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1.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 144-154, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880953

ABSTRACT

Oocyte cryopreservation is widely used for clinical and social reasons. Previous studies have demonstrated that conventional slow-freezing cryopreservation procedures, but not storage time, can alter the gene expression profiles of frozen oocytes. Whether vitrification procedures and the related frozen storage durations have any effects on the transcriptomes of human metaphase II oocytes remain unknown. Four women (30-32 years old) who had undergone IVF treatment were recruited for this study. RNA-Seq profiles of 3 fresh oocytes and 13 surviving vitrified-thawed oocytes (3, 3, 4, and 3 oocytes were cryostored for 1,2, 3, and 12 months) were analyzed at a single-cell resolution. A total of 1987 genes were differentially expressed in the 13 vitrified-thawed oocytes. However, no differentially expressed genes were found between any two groups among the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 12-month storage groups. Further analysis revealed that the aberrant genes in the vitrified oocytes were closely related to oogenesis and development. Our findings indicated that the effects of vitrification on the transcriptomes of mature human oocytes are induced by the procedure itself, suggesting that long-term cryostorage of human oocytes is safe.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cryopreservation , Female , Humans , Metaphase , Oocytes , RNA-Seq , Vitrification
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781296

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out multipath cytogenetic analysis of a rare case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with 11q23 aberration and D13S319 deletion.@*METHODS@#G+R banding technique was used to analyze the chromosomal karyotype of the patient after 24 h of cell culture. Combined interphase and metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect specific chromosomal sites for complex translocations and minor missing fragments.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to harbor MLL-AF10 fusion gene due to rearrangement of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene in conjunct with deletion of the D13S319 locus on chromosome 13.@*CONCLUSION@#Whether MLL gene rearrangement and absence of D13S319 locus has a double impact on AML should attract more attention. For AML patient with clonal abnormalities such as 13q-, del(13)(q14), -13 or der(13), FISH assay should be proof and considered to determine the size of missing fragment so as targeted therapy may be implemented.


Subject(s)
Cells, Cultured , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 , Genetics , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Interphase , Karyotyping , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Genetics , Metaphase , Translocation, Genetic
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760351

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to examine the effects of various macromolecules in in vitro growth (IVG) media on the growth, maturation, and parthenogenesis (PA) of pig oocytes derived from small antral follicles (SAF). Immature oocytes were cultured for two days in IVG medium supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS), 10% (v/v) pig follicular fluid (PFF), 0.4% (w/v) bovine serum albumin (BSA), or 0.1% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and then maintained for 44 h for maturation. After IVG, the mean diameters of the SAF treated with FBS, PVA, and no IVG-MAF (113.0–114.8 µm) were significantly larger than that of no IVG-SAF (111.8 µm). The proportion of metaphase II oocytes was higher in PFF (73.6%) than in BSA (43.5%) and PVA (53.7%) but similar to that in the FBS treatment (61.5%). FBS and PFF increased cumulus expansion significantly compared to PVA and BSA while the intraoocyte glutathione content was not influenced by the macromolecules. Blastocyst formation of PA oocytes treated with FBS (51.8%), PFF (50.4%), and PVA (45.2%) was significantly higher than that of the BSA-treated oocytes (20.6%). These results show that the PFF and FBS treatments during IVG improved the growth, maturation, and embryonic development of SAF.


Subject(s)
Blastocyst , Embryonic Development , Female , Follicular Fluid , Glutathione , In Vitro Techniques , Metaphase , Oocytes , Parthenogenesis , Polyvinyl Alcohol , Pregnancy , Serum Albumin, Bovine
4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 667-678, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762093

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate how type I diabetes mellitus (T1D) affects the folliculogenesis and oocyte development, fertilization, and embryo development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparative animal study was conducted using two different mouse models of T1D, a genetic AKITA model and a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model. Ovarian function was assessed by gross observation, immunoblot, immunohistochemistry, oocyte counting, and ELISA for serum hormones (insulin, anti-Mullerian hormone, estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone). Maturation and developmental competence of metaphase II oocytes from control and T1D animals was evaluated by immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical detection of biomarkers and in vitro fertilization. RESULTS: Animals from both T1D models showed increased blood glucose levels, while only streptozotocin (STZ)-injected mice showed reduced body weight. Folliculogenesis, oogenesis, and preimplantation embryogenesis were impaired in both T1D mouse models. Interestingly, exogenous streptozotocin injection to induce T1D led to marked decreases in ovary size, expression of luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor in the ovaries, the number of corpora lutea per ovary, oocyte maturation, and serum progesterone levels. Both T1D models exhibited significantly reduced pre-implantation embryo quality compared with controls. There was no significant difference in embryo quality between STZ-injected and AKITA diabetic mice. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that T1D affects folliculogenesis, oogenesis, and embryo development in mice. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the observed reproductive effects of diabetes need to be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Mullerian Hormone , Biomarkers , Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Corpus Luteum , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Embryonic Development , Embryonic Structures , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Estradiol , Female , Female , Fertility , Fertilization , Fertilization in Vitro , Gonadotropins , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lutein , Mental Competency , Metaphase , Mice , Oocytes , Oogenesis , Ovary , Pregnancy , Progesterone , Reproduction , Streptozocin , Testosterone
5.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 16(2): 107-112, Ago. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-998082

ABSTRACT

La citogenética es el estudio de los cromosomas tanto en número como en estructura. En 1882 Flemming publica las primeras primeras ilustraciones de los cromosomas humanos a partir de observaciones al microscopio y recién en el año 1953, Tjio y Levan determinaron el número real de cromosomas humanos por célula diploide (2n=46). El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el valor, uso actual e importancia de los estudios citogenéticos en aquellos casos en que el profesional de salud se enfrente a un paciente con una probable enfermedad de causa genética o síndrome dismórfico, además de exponer algunas experiencias de un laboratorio de Citogenética en el Paraguay, donde se realiza el estudio cromosómico. Aún con el advenimiento de la Biología Molecular y de la Citogenética Molecular, la citogenética convencional sigue siendo una herramienta de gran importancia, ya que permite realizar el diagnóstico de una enfermedad genética en pacientes con sospecha clínica de ser portadores de anomalías cromosómicas, y por tanto asesorar a las familias respecto de dicha enfermedad, proveer un pronóstico, riesgo de recurrencia y en casos que se requiera, un tratamiento(AU)


Cytogenetics is the study of chromosomes both in number and structure. The first publications about human cytogenetics were provided towards the end of the 19th century with the publication of Flemming in 1882 of the first figures of human chromosomes from observations under the microscope and only in 1953, Tjio and Levan determined the actual number of human chromosomes per diploid cell (2n = 46). The purpose of this paper is to present the value, current use and importance of cytogenetic studies in those cases in which the health professional faces a patient with a probable disease of genetic causes or dysmorphic syndrome, in addition to exposing some experiences from a Cytogenetics laboratory in Paraguay, where chromosomal study is carried out. Even with the arrival of Molecular Biology and Molecular Cytogenetics, conventional cytogenetics is a tool with a great importance, which allows the genetic disease diagnosis in patients with clinical suspicion of being carriers of chromosomal abnormalities, allowing to advice families about the disease, as well as to provide a prognosis, risk of recurrence and, in cases that requires it, a treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytogenetic Analysis , Cytogenetics/trends , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/diagnosis , Chromosomes, Human/genetics , Karyotype , Metaphase
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713887

ABSTRACT

We report a patient with massive eosinophilia and a complex karyotype that was initially misdiagnosed as chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), but later diagnosed as anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) masked by massive eosinophilia. The complex karyotype observed at initial diagnosis remained unchanged later, after the evidence of bone marrow involvement of ALCL was obtained. At diagnosis, genetic aberrations corresponding to metaphase cytogenetics were not identified by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization, although abnormal results were noted at follow-up. Together, these observations indicate that the complex karyotype at initial work-up has been derived from a low proportion of lymphoma cells with high mitotic ability that were not identified by microscopy, rather than from massive eosinophils. These findings suggest that our patient had ALCL with secondary eosinophilia rather than CEL since initial diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Cytogenetics , Diagnosis , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Fluorescence , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome , In Situ Hybridization , Interphase , Karyotype , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic , Masks , Metaphase , Microscopy
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713682

ABSTRACT

In multiple myeloma (MM), hyperdiploidy (HD) is known to impart longer overall survival. However, it is unclear whether coexistent HD ameliorates the adverse effects of known high-risk cytogenetics in MM patients. To address this issue, we investigated the clinicopathological characteristics of HD with high-risk cytogenetics in MM. Ninety-seven patients with MM were included in the study. For metaphase cytogenetics (MC), unstimulated cells from bone marrow aspirates were cultured for either 24 or 48 hours. To detect HD by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH), we assessed trisomies of chromosomes 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, and 17. Of the 97 MM patients, 40 showed HD. The frequency of co-occurrence of HD and high-risk cytogenetics was 14% (14/97). When the clinicopathological characteristics were compared between the two groups of HD with high-risk cytogenetics vs. non-HD (NHD) with high-risk cytogenetics, the level of beta 2 microglobulin and stage distribution significantly differed (P=0.020, P=0.032, respectively). This study shows that some of the clinicopathological characteristics of MM patients with high-risk cytogenetics differ according to HD or NHD status.


Subject(s)
beta 2-Microglobulin , Bone Marrow , Cytogenetics , Fluorescence , Humans , In Situ Hybridization , Interphase , Metaphase , Multiple Myeloma , Trisomy
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-344146

ABSTRACT

Chromosome analysis has been widely used in clinics including prenatal diagnosis. To obtain high-quality metaphase chromosomes, researchers have attempted to modify the methods for chromosome culture, preparation and analysis. Some large research centers also tried to establish standards for quality control. In this paper, modification of methods for the preparation of chromosomes in the last decade is reviewed.


Subject(s)
Cells, Cultured , Chromosomes, Human , Cytogenetic Analysis , Humans , Karyotyping , Metaphase
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165799

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate whether fertilization could induce the resumption of meiosis in mouse oocytes arrested at metaphase I (MI) after in vitro maturation (IVM), and to investigate the effect of Ca²⁺ chelator treatment at the time of fertilization on the transition from MI to metaphase II (MII). METHODS: MII-stage and arrested MI-stage mouse oocytes after IVM were fertilized, and then embryonic development was monitored. Blastocysts from each group were transferred into 2.5 days post-coitum pseudo-pregnant ICR mice. MI oocytes after IVM were treated with a Ca²⁺ chelator to investigate the effect of Ca²⁺ oscillations on their maturation. RESULTS: As insemination time increased, the number of oocytes in the MI group that reached the MII stage also increased. The blastocyst rates and total cell numbers in the MII group were significantly higher than in the MI group. No pregnancy occurred in the MI group, but 10 pregnancies were achieved (10 of 12) in the MII group. The proportion of MI oocytes that matured to MII oocytes after fertilization was significantly higher in the non-treated group than in the Ca²⁺ chelator-treated group. CONCLUSION: The findings that a higher proportion of MI-arrested oocytes progressed to MII after fertilization and that the MI-to-MII transition was blocked by Ca2+ chelator treatments before fertilization indicate that the maturation of MI oocytes to MII oocytes is associated with intracellular Ca²⁺ oscillations driven by fertilization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blastocyst , Calcium Signaling , Cell Count , Embryonic Development , Female , Fertilization , In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques , In Vitro Techniques , Insemination , Meiosis , Metaphase , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Oocytes , Pregnancy , Spermatozoa
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219266

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Oocyte degeneration often occurs after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and the risk factor is low-quality oocytes. The follicular fluid (FF) provides a crucial microenvironment for oocyte development. We investigated the relationships between the FF volume aspirated from individual follicles and oocyte retrieval, oocyte maturity, oolemma stretchability, fertilization, and development. METHODS: This retrospective study included data obtained from 229 ICSI cycles. Ovarian stimulation was performed according to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol. Each follicle was individually aspirated and divided into six groups according to FF volume (<1.0, 1.0 to <2.0, 2.0 to <3.0, 3.0 to <4.0, 4.0 to <5.0, and ≥5.0 mL). Oolemma stretchability during ICSI was evaluated using a mechanical stimulus for oolemma penetration, that is, the stretchability was assessed by oolemma penetration with aspiration (high stretchability) or without aspiration (low stretchability). RESULTS: Oocyte retrieval rates were significantly lower in the <1.0 mL group than in the ≥1.0 mL groups (46.0% [86/187] vs. 67.5%–74.3% [172/255 to 124/167], respectively; p<0.01). Low oolemma stretchability was significantly more common in the <1.0 mL group than in the ≥1.0 mL groups during ICSI (22.0% [13/59] vs. 5.8%–9.4% [6/104 to 13/139], respectively; p=0.018). There was a relationship between FF volume and oolemma stretchability. However, there were no significant differences in the rates of fertilization, cleavage, ≥7 cells at day 3, and blastocyst development among all groups. CONCLUSION: FF volume is potentially associated with the stretchability of metaphase II oolemma during ICSI. Regarding oolemma stretchability, ensuring a uniform follicular size during ovarian stimulation is crucial to obtain good-quality oocytes.


Subject(s)
Blastocyst , Clothing , Female , Fertilization , Follicular Fluid , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Humans , Infertility , Membranes , Metaphase , Oocyte Retrieval , Oocytes , Ovarian Follicle , Ovulation Induction , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telomere shortening is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of myeloid malignancies, but telomere lengths (TL) during interphase and metaphase in hematopoietic malignancies have not been analyzed. We aimed to assess the TLs of interphase and metaphase cells of MDS and telomerase activity (TA) and to find out prognostic significances of TL and TA. METHODS: The prognostic significance of TA by quantitative PCR and TL by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (QFISH) of interphase nuclei and metaphase chromosome arms of bone marrow cells from patients with MDS were evaluated. RESULTS: MDS patients had shorter interphase TL than normal healthy donors (P<0.001). Average interphase and metaphase TL were inversely correlated (P=0.013, p arm; P=0.029, q arm), but there was no statistically significant correlation between TA and TL (P=0.258). The progression free survival was significantly shorter in patients with high TA, but the overall survival was not different according to average TA or interphase TL groups. Multivariable Cox analysis showed that old age, higher International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) subtypes, transformation to AML, no history of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and short average interphase TL (<433 TL) as independent prognostic factors for poorer survival (P=0.003, 0.001, 0.005, 0.005, and 0.013, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The lack of correlation between age and TL, TA, and TL, and the inverse relationship between TL and TA in MDS patients reflect the dysregulation of telomere status and proliferation. As a prognostic marker for leukemia progression, TA may be considered, and since interphase TL has the advantage of automated measurement by QFISH, it may be used as a prognostic marker for survival in MDS.


Subject(s)
Arm , Bone Marrow Cells , Disease-Free Survival , Fluorescence , Hematologic Neoplasms , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , In Situ Hybridization , Interphase , Leukemia , Metaphase , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis , Telomerase , Telomere Shortening , Telomere , Tissue Donors
12.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 103-110, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and characteristics of HLA-DR⁻/CD34⁻ acute myeloid leukemia (AML) also known as acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)-like AML. METHODS: This study included 683 newly diagnosed patients with AML. After exclusion of 211 patients with recurrent genetic abnormalities, one with acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis, two with myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome, and two devoid of metaphase cells, we classified the remaining 467 patients as follows: group 1, HLA-DR⁺/CD34⁺ (typical AML); group 2, HLA-DR⁺/CD34⁻ or HLA-DR⁻/CD34⁺; group 3, APL-like AML. RESULTS: Group 1 comprised 294 patients, group 2 comprised 133, and group 3 comprised 40. Therefore, the frequency of APL-like AML among 683 unselected patients with AML was 5.9%. Group 3 patients had significantly higher leukocyte counts and bone marrow (BM) blast percentages, higher frequencies of normal karyotypes and NPM1 mutation, higher fractions of CD33-positive cells, higher concentrations of fibrin degradation products and D-dimers, lower frequencies of complex karyotypes, monosomal karyotypes and poor cytogenetic risk, lower fractions of CD13-positive cells, and lower fibrinogen concentrations, compared with group 1 patients. The values of the BM blast percentage, number of CD33-positive cells, and DIC score of the patients with APL-like AML were intermediate between those of the patients with typical AML and APL. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that APL-like AML is not uncommon, and it has characteristics distinguishable from those of typical AML. APL-like AML may have some pathophysiological relationships with APL, which need further investigation.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Cytogenetics , Dacarbazine , Down Syndrome , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinogen , HLA-DR Antigens , Humans , Karyotype , Leukemia, Myeloid , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Leukocyte Count , Metaphase , Primary Myelofibrosis
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Optimizing in vitro maturation (IVM) media to achieve better outcomes has been a matter of interest in recent years. The aim of this prospective clinical trial was to investigate the effects of different media on the IVM outcomes of immature oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. METHODS: A total of 400 immature oocytes at the GV stage with normal morphology were retrieved from 320 infertile women aged 31±4.63 years during stimulated intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. They were divided into groups of homemade IVM medium (I, n=100), cleavage medium (II, n=100), blastocyst medium (III, n=100), and Sage IVM medium (IV, n=100) and cultured for 24 to 48 hours at 37℃. ICSI was performed, and the rates of fertilization and embryo formation were compared across the four groups. RESULTS: In the 400 retrieved GV oocytes, the total maturation rates showed significant differences in groups I to IV (55%, 53%, 78%, and 68%, respectively, p<0.001). However, there were no significant differences in the fertilization, embryo formation, or arrest rates of metaphase II oocytes across these groups. In all groups, GV maturation was mostly completed after 24 hours, with fewer oocytes requiring 48 hours to mature (p<0.01). Moreover, the rate of high-quality embryos was higher in group IV than in the other groups (p=0.01). CONCLUSION: The quality of the IVM medium was found to affect clinical IVM outcomes. Additionally, blastocyst medium may be a good choice in IVM/ICSI cycles as an alternative IVM medium.


Subject(s)
Blastocyst , Embryonic Structures , Female , Fertilization , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Metaphase , Oocytes , Prospective Studies , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239577

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of RAD18-siRNA on cell proliferation and chemotherapy sensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) ECA-109 cells.RAD18-siRNA was transfected into human ECA-109 cells by Lipofectamine 3000. Quantitative PCR and Western blot were performed to detect RAD18 and CyclinD1 expression; CCK-8 assay was used to determine cell proliferation and chemotherapy drug sensitivity; flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle. Correlation between RAD18 and CyclinD1 mRNA expression was analyzed by Pearson's correlation.Compared with non-transfected cells, the expression of RAD18 in RAD18-siRNA group was significantly decreased (<0.05). The cell proliferation was inhibited (<0.05) and the cell number of G1 phase was increased, G2/M phase cells decreased (<0.05) in RAD18-siRNA group. After treatment with different concentrations of cisplatin or 5-FU, the survival rate of the two cell groups was reduced (all<0.05), and the IC50 of RAD18-siRNA group was significantly lower than that of non-transfected group (<0.05). The mRNA expression of RAD18 was positively correlated with CyclinD1 expression in ESCC tissues(=0.478,<0.01).Down-regulated expression of RAD18 can decrease the cell proliferation and increase chemo-sensitivity of ESCC cells, and CyclinD1 may participate in the process.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Pharmacology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Drug Therapy , Cell Cycle , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cisplatin , Pharmacology , Cyclin D1 , Genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins , Pharmacology , Down-Regulation , Genetics , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Methods , Drug Synergism , Esophageal Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Fluorouracil , Pharmacology , G1 Phase , G2 Phase , Humans , Metaphase , RNA, Small Interfering , Pharmacology , Transfection , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Pharmacology
15.
Blood Research ; : 122-126, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The accurate identification of cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma (MM) has become more important over recent years for the development of new diagnostic and prognostic markers. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the cytogenetic aberrations in MM cases as an initial assessment in a single institute. METHODS: We reviewed the cytogenetic results from 222 patients who were newly diagnosed with MM between January 2000 and December 2015. Chromosomal analysis was performed on cultured bone marrow samples by standard G-banding technique. At least 20 metaphase cells were analyzed for karyotyping. RESULTS: Clonal chromosome abnormalities were detected in 45.0% (100/222) of the patients. Among these results, 80 cases (80.0%) had both numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities. Overall hyperdiploidy with structural cytogenetic aberrations was the most common finding (44.0%), followed by hypodiploidy with structural aberrations (28.0%). Amplification of the long arm of chromosome 1 and -13/del(13q) were the most frequent recurrent abnormalities, and were detected in 50 patients (50.0%) and 40 patients (40.0%) with clonal abnormalities, respectively. The most common abnormality involving 14q32 was t(11;14)(q13;q32), which was observed in 19 cases. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that myeloma cells exhibit complex aberrations regardless of ploidy, even from a single center in Korea. Conventional cytogenetic analysis should be included in the initial diagnostic work-up for patients suspected of having MM.


Subject(s)
Arm , Bone Marrow , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 , Cytogenetic Analysis , Cytogenetics , Humans , Karyotyping , Korea , Metaphase , Multiple Myeloma , Ploidies , Retrospective Studies
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Autophagy contributes to the clearance and recycling of macromolecules and organelles in response to stress. We previously reported that vitrified mouse oocytes show acute increases in autophagy during warming. Herein, we investigate the potential role of Atg7 in oocyte vitrification by using an oocyte-specific deletion model of the Atg7 gene, a crucial upstream gene in the autophagic pathway. METHODS: Oocyte-specific Atg7 deficient mice were generated by crossing Atg7 floxed mice and Zp3-Cre transgenic mice. The oocytes were vitrified-warmed and then subjected to in vitro fertilization and development. The rates of survival, fertilization, and development were assessed in the Atg7 deficient oocytes in comparison with the wildtype oocytes. Light chain 3 (LC3) immunofluorescence staining was performed to determine whether this method effectively evaluates the autophagy status of oocytes. RESULTS: The survival rate of vitrified-warmed Atg7(f/f);Zp3-Cre (Atg7(d/d)) metaphase II (MII) oocytes was not significantly different from that of the wildtype (Atg7(f/f)) oocytes. Fertilization and development in the Atg7(d/d) oocytes were significantly lower than the Atg7(f/f) oocytes, comparable to the Atg5d/d oocytes previously described. Notably, the developmental rate improved slightly in vitrified-warmed Atg7(d/d) MII oocytes when compared to fresh Atg7(d/d) oocytes. LC3 immunofluorescence staining showed that this method can be reliably used to assess autophagic activation in oocytes. CONCLUSION: We confirmed that the LC3-positive signal is nearly absent in Atg7(d/d) oocytes. While autophagy is induced during the warming process after vitrification of MII oocytes, the Atg7 gene is not essential for survival of vitrified-warmed oocytes. Thus, induction of autophagy during warming of vitrified MII oocytes seems to be a natural response to manage cold or other cellular stresses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Fertilization , Fertilization in Vitro , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Genes, vif , Metaphase , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Oocytes , Organelles , Recycling , Survival Rate , Vitrification
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110190

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 22-month-old boy with a new mosaic partial unbalanced translocation of 1q and 18q. The patient was referred to our Pediatric Department for developmental delay. He showed mild facial dysmorphism, physical growth retardation, a hearing disability, and had a history of patent ductus arteriosus. White matter abnormality on brain magnetic resonance images was also noted. His initial routine chromosomal analysis revealed a normal 46,XY karyotype. In a microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis, subtle copy number changes in 1q32.1-q44 (copy gain) and 18q21.33-18q23 (copy loss) suggested an unbalanced translocation of t(1;18). Repeated chromosomal analysis revealed a low-level mosaic translocation karyotype of 46,XY,der(18)t(1;18)(q32.1;q21.3)[12]/46,XY[152]. Because his parents had normal karyotypes, his translocation was considered to be de novo. The abnormalities observed in aCGH were confirmed by metaphase fluorescent in situ hybridization. We report this patient as a new karyotype presenting developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, cerebral dysmyelination, and other abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Brain , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , Ductus Arteriosus, Patent , Hearing , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Infant , Karyotype , Male , Metaphase , Parents
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78630

ABSTRACT

RSK2, also known as RPS6KA3 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90 kDa, polypeptide 3), is a downstream kinase of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which is important in regulating survival, transcription, growth and proliferation. However, its biological role in mitotic progression is not well understood. In this study, we examined the potential involvement of RSK2 in the regulation of mitotic progression. Interestingly, depletion of RSK2, but not RSK1, caused the accumulation of mitotic cells. Time-lapse analysis revealed that mitotic duration, particularly the duration for metaphase-to-anaphase transition was prolonged in RSK2-depleted cells, suggesting activation of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Indeed, more BubR1 (Bub1-related kinase) was present on metaphase plate kinetochores in RSK2-depleted cells, and depletion of BubR1 abolished the mitotic accumulation caused by RSK2 depletion, confirming BubR1-dependent SAC activation. Along with the shortening of inter-kinetochore distance, these data suggested that weakening of the tension across sister kinetochores by RSK2 depletion led to the activation of SAC. To test this, we analyzed the RSK2 effects on the stability of kinetochore–microtubule interactions, and found that RSK2-depleted cells formed less kinetochore–microtubule fibers. Moreover, RSK2 depletion resulted in the decrease of basal level of microtubule as well as an irregular distribution of mitotic spindles, which might lead to observed several mitotic progression defects such as increase in unaligned chromosomes, defects in chromosome congression and a decrease in pole-to-pole distance in these cells. Taken together, our data reveal that RSK2 affects mitotic progression by regulating the distribution, basal level and the stability of mitotic spindles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kinetochores , M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Metaphase , Microtubules , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa , Siblings , Spindle Apparatus
20.
Singapore medical journal ; : 573-579, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-276754

ABSTRACT

<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) on oocyte maturation and quality in a mouse model.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Female BALB/c mice were allocated to one of the following groups: (a) control group (n = 40), which received a controlled diet; or (b) HFD group (n = 40), which received an HFD for 12 weeks. Sections of the ovary were examined histologically. The number of follicles and corpora lutea were counted. In vitro maturation and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) were assessed in germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II (MII) oocytes, respectively. The expression of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and leptin receptor genes in GV and MII oocytes was evaluated using reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reactions.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the HFD group, there was a decreased number of primordial and Graafian follicles, as well as corpora lutea (p < 0.05). The rate of oocyte development to the MII stage was also reduced (p < 0.001). Cumulus expansion was observed more frequently in the control group than the HFD group (p < 0.05). The IVF rate in the HFD group was lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). In the HFD group, BMP15 and leptin receptor genes were upregulated in the GV stage (p > 0.05) and MII stage (p < 0.05), compared to the control group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>An HFD reduces folliculogenesis in the primordial and Graafian stages, in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilisation rates, as well as oocyte quality in mice.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 , Metabolism , Corpus Luteum , Pathology , Diet, High-Fat , Female , Fertility , Fertilization in Vitro , Methods , Gene Expression Regulation , Metaphase , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Obesity , Oocytes , Cell Biology , Pathology , Ovarian Follicle , Pathology , Ovary , Metabolism , Pathology , Photography , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Leptin , Metabolism
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