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Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. map, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468945


Estuaries receive daily inputs of chemical elements which can impact the quality of water and sediment, as well as the health of biota. In addition to the sediment, bivalve mollusks have been used in the chemical monitoring of these systems. This study investigated the presence and contents of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in superficial sediment and in bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae and Mytella guyanensis) from estuaries in the south / extreme south of Bahia State, northeast Brazil. The samples were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Except for Cd, all other elements were found in the samples, being that Co was exclusive in the sediment. The estuaries equivalent to sampling stations #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus and #4 - Belmonte showed levels of metals compatibles with those established by the Brazilian legislation, however, the #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, in addition to the presence of As, presented a high level of Pb and Cu in C. gasar, which was attributed to the impacts of nautical activities in that locality.

Estuários recebem entradas diárias de elementos químicos, que podem impactar a qualidade de água e do sedimento, assim como a saúde da biota. Além do sedimento, moluscos bivalves têm sido utilizados no monitoramento químico desses sistemas. Neste estudo investigou-se a presença e os teores de As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn no sedimento superficial e em bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae e Mytella guyanensis) de estuários do sul / extremo sul do estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil. As amostras foram avaliadas por espectrometria de emissão óptica de plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Exceto Cd, todos os demais elementos foram encontrados nas amostras, sendo que Co foi exclusivo no sedimento. Os estuários equivalentes às estações amostrais #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus e #4 - Belmonte mostraram níveis de metais compatíveis com os estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, porém, a #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, além da presença de As, apresentou alto nível de Pb e de Cu em C. gasar, o que foi atribuído aos impactos por atividades náuticas nesse local.

Animals , Bivalvia , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Estuary Pollution/analysis , Sediments/analysis
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237604, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285586


This study goal to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) and silver (Ag) on germination, initial growth and anatomical alterations of Lactuca sativa L. Plants use various mechanisms to reduce the impacts caused by anthropic action, such as xenobiotic elements of soils and water contaminated by heavy metals. These metals were supplied as lead nitrate and silver nitrate and the following treatments were established: control for both metals, maximum dose of heavy metals, for arable soils, allowed by the National Council of the Environment (Ag = 25 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 180 mg. Kg-1), double (Ag = 50 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 360 mg. Kg-1) and triple (Ag = 75 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 540 mg. Kg -1) of this dosage. Vigor and germination tests of the seeds and possible anatomical changes in the leaves and roots of lettuce plants were performed. The species showed a high capacity to germinate under Pb and Ag stress, and the germination was never completely inhibited; however, the germination decreased with increasing Pb concentrations, but not under Ag stress. The use of increasing doses of metals reduced seed vigor and increased chlorophyll content. An increase in biomass was also observed in plants from treatments submitted to Pb. The phytotoxic effects of metals were more pronounced at 15 days after sowing. Anatomically, L. sativa was influenced by metal concentrations, and had a reduction of up to 79.9% in root epidermis thickness at the highest Pb concentration, although some structures did not suffer significant changes. The results suggest that L. sativa presents tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals, showing possible mechanisms to overcome the stress caused by these metals. In this research lettuce possibly used the mechanism of exclusion of metals retaining Pb and Ag in the roots preserving the photosynthetic apparatus in the aerial part of the plants. In general, the chemical element Pb was more toxic than Ag, in these experimental conditions.

Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de chumbo (Pb) e prata (Ag) na germinação, crescimento inicial e alterações anatômicas de Lactuca sativa L. As plantas utilizam vários mecanismos para reduzir os impactos causados pela ação antrópica, como elementos xenobióticos de solos e água contaminada por metais pesados. Esses metais foram fornecidos como nitrato de chumbo e nitrato de prata e foram estabelecidos os seguintes tratamentos: controle para ambos os metais, dose máxima de metais pesados, para solos cultiváveis, permitida pelo Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (Ag = 25mg.Kg-1, Pb = 180mg.Kg-1), dobro (Ag = 50mg.Kg-1, Pb = 360mg.Kg-1) e triplo (Ag = 75mg.Kg-1, Pb = 540 mg.Kg -1) desta dosagem. Foram realizados testes de vigor e germinação das sementes e possíveis alterações anatômicas nas folhas e raízes das plantas de alface. A espécie apresentou alta capacidade de germinar sob estresse de Ag e Pb, e a germinação nunca foi completamente inibida; entretanto, a germinação diminuiu com o aumento das concentrações de Pb, mas não sob estresse de Ag. O uso de doses crescentes dos metais, reduziu o vigor das sementes e aumentou o teor de clorofila. Também foi observado aumento da biomassa nas plantas a partir dos tratamentos submetidos ao Pb. Os efeitos fitotóxicos dos metais foram mais acentuados aos 15 dias após a semeadura. Anatomicamente, L. sativa foi influenciada pelas concentrações de metais, e teve uma redução de até 79,9% na espessura da epiderme radicular na maior concentração de Pb, embora algumas estruturas não tenham sofrido alterações significativas. Os resultados sugerem que L. sativa apresenta tolerância a altas concentrações de metais pesados, mostrando possíveis mecanismos para superar o estresse causado por esses metais. Nesta pesquisa a alface possivelmente utilizou o mecanismo de exclusão de metais retendo Pb e Ag nas raízes preservando o aparato fotossintético na parte aérea das plantas. De forma geral o elemento químico Pb se mostrou mais tóxico que Ag, nestas condições experimentais.

Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Silver Nitrate , Soil , Lettuce , Lead/toxicity , Nitrates/toxicity
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927946


In this study, the content of five heavy metals(Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Cu) in 59 batches of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos(LJF) medicinal materials and pieces were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). The health risk assessment was processed using the maximum estimated daily intake(EDI), target hazard quotients(THQ), and carcinogenic risks(CR) assessment models. With reference to the limit standard for heavy metal content in LJF specified in 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, five batches produced in Hebei were found to contain excessive Pb, and the remaining 54 batches met the specifications, with the unqualified rate of 8.47%. Comparative analysis of heavy metal content in LJF samples from three different producing areas, namely Shandong, Henan, and Hebei showed that the levels of Pb, As, and Hg in LJF from Hebei were significantly higher than those from Henan and Shandong. The samples produced in Shandong contained the highest content of Cd. The samples from Hebei contained the highest content of Cu while those from Shandong had the lowest content of Cu. As demonstrated by health risk assessment based on the EDI, THQ and CR models, these 59 batches of LJF samples did not cause significant health hazards for the exposed population, and there was no potential non-carcinogenic or carcinogenic risk. In conclusion, a few of LJF samples contained excessive heavy metals, so some measures, including controlling production environment, cultivating management mode, and optimizing processing methods, should be taken for ensuring the medication safety of LJF.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Mercury/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Risk Assessment
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-6, 2022. map, ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468476


Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc.

A truta das neves (Schizothorax plagiostomus) é um peixe de água doce economicamente importante, encontrado principalmente nas áreas ao norte de reservatórios de água do Paquistão. O presente estudo foi realizado em River Swat para analisar a bioacumulação de metais pesados (Pb, Cr, Ni e Zn) em tecidos de Schizothorax plagiostomus. Os tecidos foram extraídos e dissolvidos em ácido perclórico (HClO4) e ácido nítrico (HNO3) com placa de aquecimento. Os metais pesados zinco (Zn), chumbo (Pb), cromo (Cr) e níquel (Ni) foram determinados usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica Perkin Elmer 2380. Os resultados mostram grande variação no conteúdo do metal relacionado ao tipo de tecido e locais de amostragem. Uma alta concentração de bioacumulação foi relatada em Charbagh, enquanto a mais baixa, em Odigram: Charbagh > Landakai > Odigram. Da mesma forma, Cr foi o metal pesado mais acumulado, seguido por Pb, Ni e Zn.

Animals , Bioaccumulation , Lead/toxicity , Chromium/toxicity , Cyprinidae , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Nickel/toxicity , Zinc/toxicity
Actual. osteol ; 17(1): [35-44], 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292117


The masticatory apparatus is a functional unit of the human body, which is mainly responsible for speech, chewing, and swallowing. It is built of bones, joints, ligaments, teeth, and muscles. In addition, the oral cavity and its hard tissues are the first ones to be exposed to exogenous factors during feeding and breathing. The aim of the work was to review the literature of recent years on the toxicology of metals and their possible negative and sometimes positive effects on the metabolism of bones of the masticatory apparatus. In summary, metals commonly found in the environment affect the bones of the masticatory apparatus to varying degrees. Attention should be paid to the sources of individual metals in the environment and to prevent their excessive, unwanted effects on the bones of the masticatory apparatus. (AU)

El aparato masticatorio constituye una unidad funcional del cuerpo humano especializada en la regulación y coordinación de los procesos del habla, la masticación y la deglución. Está constituida por huesos, ligamentos, articulaciones, músculos y dientes. El tejido óseo de la cavidad bucal es el primero en estar expuesto a factores exógenos durante la alimentación y la respiración. El objetivo del presente trabajo es realizar una revisión de lo reportado en la literatura en los últimos años, con respecto a los efectos beneficiosos o nocivos de los metales pesados sobre el metabolismo de los huesos del aparato masticatorio. En resumen, se evidencia que los metales presentes en el medioambiente afectan a estos huesos en diferentes grados. Se debe prestar especial atención a identificar las fuentes de donde provienen estos metales, para prevenir los efectos no deseados sobre el tejido óseo masticatorio generados por una excesiva exposición a ellos. (AU)

Humans , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Stomatognathic System/metabolism , Metals, Heavy , Jaw/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/toxicity
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(11): 849-851, dic2019. tab
Article in English | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1050068


This study focuses on the heavy metals concentrations (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd) in certain common milk species are collected from Iraqi markets using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer-6300 AA, Shimadzu, Japan, respectively. This study shows the pollution in the environment obtained by heavy metals. The results showed that Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Fe were varying according to the order: Zn>Fe>Cr>Cd>Cu. levels of heavy metals were 0.610(Cr), 0.125(Cd), 0.052(Cu), and 6.902(Zn), and 0.759(Fe). All the heavy metals were observed within maximum limit in milk. Overall, the number of analyzed heavy metals and sample size were limited in present study. Keywords: Heavy metals; Milk; Najaf; Flame atomic absorption; Spectrophotometer This study focuses on the heavy metals concentrations (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd) in certain common milk species are collected from Iraqi markets using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer-6300 AA, Shimadzu, Japan, respectively. This study shows the pollution in the environment obtained by heavy metals. The results showed that Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Fe were varying according to the order: Zn>Fe>Cr>Cd>Cu. levels of heavy metals were 0.610(Cr), 0.125(Cd), 0.052(Cu), and 6.902(Zn), and 0.759(Fe). All the heavy metals were observed within maximum limit in milk. Overall, the number of analyzed heavy metals and sample size were limited in present study

Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Flame Spectrophotometers , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Milk
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 659-664, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001473


Abstract The Doce River basin has suffered the largest environmental accident ever occurred in Brazil with the influx of tailings from Fundão and Santarém, belonging to Samarco mining company, due to the disaster in Mariana. A spill between 50 and 60 million m3 of tailings was estimated by the company. According to Samarco, the wastewater was composed mainly of clay, silt and heavy metals like iron, copper and manganese. Thereby, the objective of the present study was evaluated the genotoxic damage in juvenile of Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy e Gaimard, 1824) exposed to Doce river water before (DRWBA - Doce River water before acident) and after (DRWAA - Doce River water after acident) the influx of tailings from the Germano and Santarém Dam disasters in Mariana, MG, Brazil. For this, 24 individuals of the species G. brasiliensis (obtained on IFES/ALEGRE fish culture) were submitted to a bioassay with three treatments and eight replicates. The treatments were: 1) Control water (water from the urban water supply system, filtered with a 0.45 µm membrane), 2) DRBA and 3) DRAA. After 96 h, these fishes were anesthetized to remove blood for evaluation of genotoxic damage (micronucleus and comet). For the bioassay, a total of 80 L of The Doce River water were collected before the influx of tailings and after the influx and then submitted to metal quantification analysis. Fish exposed to DRWBA and DRWAA treatments showed a significant increase in both the number of erythrocyte micronuclei and the DNA damage index in relation to the control fish; however, they did not present any differences between the two treatments. The results demonstrate that the DRWBA treatment was already genotoxic for the fish, mainly due to dissolved Cu concentrations in the water. The DRWAA treatment probably presented genotoxicity due to the increase in the dissolved fraction and synergistic effects of several metals found in the tailings of the Mariana accident.

Resumo A bacia do Rio Doce sofreu o maior acidente ambiental com o influxo de rejeitos de Fundão e Santarém, pertencentes à empresa de mineração Samarco, devido ao desastre em Mariana. Um derramamento entre 50 e 60 milhões de m3 de rejeitos foi estimado pela empresa. De acordo com a Samarco, o rejeito despejado era composto principalmente de argila, silte e alguns metais pesados como ferro, cobre e manganês. Com isso, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os danos genotóxicos em juvenis de Geophagus brasilienses expostos a água do rio Doce antes (DRWAA - água do Rio Doce antes do acidente) e depois (DRWBA- água do Rio Doce depois do acidente) da chegada dos rejeitos do rompimento das barragens de Germano e Santarém em Mariana, MG, Brasil. Para isso, 24 indivíduos da espécie G. brasilienses (obtidos na piscicultura do IFES/ALEGRE) foram submetidos a um bioensaio com três tratamentos e oito réplicas. Os tratamentos eram: 1) Controle (com água do abastecimento urbano, filtrada com filtro analítico de 0,45 µm); 2) DRWBA e 3) DRWAA. Após um período de 96 h, esses peixes foram anestesiados para retirada de sangue para avaliação dos danos genotóxicos (micronúcleo e cometa). Para a realização do bioensaio, um total de 80 L de água do Rio Doce foram coletados antes da chegada dos rejeitos e outros 80 L foram coletados depois da chegada dos rejeitos e ambas foram submetidas a análises de quantificação de metal. Os peixes expostos ao DRWBA e ao DRWAA apresentaram um aumento significativo na quantidade de micronúcleos eritrocitários e no índice de danos do DNA em relação aos peixes controle, no entanto não apresentaram diferenças entre si. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que a DRWBA já era genotóxica para os peixes, principalmente, em função das concentrações de Cu dissolvido na água. A DRWAA apresentou genotixicidade, provavelmente, em função do aumento da fração dissolvida e do efeito sinérgico de diversos metais presentes nos rejeitos do acidente de Mariana.

Animals , DNA Damage/drug effects , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Metals, Heavy/classification , Cichlids/physiology , Cichlids/genetics , Disasters , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/classification , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Rivers/chemistry , Fresh Water/chemistry , Mining
Acta toxicol. argent ; 26(1): 1-11, mayo 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973611


El hombre ha cambiado el ambiente para sostener la demanda global de recursos naturales como el agua. La gestión de los cuerpos hídricos tiene que ser constante, con el propósito preventivo y correctivo, dependiendo del estado de antropización de cada sistema. El objetivo de este artículo fue analizar la toxicidad del sedimento y los metales Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd y Cu, en el reservorio Paiva Castro, que abastece la Region Metropolitana de São Paulo. Se realizaron 2 muestreos (Mayo 2011, estación seca y Enero de 2012, estación húmeda) y se analizaron 5 puntos próximos a la captación de agua por la Companhia de Saneamento Básico do Estado de São Paulo. Se realizaron ensayos de toxicidad aguda y crónica en sedimento, a través de ensayos biológicos con el cladócero Daphnia similis y el insecto Chironomus xanthus. El tratamiento de datos se realizó con el test de Fisher (mortalidad). El nivel de asociación entre las variables en sedimento y en los test ecotoxicológicos fueron evaluados por test no-paramétricos, a través del coeficiente de correlación de Spearman's. Los resultados del presente trabajo señalaron bajas concentracones de metales en el sedimento del área de estudio y ausencia de toxicidad en los organismos ensayados. Se puede concluir que área estudiada del reservorio Paiva Castro se encuentra poco impactada por los metales, sin efectos directos sobre la calidad de vida los organismos bentónicos: D. similis y C. xanthus.

Man had changed the natural environment in an attempt trying to supply the global demand for resources. The management of the hydric bodies has to be constant, with preventive and corrective purpose, depending on the eutrophization state of each one. The objective of this article was to analyze the sediment toxicity and the metals Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cu, in the Paiva Castro reservoir, that supply the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. It was made 2 collections (May 2011, dry season and January 2012, wet season). It was analyzed 5 points next to the water captation station by the Companhia de Saneamento Básico do Estado de São Paulo. The sediment was analyzed as for acute and chronic toxicity through bioassays with the cladocerans Daphnia similis and the insect Chironomus xanthus. Data treatment was done with Fisher Exact Test (mortality). The association level between the variables in sediment and ecotoxicological tests was available in non-parametric tests, through the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Oriented on the results presented in this work, pointing low concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments presented in the collect local, and the absence of toxicity, we can say that at this reservoir, at least in the collect area, it's low impacted, not implicating in direct interferences in the quality of life of benthonic organisms.

Zinc/toxicity , Cadmium/toxicity , Water Reservoirs/prevention & control , Sediments/analysis , Copper/toxicity , Lead/toxicity , Manganese/toxicity , Nickel/toxicity , Brazil , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Acute/analysis , Toxicity Tests, Acute/methods , Toxicity Tests, Chronic/analysis , Toxicity Tests, Chronic/methods
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 571-586, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788980


ABSTRACT An analysis of wastewater samples collected from different industrial regions of Egypt demonstrated dangerously high levels of nickel (0.27-31.50 mg L-1), chromium (1.50-7.41 mg L-1) and zinc (1.91-9.74 mg L-1) in the effluents. Alarmingly, these heavy metals are among the most toxic knownones to humans and wildlife. Sixty-nine Actinomycete isolates derived from contaminated sites were evaluated under single, binary, and ternary systems for their biosorption capacity for Ni2+, Cr6+ and Zn2+ from aqueous solutions. The results of the study identified isolates MORSY1948 and MORSY2014 as the most active biosorbents. Phenotypic and chemotypic characterization along with molecular phylogenetic evidence confirmed that the two strains are members of the Nocardiopsis and Nocardia genera, respectively. The results also proved that for both the strains, heavy metal reduction was more efficient with dead rather than live biomass. The affinity of the dead biomass of MORSY1948 strain for Ni2+, Cr6+ and Zn2+ under the optimized pH conditions of 7, 8 and 7, respectively at 40 °C temperature with 0.3% biosorbent dosage was found to be as follows: Ni2+ (87.90%) > Zn2+ (84.15%) > Cr6+ (63.75%). However, the dead biomass of MORSY2014 strain under conditions of pH 8 and 50 °C temperature with 0.3% biosorbent dose exhibited the highest affinity which was as follows: Cr6+ (95.22%) > Ni2+ (93.53%) > Zn2+ (90.37%). All heavy metals under study were found to be removed from aqueous solutions in entirety when the sorbent dosage was increased to 0.4%.

Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Nocardia/classification , Nocardia/metabolism , Temperature , Time Factors , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Biomass , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Adsorption , Egypt , Wastewater/microbiology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Industrial Waste , Nocardia/isolation & purification , Nocardia/genetics
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 35(spe): 139-151, ago. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762730


Introducción. En Colombia, la minería es una actividad económica importante; sin embargo, genera grandes cantidades de residuos que contienen elementos potencialmente tóxicos, como los metales pesados, que contaminan los ecosistemas y ponen en riesgo la salud humana. La región de La Mojana es una de las zonas más ricas en biodiversidad del planeta y se ha visto sometida a procesos de contaminación muy relacionados con la minería de oro que se desarrolla en sus alrededores. Objetivo. Evaluar la genotoxicidad en una población expuesta a residuos de metales pesados en la región de La Mojana. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron los efectos genotóxicos y su relación con la concentración de metales pesados (mercurio, cadmio y plomo) en muestras de sangre de la población expuesta y el grupo de control. El grupo expuesto lo conformaron habitantes de los municipios de Guaranda, Sucre, Majagual y San Marcos; en el grupo de control se incluyó a habitantes del municipio de Montería. Se determinó el daño en el ADN mediante el ensayo cometa en condiciones alcalinas. Las concentraciones de mercurio se establecieron mediante espectrometría de absorción atómica con vapor frío, en tanto que las de cadmio y plomo se determinaron por espectrometría de absorción atómica en horno de grafito. Resultados. Las concentraciones de los metales sobrepasaron los límites permitidos por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se evidenciaron efectos genotóxicos posiblemente asociados a la presencia de los metales en la sangre. Se encontraron asociaciones significativas (p<0,05) entre la presencia de mercurio y de cadmio, y el daño en el ADN. Conclusión. Estos resultados sugieren que el daño genético registrado en pobladores de la región de La Mojana, Colombia, puede estar asociado a la presencia de los metales estudiados en las muestras de sangre.

Introduction: Mining is an economically important activity in Colombia which generates large quantities of residues containing potentially toxic elements such as heavy metals. These contaminate ecosystems and place human health at risk. La Mojana lies within one of the most biodiversity-rich zones on Earth and has been subjected to processes of contamination closely related to gold mining activities in the surrounding areas. Objective: To evaluate genotoxicity in the population of La Mojana region exposed to heavy metals. Materials and methods: Genotoxic effects and their relationship with concentrations of heavy metals (mercury, cadmium and lead) in blood were evaluated among an exposed population and a control group. The exposed group comprised inhabitants of the municipalities of Guaranda, Sucre, Majagual and San Marcos; inhabitants of the municipality of Montería were chosen as a control group. DNA damage was determined using the alkaline comet assay. Concentrations of mercury were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, and those of cadmium and lead by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: Concentrations of the heavy metals exceeded the limits permitted by the World Health Organization. Genotoxic effects were found in the exposed population, possibly associated with the presence of these metals in blood. Significant associations (p<0.05) were found between mercury and cadmium levels and damage to DNA. Conclusion: These results suggest that the genetic damage recorded among inhabitants of the region of La Mojana, Colombia, may be associated with the presence of heavy metals in the blood.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Environmental Exposure , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Mutagens/toxicity , Colombia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cadmium/blood , Lead/blood , Mercury/blood
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 30(1): 2-9, jun. 2015. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868795


La biotecnología ambiental recurre a organismos capaces de reducir los niveles de metales pesados, entre ellos el Cr(VI), contenido en residuos y efluentes agroindustriales. El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar la biorremediación de un residuo como pulpa de limón contaminada con Cr(VI) y el efecto del metal sobre el crecimiento fúngico. Se utilizaron tres hongos filamentosos como Aspergillus niger; Penicillium expansum y P. islandicum para remediar pulpa de limón (residuo) contaminada con Cr(VI) (50 mg/L) que se realizó en las siguientes condiciones de cultivo: la pulpa se suplementó con urea, 0,006; (NH4) 2SO4, 0,012; KH2PO4,0,003 y KCl, 0,001 g/ g; 105 conidios/g, a pH 2,5, 30°C y 96 h de incubación. Se estudió el efecto tóxico de diferentes concentraciones (5; 10; 20 y 50 mg/L) del metal sobre el desarrollo del hongo de mayor eficiencia de remediación (Ef. por ciento). Aspergillus niger; obtuvo mayor EF. de remediación (97 por ciento) respecto a Penicillium expansum (95 por ciento) y P. islandicum (94 por ciento), del residuo contaminado con 50 mg/L de Cr(VI). Se determinó que la presencia de Cr(VI) y no su concentración estimuló la maduración temprana (48 h) de los conidios (blancos a negros) de A. niger, sin que se observe alteraciones en el micelio con respecto al control (72h), desarrollado en la pulpa sin el metal. En conclusión, A. niger fue más resistente y presentó altas Ef. de remediación de Cr(VI) de residuos sólidos, este proceso es una alternativa a las tecnologías físico-químicas, debido que los microorganismos pueden remover selectivamente diferentes iones de zonas contaminadas.

Environmental biotechnology uses organisms capable of reducing levels of heavy metals, including the Cr (VI), contained in waste and agro-industrial effluents. The objective of this work was to study bioremediation of waste contaminated with Cr(VI) lemon pulp and the effect of the metal on the fungal growth. We used three filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus niger; Penicillium expansum and P. islandicum to remedy pulp from lemon (residue) contaminated with Cr(VI) (50 mg/L) that was conducted in the following conditions of cultivation: the pulp is supplemented with urea, 0.006; (NH4) 2SO4, 0.012; KH2PO4, 0.003 and KCl, 0.001 g / g; 105 conidia/g, at pH 2.5, 30 ° C and 96 h of incubation. We studied the toxic effect of different concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 50 mg/L) of the metal on the development of the fungus increased efficiency of remediation (Ef. percent). Aspergillus niger; obtained greater EF. remediation (97 percent) with respect to Penicillium expansum (95 percent) and P. islandicum (94 percent), 50 mg/L of Cr (VI)-contaminated waste. It was determined that the presence of Cr (VI) and not its concentration stimulated early maturation (48 h) of conidia (white on black) from A. niger, unless you observe alterations in the mycelium as compared to the control (72 h), developed in the pulp without the metal. In conclusion, A. niger was stronger and presented high Ef. remediation of Cr (VI) waste, this process is an alternative to physico-chemical technologies, due to the micro-organisms be removed selectively different ions from contaminated areas.

Humans , Aspergillus niger/growth & development , Biodegradation, Environmental , Chromium/toxicity , Penicillium/growth & development , Solid Waste/analysis , Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods , Fungi/growth & development , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Contaminant Removal/methods , Hazardous Substances/toxicity
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(6): 569-572, June 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766179


The concentration of heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Al, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) was evaluated in the blood of nestling blue macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) captured in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul (n=26) in 2012; this was based on the hypothesis that these birds exhibit levels of these heavy metals in their organism and that these interfere in hatching success, weight and age of the chicks. Blood samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid and the quantification of metals was performed by ICP-OES (Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma). Blood samples of nestlings showed concentrations of Cr (0.10μg/g) Fe (3.06μg/g) Al (3.46μg/g), Cd (0.25μg/g) Cu (0.74μg/g), Mo (0.33μg/g), Ni (0.61μg/g), Se (0.98μg/g), and Zn (2.08μg/g). The levels of heavy metals found were not associated with weight, age and hatching success of the chicks.

Avaliou-se a concentração de metais pesados (selênio, zinco, ferro, cobre, molibdênio, níquel, cromo, arsênio, cádmio, chumbo e alumínio) no sangue de filhotes de arara-azul (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) capturados no Pantanal (n=26) no ano de 2012, partindo da hipótese de que estas aves apresentem níveis desses metais pesados no organismo e que os mesmos tenham relação com o sucesso de eclosão, peso e idade dos filhotes. As amostras de sangue foram digeridas em ácido nítrico e ácido clorídrico e a quantificação dos metais foi realizada por ICP-OES (Espectroscopia e Emissão Óptica por Plasma Indutivamente Acoplado). As amostras de sangue de filhotes de A.hyacinthinusapresentaram concentrações de Cr (0,10μg/g), Fe (3,06μg/g), Al (3,46μg/g), Cd (0,25μg/g), Cu (0,74μg/g), Mo (0,33μg/g), Ni (0,61μg/g), Se (0,98μg/g) e Zn (2,08μg/g). Os níveis de metais pesados encontrados não apresentaram relação com o peso, idade ou sucesso de eclosão.

Animals , Environmental Biomarkers , Inorganic Pollutants , Psittaciformes , Metals, Heavy/poisoning , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Hematologic Tests , Hematologic Tests/veterinary
Hamdard Medicus. 2014; 56 (4): 38-52
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-167794


The current research was carried out to determine the concentration of heavy metals and microbiological quality in Bangladeshi herbal products used for the treatment of various ailments. For these purposes twenty four herbal products have been collected from the local market of Bangladesh which is manufactured by Sri Kundeshshari Aushadhalaya Ltd. Chittagong, Sadona Aushadhalaya Ltd. Dhaka, Sri Durga Aushadhalaya Ltd. Chittagong, Shakti Aushadhalaya Ltd. Dhaka. Heavy metals have been determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer [AAS] and microbial parameters have been detected by applying standard analytical method. The concentration of heavy metals namely Lead [Pb], Cadmium [Cd], Copper [Cu], Zinc [Zn], Nickel [Ni], Cobalt [Co], Manganese [Mn] and Iron [Fe] have been identified in the range of [0.0-1.75] ppm, [0.0- 0.27] ppm, [0.27-2.54] ppm, [1.31-28.67] ppm, [0.18-1.28] ppm, [0.00- 0.00] ppm, [1.55-6.83] ppm, [9.21-142.85] ppm respectively. All of the samples except K[3] [Tables 3 and 4] have not crossed their acceptable limit of heavy metals according to manufacturer doses for daily consumption. The total viable count [TVC] of the samples was ranged from nil to 1.92×10[4] CFU/ml and the total yeasts and moulds count were found nil to 1.68×10[2] CFU/ml. Salmonella or Escherichia coli was not present in any of the samples. The microbial quality of the herbal drugs was satisfactory limit according to United States Pharmacopoeia [2006][1]

Plants, Medicinal/microbiology , Metals, Heavy/poisoning , Metals, Heavy/toxicity
Hamdard Medicus. 2013; 56 (2): 56-76
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-157735


Renal diseases have always remained a major area of concern for physicians and researchers since long time. It is the ninth leading cause of death in developed countries. Renal diseases leading to renal failure has increased up to two folds over the last two decades. This is due to the over use of drugs and adulteration of food items by heavy metals and aflotoxins. Heavy metals are proven to be renal toxics. Several studies have been carried out to establish the efficacy of Nephroprotective medicinal plants. A review of the work already undertaken has been carried out and summarized here. This paper will provide a base line for researchers in this field for further studies. In this review, a summary on pharmacologically active nephroprotective medicinal plants such as, Moringa oleifera Linn., Smilax china Linn. and Euphorbia hirta etc. have been included. Since a review was already available till 2005, so in this paper the experimental studies which have been conducted from 2005 to 2012 have been included

Kidney Diseases/prevention & control , Euphorbia , Moringa oleifera , Metals, Heavy/toxicity
International Journal of Environmental Research. 2013; 7 (1): 219-224
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-130248


Zebra fish were exposed to environmentally relevant concentration of pesticides and metals for a period of 14 days. The individual and the combined toxicity of pesticides and metals were studied. Damage caused to the DNA and induction of mutation in the GADD45beta gene was investigated in this study. The present investigation revealed that exposure of zebra fish to pesticides and metals induced DNA damage and also mutation in the GADD45beta gene. The pesticides treated group [III] showed significantly higher damage followed by metals treated group [II]. The DNA damage was comparatively less in the pesticides and metals exposed group [IV]. GADD45beta gene which is considered to be one of the most important gene involved in G phase arrest, has been found to be mutated in zebra fish when exposed to metals and pesticides. The comparison of amplified gene sequence of GADD45beta gene with the sequence of the zebra fish retrieved from the NCBI confirmed the mutation in the gene sequence of zebra fish treated with pesticides and metals. The induction of DNA damage in fish due to contaminants may lead to mutations, which contribute towards the multistage carcinogenesis process

Animals , Zebrafish , DNA Damage , Mutation/genetics , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/toxicity , Pesticides/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Carcinogenesis
Assiut University Bulletin For Environmental Researches. 2012; 15 (1): 53-63
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-126298


The present study was designed to evaluate toxopathological effects of heavy metals emitted from superphosphate factory on the reproductive performance of male goats. Thirty male goats were selected from Gaz. El-Akrad area adjacent to factory [group 1] and five male goats from Dairut area [group 2] served as control. Serum samples were used for determination of cadmium, fluorine, testosterone and prostatic acid phosphatase. Tissue specimens were obtained from testes, epididymis and prostate for histopathological examination. It was observed that the level of cadmium and fluorine was significantly increased in the serum of exposed group when compared with control group. It was observed that the mean level of testosterone in group 1 was extremely significantly decreased while the level of prostatic acid phosphatase was significantly increased when compared with control group. Histopathological findings in the testicle of male goat of the group 1 revealed testicular degeneration with formation of spermatid giant cells. Congestion of the blood vessel, edema and fibrosis of the interstitial tissue with formation of sperm granuloma were noticed. The epididymis showed edema, fibrosis and necrosis of the epididymal tubules. The prostate gland showed edema, fibrosis and hyperplasia. Our results strongly suggest that cadmium and fluorine intoxication produces adverse effects on sexual fertility with hormonal and pathological alterations in male goats

Fertilizers , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Reproduction , Goats , Male , Testis/pathology , Histology
Int. j. morphol ; 29(2): 412-419, June 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597467


The effects of sublethal concentrations of cadmium (0.64 µg/L), iron (0.043 mg/L) and zinc (0.31 mg/L) and a mixture of these metals on succinate dehydrogenase (SD) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and on structural changes in the mitochondria of epithelium cells of the digestive tract were examined in the oligochaete Limnodrillus hoffmeisteri after 96 h of exposure in artificial sediments. SD activity was significantly inhibited, particularly in treatments with Cd alone (92.57 percent), while AP increased its activity with Cd alone (73.23 percent). However, when this metal was mixed with Fe and Zn, the inhibition of SD activity was lower (67.82 percent) than with Cd alone, showing an antagonistic effect and AP increased its activity (73.26 percent). Mitochondria were structurally damaged by exposure to Cd alone. However, in the metal mixtures, the toxic effects may exert interactive effects eliciting a less structural damage in the mitochondria of epithelium cells of the digestive tract than when Cd is alone.

Se estudió el efecto de las concentraciones subletales de Cd (0,64 µg/L), Fe (0,043 mg/L) y Zn (0,31 mg/L) en forma aislada y en mezcla sobre la actividad de la succinato deshidrogenasa (SD) y la fosfatasa alcalina (AP) en las mitocondrias de las células epiteliales del tracto digestivo en el oligoqueto Limnodrillus hoffmeisteri después de 96 h de exposición en sedimentos artificiales. La SD se inhibió significativamente, particularmente en los tratamientos con Cd en forma aislada (92,57 por ciento), mientras que la AP se incrementó con Cd en forma aislada (73,23 por ciento). Sin embargo, cuando este metal se mezcló con Fe y Zn, la inhibición de la SD fue menor (67,82 por ciento) que con Cd en forma aislada, lo que mostró un efecto antagonístico y la AP incrementó su actividad (73,23 por ciento). Sin embargo, cuando este metal estaba en mezcla con Fe y Zn, la inhibición de la SD fue menor (67,82 por ciento) que con Cd en forma aislada, mostrando un efecto antagonístico y un incremento en la actividad de la AP (73,26 por ciento). Las mitocondrias fueron dañadas estructuralmente por exposición al Cd en forma aislada. Sin embargo, con los metales en mezcla, los efectos tóxicos pudieron ejercer efectos interactivos provocando un menor daño estructural en la mitocondria de las células del epitelio del tracto digestivo que cuando el Cd estaba en forma aislada.

Animals , Oligochaeta , Succinate Dehydrogenase/drug effects , Zinc/toxicity , Cadmium/toxicity , Alkaline Phosphatase/drug effects , Iron/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Mitochondria
Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2011; 7 (2): 157-163
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110418


As lead is an important environmental noxious waste which directly or indirectly contaminate the foods, soil water, and air thus, insects could be influenced easily by the lead. Therefore, lead was studied as lead acetate in different doses. viz 0.125 mg., 0.25 mg., 0.5 mg, 01 mg and 02 mg, on external morphology on Drosophila melanogaster at 48 hours post treatment. It was observed that under the effects of lead abnormalities and deformity were developed in the larvae of flies. Morphological changes were observed as elongated wings, de-shaped wings, elongated and folded legs, change in color of larvae, pupae and adults. Some other structural abnormalities of larvae and pupa shape were also observed. Thus the Dipterous flies could present a useful module for the quick transmission of the environmental hazards due to lead contamination, which exerts a specific physiological and morphological effect on these flies. So, in this respect, Drosophila melanogaster, could be used as a test method for heavy metals effects

Insecta , Metals, Heavy/adverse effects , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Drosophila melanogaster/drug effects , Hazardous Substances , Teratogens , Hazardous Waste , Environmental Pollution , Water Pollution, Chemical , Water Pollutants, Chemical