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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(6): 408-413, dic. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1342850

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los agentes infecciosos más prevalentes en niños y puede causar un variado espectro de presentaciones clínicas. La bacteriemia por S. aureus se asocia frecuentemente con complicaciones y metástasis infecciosas. Los datos epidemiológicos y clínicos sobre esta entidad, y sus complicaciones en pediatría son escasos. Objetivos. Describir la epidemiología, frecuencia, distribución y tipo de metástasis infecciosas en una serie de pacientes pediátricos con bacteriemia por S. aureus y evaluar posibles factores de riesgo para su aparición. Población y métodos. Estudio de corte transversal de pacientes pediátricos internados con bacteriemia por S. aureus en un hospital pediátrico de La Plata entre enero de 201 y junio de 2019. Resultados. Se analizaron 112 episodios de bacteriemia por S. aureus. La tasa de infección metastásica fue del 34,8 %; el pulmón fue la localización más frecuente. Los factores de riesgo principales para el desarrollo de metástasis infecciosas fueron la bacteriemia por S. aureus meticilino resistente (OR : 2,95; IC95 %: 1,19-7,83; p = 0,015) y la persistencia de hemocultivos de control positivos a las 48 horas (OR: 3,17; IC95 %: 1,22-8,46; p = 0,012). Conclusión. La tasa de metástasis infecciosas en pacientes con bacteriemia por S. aureus fue del 34,8 %. Los factores de riesgo asociados fueron la bacteriemia por S. aureus meticilino resistente y la persistencia de hemocultivos de control positivos a las 48 horas. Los órganos más afectados fueron el pulmón, el sistema osteoarticular, la piel y partes blandas.


Introduction. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent infectious agents in children and may cause a wide variety of clinical presentations. S. aureus bacteremia is frequently associated with complications and metastatic infections. The epidemiological and clinical data about S. aureus bacteremia and its complications in pediatrics are scarce. Objectives. To describe the epidemiology, frequency, distribution, and type of metastatic infections in a series of pediatric patients with S. aureus bacteremia and assess possible risk factors for its development. Population and methods. Cross-sectional study of pediatric patients with S. aureus bacteremia admitted to a children's hospital of La Plata between January 2016 and June 2019. Results. A total of 112 S. aureus bacteremia events were analyzed. The rate of metastatic infection was 34.8 %; the lung was the most common infection site. The main risk factors for the development of metastatic infections were bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (odds ratio: 2.95; 95% confidence interval: 1.19-7.83; p = 0.015) and persistent positive control blood cultures at 48 hours (odds ratio: 3.17; 95 % confidence interval: 1.22-8.46; p = 0.012). Conclusion. The rate of metastatic infections among patients with S. aureus bacteremia was 34.8 %. Associated risk factors were bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus and persistent positive control blood cultures at 48 hours. The most common organs affected included the lungs, the osteoarticular system, and the skin and soft tissue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pediatrics , Argentina/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Pediatric
2.
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 33-40, 13 oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342178

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: caracterizar desde el punto de vista microbiológico las infecciones periprotesicas (IP) de los pacientes sometidos a remplazo articular de rodilla o cadera, en la IPS universitaria Clínica León XIII, y evidenciar los patrones más comunes de resistencia a los antibióticos, en el periodo 2015-2018. Metodología: se recolectó información de 25 pacientes llevados a remplazo articular de rodilla o cadera en la IPS universitaria, sede Clínica León XIII, durante el periodo de 2015-2018, que desarrollaron IP. Se obtuvo información sobre características demográfica, clínicas y patrones de resistencia (según antibiograma), y sobre los criterios usados para diagnosticarla. Los datos se registraron, según la naturaleza y distribución de la variable, en medias o medianas para las variables cuantitativas, y en frecuencias para las cualitativas. Resultados: entre 2015 y 2018 se realizaron 541 remplazos articulares, la incidencia de infección periprotésica fue de 4.6% (25 pacientes), 22 casos (88%) con crecimiento microbiológico. El germen más frecuente fue el S. aureus, con patrón alto de resistencia para meticilina (SAMR), en el 44%. Seguido por K. pneumoniae, con un patrón de resistencia por producción de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) de 83%. Ninguno tuvo resistencia a los carbapenémicos. Conclusiones: los resultados son similares a los reportados en la literatura internacional. Sigue siendo el S. aureus el principal causante de la infección periprotésica, seguido de los gérmenes gram negativos.


Objective: to microbiologically characterize the periprosthetic infections (PI) of patients undergoing knee or hip joint replacement at IPS Universitaria Clínica León XXIIIin the period 2015-2018, and to demonstrate the most common antibiotic resistance patterns. Methodology: the information was collected from 25 patients undergoing knee or hip joint replacement at IPS Universitaria Clínica León XXIII during the period 2015-2018 who developed PI. Data was obtained on demographic, clinical characteristics, and antibiotic resistance patterns (according to antibiograms), as well as on the diagnostic criteria used to diagnose it. The data was recorded, according to the nature and distribution of the variable, in means or medians for the quantitative variables, and in frequencies for the qualitative variables.Results:between 2015-2018, 541 joint replacements were performed. There was an incidence of periprosthetic infection in 25 patients (4.6%), 22 of whom (88%) had micro-biological growth. The most frequent germ was S. aureus, which had a high resistance pattern for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in 44%, followed by K. pneumoniaewith a positive extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in 83%. None of them showed resistance to carbapenems.Conclusions: the results found are similar to those reported in the international lite-rature. This investigation evidenced that S. aureus continues to be the main cause of periprosthetic infection, followed by gram-negative germs.


Objetivo: caracterizar do ponto de vista microbiológico as infecções periprotéticas (IP) dos pacientes submetidos à artroplastia articular do joelho ou do quadril, na IPS universitário, Clínica León XIII, e demonstrar os padrões mais comuns de resistência aos antibióticos, em o período 2015-2018.Metodologia: foram coletadas informações de 25 pacientes encaminhados para prótese de joelho ou quadril no IPS universitário, sede da Clínica León XIII, no período 2015-2018, que desenvolveram IP. Foram obtidas informações sobre as características demográfi-cas, clínicas e padrões de resistência (de acordo com antibiograma) e sobre os critérios usados para diagnosticá-la. Os dados foram registrados, de acordo com a natureza e distribuição da variável, em médias ou medianas para as variáveis quantitativas e em frequências para as qualitativas.Resultados: entre 2015 e 2018, foram realizadas 541 substituições articulares, a incidência de infecção periprotética foi de 4,6% (25 pacientes), 22 casos (88%) com crescimento microbiológico. O germe mais frequente foi S. aureus, com alto padrão de resistência à meticilina (MRSA), em 44%. Seguido por K. pneumoniae, com padrão de resistência devido à produção de beta-lactamase de espectro estendido (ESBL) de 83%. Nenhum apresentou resistência aos carbapenêmicos.Conclusões: os resultados são semelhantes aos relatados na literatura internacional. S. aureus continua a ser a principal causa de infecção periprotética, seguido por germes gram-negativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prostheses and Implants , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Hip Joint , Infections , Joints , Knee , Anti-Bacterial Agents
3.
Infectio ; 25(2): 101-107, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250075

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Estimar la resistencia del Staphylococcus aureus frente a diferentes antibióticos usados para el manejo ambulatorio de piodermias. Métodos: Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y de tendencias mediante modelos de regresión segmentada. Resultados: La mayor resistencia se presentó a la oxacilina, con mediana de 54,3% (RIQ: 43 - 58,8), seguido de eritromicina con el 20%, (RIQ: 15,4 - 26,5), clindami cina con el 14% (RIQ: 7,9 - 20), gentamicina con el 7,5% (RIQ: 0 -10), trimetoprima/sulfametoxazol (SXT) con el 5,5% (RIQ: 4 - 11), y ciprofloxacina con 2,1% (RIQ: 2 - 8.4). La tendencia de la resistencia del S. aureus a la oxacilina fue creciente con un cambio anual porcentual no significativo de (0,07) (IC 95%: -3,7; 3,9). Para eritromicina, clindamicina, ciprofloxacina, trimetoprima/sulfametoxazol, y gentamicina hubo decrecimiento. Conclusiones: La resistencia del S. aureus a oxacilina fue ligeramente creciente para el periodo 2010 al 2019 y francamente creciente en los últimos 3 años, superando en promedio a lo reportado a nivel país y Latinoamérica. Los antibióticos con menor resistencia fueron ciprofloxacina, SXT, clindamicina para uso sistémico, y ácido fusídico, mupirocina para manejo tópico y descolonización. Es pertinente articular la vigilancia del S. aureus en la atención ambulatoria a la red de vigilancia nacional.


Abstract Objective: To estimate the resistance trend of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) against different antibiotics in a reference dermatology outpatient center in Colombia. Methods: Descriptive and trend analyzes were performed using segmented regression models for the period 2010 to 2019. Results: The greatest resistance was presented to oxacillin, with a median of 54.3% (RIQ: 43 - 58.8), followed by erythromycin with 20%, (RIQ: 15.4 - 26.5), then clindamycin with 14% (RIQ: 7.9 - 20), gentamicin with 7.5% (RIQ: 0 -10), trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole (SXT) with 5.5% (RIQ: 4 - 11), and ciprofloxacin with 2.1% (RIQ: 2 - 8.4). The trend of S. aureus resistance to oxacillin from 2010 to 2019 was increasing with a non-significant Annual Percent Change (APC) of (0.07) (95% CI -3.7, 3.9). APC for erythromycin (-1.2) (95% CI: -11.3; 10), clindamycin (-1.7) (95% CI: 11; -12.9), ciprofloxacin (-25.4) (95% CI: -44.6; 0.5) and trimethoprim / sul famethoxazole (-20.7) (95% CI: -43.5; 11.2), were decreasing not significant. For gentamicin the trend was decreasing and significant (-44.2) (95% CI: -19.9; -61.1). Conclusions: The resistance of S. aureus to oxacillin exhibited a slightly increasing trend for the period 2010 to 2019 and increasing in the last 3 years, exceeding on average that reported at the country level and the world average. Antibiotics for outpatient management of skin and soft tissue pyoderma with less resistance were ciprofloxacin, SXT, clindamycin for systemic use, and fusidic acid, mupirocin for topical management and decolonization. It is important to articulate surveillance of S. aureus in outpatient care to the national surveillance network.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Dermatology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus aureus , Sulfamethoxazole , Gentamicins , Ciprofloxacin , Fusidic Acid , Anti-Bacterial Agents
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 343-351, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1248926

ABSTRACT

The emergence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (LA-MRSA) and the potential role of pigs in the evolution of these strains has led to increased interest in research of these microorganisms. However, this has contributed to a lack of research in the isolation and characterization of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains (MSSA). In this study, the prevalence of S. aureus in pigs in the nursery and finishing stages were analyzed. The susceptibility profiles to antibiotics, tolerance to heavy metals, and biofilm production of the isolates were evaluated using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. A total of 1,250 colonies suggestive of Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 128 pigs, of which 63.6% (n = 795) belonged to this microbial genus. Sixty-seven colonies isolated from 34 animals (26.5%) were confirmed as S. aureus (8.4%). No strains resistant to copper, zinc, or methicillin were detected; however, all strains presented a resistance profile to at least three different classes of antimicrobials and 21 produced biofilms. These data are of concern, as they indicate the need for increased surveillance in the use of antimicrobials as well as reinforce the importance of studies on MSSA strains.(AU)


A emergência de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à meticilina associadas à pecuária (LA-MRSA) e o papel potencial dos suínos na evolução dessas cepas têm levado ao aumento do interesse na pesquisa desses microrganismos. No entanto, isso tem contribuído para a falta de estudos sobre o isolamento e a caracterização de cepas de S. aureus sensíveis à meticilina (MSSA). Neste estudo, foi analisada a prevalência de S. aureus em suínos nas fases de creche e terminação. Os perfis de suscetibilidade aos antibióticos, a tolerância a metais pesados e a produção de biofilme dos isolados foram avaliados por meio de técnicas fenotípicas e genotípicas. Um total de 1.250 colônias sugestivas de Staphylococcus spp. foi isolado de 128 suínos, das quais 63,6% (n = 795) pertenciam a esse gênero microbiano. Sessenta e sete colônias isoladas de 34 animais (26,5%) foram confirmadas como S. aureus (8,4%). Nenhuma cepa resistente ao cobre, ao zinco ou à meticilina foi detectada; entretanto, todas as cepas apresentaram perfil de resistência a pelo menos três classes diferentes de antimicrobianos e 21 produziam biofilme. Esses dados são preocupantes, pois indicam a necessidade de maior vigilância no uso de antimicrobianos, bem como reforçam a importância de estudos com cepas de MSSA.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Swine , Virulence Factors/analysis , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Biofilms
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): 11-17, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147054

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina adquirido de la comunidad (SARM-AC) se han incrementado en los últimos años. Neumonías necrotizantes y empiemas por SARM-AC son cada vez más frecuentes en niños.Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de neumonías por SARM-AC y sus características clínico-epidemiológicas, en comparación con las neumonías por Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) en la misma población.Material y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, observacional, transversal, de pacientes internados con neumonía por SARM-AC en el Hospital de Niños Víctor J. Vilela (período: 1/2008-12/2017).Resultados. De 54 neumonías por Staphylococcus aureus, 46 (el 85 %) fueron SARM-AC. El índice de neumonías por SARM-AC varió de 4,9/10 000 (2008) a 10/10 000 egresos (2017). Presentaron sepsis/shock séptico el 41 %; empiema, el 96 %; neumotórax, el 35 %; requirieron drenaje pleural el 90 % y toilette quirúrgica el 55 %. Ingresaron a Terapia Intensiva el 65 %; la mitad necesitó asistencia respiratoria mecánica. Hubo dos muertes. Resistencia de las cepas: el 17 % a gentamicina, el 13 % a eritromicina, el 11 % a clindamicina. En las neumonías por SARM-AC vs. las neumonías por SP, se observó mayor riesgo de sepsis (IC 95 %; RR 7,38; 3,32-16,38) e ingreso a Terapia Intensiva (RR 4,29; 2,70-6,83). No hubo muertes por SP.Conclusiones. La prevalencia de neumonías por SARM-AC se duplicó durante la última década. Comparadas con las neumonías por SP, las neumonías por SARM-AC se acompañaron, más frecuentemente, de cuadros de sepsis y shockséptico, ingreso a Terapia Intensiva y asistencia respiratoria.


Introduction. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections have increased in recent years. CA-MRSA necrotizing pneumonia and empyema are now more common in children.Objectives. To determine the prevalence of CA-MRSA pneumonia and its clinical and epidemiological characteristics compared to Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) pneumonia in the same population.Material and methods. Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study of patients hospitalized due to CA-MRSA pneumonia at Hospital de Niños Víctor J. Vilela (period: January 2008-December 2017).Results. Out of 54 Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia cases, 46 (85 %) corresponded to CA-MRSA. The rate of CA-MRSA pneumonia ranged from 4.9/10 000 (2008) to 10/10 000 hospital discharges (2017). Sepsis/septic shock was observed in 41 %; empyema, in 96 %; pneumothorax, in 35 %; 90 % of cases required pleural drainage and 55 %, surgical debridement. Also, 65 % of patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU); half of them required assisted mechanical ventilation. Two patients died. Strain resistance: 17 %, gentamicin; 13 %, erythromycin; and 11 %, clindamycin. Compared to SP pneumonia, CA-MRSA pneumonia showed a higher risk for sepsis (95 % confidence interval; relative risk: 7.38; 3.32-16.38) and admission to the ICU (RR: 4.29; 2.70-6.83). No patient died due to SP pneumonia.Conclusions. The prevalence of CA-MRSA pneumonia doubled in the past decade. Compared to SP pneumonia, CA-MRSA pneumonia was more commonly accompanied by sepsis and septic shock, admission to the ICU, and ventilatory support requirement


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Argentina/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric
6.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342399

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the effects of Nigerian Bee Propolis extract on Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) infected skin wounds of albino rats. Two full thickness circular wounds were created each on the dorsum of eighteen (18) healthy adult male albino rats with mean body weight of 126±7.09g. Each wound was contaminated with 108 colony forming unit of MRSA. The rats were then randomized into three (3) treatment groups (n=6) with topical application of Propolis extract (PE Group), Silver sulphadiazine (SS Group) and untreated Control (UT Group). Gross wound healing indices (exudation, edema, hyperemia, wound contraction), histopathologic (granulation, angiogenesis, fibroplasia, epithelialization) and immunologic healing indices were evaluated using standard methods. Bacteria clearance was through culture and quantification. The wound surface exudation and edge edema and hyperemia were prominent in all the groups from day 0 to 6 but persisted in the untreated group till day 12. Wound contraction was gradual in all the groups from day 0-18, it was higher between days 0 and 3 in the PE and SS than the UT group (P<0.05). Complete wound closure occurred on SS (day 15), and PE (day 16). The histopathological changes observed showed neutrophils regressed on day 6 to 18 in all groups and was faster in PE and SS groups (P<0.05). Platelets reduction was ` gradual from days 3 to 18 in all groups and was absent from days 6 to 18 in the PE group. Nigerian Bee propolis has a profound bacteria clearance and healing effect on wound infected with methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) comparable to silver sulphadiazine and therefore recommended for infected wound treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wound Healing , Mucociliary Clearance , Propolis , Bees , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
7.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349461

ABSTRACT

Objective: the development of new drugs against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a priority to the World Health Organization. So, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and toxicity of 5-bromo-3-((4-methoxyphenyl) sulfenyl)-1H-indole (3b) against MRSA. Methods: minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3b was determined against S. aureus ATCC 29213 and 43 clinical isolates. The time-kill assay was performed for 9 isolates. Analysis of variance followed by the post hoc Bonferroni test was used for the statistical tests. Results and conclusions: the MIC50 and MIC90 of 3b were 4 µg.mL-1 and 16 µg.mL-1 respectively. In time-kill assay, the 3b showed bactericidal activity to all evaluated isolates at concentrations of 1xMIC and 2xMIC and the re-growth effect was not observed. About the toxicity tests, 3b has not presented cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, or allergenicity. 3b had particularly good activity against MRSA demonstrating high potential for the development of new antimicrobials products.


Objetivo: o desenvolvimento de novos antimicrobianos contra Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à meticilina (MRSA) é uma prioridade para a Organização Mundial da Saúde. Então, o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a atividade antibacteriana e a toxicidade do 5-bromo-3-((4-metoxifenil) sulfenil)-1H-indol (3b) contra MRSA. Métodos: a concentração inibitória minima de 3b foi determinada contra S. aureus ATCC 29213 e 43 isolados clínicos. O ensaio de curva de morte foi realizado para nove isolados. Análise de variância seguida pelo teste post hoc Bonferroni foi usada para testes estatísticos. Resultados e conclusões: a MIC50 e MIC90 do 3b foi 4 µg.mL-1 e 16 µg.mL-1, respectivamente. No ensaio de curva de morte, o 3b demonstrou atividade bactericida contra todos os isolados avaliados na concentração de 1xMIC e 2xMIC e o recrescimento não foi observado. Em relação aos testes de toxicidade, 3b não apresentou citotoxicidade, mutagenicidade ou alergenicidade. 3b apresentou atividade particularmente interessante contra MRSA, demonstrando alto potencial para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos antimicrobianos.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Methicillin Resistance , Anti-Infective Agents , Anti-Bacterial Agents
8.
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 23: 1-8, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1248182

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: estimar a prevalência de colonização por Staphylococcus resistente à meticilina entre profissionais de enfermagem conforme evidências científicas. Método: revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada em setembro de 2020, mediante acesso nas bases de dados LILACS, MEDLINE, CINAHL e Web of Science. Resultados: A prevalência de Staphylococcusaureus Resistente à Meticilina variou de 0 a 30,4%, com média de 8,4%; além disso, as pesquisas conduzidas mais recentemente (2015: 15,7%; 2016: 9,2%; 2017: 15,9%) e no continente asiático (14,57%) estimaram maiores prevalências médias. Conclusão: ainda são expressivas as prevalências de colonização por Staphylococcus resistente à meticilina entre profissionais de enfermagem verificadas nos diversos estudos realizados em âmbito nacional e internacional, o que reforça a necessidade de adoção de programas de vigilância ativa, como estratégia para detecção de casos assintomáticos e contribuição no rompimento da cadeia de transmissão das infecções


Objective: to estimate the prevalence of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among nursing professionals according to scientific evidence. Method: integrative literature review conducted in September 2020 through access to the LILACS, MEDLINE, CINAHL and Web of Science databases. Results: the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 0 to 30.4%, mean of 8.4%. In addition, surveys conducted more recently (2015: 15.7%; 2016: 9.2%; 2017: 15.9%) and in Asia (14.57%) estimated higher mean prevalence rates. Conclusion: the prevalence of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus among nursing professionals found in the various national and international studies is still significant, which reinforces the need to adopt active surveillance programs as a strategy to detect asymptomatic cases and contribute to break the chain of transmission of infections.


Subject(s)
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Nurse Practitioners , Patient Safety
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880143

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of nosocomial infection in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), in order to guide better clinical prevention and treatment of nosocomial infection.@*METHODS@#The incidence of nosocomial infection, infection site, characteristics of pathogenic bacteria, drug sensitivity test results and infection risk factors of 472 non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University from January 2015 to September 2020 were retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among the 472 patients, 97 (20.6%) had nosocomial infection, mainly in the lower respiratory tract (41.2%), followed by oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, urogenital tract, and blood. A total of 71 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated, including Gram-negative (G@*CONCLUSION@#NHL patients show high nosocomial infection rate and lower respiratory tract infection is common. Hospital day, clinical stage, presence of bone marrow invasion, and neutrophil count in peripheral blood are independent risk factors.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens sampled from the patients with bloodstream infection in the department of hematology of PLA General Hospital, so as to provide evidences for clinical prevention and control infection.@*METHODS@#From January 2014 to December 2017, A total of 286 cases-time positive blood culture samples from 212 patients in the department of hematology of the General Hospital of Chinese PLA were collected. The clinical characteristics of patients and the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens were analyzed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#182(63.64%) bacterial strains were Gram-negative, and the other 104(36.36%) were Gram-positive. There were 88 strains of Escherichia coli(30.77%), 34 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa(11.89%), 26 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae(9.09%), 25 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis(8.74%), 20 strains of Gram-positive rods(6.99%), 16 strains of Staphylococcus hominis(5.59%), 11 strains of Etaphylococcus haemolyticus(3.85%), 10 strains of Staphylococcus aureus(3.50%), 6 strains of Staphylococcus capitis(2.10%), 5 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii(1.75%) and so on. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae as Gram-negative bacteria were sensitive to amikacin. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus as Gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to vancomycin and nitrofurantoin.@*CONCLUSION@#The blood culture patients with bloodstream infection in department of hematology of our hospital confirmed that more infections are Gram-negative. The clinicians should choose suitable antibiotics according to the results of bacterial culture and drug sensitive test.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Hematologic Diseases , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis
11.
Iatreia ; 33(4): 377-382, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143090

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La osteomielitis (OM) en el periodo neonatal es una condición rara y trascendental. Su incidencia estimada corresponde al 0,1 de casos por cada 100 admisiones hospitalarias. El subdiagnóstico es frecuente dada la presentación paucisintomática de este grupo etario, que lleva a demoras en el inicio del tratamiento y puede conducir a secuelas permanentes. Presentamos un caso de osteomielitis multifocal con fracturas asociadas, causada por la bacteria Staphylococcus aureus meticilina resistente (SAMR), secundaria a una infección asociada a catéter en un neonato nacido a las 37 semanas de gestación, con antecedente de asfixia perinatal y encefalopatía hipóxica isquémica. El caso debutó con sepsis, edema y artritis, pero el diagnóstico fue confirmado con ultrasonografía y radiografías que evidenciaron múltiples fracturas patológicas. Al no ser candidato para el manejo quirúrgico, se concertó una adecuación del esfuerzo terapéutico dirigiendo el manejo a la terapia antibiótica de amplio espectro y al control del dolor con adecuada respuesta clínica.


SUMMARY Osteomyelitis in the neonatal period is a rare but serious condition. Its estimated incidence corresponds to 0.1 case per 100 hospital admissions. Underdiagnosis is frequent given the paucisymtomatic presentation of this age group, leading to delays in the beginning of treatment and potential permanent sequelae. We present a case of osteomyelitis with associated fractures, caused by meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus secondary to catheterrelated bloodstream infection, in a term neonate with history of perinatal asphyxia and hipoxicischaemic encephalopathy. The newborn debuted with sepsis associated with edema and arthritis and the diagnosis was confirmed with ultrasonography and radiographs that showed multiple pathologic fractures. Not being a candidate for surgical management, the therapeutic effort was adapted, directing management to broadspectrum antibiotic therapy and pain control, with adequate clinical response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Osteomyelitis , Staphylococcus aureus , Fractures, Bone , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Bacteria , Fractures, Spontaneous
12.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(4): 371-375, 20201230. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247722

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a presença de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à oxacilina (ORSA) em superfícies frequentemente tocadas pelas mãos dos pacientes e profissionais de saúde (unidades de amostragem: maçanetas de portas e grades laterais dos leitos) antes e depois de limpeza concorrente em dias de semana e no final de semana. Método: Trata-se de estudo transversal de abordagem qualitativa, realizado na enfermaria de Infectologia de um Hospital Universitário de Vitória, ES. A qualidade da desinfecção foi avaliada por meio de cultivo qualitativa de S. aureus em uma área delimitada dos locais de coleta antes e após a limpeza concorrente. Posteriormente foi avaliado por meio de teste de disco-difusão o perfil de susceptibilidade das linhagens de S. aureus frente à oxacilina. As variáveis estudadas foram presença da bactéria e perfil de susceptibilidade (antibiograma). Resultados: Foram coletadas 93 amostras, sendo 37 (39,78%) em grades de leitos e 56 (60,22%) em maçanetas com proporção de dias de semana e final de semana semelhantes. Das 93 amostras, vinte (21,51%) foram positivas para S. aureus. Destas, quatro (20%) foram identificadas como ORSA. Conclusão: A análise estatística por meio do teste de Fisher revelou que não existe associação entre a qualidade, antes e depois, da limpeza. A análise entre os dias de coleta, final de semana e dias de semana, revelou que há independência entre as variáveis, corroborando a presença de um padrão de limpeza, independente do dia da semana.


Objective: To evaluate the presence of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) on surfaces frequently touched by the hands of patients and healthcare professionals (sampling units: door handles and bed side rails) before and after concurrent cleaning on weekdays and at the weekend. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with a qualitative approach, carried out in the Infectious Diseases of a University Hospital in Vitória, ES. The quality of disinfection was assessed by means of qualitative cultivation of S. aureus in a defined area of the collection sites before and after concurrent cleaning. Subsequently, the susceptibility profile of S. aureus strains against oxacillin was evaluated by means of a disk-diffusion test. The variables studied were the presence of the bacterium and susceptibility profile (antibiogram). Results: 93 samples were collected, 37 (39.78%) in bed racks and 56 (60.22%) on door handles with a similar proportion of weekdays and weekends. Of the 93 samples, twenty (21.51%) were positive for S. aureus. Of these, four (20%) were identified as ORSA. Conclusion: Statistical analysis using Fisher's test revealed that there is no association between the quality, before and after, of cleaning. The analysis between the collection days, weekends and weekdays, revealed that there is independence between the variables, corroborating the presence of a cleaning pattern, regardless of the day of the week.


Subject(s)
Oxacillin , Cross Infection , Methicillin Resistance , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Housekeeping, Hospital
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1571-1575, July-Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1131505

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a caracterização genética de Staphylococcus spp. resistentes a meticilina isolados de suínos. Foram coletadas 30 amostras de swab nasal de suínos, abatidos em um frigorífico com Serviço de Inspeção Federal. Os isolados foram submetidos a análises macro e microscópicas que, em seguida, para detectar a resistência bacteriana, foram submetidos a ensaios fenotípicos da sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos. Posteriormente, as amostras resistentes a oxacilina, foram submetidas à reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR) para verificar a presença do gene mecA. Das 30 amostras analisadas, foram isolados 12 (40%) Staphylococcus spp. coagulase positiva, e 18 (60%) coagulase negativa, e, dentre os isolados, 26 (86,66%) foram resistentes a oxacilina sendo possível detectar o gene mecA em seis (23%) amostras. Este estudo evidencia a presença de genes de resistência em microrganismos comuns a microbiota de animais de produção que podem ser transmitidos ao homem. Além de chamar a atenção para a frequência e quantidade de antimicrobianos aos quais estes animais são expostos durante toda sua vida, podendo ser considerado um problema para a saúde única.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Refrigeration/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Preliminary Data
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1213-1220, July-Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1131481

ABSTRACT

Surgical site infections (SSIs) and antimicrobial resistance among pathogens causing SSI are a growing concern in veterinary hospitals. One major reason, the widespread use of antimicrobials, has led to increased incidence of SSIs. This study identified bacteria and resistance profiles to antimicrobials in the SSI cases diagnosed at the Surgical Clinic of Small Animals in the Veterinary Hospital, Federal University of Viçosa, Brazil. The main genus identified was Staphylococcus, followed by Escherichia, Enterococcus, Bacillus, Shigella, Citrobacter, Proteus, Morganella, Serratia, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella were also found, but in small number. The results indicated the predominance of Gram-negative bacteria among the collected samples. Most of isolates identified were resistant to more than one of the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, tetracycline, enrofloxacin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cephalotin. Of the 17 Staphylococcus sp. isolates, two (11.8%) were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 11 (64.7%) of them were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). There were bacterial genera identified with resistance to all tested antimicrobials in different proportions. This should alert veterinary hospitals to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and to the requirement for the revision of surgical protocols with regard to antimicrobial prophylaxis and therapy.(AU)


As infecções em sítio cirúrgico (ISCs) e a resistência bacteriana entre os patógenos relacionados constituem uma preocupação crescente nos hospitais veterinários. O aumento na incidência de ISCs possui forte relação com o uso amplo e disseminado de antibióticos. O presente estudo identificou bactérias e perfis de resistência a antibióticos nos casos de ISCs diagnosticados na Clínica Cirúrgica de Pequenos Animais do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brasil. O principal gênero identificado foi Staphylococcus, seguido pelos gêneros Escherichia, Enterococcus, Bacillus, Shigella, Citrobacter, Proteus, Morganella, Serratia, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas e Klebsiella, porém, em menor quantidade. Os resultados demonstraram a predominância de bactérias Gram-negativas entre as amostras coletadas. A maioria dos isolados identificados eram resistentes a um ou a mais de um dos seguintes antibióticos: ampicilina, tetraciclina, enrofloxacina, amoxicilina/ácido clavulânico e cefalotina. Entre os 17 isolados de Staphylococcus sp., dois (11,8%) eram Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à meticilina (SARM) e 11 (64,7%) eram Staphylococcus pseudintermedius resistentes à meticilina (SPRM). Houve identificação de gêneros bacterianos com diferentes proporções de resistência para todos os antibióticos avaliados. Esses achados devem alertar os hospitais veterinários para a emergência de bactérias multirresistentes e para a necessidade de revisar a profilaxia e a terapia antimicrobiana referente aos protocolos cirúrgicos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Cross Infection/veterinary , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(1): 37-44, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092720

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los patógenos con mayor prevalencia en el mundo, asociado a una alta tasa de mortalidad y un rápido desarrollo de resistencia a los antimicrobianos. A pesar de su patogenicidad, su seguimiento epidemiológico en México es escaso. Objetivo: Analizar la epidemiología molecular local y determinar el origen clonal de cepas resistentes a meticilina (RM) aisladas de pacientes internados en el Hospital Central "Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto". Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio prospectivo de corte transversal, de julio a diciembre de 2016. La caracterización de las cepas se realizó mediante genotipificación Spa, la determinación por RPC punto final de la frecuencia de genes de virulencia específicos y su antibiograma. Resultados: A partir de estos datos, se obtuvo que la prevalencia de S. aureus RM fue de 25,7%, destacando la presencia del tipo Spa t895 en 76% de las cepas resistentes y un patrón similar de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos. Conclusión: Los resultados de este estudio indican que la prevalencia regional de SARM no se ha modificado en los últimos 10 años y proporcionan información valiosa del origen clonal y los factores de virulencia de las cepas de S. aureus aisladas en la región.


Abstract Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of most prevalent pathogens in the world associated with a high mortality rate and a rapid development of resistance to antibiotics. Despite its pathogenicity, epidemiological monitoring in Mexico is scarce. Aim: To analyze the local molecular epidemiology and determine the clonal origin of methicillin-resistant (MR) strains isolated from patients admitted to Hospital "Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto". Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was carried out from July to December 2016. The characterization of the strains was carried out by Spa genotyping, frequency of specific virulence genes by PCR and antibiogram. Results: The prevalence of MRSA was 25.7%, highlighting the presence of the Spa type t895 in 76% of the resistant strains and a similar pattern of susceptibility to antibiotics. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the regional prevalence of MRSA has not changed in the last 10 years and provide valuable information on the clonal origin and the virulence factors of the strains of S. aureus isolated in the region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Virulence Factors/genetics , Genotype , Mexico/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
16.
Afro-Egypt. j. infect. enem. Dis ; 1(2): 77-85, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258719

ABSTRACT

Background: Multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria are seriously endangering the antibiotics. Different alternative strategies are needed to reinforce antibiotics, of, these; nanostructured materials may play a fruitful role. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against MDR bacteria. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total of 33 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 52 MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) isolates were recovered from intensive care units' (ICUs) admitted patients over a period of 9 months, from December 2017 to August 2018. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs on the clinical isolates of MRSA and MDR P. aeruginosa was assessed by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using broth microdilution method. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined as the lowest concentrations required to kill 99.9% of the initial inoculum. Tissue culture plate method was used to evaluate the antibiofilm activity. Results: The MIC and MBC values ranged from 1 to 16 µg/ml and 2 to 64 µg/ml, respectively. Silver nanoparticles exerted a significant antibiofilm activity against MRSA and MDR P.aeruginosa at all tested concentrations, recording a maximum inhibition value of (82%) and (91%), respectively. Conclusions: AgNPs exhibited a considerable antibacterial and antibiofilm, effect; it could represent a promising weapon in the fight against biofilm forming MDR organisms


Subject(s)
Egypt , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Nanoparticles , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Silver , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant
17.
Afro-Egypt. j. infect. enem. Dis ; 1(3): 226-237, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258727

ABSTRACT

Background: Surgical site infections (SSI) are a common type of health care associated infections. The emergence of multidrug resistant nosocomial pathogens represents a major heath burden. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of isolation and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of nosocomial pathogens causing SSI in Zagazig University Hospitals. Methodology: Samples obtained from the infected surgical wounds were subjected to microbiological identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. The role of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenmases in bacterial resistance to some antibiotic were evaluated. Results: The most frequently isolated species were S. aureus (31%) followed by Klebseilla pneumoniae (22%), E. coli (15%), P. aeruginosa (11%), Coagulase negative staphylococci ( CoNs) (8%) , Proteus spp (7%) and Acinetobacter spp (6%). Methecillin resistance was detected in 38 (97 %) and 8 (80 %) S. aurues and CoNs isolates, respectively. Among Gram negative organisms, 65.8% of isolates were ESBL producers, of which 60% were Carbapenem resistant. Metallo-ß-lactamase was detected in 30% of Gram negative isolates. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) was observed in 50 isolates (68.5%) where extensively drug resistance (XDR) occurred in 23 (31.5%) of Gram negative isolates. Conclusion: Most of Gram-negative isolates were MDR or XDR. Antibiotic therapy of SSI must be guided by microbiological culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing. Infection prevention and control practices need more improvement. Rationalisation of antibiotic prescription must be carried out. Post discharge surveillance of SSI needs to be considered


Subject(s)
Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
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