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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1371-1375, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134450

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Fixation is a crucial step in processing of tissue specimen for preservation of cellular architecture and composition of cells. Alcohol-based fixatives are considered some of the most promising alternatives to formalin. We evaluated the performance of alcohol-based fixatives (EthMeth and methacarn) and formalin as a comparator fixative in the research laboratory. Following 24 hours of fixation, tissue morphology and cellular details of the liver, spleen and brain (cerebral cortex) were evaluated. Morphological characteristics were evaluated by gross observations and analyzing cellular details, tissue architecture and overall staining characteristics (Hematoxylin and Eosin). EthMeth and methacarn fixation gave generally comparable and satisfactory results on the tissue morphology and subsequent identification of tissue characteristics. Particularly, tissues were well preserved and all nuclear as well as cytoplasmic details were clearly visible. However, formalin fixed tissues showed some peculiarity such as improper fixation, mild shrinkage, and alterations of tissue components. These results confirm that alcohol-based fixation is the superior alternative to formalin for preservation of tissue morphology. However, it is required to standardize the formalin-free methods and harmonize diagnosis in the laboratory worldwide.


RESUMEN: La fijación es un paso crucial en el procesamiento de muestras de tejido para preservar la arquitectura celular y la composición de las células. Los fijadores a base de alcohol se consideran algunas de las alternativas más prometedoras a la formalina. Evaluamos el rendimiento de los fijadores a base de alcohol (EthMeth y metacarn) y formalina como fijador comparativo en el laboratorio de investigación. Después de 24 horas de fijación, se observó la morfología del tejido y los detalles celulares del hígado, bazo y corteza cerebral. Se evaluaron las características morfológicas mediante observaciones generales y analizando detalles celulares, arquitectura de tejidos y características generales de tinción (hematoxilina y eosina). La fijación de EthMeth y metacarn dio resultados generalmente comparables y satisfactorios en la morfología del tejido y la posterior identificación de las características del mismo. Particularmente, los tejidos estaban bien conservados y todos los detalles nucleares y citoplasmáticos eran claramente visibles. Sin embargo, los tejidos fijados con formalina mostraron cierta peculiaridad, tal como una fijación inadecuada, la contracción leve y alteraciones de los componentes del tejido. Estos resultados confirman que la fijación a base de alcohol es la mejor alternativa a la formalina, para preservar la morfología del tejido. Sin embargo, es necesario estandarizar los métodos sin formalina y armonizar el diagnóstico en los laboratorios.


Subject(s)
Tissue Fixation/methods , Alcohols/chemistry , Fixatives , Formaldehyde/chemistry , Chloroform/chemistry , Acetic Acid/chemistry , Methanol/chemistry
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 58-59, Mar. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methanol can be effectively removed from air by biofiltration (Shareefdeen et al., 1993; Babbitt et al., 2009 [1,2]). However, formaldehyde is one of the first metabolic intermediates in the consumption of methanol in methylotrophic microorganisms (Negruta et al., 2010 [3]), and it can be released out of the cell constituting a secondary emission. RESULTS: The total removal of methanol was achieved up to input loads of 263 g m−3 h−1 and the maximum elimination capacity of the system was obtained at an empty bed residence times of 90 s and reached 330 g m−3 h−1 at an input methanol load of 414 g m−3 h−1 and 80% of removal efficiency. Formaldehyde was detected inside the biofilter when the input methanol load was above 212 g m−3 h−1 . Biomass in the filter bed was able to degrade the formaldehyde generated, but with the increase of the methanol input load, the unconsumed formaldehyde was released outside the biofilter. The maximum concentration registered at the output of the system was 3.98 g m−3 when the methanol load was 672 g m−3 h−1 in an empty bed residence times of 60 s. CONCLUSIONS: Formaldehyde is produced inside a biofilter when methanol is treated in a biofiltration system inoculated with Pichia pastoris. Biomass present in the reactor is capable of degrading the formaldehyde generated as the concentration of methanol decreases. However, high methanol loads can lead to the generation and release of formaldehyde into the environment.


Subject(s)
Pichia/chemistry , Methanol/chemistry , Formaldehyde/analysis , Volatilization , Biological Filters , Biomass , Bioreactors , Environment
3.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(4): 1431-1439, oct.-dic. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958224

ABSTRACT

Abstract:Vismia genus is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of Central, South America and some areas of Africa. According to previous investigations, antioxidant potential of Vismia species might be related to anthrones, anthraquinones, flavonoids and phenol derivatives biosynthesized by these plants. In this investigation, phytochemical screening of Vismia baccifera (VB) from Mérida-Venezuela and Vismia macrophylla (VM) from Táchira-Venezuela methanolic extracts, carried out using various chemical assays, revealed an abundant presence of anthraquinones in both species analyzed. Glycosides were also present while flavones and dehydroflavones were observed abundantly in VB but moderated in VM. Triterpenes were also detected and steroids showed to be abundant in VM but moderate in VB. On the other hand, antioxidant capacity measured by the DPPH assay showed that VM possesses a stronger antioxidant activity than VB with IC50 5.50 µg mL-1. Phenol and flavonoid assays carried out by Folin-Ciocalteu and colorimetric test also revealed that methanol extracts of both species contain high concentrations of these metabolites. A relationship between the antioxidant activity, total phenol and flavonoids content of the extracts analyzed was demonstrated in this investigation since those samples with higher phenolic concentrations showed likewise higher antioxidant activity. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (4): 1431-1439. Epub 2016 December 01.


Resumen:El género Vismia esta distribuido principalmente en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales de Centro, Sur América y algunas zonas de África. De acuerdo a reportes previos, el potencial antioxidante de las especies de Vismia puede estar relacionado con antronas, antraquinonas, flavonoides y derivados fenólicos biosintetizados por estas plantas. En la presente investigación, el tamizaje fitoquímico de los extractos metanólicos de Vismia baccifera (VB) de Mérida-Venezuela y Vismia macrophylla (VM) de Táchira-Venezuela realizado con diferentes ensayos químicos reveló abundante presencia de antraquinonas en ambas especies analizadas. Glucósidos también estuvieron presentes mientras que flavonas y dehidroflavonas fueron observados abundantemente en VB pero con presencia moderada en VM. Triterpenos y esteroides también fueron detectados mostrando ser abundantes en VM y moderados en VB. Por otro lado, la actividad antioxidante determinada por el método DPPH reveló que VM posee actividad antioxidante más fuerte que VB con un IC50 de 5.50 µg mL-1. El ensayo del contenido de fenoles y flavonoides realizado con los métodos de Folin-Ciocalteu y test colorimétrico también demostró que los extractos metanólicos de ambas especies contienen altas concentraciones de estos metabolitos. En este estudio se observó una relación entre la actividad antioxidante, el contenido de fenoles y de flavonoides en los extractos analizados ya que las muestras que presentaron concentraciones más altas de fenoles y flavonoides también mostraron una mayor actividad antioxidante.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Phenol/analysis , Clusiaceae/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Picrates , Reference Values , Venezuela , Biphenyl Compounds , Analysis of Variance , Free Radical Scavengers/analysis , Methanol/chemistry , Indicators and Reagents
4.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Apr; 53(4): 208-215
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158422

ABSTRACT

In this study, we report isolation of flavonoids, viz., 3-O-methylquercetin, tangeritin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-8-C-glucoside, luteolin-8-C-glucoside, luteolin-6-C-glucoside, diosmetin and catechin from the methanolic extract of Hyparrhenia hirta employing high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The total phenolic content of H. hirta extract was 105.58 ± 0.1 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of plant extract while the total flavonoid content was 45.20 ± 0.2 mg quercetin equivalents/g of plant extract and the total condensed tannin were 72.35 ± 0.7 mg catechin equivalents/g of plant extract by reference to standard curve. The antioxidant activity was assayed through the antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum assay, the reducing power assay and the radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. The extract showed dose dependant activity in all the three assays.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , /chemistry , /pharmacology , Methanol/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Poaceae/chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
5.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Feb; 53(2): 98-103
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158385

ABSTRACT

Anticancer potential of Moringa oleifera L. extracts have been well established. However, there are no reports on the isolated molecules/fractions from these extracts which are responsible for the anticancer/cytotoxic activity. Thus, in the present study, we explored the same. The n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol extracts of the M. oleifera leaves and 15 fractions (F1 to F15) of ethyl acetate extract were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity using Hep-2 cell lines and Dalton’s lymphoma ascites model in mice, respectively. Among the tested samples, the F1 fraction showed potential cytotoxic effect in Hep-2 cell lines with a CTC50 value of 12.5 ± 0.5 µg/ml. In vivo studies with the doses 5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o. demonstrated significant reduction in body weight and increased the mean survival time compared to the control group. These results were also comparable to the standard, 5-Fluorouracil, treated animals. We have also successfully isolated and characterized the anticancer fraction, F1 from the leaves of M. oleifera L.


Subject(s)
Acetates/chemistry , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/isolation & purification , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chemical Fractionation/methods , Chloroform/chemistry , Female , Hep G2 Cells , Hexanes/chemistry , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Methanol/chemistry , Moringa oleifera/chemistry , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Vero Cells
6.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(1): 185-192, 01/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-733152

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo teve por objetivo estimar a presença de cães e gatos em domicílios da zona urbana do município e avaliar a guarda responsável e seus fatores associados. Foi realizado um estudo transversal, de base populacional com processo de amostragem em múltiplos estágios e com os setores censitários do censo demográfico do ano de 2010, realizado pelo IBGE, utilizados como conglomerados. A unidade em estudo foi o domicílio. O desfecho foi a guarda responsável, definida por um escore que levou em consideração as seguintes variáveis: esterilização, vacinação antirrábica, consulta médica veterinária, controle de endoparasitas, acesso dos animais às áreas públicas e o recolhimento das fezes nestes locais e controle de ectoparasitas. Entre os 1.558 domicílios investigados, 58,9% possuíam animais de estimação (cão e/ou gato). O estudo revela que o escore de posse responsável aumenta com a escolaridade do chefe da família e é maior entre os moradores de apartamento. A maioria dos domicílios investigados atendeu apenas a metade dos critérios. Os resultados deste estudo apontam para a necessidade de políticas públicas que orientem a população sobre a guarda responsável e que ofertem serviços de imunizações e esterilização para os animais.


The study sought to estimate the presence of cats and dogs in households in the urban area of the city and assess responsible guardianship and associated factors. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted using the multi-stage sampling process and the census sectors of the demographic census of the year 2010 carried out by IBGE were used as conglomerates. The unit under study was the household. The outcome was responsible guardianship, defined by a score that took into account the following variables: sterilization, anti-rabies vaccination, veterinary medical consultation, control of endoparasites, access of animals to public areas, control of ectoparasites and the collection of feces of animals in public areas. Of the 1,558 households investigated, 58.9% had pets (cat or dog). The study reveals that the score of responsible guardianship increases with the education level of the head of the household and is highest among apartment dwellers. The majority of the households investigated met only half of the criteria. The results of this study point to the need for public policies that instruct the population on responsible guardianship, and that offer immunizations and sterilization services for animals.


Subject(s)
Glycosides/chemistry , Mesylates/chemistry , Carbohydrates/chemistry , Electrochemistry , Galactose/chemistry , Mannose/chemistry , Methanol/chemistry , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Oxidation-Reduction , Sulfhydryl Compounds/chemistry
7.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4,supl.2): 909-914, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771153

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Vernonia polyanthes, known as “assa-peixe”, is a plant native to Brazil, and the decoction or infusion of its flowers, roots and leaves are used in folk medicine, being considered sources of diuretic, balsamic, anti-rheumatic substances, and are used in cases of bronchitis and persistent cough. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the extract/fractions obtained by methanol maceration and infusion of V. polyanthes flower, also including qualitative identification of flower compounds, through phytochemical evaluation, using colorimetric tests. Identification tests for the presence of anthraquinones, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were performed. Microbiological evaluation was made through agar diffusion assay, using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonasaeruginosa as test organisms. From the performed colorimetric tests it was possible to verify the presence of tannins and flavonoids in both extracts. Alkaloids were also observed in the macerated extract. The ethyl acetate fraction from the agar diffusion assay, from both extracts, presented microbial activity over Staphylococcus aureus. It was possible to qualitatively identify the floral compounds, and to show the differences between extraction methods, being methanol considered the best solvent to the extraction.


RESUMO Vernonia polyanthes, conhecida como assa-peixe, é planta nativa do Brasil e suas flores, raízes e folhas, em decocção ou infusão, são empregadas na medicina caseira como diuréticas, balsâmicas, e anti-reumáticas, usadas nos casos de bronquite e tosse persistente. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato/frações obtidos por maceração em metanol e infusão de flores de V. polyanthes, incluindo também a identificação qualitativa dos compostos presentes nas flores, através da avaliação fitoquímica, empregando testes colorimétricos. Foram realizados testes para identificação de antraquinonas, taninos, flavonóides, saponinas e alcalóides. A avaliação microbiológica foi realizada por meio de ensaio de difusão em ágar, empregando Escherichia coli, Staphylococcusaureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A partir dos testes colorimétricos foi possível verificar a presença de taninos e flavonóides em ambos os extratos. Ainda, no extrato macerado, foi observada a presença de alcalóides. No ensaio de difusão em ágar, a fração acetato de etila de ambos os extratos, apresentou atividade antimicrobiana sobre Staphylococcus aureus. Foi possível identificar qualitativamente os compostos da flor, demonstrando diferença entre as técnicas de extração, sendo que o metanol resultou em melhor poder extrativo.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis , Vernonia/classification , Methanol/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/classification
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Aug; 51(8): 653-660
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149368

ABSTRACT

Isoproterenol injection (100 mg/kg; sc) produced changes in ECG pattern including ST-segment elevation and suppressed R-amplitude. The methanolic extract of M. vulgare at doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg significantly amended the ECG changes. A severe myocardial necrosis and edematous along with a sharp reduction in the arterial blood pressure, left ventricular contractility (LVdP/dtmax or min), but a marked increase in the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were seen in the isoproterenol group. All parameters were significantly improved by the extract treatment. The extract (10 mg/kg) strongly increased LVdP/dtmax. Similarly, treatment with 40 mg/kg of M. vulgare lowered the elevated LVEDP and the heart to body weight ratio. In addition to in vitro antioxidant activity, the extract suppressed markedly the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in serum and in myocardium. The results demonstrate that M. vulgare protects myocardium against isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction and suggest that the effects could be related to antioxidant activities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Electrocardiography , Heart/drug effects , Heart/physiopathology , Isoproterenol/toxicity , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Marrubium/chemistry , Methanol/chemistry , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Wistar
9.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (5): 949-952
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138414

ABSTRACT

The present research investigation was aimed at the evaluation of antioxidant activities of methanolic [70%] extracts of whole plant of Pentanema vestitum and fruits of Pistacia integerrima, Withiana somniferra and Withiana coagulans on scavenging of 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] free radical. The rank of order of free antioxidant activity of the selected plants was; P. integerrima > P. vestitum > W. somniferra > W. coagulans as compared to standard Ascorbic acid. P. integerrima showed significantly higher activity at all concentrations as compared to Ascorbic acid at P<0.05. The percent inhibition caused by P. integerrima at lowest concentration [40 ppm] was 68.16 +/- 0.5 and that of Ascorbic acid was 62.00 +/- 0.5. The IC[50] value of P. integerrima was 5.75ppm as compared to ascorbic acid having 15.09 ppm. The percent inhibition at all concentrations caused by P. vestitum was not significantly different from Ascorbic acid at P<0.05. The IC[50] value of P. vestitum was 13.00ppm and that of Ascorbic acid was 15.09 ppm. The percent inhibitions caused by W. somniferra [IC[50]=46.85 ppm] and W. coagulans [IC[50]=84.40 ppm] were most significantly lower than Ascorbic acid at P<0.05. It is inferred from the current study that the methanolic [70%] extracts of the P. integerrima and P. vestitum could be used in preparation of potent antioxidant drugs


Subject(s)
Asteraceae/chemistry , Biphenyl Compounds/chemistry , Fruit , Methanol/chemistry , Phytotherapy , Picrates/chemistry , Pistacia/chemistry , Plant Preparations , Plants, Medicinal , Solanaceae/chemistry , Solvents/chemistry
10.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (5): 961-966
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138416

ABSTRACT

An easy, fast and validated RV-HPLC method was invented to quantify donepezil hydrochloride in drug solution and orally disintegrating tablet. The separation was carried out using reversed phase C-18 column [Agilent Eclipse Plus C-18] with UV detection at 268 nm. Method optimization was tested using various composition of organic solvent. The mobile phase comprised of phosphate buffer [0.01M], methanol and acetonitrile [50:30:20, v/v] adjusted to pH 2.7 with phosphoric acid [80%] was found as the optimum mobile phase. The method showed intraday precision and accuracy in the range of 0.24% to -1.83% and -1.83% to 1.99% respectively, while interday precision and accuracy ranged between 1.41% to 1.81% and 0.11% to 1.90% respectively. The standard calibration curve was linear from 0.125 micro g/mL to 16 micro g/mL, with correlation coefficient of 0.9997 +/- 0.00016. The drug solution was stable under room temperature at least for 6 hours. System suitability studies were done. The average plate count was > 2000, tailing factor <1, and capacity factor of 3.30. The retention time was 5.6 min. The HPLC method was used to assay donepezil hydrochloride in tablet and dissolution study of in-house manufactured donepezil orally disintegrating tablet and original Aricept


Subject(s)
Indans/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/standards , Chromatography, Reverse-Phase/standards , Drug Stability , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Acetonitriles/chemistry , Administration, Oral , Buffers , Calibration , Limit of Detection , Methanol/chemistry , Phosphoric Acids/chemistry
11.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (5): 967-972
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138417

ABSTRACT

Plants are rich in a variety of chemical compounds. Many are secondary metabolites including aromatic substances most of them are phenols or their oxygen substituted derivatives. Medicinal plants are also rich in antioxidant constituents such as phenols, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and flavonoids etc. They are found to acquire free radical scavenging activity and used worldwide for the treatment of various immune system dependent diseases. Peltophorum pterocarpum [DC] Backer ex K. Heyne [Caesalpiniaceae] is a beautiful ornamental tree, widely grown in tropical regions and its parts are used in traditional medicine as an effective therapeutic agent. Fresh pods of Peltophorum pterocarpum was evaluated for its antioxidant potential by using various methods including DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide scavenging, and metal chelating activity. TPC via Folin-Ciocalteau's reagent and anti haemolytic activity red blood cells respectively have also been measured. The methanol extract of pods of Peltophorum pterocarpum was found to possess the significant amount 439.21 +/- 0.17 mg GAE [gallic acid equivalents] / g of TPC. The antioxidant potential of pods extract at mature stage showed potent activity and measured as, free radical scavenging activity 73.29 +/- 0.81%, superoxide anion scavenging activity 89.03 +/- 1.07%, nitric oxide scavenging activity 84.25 +/- 1.18%, and metal chelating activity 64.12 +/- 0.11%. The extract also showed potent anti haemolytic activity 79.09 +/- 75%. Peltophorum pterocarpum exhibited strong but varying level of antioxidant and anti haemolytic activity in various methods along with total phenolic contents


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Biphenyl Compounds/chemistry , Cattle , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Solvents/chemistry , Hemolysis/drug effects , Methanol/chemistry
12.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (3): 553-559
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142616

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to establish relationship between urease and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities on the one hand and on the other between anti-enzymatic activities and total phenolic contents of the methanolic extract of roots of Rumex acetosella and its fractions in various solvents. The methanolic extract and its fractions in chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water showed remarkable inhibitory activities against both urease and alpha-amylase, there was a close correspondence between urease and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of the plant samples. The n-butanol fraction which had the highest total phenolic content [252.19 +/- 2.32 micro g of Gallic Acid Equivalents/mg of dry mass of the sample] showed prominent activity against both urease and alpha-amylase indicating a possible role of phenolics in inhibiting the activities of these enzymes. The samples displayed enzyme inhibitory activities in a dose dependent manner and their effectiveness was comparable with that of the standards, thiourea [for urease] and acarbose [for alphaamylase]. The samples were manifold more effective against urease than alpha-amylase; 2.8 mg/mL of MeOH extract produced about 81% inhibition in alpha-amylase activity, while only 10 micro g/mL of the extract was required to create the same inhibition in urease activity. The IC[50] values of methanolic, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic, aqueous and standard solutions were 1.29, 1.31, 1.90, 1.38, 0.85 and 1.20 [mg/mL] respectively against alpha-amylase and 0.99, 3.89, 1.76, 0.91, 0.85 and 0.97 [micro g/mL] respectively against urease. The total phenolic content in MeOH, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions was 108.88 +/- 2.65, 43.70 +/- 1.90, 34.44 +/- 2.30, 230.71 +/- 1.78, 252.19 +/- 2.32 and 94.07 +/- 2.25 respectively


Subject(s)
Urease/antagonists & inhibitors , alpha-Amylases/antagonists & inhibitors , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Methanol/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , 1-Butanol/chemistry
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135735

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus.


Subject(s)
Acetates/chemistry , Animals , Annona/chemistry , Anopheles/drug effects , Asteraceae/chemistry , Chrysanthemum/chemistry , Culex/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Insecticides/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Malaria/prevention & control , Methanol/chemistry , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
14.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 24 (3): 243-250
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-129848

ABSTRACT

Cytotoxicity, the possible selective activity upon HL60 as well as the anti-proliferation effect of local health supplement wheatgrass and mixture of fibers were investigated in vitro using various cancerous cell line and normal blood cell culture. The IC[50] of wheatgrass-treated HL60 [17.5 +/- 1.1, 12.5 +/- 0.3, and 16 +/- 0.5 microgram/ml for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively] and fibers-treated HL60 [86.0 +/- 5.5, 35.0 +/- 2.5, and 52.5 +/- 4.5 microgram/ml for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively] showed that both extracts possessed optimum effect after 48 hours of treatment. No significant cytotoxic effect was observed on other type of cells. For trypan blue dye exclusion method, wheatgrass reduced the number of viable cells by 13.5% [ +/- 1.5], 47.1% [ +/- 3.6], and 64.9% [ +/- 2.7] after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure, respectively. Mixture of fibers reduced the number of viable cells by 36.4% [ +/- 2.3], 57.1% [ +/- 3.1], and 89.0% [ +/- 3.4] after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure, respectively, indicated that necrosis is also an alternative to the apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Annexin-V/propidium iodide staining revealed that both extracts induced apoptosis where early apoptosis had been detected concurrently with the reduction of percentage of cell viability. Cell cycle analysis revealed that in HL60, the percentage of apoptosis increased with time [wheatgrass: 16.0% +/- 2.4, 45.3% +/- 3.4 and 39.6% +/- 4.1; mixture of fibers: 14.6% +/- 1.8, 45.4% +/- 2.3 and 45.9% +/- 1.2] after exposure for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively at the concentration of 100 microgram/ml and showed optimum effect at 48 hours. Thus, these health products can be a potential alternative supplement for leukaemia patients


Subject(s)
Humans , HL-60 Cells , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Triticum/chemistry , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Methanol/chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
15.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 24 (3): 277-283
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-129853

ABSTRACT

Vegetables play a vital role in the prevention of human disease and in the improvement of general health as these contain vitamins, amino acids, fiber, antioxidants and minerals. In the present study, some less familiar vegetables of Pakistan namely chickpea [leaves], chungah [shoots], drumstick tree [inflorescences], radish [fruit pods], mountain ebony [flower buds], mustard [leaves], purslane [leaves] and white goosefoot [leaves and shoots] were evaluated for proximate composition, mineral content, phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity. The protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate and ash contents of the selected vegetables were in the range of 2.9 to 6.6%, 0.2 to 2.5%, 2.4 to 8.6%, 9.7 to 20.1% and 1.0 to 2.3%, respectively. The concentration of vitamin C ranged between 32.6 to 120.1 mg/100 g. The phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, manganese, magnesium and copper were 190 to 3400, 103 to 987, 19 to 93, 12 to 47, 9 to 121, 299 to 1635 and non detectable level to 42 mg/kg, respectively. The amount of total phenolic content varied from 55.3 to 221.0 mg/g in the dry methanolic extracts of the studied plants. The EC[50] values were below 1400 [ig/ml, indicating that all the studied vegetables have good scavenging effect on DPPH radical


Subject(s)
Food/statistics & numerical data , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Minerals/analysis , Methanol/chemistry
16.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 24 (3): 345-351
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-129861

ABSTRACT

Sea buckthorn berries are therapeutically used as folk medicine for a variety of diseases, however, the scientific evidence is hardly available to support their role. This study explored their chemical constituents and their role as antioxidant and antibacterial agents. Three common solvents such as petroleum ether [40° - 60°C], chloroform and methanol were successively used for the extraction of active principles from sea buckthorn berries. Five major fractions [F1-F5] were isolated from the active methanol extract by column and thin layer chromatography. An attempt was made to identify the chemical nature of pooled fractions by available spectral means. Antioxidant potential of methanol extract and its fractions was measured by DPPH, formation of phosphomolybdenum complex and TEA methods. The hole-plate diffussion method was used to find out the antibacterial activity. A very brief structure-activity relationship of the potent antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds is discussed. Methanolic extract and its fractions contain numerous phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, which may be responsible for antioxidant and antibacterial effects


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Methanol/chemistry , Chloroform/chemistry , Alkanes/chemistry , In Vitro Techniques
17.
Egyptian Journal of Chemistry. 2010; 53 (1): 163-176
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-126475

ABSTRACT

Studies on apparent molar volumes for the solutions of sodium nitroprusside in aqueous solutions of methanol, ethanol and propanol in the temperature range 298.15 to 313K at 5K intervals have been determined from the density measurements of the solutions. Speed of sound of solutions of sodium nitroprusside in aqueous solutions of alcohols has also been experimentally determined at 304.15K. Molar insentropic compressibilities and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities have been calculated from the speed of sound data. These results have been used to calculate the following partial molar quantities: V[phi], E[0][phi], K[0][s][phi] Various acoustic parameters and salvation number have been evaluated for sodium nitroprusside in different aqueous solutions of alcohols. The results are discussed in the light of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions


Subject(s)
Alcohols/chemistry , Ethanol/chemistry , Methanol/chemistry , Propanols/chemistry , /drug effects
18.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2009 Apr; 46(2): 161-165
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135189

ABSTRACT

Lentinula edodes (Berk) Pegler, commonly known as Shiitake mushroom has been used as medicinal food in Asian countries, especially in China and Japan and is believed to possess strong immunomodulatory property. In the present study, the methanolic extract of the fruit bodies of L. edodes was investigated for cytoprotective effect against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by measuring the activities of xanthine oxidase (XO) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) . H2O2 at a concentration of 5 μM caused 50% inhibition of PBMCs viability. The extract improved the PBMC viability and exerted a dose-dependent protection against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. At 100 μg/ml of extract concentration, the cell viability increased by 60% compared with the PBMCs incubated with H2O2 alone. The extract also inhibited XO activity in PBMC, while showing moderate stimulatory effect on GPx. However, in the presence of H2O2 alone, both the enzyme activities were increased significantly. The GPx activity increased, possibly in response to the increased availability of H2O2 in the cell. When the cells were pretreated with the extract and washed (to remove the extract) prior to the addition of H2O2, the GPx and XO activities as well as the cell viability were comparable to those when incubated with the extract alone. Thus, it is suggested that one of the possible mechanisms via which L. edodes methanolic extract confers protection against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in PBMC is by inhibiting the superoxide-producing XO and increasing GPx activity which could rapidly inactivate H2O2.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival/drug effects , Cytotoxins/antagonists & inhibitors , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/toxicity , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/enzymology , Methanol/chemistry , Shiitake Mushrooms/chemistry , Xanthine Oxidase/metabolism
19.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2009 Apr; 46(2): 154-160
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135188

ABSTRACT

Although anti-venom therapy is available for the treatment of fatal bite by snakes, it offers less or no protection against the local effects such as dermo- and myonecrosis, edema, hemorrhage and inflammation at the bitten region. The viper species are known for their violent local effects and such effects have been commonly treated with plant extracts without any scientific validation in rural India. In this investigation, the methanolic extract of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) seed was studied against the Indian Daboia/Vipera russelli venom-induced local effects. The extract abolished the proteolytic and hyaluronidase activities and also efficiently neutralized the hemorrhage, edema-inducing and myonecrotic properties of the venom. In addition, the extract also inhibited partially the pro-coagulant activity of the venom and abolished the degradation of Aα and Bβ chains of human fibrinogen. Thus, the extract possesses potent anti-snake venom property, especially against the local effects of viper bites.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hyaluronoglucosaminidase/antagonists & inhibitors , Methanol/chemistry , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Russell's Viper , Seeds/chemistry , Viper Venoms/antagonists & inhibitors , Viper Venoms/metabolism , Viper Venoms/toxicity , Vitis/chemistry
20.
J Environ Biol ; 2008 Jul; 29(4): 475-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113629

ABSTRACT

Two inhibitors of Taq DNA polymerase were isolated from the marine red alga Symphyocladia latiuscula. The inhibitors were purified by methanol extraction, molecular fractionation below 3000 MW and reverse-phase HPLC. The purified compound SL-1 containing three bromines was identified as 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol (C7H5Br3O3: MW374) by NMR and MS analyses. The purified compound SL-2 was identified as 2,3, 6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl ether(C8H7Br3O3: MW388). In a 25-microl reaction mixture containing 1.5 units of Taq DNA polymerase, the enzyme was completely inhibited by 0.5 microg SL-1 or 5 microg SL-2.


Subject(s)
Rhodophyta/chemistry , Base Sequence , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Ethers , Hydrocarbons, Brominated/chemistry , Methanol/chemistry , Molecular Weight , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spectrum Analysis , Taq Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors
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