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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762182

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Data are lacking on the association between the allergic rhinitis (AR) phenotype and sensitization to specific allergens or bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in children. We here investigated risk factors and comorbidities, including sensitization to specific allergens and BHR, for the AR phenotype by AR and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) classification in a general population-based birth cohort study. METHODS: We enrolled 606 children aged 7 years from the Panel Study of Korean Children. The AR phenotype was assigned in accordance with the ARIA classification in children. Skin prick tests and Provocholine provocation test were performed. Risk factors and comorbidities for AR phenotypes were then analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of mild and moderate to severe AR in our study cohort was 37.2% and 8.8%, respectively. Recent use of analgesics or antipyretics and current cat ownership were associated with the risk of mild persistent AR. Sensitizations to Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus (Der p), Japanese hop and cat were associated with moderate to severe persistent AR. Children with moderate to severe AR had a higher risk of current asthma and BHR compared to mild AR cases (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–15.62). Moderate to severe AR with allergic sensitization was associated with the highest risk of BHR (aOR, 11.77; 95% CI, 3.40–40.74). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate to severe-persistent AR is more closely related to respiratory comorbidities and sensitizations than mild AR. Stratifying the AR phenotype by ARIA classification may assist in disease management.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Analgesics , Animals , Antipyretics , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Asthma , Bronchial Hyperreactivity , Cats , Child , Classification , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Disease Management , Humans , Methacholine Chloride , Odds Ratio , Ownership , Parturition , Phenotype , Prevalence , Rhinitis, Allergic , Risk Factors , Skin
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762175

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Occupational asthma may be induced by high- or low-molecular weight allergens (HMWA or LMWA, respectively). The study was conducted to compare the pattern of bronchial response in 200 HMWA-induced asthmatics (n = 130) and LMWA-induced asthmatics (n = 70). METHODS: The study participants underwent a single-blind, placebo-controlled specific inhalation challenge (SIC) with workplace allergens, accompanied by evaluation of non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (NSBHR) with methacholine before and after the SIC. RESULTS: A single early bronchial response more frequently occurred in HMWA-induced asthmatics than in LMWA-induced asthmatics (86.2% vs. 20%). An isolated late bronchial response or atypical patterns were more frequently observed in LMWA-induced asthmatics than in LMWA-induced asthmatics (45.7% vs. 3.8% or 34.3% vs. 10%, respectively). Baseline NSBHR before SIC was more often detected in LMWA-induced asthmatics than in HMWA-induced asthmatics (81.4% vs. 54.6%), and the median value of the provocation concentration of methacholine was relevantly lower in these patients before and after SIC. A significant 3-fold increase in NSBHR after SIC was observed more often in LMWA-induced asthmatics than in HMWA-induced asthmatics (82.8% vs. 66.1%). In addition, compared to LMWA-induced asthmatics, HMWA-induced asthmatics were older, were more frequently active smokers, showed lower level of NSBHR, and more frequently continued their work in harmful occupational exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that HMWA-induced asthmatics may have milder clinical courses and that there is a possibility of job continuation despite asthma exacerbation requiring medical surveillance.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Asthma , Asthma, Occupational , Bronchial Hyperreactivity , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Inhalation , Methacholine Chloride , Molecular Weight , Occupational Exposure , Prognosis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828895

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the value of leukotriene D4 (LTD4) bronchial provocation test (BPT) in detection of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) in children.@*METHODS@#A total of 151 children aged 6 to 14 years, including 86 in remission of asthma and 65 with acute bronchitis, who were followed up in our respiratory clinic between November, 2017 and August, 2018. The children were randomly divided into LTD4 group (78 cases) and methacholine (MCH) group (73 cases). In LTD4 group, the 78 children underwent LTD4-BPT, including 46 with asthma and 32 children having re-examination for previous episodes of acute bronchitis; in MCH group, the 73 children underwent MCH-BPT, including 40 with asthma and 33 with acute bronchitis. MCH-BPT was also performed in the asthmatic children in the LTD4 group who had negative responses to LTD4 after an elution period. The major adverse reactions of the children to the two BPT were recorded. The diagnostic values of the two BPT were evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the results of basic lung function tests between LTD4 group and MCH group (>0.05). The positive rate of BPT in asthmatic children in the LTD4 group was significantly lower than that in the MCH group (26.1% 72.5%; < 0.05). The positive rate of BPT in children with previous acute bronchitis in the LTD4 group was lower than that in the MCH group (3.1% 15.2%). The positive rate of MCH-BPT in asthmatic children had negative BPT results in LTD4 group was 58.8%, and their asthma was mostly mild. The sensitivity was lower in LTD4 group than in MCH group (0.2609 0.725), but the specificity was slightly higher in LTD4 group (0.9688 vs 0.8485).The area under ROC curvein LTD4 group was lower than that in MCH group (0.635 0.787). In children with asthma in the LTD4 group, the main adverse reactions in BPT included cough (34.8%), shortness of breath (19.6%), chest tightness (15.2%), and wheezing (10.9%). The incidence of these adverse reactions was significantly lower in LTD4 group than in MCH group ( < 0.05). Serious adverse reactions occurred in neither of the two groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#LTD4-BPT had high safety in clinical application of children and was similar to the specificity of MCH-BPT. However, it had low sensitivity, low diagnostic value, and limited application value in children's AHR detection.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Asthma , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Child , Humans , Leukotriene D4 , Methacholine Chloride , Respiratory Hypersensitivity
4.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(3): 175-179, sept. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087789

ABSTRACT

This document updates the recommendations of the bronchial challenge test with methacholine in children. It is based primarily on the recommendations contained in the guide on the technical standard of the bronchial challenge test for methacholine from the European Society of Respiratory Diseases. The main change is the recommendation to use PD20 (methacholine dose that causes a 20% drop in FEV1) instead of PC20 (methacholine concentration that causes a 20% drop in FEV1), which allows for comparable results when different devices and different protocols are used.


Este documento actualiza las recomendaciones de la prueba de provocación bronquial con metacolina en niños. Se basa fundamentalmente en las recomendaciones contenidas en la guía sobre el estándar técnico de la prueba de provocación bronquial de metacolina de la Sociedad Europea de Enfermedades Respiratorias. El principal cambio es la recomendación de utilizar la PD20 (dosis de metacolina que provoca una caída de 20% del VEF1) en vez de PC20 (concentración de metacolina que provoca una caída del 20% en el VEF1), lo cual permite tener resultados comparables cuando se usan diferentes dispositivos y diferentes protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Bronchial Provocation Tests/methods , Methacholine Chloride/administration & dosage , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/diagnosis , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/physiopathology
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762167

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Chronic cough in allergic rhinitis (AR) patients is common with multiple etiologies including cough variant asthma (CVA), non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB), gastroesophageal reflux-related cough (GERC), and upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Practical indicators that distinguish these categories are lacking. We aimed to explore the diagnostic value of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and forced expiratory flow at 25% and 75% of pulmonary volume (FEF(25–75)) in specifically identifying CVA and NAEB in these patients. METHODS: Consecutive AR patients with chronic cough were screened and underwent induced sputum, FeNO, nasal nitric oxide, spirometry, and methacholine bronchial provocation testing. All patients also completed gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaires. RESULTS: Among 1,680 AR patients, 324 (19.3%) were identified with chronic cough, of whom 316 (97.5%) underwent etiology analyses. Overall, 87 (27.5%) patients had chronic cough caused by NAEB, 78 (24.7%) by CVA, 16 (5.1%) by GERC, and 81 (25.6%) by UACS. Patients with either NAEB or CVA (n = 165, in total) were further assigned to a common group designated as CVA/NAEB, because they both responded to corticosteroid therapy. Receiver operating characteristic curves of FeNO revealed obvious differences among CVA, NAEB, and CVA/NAEB (area under the curve = 0.855, 0.699, and 0.923, respectively). The cutoff values of FeNO at 43.5 and 32.5 ppb were shown to best differentiate CVA and CVA/NAEB, respectively. FEF(25–75) was significantly lower in patients with CVA than in those with other causes. A FEF(25–75) value of 74.6% showed good sensitivity and specificity for identifying patients with CVA. CONCLUSIONS: NAEB, CVA, and UACS are common causes of chronic cough in patients with AR. FeNO can first be used to discriminate patients with CVA/NAEB, then FEF(25–75) (or combined with FeNO) can further discriminate patients with CVA from those with CVA/NAEB.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Bronchitis , Cough , Eosinophils , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Humans , Methacholine Chloride , Nitric Oxide , Rhinitis, Allergic , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spirometry , Sputum
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739512

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It is controversial whether indoor pet exposure is either a risk or protective factor developing sensitization to pet allergens or asthma. Therefore, we investigated whether indoor pet ownership entails a risk for the development of asthma and sensitization in childhood. METHODS: The Panel Study of Korean Children (PSKC) is a general-population-based birth cohort study that recruited 2,078 mother-baby dyads in Korea between April and July of 2008. Among 1,577 children who were followed up in 2015, 559 underwent skin prick tests, spirometry and bronchial provocation tests using Provocholine. Having a cat or a dog and the prevalence of asthma were evaluated by using self-reported questionnaires and physicians’ medical records. RESULTS: During infancy, the rate of dog ownership was 4.5% (71 of 1,574) and that of cat ownership was 0.5% (8 of 1,574). Of the subjects, 7.9% (n=109) currently had at least 1 dog and 2.5% (n=34) had at least 1 cat. Pet ownership during infancy was associated with sensitization to cats or dogs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29–13.98), wheezing within 12 months (aOR, 5.56; 95% CI, 1.65–18.75) and current asthma (wheezing episode in the last 12 months+diagnosed asthma by physicians) (aOR, 6.36; 95% CI, 1.54–26.28). In contrast, pet ownership during the last 12 months was not associated with sensitization to cats or dogs or current asthma. CONCLUSION: Indoor pet exposure during infancy can be critical for developing sensitization to cats or dogs and asthma in childhood. Avoidance of pet exposure in early life may reduce sensitization to cats or dogs and development of asthma.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Animals , Asthma , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Cats , Child , Cohort Studies , Dogs , Humans , Infant , Korea , Medical Records , Methacholine Chloride , Odds Ratio , Ownership , Parturition , Pets , Prevalence , Protective Factors , Respiratory Sounds , Risk Factors , Skin , Spirometry
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739409

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Neutrophils are considered key effector cells in the pathogenic mechanisms of airway inflammation in asthma. This study assessed the activation status of neutrophils in adult asthmatics, and the therapeutic potential of FTY720, a synthetic sphingosine-1-phosphate analog, on activated neutrophils using an in vitro stimulation model. METHODS: We isolated peripheral blood neutrophils (PBNs) from 59 asthmatic patients (including 20 aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease [AERD] and 39 aspirin-tolerant asthma [ATA] groups). PBNs were stimulated with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and their activation status was determined based on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell surface expression of CD11b, interleukin (IL)-8 and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9 release. PBNs were primed with FTY720 to evaluate its anti-inflammatory action. RESULTS: In vitro PBN stimulation with fMLP or LPS induced a significant increase in ROS/CD11b/IL-8/MMP-9 levels (P < 0.05 for all). In asthmatics, fMLP-induced ROS level was significantly correlated with values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (r = −0.278; P = 0.036), maximal mid-expiratory flow (r = −0.309; P = 0.019) and PC20 methacholine (r = −0.302; P = 0.029). In addition, ROS levels were significantly higher in patients with AERD and in those with severe asthma than in those with ATA or non-severe asthma (P < 0.05 for all). FTY720 treatment could suppress ROS/CD11b levels, and LPS-induced IL-8 and MMP-9 levels (P < 0.05 for all). Responders to FTY720 treatment had significantly higher neutrophil counts in sputum (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a useful in vitro PBN stimulation model for evaluating the neutrophil functional status and the therapeutic potentials of neutrophil-targeting candidates in asthmatics.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Fingolimod Hydrochloride , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Methacholine Chloride , N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils , Phenotype , Reactive Oxygen Species , Sputum , Vital Capacity
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739408

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Eosinophilic inflammation is a key component of severe asthma (SA). However, there has been no reliable serum biomarker for the eosinophilic inflammation of SA. We hypothesized that serum eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) could predict the eosinophilic inflammation of SA in adult asthmatics. METHODS: Severe asthmatics (n = 235), nonsevere asthmatics (n = 898), and healthy controls (n = 125) were enrolled from Ajou University Hospital, South Korea. The serum levels of EDN and periostin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared between severe and nonsevere asthmatics. Their associations with total eosinophil count (TEC) and clinical parameters were evaluated; clinical validation of the K-EDN kit for the measurement of serum EDN was evaluated. RESULTS: Severe asthmatics were older and had longer disease duration with significantly lower levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 second and methacholine PC20 than nonsevere asthmatics. Significant differences were found in TEC or sputum eosinophil count (%) between the groups. The serum levels of EDN and periostin were significantly higher in severe asthmatics than in nonsevere asthmatics and in healthy controls (all P < 0.05). Although significant correlations were found between serum EDN levels measured by the 2 kits (ρ = 0.545, P < 0.0001), higher correlation coefficients between serum EDN levels measured by the K-EDN kit and TEC were higher (ρ = 0.358, P < 0.0001) than those between serum EDN levels measured by the MBL kit and TEC (ρ = 0.319, P < 0.0001) or serum periostin level (ρ = 0.222, P < 0.0001). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that serum EDN levels measured by the K-EDN kit predicted the phenotype of SA (P = 0.003), while 2 other biomarkers did not. CONCLUSIONS: The serum EDN level may be a useful biomarker for assessing asthma severity in adult asthmatics.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Biomarkers , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin , Eosinophils , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Inflammation , Korea , Methacholine Chloride , Phenotype , Sputum
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1214-1221, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719242

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a leading cause of occupational asthma (OA). Periostin is a matricellular protein implicated in type 2 immunity-driven asthma. Its pathogenic role in TDI-OA has not been completely elucidated. The present study was performed to investigate the role of periostin in TDI-OA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum periostin levels were measured in subjects with TDI-OA, asymptomatic TDI-exposure controls (AECs), non-occupational asthmatics (NAs), and unexposed normal controls (NCs). To understand the mechanism by which TDI induces periostin production, primary small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were cultured under stimulation of TDI and neutrophils from asthmatic patients. RESULTS: Fifty-three subjects with TDI-OA, 71 AECs, 67 NAs, and 83 NCs were enrolled. Serum periostin levels were significantly higher in TDI-OA subjects than in AECs (p=0.001), NAs (p < 0.001), and NCs (p < 0.001). In TDI-exposed subjects (TDI-OA and AEC), the PC20 methacholine levels were significantly lower in subjects with a higher periostin level than in those with a lower periostin level. TDI exposure did not increase periostin production directly by SAECs; however, periostin production increased significantly after co-culture with TDI and neutrophils, which was suppressed by an antioxidant. In addition, increased release of TGF-β1 was noted from SAECs when exposed to TDI and neutrophils, which was also suppressed by an antioxidant. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that an increased periostin level may contribute to the progression of airway inflammation to remodeling in TDI-exposed workers. A high serum periostin level is a potential serologic marker of the phenotype of TDI-OA.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Asthma, Occupational , Coculture Techniques , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Inflammation , Methacholine Chloride , Neutrophils , Phenotype , Reactive Oxygen Species , Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate , Toluene
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug methacholine chloride (Provocholine®) was recently introduced to Korea where it is now widely used in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and cutoff value of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to Provocholine in 7-year-old children. METHODS: Six hundred and thirty-three children from the Panel Study on Korean Children who visited 16 regional hospitals were evaluated. Skin prick tests, spirometry and bronchial provocation tests for Provocholine as well as a detailed history and physical examinations were performed. The bronchial provocation test was reliably performed on 559 of these children. RESULTS: The prevalence of ever-diagnosed asthma via medical records was 7.7%, and that of current asthma (wheezy episode in the last 12 months + diagnosed asthma by physicians) was 3.2%. The prevalence of BHR to Provocholine was 17.2% and 25.8%, respectively, for a PC20 < 8 and < 16 mg/mL. The risk factors for BHR (PC20 < 16 mg/mL) were atopic dermatitis diagnosis and current dog ownership, whereas those for current asthma were allergy rhinitis diagnosis, a history of bronchiolitis before the age of 3, recent use of analgesics/antipyretics and maternal history of asthma. The BHR prevalence trend showed an increase along with the increased immunoglobulin E (IgE) quartile. The cutoff value of PC20 for the diagnosis of current asthma in children at age 7 was 5.8 mg/mL (sensitivity: 47.1%, specificity: 87.4%). CONCLUSIONS: BHR to Provocholine (PC20 < 8 mg/mL) was observed in 17.2% of 7-year-olds children from the general population and the cutoff value of PC20 for the diagnosis of current asthma was 5.8 mg/mL in this age group. The risk factors for BHR and current asthma showed discrepancies suggesting different underlying mechanisms. Bronchial provocation testing with Provocholine will be a useful clinical tool in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Bronchial Hyperreactivity , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Bronchiolitis , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Diagnosis , Dogs , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Korea , Medical Records , Methacholine Chloride , Ownership , Physical Examination , Prevalence , Rhinitis , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Skin , Spirometry , United States Food and Drug Administration
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The methacholine bronchial provocation test (MBPT) is used to detect and quantify airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). Since improvements in the severity of asthma are associated with improvements in AHR, clinical studies of asthma therapies routinely use the change of airway responsiveness as an objective outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between serial MBPT and clinical profiles in patients with asthma. METHODS: A total of 323 asthma patients were included in this study. The MBPT was performed on all patients beginning at their initial diagnosis until asthma was considered controlled based on the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. A responder was defined by a decrease in AHR while all other patients were considered non-responders. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients (66%) were responders, while 110 patients (34%) were non-responders. The responder group had a lower initial PC20 (provocative concentration of methacholine required to decrease the forced expiratory volume in 1 second by 20%) and longer duration compared to the non-responder group. Members of the responder group also had superior qualities of life, compared to members of the non-responder group. Whole blood cell counts were not related to differences in PC20; however, eosinophil concentration was. No differences in sex, age, body mass index, smoking history, serum immunoglobulin E, or frequency of acute exacerbation were observed between responders and non-responders. CONCLUSIONS: The initial PC20, the duration of asthma, eosinophil concentrations, and quality-of-life may be useful variables to identify improvements in AHR in asthma patients.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Blood Cell Count , Body Mass Index , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Diagnosis , Eosinophils , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Methacholine Chloride , Respiratory Hypersensitivity , Smoke , Smoking
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714725

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and remodeling. There is emerging interest in the involvement of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel in the pathophysiology of asthma. This study examined whether TRPV1 antagonism alleviates asthma features in a murine model of chronic asthma. METHODS: BALB/c mice were sensitized to and challenged by ovalbumin to develop chronic asthma. Capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist) or TRPV1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was administered in the treatment group to evaluate the effect of TPV1 antagonism on AHR, airway inflammation, and remodeling. RESULTS: The mice displayed increased AHR, airway inflammation, and remodeling. Treatment with capsazepine or TRPV1 siRNA reduced AHR to methacholine and airway inflammation. Type 2 T helper (Th2) cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5, and IL-13) were reduced and epithelial cell-derived cytokines (thymic stromal lymphopoietin [TSLP], IL-33, and IL-25), which regulate Th2 cytokine-associated inflammation, were also reduced. Airway remodeling characterized by goblet cell hyperplasia, increased α-smooth muscle action, and collagen deposition was also alleviated by both treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment directed at TRPV1 significantly alleviated AHR, airway inflammation, and remodeling in a chronic asthma murine model. The TRPV1 receptor can be a potential drug target for chronic bronchial asthma.


Subject(s)
Airway Remodeling , Animals , Asthma , Collagen , Cytokines , Goblet Cells , Hyperplasia , Inflammation , Interleukin-33 , Interleukin-5 , Methacholine Chloride , Mice , Ovalbumin , RNA, Small Interfering
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713203

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dyspnea is not widely utilized as an indicator of asthma provocation despite its universal presentation. We hypothesized that dyspnea severity was proportionate with the lung function decline, methacholine dose-step, and the degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 73 children's bronchial provocation test data with an assessment of dyspnea at every dose-step. Dyspnea severity was scored using a modified Borg (mBorg) scale. A linear mixed effect analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the mBorg scale, the percentage fall in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (ΔFEV1%), the methacholine dose-step, and the degree of BHR (BHR grade). RESULTS: Subjects were divided into 5 BHR groups based on their last methacholine dose-steps. The mBorg scores did not differ significantly among BHR groups (P=0.596, Kruskal-Wallis test). The linear mixed effect analysis showed that ΔFEV1% was affected by the methacholine dose-step (P < 0.001) and BHR grade (P < 0.001). The mBorg score was affected by the dose-step (P < 0.001) and BHR grade (P=0.019). We developed a model to predict the mBorg score and found that it was affected by the methacholine dose-step and ΔFEV1%, elevating it by a score of 0.039 (χ² [1]=21.06, P < 0.001) and 0.327 (χ² [1]=47.45, P < 0.001), respectively. A significant interaction was observed between the methacholine dose-step and ΔFEV1% (χ² [1]=16.20, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In asthmatic children, inhaled methacholine, as well as the degree of BHR and lung function decline, may affect dyspnea perception during the bronchial provocation test. If we wish to draw meaningful information from dyspnea perception, we have to consider various complicating factors underlying it.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Bronchoconstriction , Child , Dyspnea , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Lung , Methacholine Chloride , Retrospective Studies
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739508

ABSTRACT

Bronchial provocation tests are of value in the evaluation of airway hyperresponsiveness. Nonspecific bronchial challenge (methacholine, mannitol, exercise, etc.) is used when the symptoms, physical examination, and measurements of pulmonary function are unremarkable in the diagnosis of asthma, when a patient is suspected of having occupational asthma or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and when a screening test for asthma or EIB is required for some occupational groups in whom bronchospasm would pose an unacceptable hazard. Methacholine inhalation challenge is most widely used pharmacologic challenge and highly sensitive. For appropriate interpretation of the results of methacholine provocation, it is important to perform the test with the standardized protocol and to recognize that inhalation methods significantly influence the sensitivity of the procedure. Indirect challenges (e.g., mannitol and exercise) correlate with airway inflammation and are more specific but less sensitive for asthma. Indirect provocation tests are used to confirm asthma, to differentiate asthma from other airway diseases, and to evaluate EIB.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Asthma, Occupational , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Bronchial Spasm , Bronchoconstriction , Diagnosis , Exercise Test , Humans , Inflammation , Inhalation , Mannitol , Mass Screening , Methacholine Chloride , Occupational Groups , Physical Examination
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 135(5): 428-433, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904103

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease with airway hyperresponsiveness. Spirometry is the most commonly used test among asthmatic patients. Another functional test used for diagnosing asthma is the bronchial challenge test. The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of spirometry for detecting asthma in the general population. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study with data analysis to evaluate the accuracy of spirometry through calculating sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and through the kappa agreement test. METHODS: Subjects who constituted a birth cohort were enrolled at the age of 23 to 25 years. Spirometric abnormality was defined as reduced forced expiratory volume in one second, i.e. lower than 80% of the predicted value. Measurement of bronchial responsiveness was performed by means of the bronchial challenge test with methacholine. The gold-standard diagnosis of asthma was defined as the presence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in association with respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Asthma was detected in 200 subjects (10.4%) out of the sample of 1922 individuals. Spirometric abnormality was detected in 208 subjects (10.9%) of the sample. The specificity of spirometric abnormality for detecting asthma was 90%, sensitivity was 23%, positive predictive value was 22%, and negative predictive value was 91%. The kappa test revealed weak agreement of 0.13 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.07-0.19) between spirometry and the diagnosis of asthma. CONCLUSION: Spirometry, as a single test, has limitations for detecting asthma in the general population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Asthma/diagnosis , Spirometry , Asthma/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Bronchoconstrictor Agents , Methacholine Chloride , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210002

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dyspnea is the cardinal symptom of asthma, but it is difficult to quantify clinically. Although modified Borg (mBorg) scale has been successfully used in adult, but there has been some difficulties to apply in children. Recently, Pediatric Dyspnea Scale (PDS) was adequately designed and has been widely used. The aim of this study is to compare 2 evaluating scales of dyspnea provoked by induced-bronchoconstriction in childhood asthma. METHODS: Seventy-three clinically suspected children with asthma were enrolled in this study. Each ‘fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO)’ was documented. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁), mBorg score and PDS score were recorded during methacholine provocation test. RESULTS: Mapping using canonical plot demonstrated global similarity between 2 scales with some distinctive features. Whereas mBorg score showed more diverse categories in low level of dyspnea, PDS score did in medium level of it. A distribution of dyspnea perception score at a 20% decrease in FEV₁ relative to baseline (PS₂₀), a perception score of dyspnea at 20% fall in FEV1 of 2 scales represented similar wide, biphasic feature. Statistical relevance was verified with spearman correlation (R(s)=0.903, P<0.001) and Bland-Altman analysis. PS₂₀ of both scores and FeNO had no statistical relationship. While relationship between PS20 by mBorg score and the concentration of methacholine at 20% fall in FEV₁ (PC₂₀) was not significant (R(s)=0.224, P=0.154), that between PS₂₀ by PDS and PC₂₀ was weak positive (R(s)=0.29, P=0.063). CONCLUSION: PDS had similar pattern to assess the dyspnea with the mBorg scale suggesting adequacy of PDS in evaluating pediatric clinical asthma. We expect these scales to help clinical practice in complementary ways.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Bronchoconstriction , Child , Dyspnea , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Methacholine Chloride , Nitric Oxide , Weights and Measures
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114696

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recent data indicate that sensitization to mold contributes to the severity and persistence of asthma. In this study, we investigated the relationships between sensitization to mold and lung function parameters in children with asthma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical data from 551 asthmatic subjects. We selected subjects who met clinical diagnostic criteria of asthma. Their spirometry, methacholine challenge tests, and measurements of blood eosinophils, serum IgE, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) results were included. Skin prick testing (SPT) results with 13 common aeroallergens in Korea including house dust mites, animal dander, pollen, cockroach and mold were reviewed. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to their SPT results. Subjects who showed no positive result to any aeroallergen were designated as group 1 (non-sensitized). Group 2 represented subjects who were sensitized to aeroallergens other than mold (other allergen-sensitized) and group 3 included subjects who were sensitized to mold allergens (mold-sensitized). RESULTS: Among the 551 asthmatic subjects, 67 (12.2%) were sensitized to mold and 366 (66.4%) were sensitized to other aeroallergens. The log mean IgE levels were higher in groups 2 (5.96±1.14 IU/mL) and 3 (5.81±0.97 IU/mL) compared to group 1 (3.88±1.68 IU/mL). Blood eosinophils, ECP and FeNO concentrations were significantly higher in groups 2 and 3, but no significant difference was found between the 2 groups. The mean FEV1 value was significantly lower in group 3 (86.9±12.1%pred) than in groups 2 (92.0±14.8%pred) and 1 (93.4±15.4%pred). The log mean methacholine PC20 was significantly lower in group 3 (0.08±1.91 mg/mL) than in groups 2 (1.31±1.69 mg/mL) and 1 (2.29±1.66 mg/mL). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a differential association between mold and other aeroallergen sensitization, and severity of asthma. Sensitization to mold is associated with lower lung function and increased airway hyper-responsiveness in children with asthma. Mold sensitization could be an important factor determining asthma severity particularly airflow limitation in children.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Animals , Asthma , Child , Cockroaches , Dander , Eosinophil Cationic Protein , Eosinophils , Fungi , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Korea , Lung , Methacholine Chloride , Nitric Oxide , Pollen , Pyroglyphidae , Respiratory Hypersensitivity , Retrospective Studies , Skin , Spirometry
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196247

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma is a disease characterized by the condition of airway hyper-responsiveness, which serves to produce narrowing of the airway secondary to airway inflammation and/or various spasm-inducing stimulus. Nonspecific bronchoprovocation testing is an important method implemented for the purpose of diagnosing asthma; this test measures the actual degree of airway hyper-responsiveness and utilizes direct and indirect bronchoprovocation testing. Direct bronchoprovocation testing using methacholine or histamine may have superior sensitivity as these substances directly stimulate the airway smooth muscle cells. On the other hand, this method also engenders the specific disadvantage of relatively low specificity. Indirect bronchoprovocation testing using mannitol, exercise, hypertonic saline, adenosine and hyperventilation serves to produce reactions in the airway smooth muscle cells by liberating mediators with stimulation of airway inflammatory cells. Therefore, this method has the advantage of high specificity and also demonstrates relatively low sensitivity. Direct and indirect testing both call for very precise descriptions of very specific measurement conditions. In addition, it has become evident that challenge testing utilizing each of the various bronchoconstrictor stimuli requires distinct and specific protocols. It is therefore important that the clinician understand the mechanism by which the most commonly used bronchoprovocation testing works. It is important that the clinician understand the mechanism of action in the testing, whether direct stimuli (methacholine) or indirect stimuli (mannitol, exercise) is implemented, when the testing is performed and the results interpreted.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Asthma , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Hand , Histamine , Hyperventilation , Inflammation , Mannitol , Methacholine Chloride , Methods , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Respiratory Hypersensitivity , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179295

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Exhaled breath temperature (EBT) has been suggested as a noninvasive marker of airway inflammation in asthma. The aim of this study was to determine its clinical implication in children with asthma. METHODS: A total of 233 children were enrolled in this study. Among them, 116 were asthmatic children and 117 were healthy children. Spirometry, bronchodilator response (BDR) test, methacholine challenge test, and skin prick test were performed. EBT, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), blood eosinophils, and total IgE levels were measured. EBT was measured by using X-halo. RESULTS: EBT was significantly higher in the asthma group than in the control group (median [interquartile range], 32.1℃ [30.0℃–33.9℃] vs. 29.7℃ [29.0℃–31.3℃], P<0.001). EBT was significantly higher in poorly or partly controlled asthmatic children than well-controlled asthmatic children (33.5℃ [31.0℃–34.4℃] vs. 30.3℃ [29.3℃–32.9℃], P<0.0001). Among total subjects, EBT was significantly higher in the atopic group than in the nonatopic group (32.4℃ [30.3℃–34.0℃] vs. 29.8℃ [29.0℃–30.3℃], P<0.001). There were neither significant associations between EBT and BDR (r=0.109, P=0.241) nor between EBT and PC20 (provocation concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1) in total subjects (r=0.127, P=0.316). EBT did not show any association with FeNO (r=0.353, P=0.071). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that EBT might play a role as an ancillary marker for allergic airway inflammation and the degree of control in pediatric asthma patients. Additional studies are required to explore the value of EBT in detail.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Child , Eosinophils , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Inflammation , Methacholine Chloride , Nitric Oxide , Skin , Spirometry
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161601

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Both atopy and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) are characteristic features of asthma. Several BHR studies comparing groups of atopic and nonatopic asthmatics have reported conflicting results. The aim of this study was to compare BHR to indirect stimuli, such as mannitol or exercise, between atopic and nonatopic asthmatics in children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 110 children with asthma, aged 6–18 years using skin prick tests, and serum total and specific IgE levels. Atopy degree was measured using the sum of graded wheal size or the sum of the allergen-specific IgE. Bronchial provocation tests (BPTs) using methacholine were performed on all subjects. BPTs using indirect simuli, including exercise and mannitol, were also performed. RESULTS: Asthma cases were classified as atopic asthma (n=83) or nonatopic asthma (n=27) from skin prick or allergen-specific IgE test results. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of BHR to mannitol or exercise between atopic and nonatopic asthmatics. Atopic asthma had a significantly lower postexercise maximum decrease in % forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (geometric mean [95% confidence interval]: 31.9 [22.9–40.9] vs. 14.0 [9.4–18.6], P=0.015) and a methacholine PC20 (provocative concentration of methacholine inducing a 20% fall in FEV1) than nonatopic asthmatics (geometric mean [95% confidence interval]: 1.24 [0.60–1.87] ng/mL vs. 4.97 [3.47–6.47]) ng/mL, P=0.001), whereas mannitol PD15 (cumulative provocative dose causing a 15% fall in FEV1) was not significantly different between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in the prevalence of BHR to mannitol or exercise between atopic and nonatopic asthmatics in children.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Child , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Mannitol , Methacholine Chloride , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Skin
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