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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243332, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345537

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was aimed to manifest the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Salix alba L. against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and three fungal isolates from the air such as Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Two different serotypes of S. aureus and E. coli were used. The agar well-diffusion method results showed the dose-dependent response of plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains while some organisms were found resistant e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus and R. stolonifer. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded at 17.000±1.732 mm from 100 mg/mL of leaves methanolic extracts against S. pyogenes while the activity of most of the pathogens decreased after 24 h of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was reported at 11.833±1.0 mm against A. ornatus at 50 mg/mL after 48 h of the incubation period. These experimental findings endorse the use of S. alba in ethnopharmacological formulations and suggest the use of methanolic extracts of the said plant to develop drugs to control the proliferation of resistant disease causing pathogenic microbes.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo manifestar a atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos metanólicos de Salix alba L. contra sete patógenos bacterianos Gram-positivos e Gram-negativos. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) e Neisseria gonorrhoeae e três isolados de fungos do ar, como Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, e Rhizopus stolonifer. Dois sorotipos diferentes de S. aureus e E. coli foram usados. Os resultados do método de difusão em ágar mostraram a resposta dependente da dose de extratos de plantas contra cepas de bactérias e fungos, enquanto alguns organismos foram considerados resistentes, e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus e R. stolonifer. A maior atividade antibacteriana foi registrada em 17.000 ± 1.732 de 100 mg/mL de extratos metanólicos de folhas contra S. pyogenes, enquanto a atividade da maioria dos patógenos diminuiu após 24 h de incubação. A maior atividade antifúngica foi relatada em 11,833 ± 1,0 contra A. ornatus a 50 mg/mL após 48 h do período de incubação. Esses achados experimentais endossam o uso de S. alba em formulações etnofarmacológicas e sugerem o uso de extratos metanólicos da referida planta para o desenvolvimento de fármacos que controlem a proliferação de doenças resistentes que causam micróbios patogênicos.


Subject(s)
Salix , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus , Rhizopus , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methanol , Escherichia coli , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245807, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285613

ABSTRACT

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Resumo Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Flax , Diabetes Mellitus , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms , Methanol
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 11-17, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153310

ABSTRACT

Abstract Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), a pathogen responsible for rice bacterial leaf blight, produces biofilm to protect viable Xoo cells from antimicrobial agents. A study was conducted to determine the potency of Acacia mangium methanol (AMMH) leaf extract as a Xoo biofilm inhibitor. Four concentrations (3.13, 6.25, 9.38, and 12.5 mg/mL) of AMMH leaf extract were tested for their ability to inhibit Xoo biofilm formation on a 96-well microtiter plate. The results showed that the negative controls had the highest O.D. values from other treatments, indicating the intense formation of biofilm. This was followed by the positive control (Streptomycin sulfate, 0.2 mg/mL) and AMMH leaf extract at concentration 3.13 mg/mL, which showed no significant differences in their O.D. values (1.96 and 1.57, respectively). All other treatments at concentrations of 6.25, 9.38, and 12.5 mg/mL showed no significant differences in their O.D. values (0.91, 0.79, and 0.53, respectively). For inhibition percentages, treatment with concentration 12.5 mg/mL gave the highest result (81.25%) followed by treatment at concentrations 6.25 and 9.38 mg/mL that showed no significant differences in their inhibition percentage (67.75% and 72.23%, respectively). Concentration 3.13 mg/mL resulted in 44.49% of biofilm inhibition and the positive control resulted in 30.75% of biofilm inhibition. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis of Xoo biofilm inhibition and breakdown showed the presence of non-viable Xoo cells and changes in aggregation size due to increase in AMMH leaf extract concentration. Control slides showed the absence of Xoo dead cells.


Resumo Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), um patogênico responsável pela influência bacteriana na folha do arroz, produz biofilme para proteger células Xoo viáveis de agentes antimicrobianos. Foi conduzido um estudo para determinar a potência do extrato de folha de Acacia mangium methanol (AMMH) como um inibidor de biofilme Xoo. Quatro concentrações (3,13, 6,25, 9,38 e 12,5 mg/mL) de extrato de folha de AMMH foram testadas quanto à sua capacidade de inibir a formação de biofilme Xoo em uma placa de microtitulação de 96 poços. Os resultados mostraram que os controles negativos tiveram o maior valor de OD do que os outros tratamentos, indicando a intensa formação de biofilme. Isso foi seguido do controle positivo (sulfato de estreptomicina, com concentração de 0,2 mg/mL, e extrato de folha de AMMH, com concentração de 3,13 mg/mL), que não apresentou diferenças significativas nos seus valores OD (1,96 e 1,57, respectivamente). Todos os outros tratamentos com concentrações de 6,25, 9,38, e 12,5 mg/mL não tiveram diferenças significativas nos seus valores OD (0,91, 0,79, e 0,53, respectivamente). Para percentagens de inibição, o tratamento com concentração 12,5 mg/mL apresentou o maior resultado (81,25%), seguido do tratamento em concentrações de 6,25 e 9,38 mg/mL, que não mostraram diferenças significativas na sua percentagem de inibição (67,75 e 72,23%, respectivamente). Concentração 3,13 mg/mL resultou em 44,49% de inibição do biofilme, e o controle positivo resultou em 30,75% de inibição do biofilme. Análise por microscopia confocal de leitura a laser de inibição e separação de biofilme Xoo revelou a presença de células Xoo não viáveis e alterações no tamanho da agregação por causa do aumento na concentração de extrato de folha de AMMH. Slides de controle mostraram a ausência de células Xoo mortas.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Acacia , Plant Diseases , Xanthomonas , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Biofilms , Methanol
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 966-979, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878607

ABSTRACT

Methylotrophic yeasts are considered as promising cell factories for bio-manufacturing due to their several advantages such as tolerance to low pH and high temperature. In particular, their methanol utilization ability may help to establish a methanol biotransformation process, which will expand the substrate resource for bio-refinery and the product portfolio from methanol. This review summarize current progress on engineering methylotrophic yeasts for production of proteins and chemicals, and compare the strengths and weaknesses with the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The challenges and possible solutions in metabolic engineering of methylotrophic yeasts are also discussed. With the developing efficient genetic tools and systems biology, the methylotrophic yeasts should play more important roles in future green bio-manufacturing.


Subject(s)
Metabolic Engineering , Methanol , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Yeasts
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 530-540, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878580

ABSTRACT

One-carbon compounds such as methanol and methane are cheap and readily available feedstocks for biomanufacturing. Oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde catalyzed by methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) is a key step of microbial one-carbon metabolism. A variety of MDHs that depend on different co-factors and possess different enzymatic properties have been discovered from native methylotrophs. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent MDHs are widely used in constructing synthetic methylotrophs, whereas this type of MDH usually suffers from low methanol oxidation activity and low affinity to methanol. Consequently, methanol oxidation is considered as a rate-limiting step of methanol metabolism in synthetic methylotrophs. To accelerate methanol oxidation, thereby improving the methanol utilization efficiency of synthetic methylotrophs, massive researches have focused on discovery and engineering of MDHs. In this review, we summarize the ongoing efforts to discover, characterize, and engineer various types of MDHs as well as the applications of MDHs in synthetic methylotrophs. Directed evolution of MDH and construction of multi-enzyme complexes are described in detail. In the future prospective part, we discuss the potential strategies of growth-coupled protein evolution and rational protein design for acquisition of superior MDHs.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Oxidoreductases/genetics , Carbon , Methane , Methanol
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e10700, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249336

ABSTRACT

It was previously demonstrated that the methanol fraction of Sideroxylon obtusifolium (MFSOL) promoted anti-inflammatory and healing activity in excisional wounds. Thus, the present work investigated the healing effects of MFSOL on human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) and experimental burn model injuries. HaCaT cells were used to study MFSOL's effect on cell migration and proliferation rates. Female Swiss mice were subjected to a second-degree superficial burn protocol and divided into four treatment groups: Vehicle, 1.0% silver sulfadiazine, and 0.5 or 1.0% MFSOL Cream (CrMFSOL). Samples were collected to quantify the inflammatory mediators, and histological analyses were performed after 3, 7, and 14 days. The results showed that MFSOL (50 μg/mL) stimulated HaCaT cells by increasing proliferation and migration rates. Moreover, 0.5% CrMFSOL attenuated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and also stimulated the release of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 after 3 days of treatment. CrMFSOL (0.5%) also enhanced wound contraction, promoted improvement of tissue remodeling, and increased collagen production after 7 days and VEGF release after 14 days. Therefore, MFSOL stimulated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and improved wound healing via modulation of inflammatory mediators of burn injuries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Burns/drug therapy , Sapotaceae , Proline , Keratinocytes , Plant Leaves , Methanol
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 763-768, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142546

ABSTRACT

Abstract The haemostatic efficacy of different extract types of Satureja thymbra L., Thymbra spicata L. (Lamiaceae) and Verbascum fruticulosum Post. (Scrophulariaceae) was evaluated in this study via the Prothrombin time (PT) and Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) analysis. Aqueous, methanol and ethanol extracts of the examined plant species leaves were prepared to a final concentration 50 mg/mL. In vitro PT and aPTT assays were conducted on normal platelet poor plasma blood samples by a digital coagulation analyzer. The obtained results revealed anticoagulation activity of all investigated plant species with observed variations among them. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of T. spicata as well as the aqueous extract of S. thymbra prolonged PT values significantly (p < 0.05). While, all V. fruticulosum extract types have had no significant effect on the PT values. The recorded aPTT data showed that all aqueous extracts have had a significant effect on the blood haemostasis as they increased aPTT values in all plant species under study. Out of which, both the ethanol and methanol extracts of T. spicata and methanol extract of S. thymbra showed similar effect. Of great concern, it was clearly noticed that the aqueous and ethanol extract of T. spicata and the aqueous extract of S. thymbra possess the strongest anticoagulation effect as they increased both PT and aPTT values significantly relative to the control (p < 0.05). The variable anticoagulation bioactivity among the studied plant species could be referred to the various solvents degrees of solubility of different phyto-constituents. Thus, the efficacy of the plant species extracts evaluation as anticoagulants or coagulants were related to the plant species and to the solvent of extraction.


Resumo A eficácia hemostática de diferentes tipos de extrato de Satureja thymbra L., Thymbra spicata L. (Lamiaceae) e Verbascum fruticulosum Post. (Scrophulariaceae) foi avaliada neste estudo pelo tempo de protrombina (TP) e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa). Os extratos aquosos, metanólicos e etanólicos das folhas das espécies de plantas examinadas foram preparados para uma concentração final de 50 mg/mL. Os ensaios de TP e TTPa in vitro foram realizados em amostras normais de sangue, pobre em plaquetas, por um analisador de coagulação digital. Os resultados obtidos revelaram atividade anticoagulante de todas as espécies de plantas investigadas, com variações observadas dentre elas. Os extratos aquosos e etanólicos de T. spicata e o extrato aquoso de S. thymbra prolongaram significativamente os valores de TP (p <0,05). Entretanto, todos os tipos de extratos de V. fruticulosum não tiveram efeito significativo sobre os valores de TP. Os dados registrados do TTPa mostraram que todos os extratos aquosos tiveram um efeito significativo na hemostase do sangue, pois aumentaram os valores de TTPa em todas as espécies de plantas em estudo. Dos quais, ambos os extratos etanólicos e metanólicos de T. spicata e o extrato metanólico de S. thymbra mostraram efeito semelhante. De grande preocupação, notou-se claramente que os extratos aquoso e etanólico de T. spicata e o extrato aquoso de S. thymbra apresentam efeito anticoagulante mais forte, aumentando os valores de TP e TTPa significativamente em relação ao controle (p <0,05). A variável bioatividade anticoagulante dentre as espécies vegetais estudadas pôde ser referida aos vários graus de solventes de solubilidade de diferentes fitoconstituintes. Assim, a eficácia da avaliação de extratos de espécies vegetais como anticoagulantes ou coagulantes foi relacionada às espécies vegetais e ao solvente de extração.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Hemostatics , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Ethanol , Methanol , Hemostasis
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 86-94, nov. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the workhorse for obtaining recombinant proteins. Proteomic studies of these cells intend to understand cell biology and obtain more productive and robust cell lines for therapeutic protein production in the pharmaceutical industry. Because of the great importance of precipitation methods for the processing of samples in proteomics, the acetone, methanol-chloroform (M/C), and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-acetone protocols were compared for CHO cells in terms of protein recovery, band pattern resolution, and presence on SDS-PAGE. RESULTS: Higher recovery and similar band profile with cellular homogenates were obtained using acetone precipitation with ultrasonic bath cycles (104.18 ± 2.67%) or NaOH addition (103.12 ± 5.74%), compared to the other two protocols tested. TCA-acetone precipitates were difficult to solubilize, which negatively influenced recovery percentage (77.91 ± 8.79%) and band presence. M/C with ultrasonic homogenization showed an intermediate recovery between the other two protocols (94.22 ± 4.86%) without affecting protein pattern on SDS-PAGE. These precipitation methods affected the recovery of low MW proteins (< 15 kDa). CONCLUSIONS: These results help in the processing of samples of CHO cells for their proteomic study by means of an easily accessible, fast protocol, with an almost complete recovery of cellular proteins and the capture of the original complexity of the cellular composition. Acetone protocol could be incorporated to sample-preparation workflows in a straightforward manner and can probably be applied to other mammalian cell lines as well.


Subject(s)
Animals , Recombinant Proteins , CHO Cells , Proteomics/methods , Acetone , Chemical Precipitation , Solubility , Trichloroacetic Acid , Cell Separation , Chloroform , Cell Culture Techniques , Methanol , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1371-1375, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134450

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Fixation is a crucial step in processing of tissue specimen for preservation of cellular architecture and composition of cells. Alcohol-based fixatives are considered some of the most promising alternatives to formalin. We evaluated the performance of alcohol-based fixatives (EthMeth and methacarn) and formalin as a comparator fixative in the research laboratory. Following 24 hours of fixation, tissue morphology and cellular details of the liver, spleen and brain (cerebral cortex) were evaluated. Morphological characteristics were evaluated by gross observations and analyzing cellular details, tissue architecture and overall staining characteristics (Hematoxylin and Eosin). EthMeth and methacarn fixation gave generally comparable and satisfactory results on the tissue morphology and subsequent identification of tissue characteristics. Particularly, tissues were well preserved and all nuclear as well as cytoplasmic details were clearly visible. However, formalin fixed tissues showed some peculiarity such as improper fixation, mild shrinkage, and alterations of tissue components. These results confirm that alcohol-based fixation is the superior alternative to formalin for preservation of tissue morphology. However, it is required to standardize the formalin-free methods and harmonize diagnosis in the laboratory worldwide.


RESUMEN: La fijación es un paso crucial en el procesamiento de muestras de tejido para preservar la arquitectura celular y la composición de las células. Los fijadores a base de alcohol se consideran algunas de las alternativas más prometedoras a la formalina. Evaluamos el rendimiento de los fijadores a base de alcohol (EthMeth y metacarn) y formalina como fijador comparativo en el laboratorio de investigación. Después de 24 horas de fijación, se observó la morfología del tejido y los detalles celulares del hígado, bazo y corteza cerebral. Se evaluaron las características morfológicas mediante observaciones generales y analizando detalles celulares, arquitectura de tejidos y características generales de tinción (hematoxilina y eosina). La fijación de EthMeth y metacarn dio resultados generalmente comparables y satisfactorios en la morfología del tejido y la posterior identificación de las características del mismo. Particularmente, los tejidos estaban bien conservados y todos los detalles nucleares y citoplasmáticos eran claramente visibles. Sin embargo, los tejidos fijados con formalina mostraron cierta peculiaridad, tal como una fijación inadecuada, la contracción leve y alteraciones de los componentes del tejido. Estos resultados confirman que la fijación a base de alcohol es la mejor alternativa a la formalina, para preservar la morfología del tejido. Sin embargo, es necesario estandarizar los métodos sin formalina y armonizar el diagnóstico en los laboratorios.


Subject(s)
Tissue Fixation/methods , Alcohols/chemistry , Fixatives , Formaldehyde/chemistry , Chloroform/chemistry , Acetic Acid/chemistry , Methanol/chemistry
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 161-166, mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104063

ABSTRACT

The methanol extract of the Balkan endemic species Jurinea tzar-ferdinandii Davidov demonstrated weak antioxidant activity against DPPH• and ABTS+• and low inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase (8.3% Inh.) and tyrosinase (IC50 = 208 ± 8 µg/mL) enzymes. Phytochemical investigation of the extract led to isolation and identification of apigenin, luteolin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-4'-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-gentiobioside, luteolin-4'-O-glucoside, rutin, narcissin, chlorogenic and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. With exception of apigenin and rutin, all isolated compounds are reported for the first time in the representatives of genus Jurinea. The distribution of flavonoids was discussed from chemotaxonomic point of view.


El extracto de metanol de la especie endémica de los Balcanes Jurinea tzar-ferdinandii Davidov demostró una actividad antioxidante débil contra DPPH• y ABTS+• y un bajo potencial inhibidor contra las enzimas acetilcolinesterasa (8.3% Inh.) tirosinasa (IC50 = 208 ± 8 µg/mL). La investigación fitoquímica del extracto condujo al aislamiento e identificación de apigenina, luteolina, apigenina-7-Oglucósido, apigenina-4'-O-glucósido, apigenina-7-O-gentiobiósido, luteolina-4'-O-glucósido, rutina, narcissin, clorogénico y ácido 1,5- dicafeoilquinico. Con excepción de la apigenina y la rutina, todos los compuestos aislados se informan por primera vez en el género Jurinea. La distribución de flavonoides se discute desde el punto de vista quimiotaxonómico.


Subject(s)
Asteraceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Monophenol Monooxygenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Methanol , Balkan Peninsula
11.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 58-59, Mar. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methanol can be effectively removed from air by biofiltration (Shareefdeen et al., 1993; Babbitt et al., 2009 [1,2]). However, formaldehyde is one of the first metabolic intermediates in the consumption of methanol in methylotrophic microorganisms (Negruta et al., 2010 [3]), and it can be released out of the cell constituting a secondary emission. RESULTS: The total removal of methanol was achieved up to input loads of 263 g m−3 h−1 and the maximum elimination capacity of the system was obtained at an empty bed residence times of 90 s and reached 330 g m−3 h−1 at an input methanol load of 414 g m−3 h−1 and 80% of removal efficiency. Formaldehyde was detected inside the biofilter when the input methanol load was above 212 g m−3 h−1 . Biomass in the filter bed was able to degrade the formaldehyde generated, but with the increase of the methanol input load, the unconsumed formaldehyde was released outside the biofilter. The maximum concentration registered at the output of the system was 3.98 g m−3 when the methanol load was 672 g m−3 h−1 in an empty bed residence times of 60 s. CONCLUSIONS: Formaldehyde is produced inside a biofilter when methanol is treated in a biofiltration system inoculated with Pichia pastoris. Biomass present in the reactor is capable of degrading the formaldehyde generated as the concentration of methanol decreases. However, high methanol loads can lead to the generation and release of formaldehyde into the environment.


Subject(s)
Pichia/chemistry , Methanol/chemistry , Formaldehyde/analysis , Volatilization , Biological Filters , Biomass , Bioreactors , Environment
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 10-16, July. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053200

ABSTRACT

Background: Methanol can be effectively removed from air by biofiltration. However, formaldehyde is one of the first metabolic intermediates in the consumption of methanol in methylotrophic microorganisms, and it can be released out of the cell constituting a secondary emission. Results: The total removal of methanol was achieved up to input loads of 263 g m−3 h−1 and the maximum elimination capacity of the system was obtained at an empty bed residence times of 90 s and reached 330 g m− 3 h−1 at an input methanol load of 414 g m−3 h−1 and 80% of removal efficiency. Formaldehyde was detected inside the biofilter when the input methanol load was above 212 g m−3 h−1 . Biomass in the filter bed was able to degrade the formaldehyde generated, but with the increase of the methanol input load, the unconsumed formaldehyde was released outside the biofilter. The maximum concentration registered at the output of the system was 3.98 g m−3 when the methanol load was 672 g m−3 h−1 in an empty bed residence times of 60 s. Conclusions: Formaldehyde is produced inside a biofilter when methanol is treated in a biofiltration system inoculated with Pichia pastoris. Biomass present in the reactor is capable of degrading the formaldehyde generated as the concentration of methanol decreases. However, high methanol loads can lead to the generation and release of formaldehyde into the environment


Subject(s)
Pichia/metabolism , Methanol/metabolism , Formaldehyde/metabolism , Biomass , Air Pollutants , Environment , Filtration
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(2): 204-222, mar. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007819

ABSTRACT

To explore the mechanistic basis behind smooth muscle relaxant prospective of Bismarckia nobilis in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular ailments. The methanolic extract of B. nobilis and sub-fractions have been evaluated in vitro rabbit isolated tissues, in vivo castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and charcoal meal activity in mice. The B. nobilis extract relaxed spontaneous and K+(80 mM)- induced contractions in rabbit isolated jejunum preparations, CCh (1 µM) and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions in tracheal and bladder preparations, PE (1 µM) and K+ (80 mM)-induced concentrations in aorta preparations, likewise verapamil. Spasmolytic activity of dichloromethane fraction is stronger as compared to aqueous fraction. In vivo castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and charcoal meal activity in mice further supported spasmolytic activity. B. nobilis extract possess anti-spasmodic, anti-diarrheal, airway relaxant and vasodilator activities possible mediated through calcium channel blocking mechanism, justifying therapeutic utility of B. nobilis in diarrhea, asthma and hypertension.


El objetivo de trabajo fue explorar el mecanismo de acción relacionado con el efecto relajante del músculo liso inducido por Bismarckia nobilis (B. nobilis) en enfermedades gastrointestinales, respiratorias y cardiovasculares. El extracto metanólico de B. nobilis y subfracciones fue evaluado in vitro en tejidos aislados de conejos. Además se evaluó diarrea in vivo inducida con aceite de ricino en ratas y la actividad de harina de carbón vegetal en ratones. El extracto de B. nobilis relajó tanto las contracciones espontáneas como las inducidas por K+(80 mM) en preparaciones de yeyuno aisladas de conejos, las contracciones inducidas por PE (1 µM) y K+(80 mM) inducidas en preparaciones de aorta; de manera similar a verapamilo. La actividad espasmolítica de la fracción de diclorometano es más potente en comparación con la fracción acuosa. La diarrea inducida in vivo por el aceite de ricino en ratas y la actividad de la harina de carbón vegetal en ratones apoyaron aún más la actividad espasmolítica. El extracto de B. nobilis posee actividades antiespasmódicas, antidiarreicas, relajantes de las vías respiratorias y vasodilatadoras, posibles a través del mecanismo de bloqueo de los canales de calcio, lo que justifica la utilidad terapéutica de B. nobilis en la diarrea, el asma y la hipertensión.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/pharmacology , Arecaceae , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Aorta/drug effects , Asthma/metabolism , Trachea/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Diarrhea/metabolism , Methanol , Hypotension/metabolism , Jejunum/drug effects , Muscle Relaxation/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects
15.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(3): 217-217, Mar. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001347

Subject(s)
Humans , Methanol/poisoning
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742424

ABSTRACT

Apixaban, an inhibitor of direct factor Xa, is used for the treatment of venous thromboembolic events or prevention of stroke. Unlike many other anticoagulant agents, it does not need periodic monitoring. However, monitoring is still required to determine the risk of bleeding due to overdose or surgery. Usually, apixaban concentrations are indirectly quantified using an anti-factor Xa assay. However, this method has a relatively narrow analytical concentration range, poor selectivity, and requires an external calibrator. Therefore, the goal of current study was to establish an analytical method for determining plasma levels of apixaban using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). To this end, apixaban was separated using 2.5 mM ammonium formate (pH 3.0) (A) and 100% methanol containing 0.1% formic acid (B) using the gradient method with a Thermo hypersil GOLD column. The mass detector condition was optimized using the electrospray ionization (ESI) positive mode for apixaban quantification. The developed method showed sufficient linearity (coefficient of determination [r² ≥ 0.997]) at calibration curve ranges. The percentage (%) changes in accuracy, precision, and all stability tests were within 15% of the nominal concentration. Apixaban concentration in plasma from healthy volunteers was quantified using the developed method. The mean maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) was 371.57 ng/mL, and the median time to achieve the C(max) (T(max)) was 4 h after administration of 10 mg apixaban alone. Although the results showed low extraction efficiency (~16%), the reproducibility (% change was within 15% of nominal concentration) was reliable. Therefore, the developed method could be used for clinical pharmacokinetic studies.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Compounds , Anticoagulants , Calibration , Chromatography, Liquid , Factor Xa , Healthy Volunteers , Hemorrhage , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Methanol , Methods , Plasma , Stroke , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741651

ABSTRACT

Lauraceae is a family medicinal plant whose tubers possesses antimicrobial, and cytotoxic, such as antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory special effects and has been used for the medicine in the cure of hepatitis and rheumatism. The antimicrobial activities of bioactive compounds including one neolignan; kunstlerone (1) and two alkaloids include isocaryachine (2) and noratherosperminine (3) as well as crude hexane, methanol and dichloromethane extracts were evaluated. Additionally, the effect of compounds 1, 2 and 3 were evaluated on A549, PC-3, A375, HT-29 and WRL-68 cell lines. In conclusion, kunstlerone 1 showed moderate cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines such as A549, PC-3, A375, HT-29 and WRL-68, respectively with EC₅₀ values of 28.02, 26.78, 33.78, 33.65 and 16.46 µg/mL. The crude methanol extract showed antigrowth activity against S. pyogenes II and B. cereus, with MICs of 256 µg/mL. The compounds kunstlerone (1), isocaryachine (2) and noratherosperminine (3) showed complete inhibition against P. shigelloides, with MIC ≤60 µg/mL compare to ampicillin, as a positive control, which showed antigrowth activity against P. shigelloides at MIC 10 µg/mL.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Ampicillin , Cell Line , Hepatitis , Humans , Lauraceae , Methanol , Methylene Chloride , Plants, Medicinal , Plesiomonas , Rheumatic Diseases
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741646

ABSTRACT

Microbial wound infection prolonged the hospitalization and increase the cost for wound management. Silver is commonly used as antimicrobial wound dressing. However, it causes several adverse side effects. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial efficiency of Swietenia macrophylla seed extract on clinical wound pathogens. Besides, the bioactive constituents of the seed extract were also determined. S. macrophylla seeds were extracted with methanol by maceration method. The seed extract inhibited 5 test bacteria and 1 yeast on disc diffusion assay. The antibacterial activity was broad spectrum, as the extract inhibited both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. On kill curve analysis, the antibacterial activity of the seed extract was concentration-dependent, the increase of extract concentration resulted in more reduction of bacterial growth. The extract also caused 99.9% growth reduction of Bacillus subtilis relative to control. A total of 21 compounds were detected in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The predominant compounds present in the extract were oleic acid (18.56%) and linoleic acid (17.72%). In conclusion, the methanolic extract of S. macrophylla seeds exhibited significant antimicrobial activity on clinical wound pathogens. Further investigations should be conducted to purify other bioactive compounds from the seeds of S. macrophylla.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis , Bacteria , Bandages , Diffusion , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Hospitalization , Linoleic Acid , Meliaceae , Methanol , Methods , Oleic Acid , Silver , Wound Infection , Wounds and Injuries , Yeasts
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772103

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of methanol-ethyl acetate partitioned fractions from (MEDS) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human non-small cell lung cancer H1975 cells.@*METHODS@#The systemic solvent extraction method was used to preliminary separation of the effective fractions in the methanol extract of . The cytotoxicity of each extract (5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μg/mL) was tested using MTT assay. Colony cloning method was used to assess the effect of different concentrations of methanol-ethyl acetate partitioned fractions from MEDS (5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μg/ mL) on the proliferation of H1975 cells. Flow cytometric analysis with Annexin V-FITC/PI staining was performed to detect the apoptosis of the cells after treatment with different concentrations of MEDS fractions (10, 20, and 40 μg/mL). Western blotting was used to evaluate the effects of MEDS fractions on the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins Akt, Bax, and Bcl-2. The anti-tumor activity of 100 mg/kg MEDS fractions was tested in a nude mouse model bearing H1975 cell xenografts.@*RESULTS@#MTT assay and colony forming experiment showed that MEDS fractions significantly inhibited the proliferation of H1975 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner ( < 0.05). The results of flow cytometry showed that MEDS fractions induced obvious apoptosis of H1975 cells in a concentration-dependent manner ( < 0.05). MEDS fractions also significantly decreased the expressions of Bcl-2 and Akt protein and increased the protein expression of Bax ( < 0.05). In the tumor-bearing nude mouse model, MEDS fractions showed potent anti-tumor effects with a low toxicity to affect the body weight and organs of the mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The methanol-ethyl acetate partitioned fractions from MEDS show potent anti-tumor activity both and , suggesting their value as promising therapeutic agents against lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Acetates , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Heterografts , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Pathology , Methanol , Mice , Mice, Nude , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776910

ABSTRACT

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has led to an intense interest in developing its inhibitors as anti-diabetes, anti-obesity and anti-cancer agents. The fruits of Rubus chingii (Chinese raspberry) were used as a kind of dietary traditional Chinese medicine. The methanolic extract of R. chingii fruits exhibited significant PTP1B inhibitory activity. Further bioactivity-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of three PTP1B inhibitory ursane-type triterpenes: ursolic acid (1), 2-oxopomolic acid (2), and 2α, 19α-dihydroxy-3-oxo-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (3). Kinetics analyses revealed that 1 was a non-competitive PTP1B inhibitor, and 2 and 3 were mixed type PTP1B inhibitors. Compounds 1-3 and structurally related triterpenes (4-8) were further analyzed the structure-activity relationship, and were evaluated the inhibitory selectivity against four homologous protein tyrosine phosphatases (TCPTP, VHR, SHP-1 and SHP-2). Molecular docking simulations were also carried out, and the result indicated that 1, 3-acetoxy-urs-12-ene-28-oic acid (5), and pomolic acid-3β-acetate (6) bound at the allosteric site including α3, α6, and α7 helix of PTP1B.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Inhibitors , Chemistry , Metabolism , Fruit , Chemistry , Humans , Kinetics , Methanol , Chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1 , Metabolism , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases , Rubus , Chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Metabolism
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