTRACT

Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc.


A truta das neves (Schizothorax plagiostomus) é um peixe de água doce economicamente importante, encontrado principalmente nas áreas ao norte de reservatórios de água do Paquistão. O presente estudo foi realizado em River Swat para analisar a bioacumulação de metais pesados (Pb, Cr, Ni e Zn) em tecidos de Schizothorax plagiostomus. Os tecidos foram extraídos e dissolvidos em ácido perclórico (HClO4) e ácido nítrico (HNO3) com placa de aquecimento. Os metais pesados zinco (Zn), chumbo (Pb), cromo (Cr) e níquel (Ni) foram determinados usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica Perkin Elmer 2380. Os resultados mostram grande variação no conteúdo do metal relacionado ao tipo de tecido e locais de amostragem. Uma alta concentração de bioacumulação foi relatada em Charbagh, enquanto a mais baixa, em Odigram: Charbagh > Landakai > Odigram. Da mesma forma, Cr foi o metal pesado mais acumulado, seguido por Pb, Ni e Zn.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bioaccumulation , Lead/toxicity , Chromium/toxicity , Cyprinidae , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Nickel/toxicity , Zinc/toxicity
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-9, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468541

ABSTRACT

The influence of pharmaceutical residues and heavy metals on living organisms has received global attention. The present study assessed the interactive effect of antibiotic residues and heavy metals in soil, as contaminated food with cadmium (Cd) and oxytetracycline (OTC) on the isopod Porcellio leavis. It was fed on fresh plant leaves contaminated with different concentrations of cadmium, Cd+OTC1000 ppm, Cd+OTC2000 ppm and Cd+OTC3000 ppm for 4 weeks. The changes in the feeding patterns, protein, lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase activity (CAT), and total free amino acids (TFAA) were recorded. There were significant differences in the obtained results where Cd reduced the egestion ratio (ER) however, OTC enhanced this ratio. Biochemical analysis illustrated that combination between OTC and Cd inhibits the toxic effects of Cd at low concentration (1000 ppm), while at high concentration (3000 ppm) raise the toxicity. Detailed studies are required for further understanding of the interaction between OTC and heavy metals, and also its impact on soil animals and for improving soil risk evaluation.


A influência de resíduos farmacêuticos e metais pesados em organismos vivos tem recebido atenção global. O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de resíduos de antibióticos e metais pesados no solo, como alimentos contaminados com cádmio (Cd) e oxitetraciclina (OTC), sobre o isópode Porcellio laevis, o qual foi alimentado com folhas frescas de plantas contaminadas com diferentes concentrações de cádmio, Cd + OTC1000 ppm, Cd + OTC2000 ppm e Cd + OTC3000 ppm, por quatro semanas. As mudanças nos padrões de alimentação, proteína, peroxidação lipídica (LPO), atividade da catalase (CAT) e aminoácidos livres totais (TFAA) foram registradas. Houve diferenças significativas nos resultados obtidos, em que o Cd reduziu a taxa de excreção (ER), no entanto o OTC aumentou essa proporção. A análise bioquímica mostrou que a combinação entre OTC e Cd inibe os efeitos tóxicos do Cd em baixa concentração (1.000 ppm), enquanto, em alta concentração (3.000 ppm), aumenta a toxicidade. Estudos detalhados são necessários para uma maior compreensão da interação entre OTC e metais pesados, e seu impacto sobre os animais do solo, bem como para melhorar a avaliação de risco do solo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cadmium/toxicity , Isopoda/drug effects , Metals, Heavy/adverse effects , Oxytetracycline/toxicity
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246979, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278466

ABSTRACT

The influence of pharmaceutical residues and heavy metals on living organisms has received global attention. The present study assessed the interactive effect of antibiotic residues and heavy metals in soil, as contaminated food with cadmium (Cd) and oxytetracycline (OTC) on the isopod Porcellio leavis. It was fed on fresh plant leaves contaminated with different concentrations of cadmium, Cd+OTC1000 ppm, Cd+OTC2000 ppm and Cd+OTC3000 ppm for 4 weeks. The changes in the feeding patterns, protein, lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase activity (CAT), and total free amino acids (TFAA) were recorded. There were significant differences in the obtained results where Cd reduced the egestion ratio (ER) however, OTC enhanced this ratio. Biochemical analysis illustrated that combination between OTC and Cd inhibits the toxic effects of Cd at low concentration (1000 ppm), while at high concentration (3000 ppm) raise the toxicity. Detailed studies are required for further understanding of the interaction between OTC and heavy metals, and also its impact on soil animals and for improving soil risk evaluation.


A influência de resíduos farmacêuticos e metais pesados em organismos vivos tem recebido atenção global. O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de resíduos de antibióticos e metais pesados no solo, como alimentos contaminados com cádmio (Cd) e oxitetraciclina (OTC), sobre o isópode Porcellio laevis, o qual foi alimentado com folhas frescas de plantas contaminadas com diferentes concentrações de cádmio, Cd + OTC1000 ppm, Cd + OTC2000 ppm e Cd + OTC3000 ppm, por quatro semanas. As mudanças nos padrões de alimentação, proteína, peroxidação lipídica (LPO), atividade da catalase (CAT) e aminoácidos livres totais (TFAA) foram registradas. Houve diferenças significativas nos resultados obtidos, em que o Cd reduziu a taxa de excreção (ER), no entanto o OTC aumentou essa proporção. A análise bioquímica mostrou que a combinação entre OTC e Cd inibe os efeitos tóxicos do Cd em baixa concentração (1.000 ppm), enquanto, em alta concentração (3.000 ppm), aumenta a toxicidade. Estudos detalhados são necessários para uma maior compreensão da interação entre OTC e metais pesados, e seu impacto sobre os animais do solo, bem como para melhorar a avaliação de risco do solo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oxytetracycline/toxicity , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Isopoda , Soil , Cadmium/toxicity
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