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1.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(2): 77-83, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1378671

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el impacto de la resistencia antimicrobiana (RAM) generará un aumento de las muertes relacionadas de 10 millones anuales hacia 2050. El 70% de la dispensación de antimicrobianos (ATB) se utiliza en la agroveterinaria y no en salud humana. Es fundamental conocer la portación de RAM en trabajadores de cría de animales y en los animales, para acciones tempranas de salud pública. Métodos: bajo metodología PRISMA se realizó la búsqueda bibliográfica en distintas fuentes disponibles hasta octubre de 2020. Se priorizaron revisiones sistemáticas, metanálisis, ensayos clínicos y estudios observacionales para determinar la RAM en trabajadores de cría de cerdos. De 990 artículos identificados se incluyeron 8 estudios. Resultados: la tasa de colonización por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SAMR) en trabajadores fue mayor que la de la población general. La prevalencia de SAMR fue significativamente mayor en trabajadores en contacto directo con animales y los de granjas de cría intensiva con respecto a los de extensiva. En cerdos, la prevalencia de RAM en cría intensiva fue significativamente mayor que la de los de cría extensiva. También fue significativa la asociación entre el suministro de antibióticos en la cría intensiva y la presencia de RAM. Las granjas de más de 1250 cerdos presentaron mayor prevalencia de RAM (p < 0,001). El fenotipo de SAMR en cerdos, trabajadores y el ambiente fue el mismo. Conclusiones: existe evidencia de asociación entre la producción agrícola de cría intensiva y la RAM en cerdos y trabajadores. No se encontraron estudios de vigilancia epidemiológica en la Argentina en trabajadores de cría de animales. (AU)


Introduction: it is estimated that the impact of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) will generate an increase of 10 million deaths by 2050, being reflected to a greater extent in low-income countries. 70% of the annual use of antimicrobials is concentrated in agroveterinary but not in human health. Considering the presence of AMR in ranchers and agricultural workers is essential for early public health actions. Methods: using the PRISMA methodology, bibliography was searched in different sources until October 2020. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials and observational studies were prioritized to determine AMR in pig workers. Eight studies of the 990 found have been included. Results: the rate of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in farming workers was higher than the general population. MRSA prevalence was significantly higher in workers who reported direct contact with animals. And also in those workers of intensive farms compared to those of extensive farms. The same situation is observed in swines, in which the prevalence of AMR in intensive farming was significantly higher than in extensive farming. The association between the supply of antibiotics in intensive farming workers and the presence of AMR was also significant. Farms with more than 1,250 swines had a higher prevalence of AMR (p<0.001). The MRSA phenotype found in swine, agricultural workers, and the environment was the same. Conclusions: there is scientific evidence of an association between agricultural production in intensive livestock farming and AMR in swine and farming workers. There aren't Argentine studies of epidemiological surveillance in farming workers. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Farmers/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Swine , Public Health , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Observational Studies as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383551

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones intrahospitalarias (IIH) son causa de elevada morbimortalidad y representan un problema sanitario importante. El personal de salud es reservorio y potencial transmisor de los agentes etiológicos de las mismas. S. aureus es uno de los microorganismos implicados, por lo tanto es importante conocer la frecuencia de portación en el personal de salud y establecer el perfil de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana para contribuir con la elaboración de medidas de prevención incluyendo actividades educativas. Objetivo: Conocer la frecuencia de portación de S. aureus, distribución y antibiotipos de las cepas presentes en el personal sanitario del Hospital Pediátrico de Referencia (HPR). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo durante el periodo julio-setiembre del año 2018. Se incluyeron muestras de hisopados nasales de trabajadores de la salud de distintas áreas de internación que consintieron participar en el estudio. Se excluyeron aquellos que recibieron antibióticos dentro de los 3 meses previos al estudio. Las muestras fueron sembradas en agar sangre ovina al 5% (ASO) y se incubaron a 35-37ºC en aerobiosis por 24-48 horas. La identificación de las colonias sospechosas de Staphylococcus aureus por métodos convencionales y MALDI-TOF. El patrón de resistencia antimicrobiana de S. aureus se detectó por disco-difusión. En los cultivos resistentes a meticilina (SAMR) se determinó la presencia del gen mecA y se realizó la tipificación del SCCmec por pruebas de reacción en cadena de polimerasa. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 225 hisopados a partir de 225 trabajadores, presentaron desarrollo 212. En 49 se recuperaron cultivos de S. aureus. Correspondieron a SAMR 11 de las 49 cepas, todas portaban el gen mecA. Hubo predominio en el personal de enfermería (7/11), en los servicios de hemato-oncología (3/11) y cuidados intensivos neonatales (4/11). Asociaron resistencia a macrólidos y clindamicina 8 de 11 aislamientos SAMR, a gentamicina 2 y a mupirocina uno. El SCCmec más frecuentemente identificado fue el tipo IV (7/11). Conclusiones: Los resultados muestran la presencia de cepas SAMR entre el personal de salud del CHPR y aportan información complementaria para efectuar prevención y control de las IIH, actuando sobre todo en el personal de salud encargado de la atención de pacientes susceptibles.


Hospital-acquired infections (IIH) are a cause of high morbidity and mortality and represent a major health problem. Health personnel are reservoirs and potential transmitters of their etiological agents. S. aureus is one of the microorganisms involved, therefore it is important to know the frequency of carriage in health personnel and establish the antimicrobial susceptibility profile to contribute to the development of prevention measures, including educational activities. Objective: To know the frequency of carriage of S. aureus, distribution and antibiotypes of the strains present in the health personnel of the Reference Pediatric Hospital (HPR). Materials and methods: A descriptive study was carried out during the period July-September 2018. Nasal swab samples from health workers from different hospitalization areas who agreed to participate in the study were included. Those who received antibiotics within 3 months prior to the study were excluded. The samples were seeded in 5% sheep blood agar (ASO) and incubated at 35-37ºC in aerobiosis for 24-48 hours. Identification of suspicious Staphylococcus aureus colonies by conventional methods and MALDI-TOF. The antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. aureus was detected by disc diffusion. In methicillin-resistant cultures (MRSA), the presence of the mecA gene was determined and SCCmec was typified by polymerase chain reaction tests. Results: 225 swabs were obtained from 225 workers, 212 showed development. S. aureus cultures were recovered from 49. 11 of the 49 strains corresponded to MRSA, all of them carried the mecA gene. There was a predominance in the nursing staff (7/11), in the hematology-oncology services (3/11) and neonatal intensive care (4/11). They associated resistance to macrolides and clindamycin in 8 of 11 MRSA isolates, 2 to gentamicin, and 1 to mupirocin. The most frequently identified SCCmec was type IV (7/11). Conclusions: The results show the presence of MRSA strains among the health personnel of the CHPR and provide complementary information to carry out prevention and control of IIH, acting especially on the health personnel in charge of the care of susceptible patients.


As infecções hospitalares (HII) são causa de alta morbidade e mortalidade e representam um importante problema de saúde. Os profissionais de saúde são reservatórios e potenciais transmissores de seus agentes etiológicos. O S. aureus é um dos micro-organismos envolvidos, por isso é importante conhecer a frequência de portadores em profissionais de saúde e estabelecer o perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana para contribuir no desenvolvimento de medidas de prevenção incluindo atividades educativas. Objetivo: Conhecer a frequência de portadores de S. aureus, distribuição e antibiótipos das cepas presentes no pessoal de saúde do Hospital Pediátrico de Referência (HPR). Materiais e métodos: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo durante o período de julho a setembro de 2018. Foram incluídas amostras de swab nasal de profissionais de saúde de diferentes áreas de internação que concordaram em participar do estudo. Aqueles que receberam antibióticos nos 3 meses anteriores ao estudo foram excluídos. As amostras foram semeadas em 5% de ágar sangue de carneiro (ASO) e incubadas a 35-37ºC em aerobiose por 24-48 horas. Identificação de colônias suspeitas de Staphylococcus aureus por métodos convencionais e MALDI-TOF. O padrão de resistência antimicrobiana de S. aureus foi detectado por difusão em disco. Em culturas resistentes à meticilina (MRSA), a presença do gene mecA foi determinada e SCCmec foi tipificado por testes de reação em cadeia da polimerase. Resultados: 225 swabs foram obtidos de 225 trabalhadores, 212 apresentaram desenvolvimento. Culturas de S. aureus foram recuperadas de 49. 11 das 49 cepas correspondiam a MRSA, todas carregavam o gene mecA. Houve predominância na equipe de enfermagem (7/11), nos serviços de hematologia-oncologia (3/11) e de terapia intensiva neonatal (4/11). Eles associaram resistência a macrolídeos e clindamicina em 8 de 11 isolados de MRSA, 2 à gentamicina e 1 à mupirocina. O SCCmec mais frequentemente identificado foi o tipo IV (7/11). Conclusões: Os resultados mostram a presença de cepas de MRSA entre os profissionais de saúde do CHPR e fornecem informações complementares para realizar a prevenção e controle da HII, atuando principalmente sobre os profissionais de saúde responsáveis ​​pelo atendimento de pacientes suscetíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Carrier State/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Housekeeping, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Uruguay/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Nasal Cavity/microbiology
3.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(2): 1-11, 2022-05-19. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393021

ABSTRACT

Background: Methicillin resistance and biofilm-producing Staphylococci are emerging as multidrug-resistant strains narrowing the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy. Although vancomycin is used as the drug of choice to treat such isolates, different studies worldwide have documented the emergence of strains that are intermediately susceptible or resistant to this antibiotic. Objective: The study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin to methicillin-resistant and biofilm-producing staphylococci isolated from different clinical specimens. Methods: 375 staphylococci isolated from different clinical specimens over one year were included in the study. Biofilm formation was determined by the Tissue culture plate method (TCP), and ica genes were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Antibiotic susceptibility and methicillin resistance were done following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin in all isolates was determined by the agar dilution method. Results:Among 375 Staphylococci studied, 43% and 57% represented S. aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CNS), respectively. The rate of Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) were 81.4% and 66.8% respectively and determined by the disc diffusion method. The most potential antibiotics were tetracycline and chloramphenicol showing sensitivity to more than 90% isolates. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value of oxacillin for staphylococci ranged from 0.125-32 µg/ml. Oxacillin agar diffusion method showed 51.6% and 79.9% isolates as MRSA and MRCNS, respectively, revealing a very high percentage of S. aureus and CNS isolates as methicillin-resistant. All isolates had susceptible vancomycin MICs that ranged from 0.125-2 µg/ml. Two S. aureus isolated from Central Venous Catheter (CVC) and catheter specimens were detected with intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin. Similarly, three CNS isolated from blood, CVC, and wound/pus (w/p) were intermediately susceptible to vancomycin. Strong biofilm formation was observed in 22.1% of clinical isolates, and the ica gene was detected among 22.9% of isolates. Only one S. aureus detected as a biofilm producer by the TCP method was found to have intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin. Conclusions: The increment in vancomycin MIC among methicillin-resistant and biofilm-producing staphylococci is alarming. Strict control measures to prevent methicillin-resistant isolates spread and routine surveillance for vancomycin-resistant isolates must be incorporated in hospitals to prevent antimicrobial treatment failure


Antecedentes: Los estafilococos resistentes a la meticilina y productores de biopelículas están surgiendo como cepas multirresistentes que reducen la eficacia del tratamiento antimicrobiano. Aunque la vancomicina se utiliza como fármaco de elección para tratar dichos aislados, diferentes estudios realizados en todo el mundo han documentado la aparición de cepas intermedias susceptibles o resistentes a este antibiótico. Objetivo: El estudio tenía como objetivo determinar la concentración mínima inhibitoria de la vancomicina para los estafilococos resistentes a la meticilina y productores de biofilm aislados de diferentes muestras clínicas. Métodos: Se incluyeron en el estudio 375 estafilococos aislados de diferentes muestras clínicas durante un año. La formación de biopelículas se determinó mediante el método de la placa de cultivo de tejidos (TCP), y los genes ica se identificaron mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). La susceptibilidad a los antibióticos y la resistencia a la meticilina se realizaron siguiendo las directrices del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). La concentración inhibitoria mínima (MIC) de vancomicina en todos los aislados se determinó por el método de dilución en agar. Resultados:Entre los 375 estafilococos estudiados, el 43% y el 57% representaban S. aureus y estafilococos coagulasa-negativos (ECN), respectivamente. La tasa de S. aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM) y de estafilococos coagulasa negativos resistentes a la meticilina (ECNM) fue del 81,4% y el 66,8%, respectivamente, y se determinó por el método de difusión de discos. Los antibióticos más potenciales fueron la tetraciclina y el cloranfenicol, que mostraron una sensibilidad superior al 90% de los aislados. El valor de la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) de la oxacilina para los estafilococos osciló entre 0,125-32 µg/ml. El método de difusión en agar de la oxacilina mostró que el 51,6% y el 79,9% de los aislados eran SARM y MRCNS, respectivamente, lo que revela que un porcentaje muy elevado de los aislados de S. aureus y CNS son resistentes a la meticilina. Todos los aislados tenían MIC de vancomicina susceptibles que oscilaban entre 0,125-2 µg/ml. Se detectaron dos S. aureus aislados de muestras de catéteres venosos centrales (CVC) y catéteres con una susceptibilidad intermedia a la vancomicina. Del mismo modo, tres S. aureus aislados de sangre, CVC y herida/pus (w/p) fueron intermedianamente susceptibles a la vancomicina. Se observó una fuerte formación de biopelículas en el 22,1% de los aislados clínicos, y se detectó el gen ica en el 22,9% de los aislados. Sólo un S. aureus detectado como productor de biopelículas por el método TCP resultó tener una susceptibilidad intermedia a la vancomicina. Conclusiones: El incremento de la MIC de vancomicina entre los estafilococos resistentes a la meticilina y productores de biofilm es alarmante. Para evitar el fracaso del tratamiento antimicrobiano, deben incorporarse en los hospitales medidas de control estrictas para prevenir la propagación de los aislados resistentes a la meticilina y una vigilancia rutinaria de los aislados resistentes a la vancomicina


Subject(s)
Humans , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Vancomycin Resistance
4.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022203, 06 abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363538

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Contamination of cell phones can contribute to the dissemination of pathogens in the community and/or hospital environment. OBJECTIVE: To characterize Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from cell phones of university students. METHODS: Samples were collected from 100 cell phones. Detection of genes associated with virulence factors such as biofilm formation (icaA and icaD), enterotoxins production (SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED), and resistance to methicillin (mecA and mecC) was performed in S. aureus isolates by PCR. Typing mecA gene performed by multiplex PCR. Susceptibility to antimicrobials and biofilm formation rate also evaluated by using disk diffusion test and crystal violet staining. RESULTS: S. aureus was present in 40% of the total samples and about 70% of them belonged to Nursing students. Of the isolates, 85% presented resistance to penicillin and 50% were classified as moderate biofilm producers. In addition, 92.5% of isolates contained the gene icaA and 60% of the gene icaD. Approximately 25% of the isolates presented the mecA gene. Typing of the mecA gene showed the presence of staphylococcal chromosome cassette SCCmec I and c III respectively in 20% and 10% of the isolates. 70% of the samples could not be typed by the technique. Regarding the enterotoxins, the most prevalent gene was SEA (30%) followed by the SEC gene (2.5%). The presence of SED and SEB genes not observed in any of the isolates. CONCLUSION: The cleaning and periodic disinfection of cell phones can contribute to the reduction of the risk of nosocomial infection.


INTRODUÇÃO: A contaminação de celulares pode contribuir para a disseminação de patógenos na comunidade e/ou ambiente hospitalar. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar cepas de Staphylococcus aureus de telefones celulares de estudantes universitários. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras de 100 telefones celulares. Detecção de genes associados a fatores de virulência quanto a: formação de biofilme (icaA e icaD), produção de enterotoxinas (SEA, SEB, SEC e SED) e resistência à meticilina (mecA e mecC) foi realizada em isolados de S. aureus por PCR. A Tipagem do gene mecA foi realizada por PCR multiplex. A susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos e a taxa de formação de biofilme pelo teste de difusão em disco e coloração com cristal violeta. RESULTADOS: S. aureus esteve presente em 40% do total de amostras, destas, 70% pertenciam a estudantes do curso de enfermagem. Dos isolados, 85% apresentaram resistência à penicilina e 50% foram classificados com moderada formação de biofilme. Além disso, 92,5% dos isolados continham o gene icaA e 60% o gene icaD. Aproximadamente 25% dos isolados apresentaram o gene mecA. A tipagem do gene mecA mostrou a presença do cassete cromossômico estafilocócico SSCmec I e III em respectivamente 20% e 10% dos isolados. 70% das amostras não puderam ser identificadas pela técnica. Das enterotoxinas, o gene mais prevalente foi o SEA (30%), seguido pelo gene SEC (2.5%). A presença dos genes SED e SEB não foi observada nos isolados. CONCLUSÃO: A limpeza e desinfecção periódica dos telefones celulares podem contribuir para a redução do risco de infecção nosocomiais.


Subject(s)
Students, Health Occupations , Universities , Cell Phone , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Virulence , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Biofilms , Enterotoxins
5.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 30(108): 7-16, 20220000. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363203

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones de piel y partes blandas (IPPB) en niños son una de las principales causas de prescripción de antimicrobianos. El objetivo del estudio fue describir las características clínicas y microbiológicas de las IPPB ambulatorias de niños asistidos en dos hospitales zonales. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo entre el 1/11/2017 y el 1/11/2018. Se incluyeron pacientes entre 1 mes y 15 años internados en dos hospitales. Se evaluó: edad, sexo, localidad, factores predisponentes, tipo de IPPB, muestras biológicas realizadas, aislamiento microbiológico, tratamiento empírico indicado y evolución del cuadro. Se realizó antibiograma y determinación genética. Se calculó chi2, IC95, OR; α=5%. N= 94. 58,7% masculinos. 12 pacientes <1 año, 85 >1 año (promedio de edad 4 años, 1-15). El 36% de Tandil y 63,8% de Florencio Varela. El 59,6% corresponden a IPPB purulentas. Se aislaron microorganismos en un 59,6%. Los aislamientos principales: SAMR (40,4%), SAMS (7,4%), S. agalactiae (2,1%) y S. pyogenes (2,1%). El 100% de SAMR son portadores de gen mecA y SCCmec tipo IV, sin multirresistencia. No hubo diferencia estadística entre los factores de riesgo evaluados para el desarrollo de IPPB por SAMR. El 52,1% de los niños recibió tratamiento antibiótico combinado, siendo la más indicada TMS-SMX + CLI en 36 eventos. (38,3%). La evolución fue favorable: no hubo diferencia significativa entre el subgrupo que se aisló SAMR y el que no se aisló SAMR; 91,9% (34/37) y 92,6% (50/54) correspondientemente (chi2: 0,01; p= 0,97 IC95: 0,26-3,88). El principal agente etiológico fue SAMRco, debiendo adecuar los tratamientos a este microorganismo.


Skin and soft tissue infections (SSIs) in children are one of the main causes of antimicrobial prescription. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of outpatient SSIs in children attended in two hospitals. A prospective study was conducted between 11/1/2017 and 11/1/2018. Patients between 1 month and 15 years old, hospitalized were included. We evaluated: age, sex, locality, predisposing factors, type of IPPB, biological samples taken, microbiological isolation, empirical treatment indicated and evolution of the condition. An antibiogram and genetic determination were performed. Chi2, CI95, OR; α=5% were calculated. N= 94. 58.7% male. 12 patients <1 year, 85 >1 year (mean age 4 years, 1-15). 36% were from Tandil and 63.8% from Florencio Varela. 59.6% corresponded to purulent SSIs. The diagnostic yield was 59.6%. Main isolates: MRSA (40.4%), MSSA (7.4%), S. agalactiae (2.1%) and S. pyogenes (2.1%). 100% of MRSA carried the mecA gene and SCCmec type IV, with no multidrug resistance. There was no statistical difference between the risk factors evaluated. 52.1% of children received combined antibiotic treatment, the most indicated being TMS-SMX + CLI in 36 events. (38,3%). Evolution was favorable: there was no significant difference between the subgroup that isolated MRSA and the subgroup that did not isolate MRSA; 91.9% (34/37) and 92.6% (50/54) respectively (chi2: 0.01; p= 0.97 CI95: 0.26-3.88). The main etiological agent was MRSA, and treatments should be adapted to this microorganism


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Skin Diseases, Infectious/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Soft Tissue Infections/microbiology , Skin Diseases, Infectious/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Logistic Models , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Soft Tissue Infections/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 137-146, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935988

ABSTRACT

Objective: To isolate and purify a bacteriophage against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and to analyze its genomic information and biological characteristics. Methods: The experimental research methods were adopted. MRSA (hereinafter referred to as host bacteria) solution was collected from the wound of a 63-year-old female patient with the median sternum incision infection admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Army Medical University (the Third Military Medical University). The bacteriophage, named bacteriophage SAP23 was isolated and purified from the sewage of the Hospital by sewage co-culture method and double-layer agar plate method, and the plaque morphology was observed. The morphology of bacteriophage SAP23 was observed by transmission electron microscope after phosphotungstic acid negative staining. The whole genome of bacteriophage SAP23 was sequenced with NovaSeq PE15 platform after its DNA was prepared by sodium dodecyl sulfonate/protease cleavage scheme, and genomic analysis including sequence assembly, annotation, and phylogenetic tree were completed. The bacteriophage SAP23 solution was co-incubated with the host bacterial solution for 4 h at the multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10.000 0, 1.000 0, 0.100 0, 0.010 0, 0.001 0, and 0.000 1, respectively, and then the bacteriophage titer was measured by the drip plate method to select the optimal MOI, with here and the following sample numbers of 3. The bacteriophage SAP23 solution was co-incubated with the host bacterial solution at the optimal MOI for 5, 10, and 15 min, respectively, and the bacteriophage titer was measured by the same method as mentioned above to select the optimal adsorption time. After the bacteriophage SAP23 solution was co-incubated with the host bacterial solution at the optimal MOI for the optimal adsorption time, the bacteriophage titers were measured by the same method as mentioned above at 0 (immediately), 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, and 120 min after culture, respectively, and a one-step growth curve was drawn. The bacteriophage SAP23 solution was incubated at 4, 37, 50, 60, 70, and 80 ℃ and pH 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 for 1 h, respectively, to determine its stability. A total of 41 MRSA strains stored in the Department of Microbiology of Army Medical University (the Third Military Medical University) were used to determine the host spectrum of bacteriophage SAP23. Results: The bacteriophage SAP23 could form a transparent plaque on the host bacteria double-layer agar plate. The bacteriophage SAP23 has a polyhedral head with (88±4) nm in diameter and a tail with (279±21) nm in length and (22.6±2.6) nm in width. The bacteriophage SAP23 has a linear, double-stranded DNA with a full length of 151 618 bp and 11 681 bp long terminal repeats sequence in the sequence ends. There were 220 open reading frames predicted and the bacteriophage could encode 4 transfer RNAs, while no resistance genes or virulence factors were found. The annotation function of bacteriophage SAP23 genes could be divided into 5 groups. The GenBank accession number was MZ427930. According to the genomic collinearity analysis, there were 5 local collinear blocks in the whole genome between the bacteriophage SAP23 and the chosen 6 Staphylococcus bacteriophages, while within or outside the local collinear region, there were still some differences. The bacteriophage SAP23 belonged to the Herelleviridae family, Twortvirinae subfamily, and Kayvirus genus. The optimal MOI of bacteriophage SAP23 was 0.010 0, and the optimal adsorption time was 10 min. The bacteriophage SAP23 had a latent period of 20 min, and a growth phase of 80 min. The bacteriophage SAP23 was able to remain stable at the temperature between 4 and 37 ℃ and at the pH values between 4 and 9. The bacteriophage SAP23 could lyse 3 of the 41 tested MRSA strains. Conclusions: The bacteriophage SAP23 is a member of the Herelleviridae family, Twortvirinae subfamily, and Kayvirus genus. The bacteriophage SAP23 has a good tolerance for temperature and acid-base and a short latent period, and can lyse MRSA effectively. The bacteriophage SAP23 is a new type of potent narrow-spectrum bacteriophage without virulence factors and resistance genes.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages/genetics , Genomics , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Sternum
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935267

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the Staphylococcal enterotoxins, Staphylococcal enterotoxin genes, drug resistance and molecular typing of 41 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 2 food-borne illness outbreaks on 21 August and 27 September 2020 in Guangzhou. Methods: A total of 41 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 2 outbreaks were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing. The Staphylococcal enterotoxins typing and the Staphylococcal enterotoxin genes of the isolates were analyzed by ELISA and PCR, respectively. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was performed by disc diffusion. 21 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were characterized using whole genome sequencing (WGS). Based on the whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), the phylogenetic tree was constructed by Snippy. Results: 41 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were divided into 2 types by MLST and spa typing: ST6-t701 and ST7-t091. 2 ST7-t091 isolates were identified as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). 25 ST7-t091 isolates and 14 ST6-t701 isolates were methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), and were resistant to 7 and 6 antibiotics, respectively. All isolates were positive for sea by PCR. WGS revealed all 21 isolates carried scn, sak, sea, hla, hld, hlgA, hlgB, hlgC, lukD virulence genes. The results showed the isolates contained an immune evasion cluster type D which located in bacteriophage ϕSa3. The SNP phylogenetic tree showed 2 MRSA ST7-t091 were constituted a separate clade from the 12 MSSA ST7-t091 isolates and 7 ST6-t701 isolates showed high similarity to each other. Conclusion: Base on the results of phylogenetic analysis, the 2 food-borne illness outbreaks occurred on 21 August and 27 September 2020 are caused by the combination of the MRSA ST7-t091 strain and the MSSA ST7-t091 strain, and the MSSA ST6-t701 strain, respectively. All isolates have high level of antibiotic resistance and carry high virulent genes.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Disease Outbreaks , Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multilocus Sequence Typing/methods , Phylogeny , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928584

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the changes in the distribution and drug resistance profiles of pathogens causing bloodstream infection after chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.@*METHODS@#The medical data were collected from the children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between January 2015 and December 2020 and developed bloodstream infection after chemotherapy. The samples were divided into the first three years group and the next three years group according to the time of testing to investigate the differences in the distribution and drug resistance profiles of pathogens as time.@*RESULTS@#A total of 235 strains of pathogens were isolated, among which there were 159 Gram-negative strains (67.7%; mainly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae), 61 Gram-positive strains (26.0%; mainly Staphylococcus epidermidis), and 15 strains of fungi (6.4%; mainly Candida albicans). There were no significant differences between the first three years group and the next three years group in the detection rate of Gram-negative bacteria (68.8% vs 66.9%, P>0.05) or Gram-positive bacteria (29.2% vs 23.7%, P>0.05). Compared with the first three years group, the next three years group had significant increases in the detection rate of Streptococcus mitis (5.8% vs 0.0%, P<0.05) and fungi (9.4% vs 2.1%, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the drug resistance rate of Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria between the two groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Enterobacteriaceae bacteria are the main pathogens of bloodstream infection after chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, while the detection rates of Streptococcus mitis and fungi tend to increase as time, which needs to be taken seriously in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Child , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/drug therapy
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928127

ABSTRACT

A new phloroglucinol was isolated from 50% ethanol extract of Dryopteris fragrans by silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 gel column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography(TLC), and preparative liquid column chromatography. On the basis of MS, ~1H-NMR, ~(13)C-NMR, and reference materials, compound 1 was identified as 2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one, 2-{[2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-3-methyl-5-(1-isobutyl)phenyl]methyl}-3,5-dihydroxy-4,4-dimethyl-6-(1-oxobutyl)(1), and named disaspidin BB. Compound 1 was evaluated for its antibacterial activity. The experimental results showed that compared with the commonly used topical antibiotics erythromycin or mupirocin, disaspidin BB exhibited significant antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus epidermidis(SEP), S. haemolyticus(SHA), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA)(P<0.05). Additionally, disaspidin BB was sensitive to ceftazidime-resistant SEP1-SEP4, SHA5-SHA7, MRSA8, and MRSA9. The MIC values of disaspidin BB against SEP and SHA were 1.67-2.71 μg·mL~(-1) and 10.00-33.33 μg·mL~(-1) respectively. Disaspidin BB has good antibacterial activities and deserves development as a new anti-infective drug for external use.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Dryopteris , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phloroglucinol/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242301, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285599

ABSTRACT

Abstract Green synthesis of ‏silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is an ecofriendly, cost-effective and promising approach for discovery of novel therapeutics. The aim of the current work was to biogenic synthesize, characterize AgNPs using seed extracts of three economically important varieties of date palm (Iklas, Irziz and Shishi), and assess their anti-pathogenic bacterial activities. AgNPs were synthesised then characterised using electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analyses. The bactericidal activities of AgNPs against five different bacterial pathogens, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, were determined in vitro. In particular, changes in membrane integrity of virulent bacterial strains in response to AgNPs were investigated. Results of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase activity assays, and measurement of membrane potential revealed that the cytotoxic effects of the AgNPs were mainly centred on the plasma membrane of bacterial cells, leading to loss of its integrity and eventually cell death. In conclusion, green synthesis of AgNPs is an efficient, cost-effective and promising strategy to combat virulent antibiotic-resistant strains.


Resumo A síntese verde de nanopartículas de prata (AgNPs) é uma abordagem ecologicamente correta, econômica e promissora para a descoberta de novas terapêuticas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi sintetizar biogênica, caracterizar AgNPs usando extratos de sementes de três variedades economicamente importantes de tamareira (Iklas, Irziz e Shishi) e avaliar suas atividades bacterianas antipatogênicas. AgNPs foram sintetizados e caracterizados usando microscopia eletrônica e análise de infravermelho por transformada de Fourier. As atividades bactericidas de AgNPs contra cinco diferentes patógenos bacterianos, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina e Streptococcus pneumoniae, foram determinadas in vitro. Em particular, foram investigadas alterações na integridade da membrana de cepas bacterianas virulentas em resposta a AgNPs. Os resultados da lactato desidrogenase, dos ensaios da atividade da fosfatase alcalina e da medição do potencial de membrana revelaram que os efeitos citotóxicos dos AgNPs estavam principalmente centrados na membrana plasmática das células bacterianas, levando à perda de sua integridade e, eventualmente, à morte celular. A síntese verde de AgNPs é uma estratégia eficiente, econômica e promissora para combater cepas virulentas resistentes a antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Metal Nanoparticles , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Phoeniceae , Silver , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06991, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365241

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic and ubiquitous pathogen found in the skin, nares, and mucosal membranes of mammals. Increasing resistance to antimicrobials including methicillin has become an important public concern. One hundred and eight (108) S. aureus strains isolated from a total of 572 clinical and animal products samples, were investigated for their biofilm capability, methicillin resistance, enterotoxin genes, and genetic diversity. Although only one strain isolated from raw retail was found as a strong biofilm producer, the percentage of antimicrobial resistance pattern was relatively higher. 17.59% of S. aureus strains tested in this study were resistant to cefoxitin and identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. mecA and mecC harboring S. aureus strains were detected at a rate of 2.79% and 0.93%, respectively. In addition, staphylococcal enterotoxin genes including Sea, Seb, Sec, and Sed genes were found to be 18.5%, 32.4%, 6.5% and 3.7%, respectively. The phylogenetic relationship among the isolates showed relationship between joint calf and cow milk isolates. Multi locus sequence typing (MLST) revealed three different sequence types (STs) including ST84, ST829, and ST6238. These findings highlight the development and spread of MRSA strains with zoonotic potential in animals and the food chain throughout the world.


Staphylococcus aureus é um patógeno dúctil e ubíquo encontrado na pele, narinas e membranas mucosas de mamíferos. O aumento da resistência aos antimicrobianos, incluindo a meticilina, tornou-se uma importante preocupação pública. Cento e oito (108) cepas de S. aureus isoladas de um total de 572 amostras clínicas e de produtos animais foram investigadas por sua capacidade de biofilme, resistência à meticilina, genes de enterotoxinas e diversidade genética. Embora apenas uma cepa isolada do cru tenha sido encontrada como forte produtora de biofilme, a porcentagem do padrão de resistência antimicrobiana foi relativamente maior. Parte das cepas (17,59%) de S. aureus testadas neste estudo eram resistentes à cefoxitina e identificadas como isolados de MRSA. mecA e mecC abrigando cepas de S. aureus foram detectados a uma taxa de 2,79% e 0,93%, respectivamente. Além disso, verificou-se que os genes da enterotoxina estafilocócica, incluindo os genes Sea, Seb, Sec e Sed, eram 18,5%, 32,4%, 6,5% e 3,7%, respectivamente. A relação filogenética entre os isolados mostrou relação entre os isolados de bezerro e leite de vaca. A tipagem de sequência multiloco (MLST) revelou três tipos de sequência diferentes (STs), incluindo ST84, ST829 e ST6238. Essas descobertas destacam o desenvolvimento e a disseminação de cepas de MRSA com potencial zoonótico em animais e na cadeia alimentar em todo o mundo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Staphylococcal Food Poisoning/epidemiology , Turkey/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Cheese/microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Enterotoxins
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(6): 774-782, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388320

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Staphylococcus aureus es parte de la microbiota nasal en 20-30% de la población general, colonización que constituye un reservorio para su transmisión, lo que es preocupante en cepas resistentes a meticilina (SARM). OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de S. aureus en estudiantes de Medicina y Enfermería del Campus San Felipe y caracterizar sus aislamientos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El 2017 se midió la portación nasal a 225 estudiantes, a las cepas aisladas se le analizó su antibiotipo por difusión en agar, la relación clonal por electroforesis de campo pulsado y MLST. En SARM se determinó el cassette SCCmec y gen de la leucocidina de Panton-Valentine. RESULTADOS: 61 estudiantes portaron S. aureus (27,1%) incluyendo dos cepas SARM (0,9%). Staphylococcus aureus mostró resistencia a penicilina (75%), eritromicina (14%) y clindamicina (10%), cloranfenicol (1,6%) y levofloxacina, oxacilina, cefoxitina (3,3%). Se diferenciaron diecinueve pulsotipos y el secuenciotipo coincidió con complejos clonales descritos a nivel mundial en portadores de S. aureus: CC30, CC8, CC97, CC15, CC22 y CC1. Las dos cepas SARM correspondieron con los clones chileno/cordobés y USA100NY/J, ambas del CC5. CONCLUSIÓN: La portación nasal de S. aureus y SARM en los estudiantes coincidió con la portación en la población general y las cepas sensibles a meticilina mostraron diversidad clonal y alta susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, exceptuando a penicilina.


BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is part of the nasal microbiota in 20-30% of the population. This colonization is also a reservoir for its dissemination, which is worrying in the case of strains with resistance to methicillin (MRSA). AIM: To determine S. aureus nasal carriage in nursing and medical students of San Felipe Campus and characterize theirs isolates. METHODS: During 2017, nasal swabs were taken from 225 students and seeded in salt manitol agar. Antibiotypes were determined by agar diffusion and the genetic clonality was assessed by PFGE and MLST in isolated S. aureus. SCCmec cassette and Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl) presence were determined in the MRSA isolates. RESULTS: 61 students carried S. aureus (27.1%) including two MRSA strains (0.9%). S. aureus showed resistance to penicillin (75%), erythromycin (14%) and clindamycin (10%), chloramphenicol (1.6%) and levofloxacin, oxacillin, cefoxitin (3.3%). Nineteen PFGE-types were differentiated, and their sequence-types coincided with main clonal complexes described in S. aureus carriers from different places worldwide: CC30, CC8, CC97, CC15, CC22 and CC1. MRSA strains belonged to CC5 and they corresponded to the Chilean/Cordobes and USA100NY/J clones. CONCLUSION: Nasal carriage of S. aureus and MRSA in students, coincided with the general population and sensitive-methicillin strains showed clonal diversity and high antimicrobial susceptibility except for penicillin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Students, Nursing , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile , Agar , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype , Methicillin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(6): 408-413, dic. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1342850

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los agentes infecciosos más prevalentes en niños y puede causar un variado espectro de presentaciones clínicas. La bacteriemia por S. aureus se asocia frecuentemente con complicaciones y metástasis infecciosas. Los datos epidemiológicos y clínicos sobre esta entidad, y sus complicaciones en pediatría son escasos. Objetivos. Describir la epidemiología, frecuencia, distribución y tipo de metástasis infecciosas en una serie de pacientes pediátricos con bacteriemia por S. aureus y evaluar posibles factores de riesgo para su aparición. Población y métodos. Estudio de corte transversal de pacientes pediátricos internados con bacteriemia por S. aureus en un hospital pediátrico de La Plata entre enero de 201 y junio de 2019. Resultados. Se analizaron 112 episodios de bacteriemia por S. aureus. La tasa de infección metastásica fue del 34,8 %; el pulmón fue la localización más frecuente. Los factores de riesgo principales para el desarrollo de metástasis infecciosas fueron la bacteriemia por S. aureus meticilino resistente (OR : 2,95; IC95 %: 1,19-7,83; p = 0,015) y la persistencia de hemocultivos de control positivos a las 48 horas (OR: 3,17; IC95 %: 1,22-8,46; p = 0,012). Conclusión. La tasa de metástasis infecciosas en pacientes con bacteriemia por S. aureus fue del 34,8 %. Los factores de riesgo asociados fueron la bacteriemia por S. aureus meticilino resistente y la persistencia de hemocultivos de control positivos a las 48 horas. Los órganos más afectados fueron el pulmón, el sistema osteoarticular, la piel y partes blandas.


Introduction. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent infectious agents in children and may cause a wide variety of clinical presentations. S. aureus bacteremia is frequently associated with complications and metastatic infections. The epidemiological and clinical data about S. aureus bacteremia and its complications in pediatrics are scarce. Objectives. To describe the epidemiology, frequency, distribution, and type of metastatic infections in a series of pediatric patients with S. aureus bacteremia and assess possible risk factors for its development. Population and methods. Cross-sectional study of pediatric patients with S. aureus bacteremia admitted to a children's hospital of La Plata between January 2016 and June 2019. Results. A total of 112 S. aureus bacteremia events were analyzed. The rate of metastatic infection was 34.8 %; the lung was the most common infection site. The main risk factors for the development of metastatic infections were bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (odds ratio: 2.95; 95% confidence interval: 1.19-7.83; p = 0.015) and persistent positive control blood cultures at 48 hours (odds ratio: 3.17; 95 % confidence interval: 1.22-8.46; p = 0.012). Conclusion. The rate of metastatic infections among patients with S. aureus bacteremia was 34.8 %. Associated risk factors were bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus and persistent positive control blood cultures at 48 hours. The most common organs affected included the lungs, the osteoarticular system, and the skin and soft tissue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pediatrics , Argentina/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Pediatric
14.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(4): 597-602, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350909

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The emergence of resistance mechanisms not only limits the therapeutic options for common bacterial infections but also worsens the prognosis in patients who have conditions that increase the risk of bacterial infections. Thus, the effectiveness of important medical advances that seek to improve the quality of life of patients with chronic diseases is threatened. We report the simultaneous colonization and bacteremia by multidrug-resistant bacteria in two hemodialysis patients. The first patient was colonized by carbapenem- and colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The patient had a bacteremia by MRSA, and molecular typing methods confirmed the colonizing isolate was the same strain that caused infection. The second case is of a patient colonized by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. During the follow-up period, the patient presented three episodes of bacteremia, one of these caused by ESBL-producing E. coli. Molecular methods confirmed colonization by the same clone of ESBL-producing E. coli at two time points, but with a different genetic pattern to the strain isolated from the blood culture. Colonization by multidrug-resistant bacteria allows not only the spread of these microorganisms, but also increases the subsequent risk of infections with limited treatments options. In addition to infection control measures, it is important to establish policies for the prudent use of antibiotics in dialysis units.


RESUMO O surgimento de mecanismos de resistência não apenas limita as opções terapêuticas para infecções bacterianas comuns, mas também piora o prognóstico em indivíduos com condições que aumentam o risco de infecções bacterianas. Assim, a eficácia de importantes avanços médicos que buscam melhorar a qualidade de vida de pacientes com doenças crônicas está ameaçada. Relatamos a colonização e bacteremia simultâneas por bactérias multirresistentes em dois pacientes em hemodiálise. O primeiro paciente foi colonizado por Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a carbapenem e colistina, Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistente a carbapenem e Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA). O paciente apresentou bacteremia por MRSA, e os métodos de tipagem molecular confirmaram que o isolado colonizador era a mesma cepa que estava causando infecção. O segundo caso é de um paciente colonizado por Escherichia coli produtora de beta-lactamases de espectro estendido (ESBL) e Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistente ao carbapenem. Durante o período de seguimento, o paciente apresentou três episódios de bacteremia, um deles causado por E. coli produtora de ESBL. Os métodos moleculares confirmaram a colonização pelo mesmo clone de E. coli produtora de ESBL em dois momentos, mas com um padrão genético diferente da cepa isolada da hemocultura. A colonização por bactérias multirresistentes aumenta o potencial não apenas da disseminação desses microrganismos, mas também do risco subsequente de infecções com opções limitadas de tratamentos. Além das medidas de controle de infecção, é importante estabelecer políticas para o uso prudente de antibióticos nas unidades de diálise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Quality of Life , Renal Dialysis , Escherichia coli , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(6): 607-614, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352285

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a worldwide concern given its presence even in non-hospitalized healthy individuals, such as university students. OBJECTIVE: To identify in the literature the prevalence of colonization by MRSA among healthcare students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Integrative review of the literature conducted in Universidade Federal do Piauí. METHOD: A search for primary studies was performed in the following databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System on-line; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Web of Science; Scopus; and LILACS. RESULTS: This review included 27 studies that demonstrated MRSA infection prevalence ranging from 0.0 to 15.3% among students. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of colonization of MRSA among healthcare students is high, and the nasal cavity was cited as an important reservoir location for these microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Students , Carrier State/epidemiology , Prevalence , Delivery of Health Care
16.
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 33-40, 13 oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342178

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: caracterizar desde el punto de vista microbiológico las infecciones periprotesicas (IP) de los pacientes sometidos a remplazo articular de rodilla o cadera, en la IPS universitaria Clínica León XIII, y evidenciar los patrones más comunes de resistencia a los antibióticos, en el periodo 2015-2018. Metodología: se recolectó información de 25 pacientes llevados a remplazo articular de rodilla o cadera en la IPS universitaria, sede Clínica León XIII, durante el periodo de 2015-2018, que desarrollaron IP. Se obtuvo información sobre características demográfica, clínicas y patrones de resistencia (según antibiograma), y sobre los criterios usados para diagnosticarla. Los datos se registraron, según la naturaleza y distribución de la variable, en medias o medianas para las variables cuantitativas, y en frecuencias para las cualitativas. Resultados: entre 2015 y 2018 se realizaron 541 remplazos articulares, la incidencia de infección periprotésica fue de 4.6% (25 pacientes), 22 casos (88%) con crecimiento microbiológico. El germen más frecuente fue el S. aureus, con patrón alto de resistencia para meticilina (SAMR), en el 44%. Seguido por K. pneumoniae, con un patrón de resistencia por producción de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) de 83%. Ninguno tuvo resistencia a los carbapenémicos. Conclusiones: los resultados son similares a los reportados en la literatura internacional. Sigue siendo el S. aureus el principal causante de la infección periprotésica, seguido de los gérmenes gram negativos.


Objective: to microbiologically characterize the periprosthetic infections (PI) of patients undergoing knee or hip joint replacement at IPS Universitaria Clínica León XXIIIin the period 2015-2018, and to demonstrate the most common antibiotic resistance patterns. Methodology: the information was collected from 25 patients undergoing knee or hip joint replacement at IPS Universitaria Clínica León XXIII during the period 2015-2018 who developed PI. Data was obtained on demographic, clinical characteristics, and antibiotic resistance patterns (according to antibiograms), as well as on the diagnostic criteria used to diagnose it. The data was recorded, according to the nature and distribution of the variable, in means or medians for the quantitative variables, and in frequencies for the qualitative variables.Results:between 2015-2018, 541 joint replacements were performed. There was an incidence of periprosthetic infection in 25 patients (4.6%), 22 of whom (88%) had micro-biological growth. The most frequent germ was S. aureus, which had a high resistance pattern for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in 44%, followed by K. pneumoniaewith a positive extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in 83%. None of them showed resistance to carbapenems.Conclusions: the results found are similar to those reported in the international lite-rature. This investigation evidenced that S. aureus continues to be the main cause of periprosthetic infection, followed by gram-negative germs.


Objetivo: caracterizar do ponto de vista microbiológico as infecções periprotéticas (IP) dos pacientes submetidos à artroplastia articular do joelho ou do quadril, na IPS universitário, Clínica León XIII, e demonstrar os padrões mais comuns de resistência aos antibióticos, em o período 2015-2018.Metodologia: foram coletadas informações de 25 pacientes encaminhados para prótese de joelho ou quadril no IPS universitário, sede da Clínica León XIII, no período 2015-2018, que desenvolveram IP. Foram obtidas informações sobre as características demográfi-cas, clínicas e padrões de resistência (de acordo com antibiograma) e sobre os critérios usados para diagnosticá-la. Os dados foram registrados, de acordo com a natureza e distribuição da variável, em médias ou medianas para as variáveis quantitativas e em frequências para as qualitativas.Resultados: entre 2015 e 2018, foram realizadas 541 substituições articulares, a incidência de infecção periprotética foi de 4,6% (25 pacientes), 22 casos (88%) com crescimento microbiológico. O germe mais frequente foi S. aureus, com alto padrão de resistência à meticilina (MRSA), em 44%. Seguido por K. pneumoniae, com padrão de resistência devido à produção de beta-lactamase de espectro estendido (ESBL) de 83%. Nenhum apresentou resistência aos carbapenêmicos.Conclusões: os resultados são semelhantes aos relatados na literatura internacional. S. aureus continua a ser a principal causa de infecção periprotética, seguido por germes gram-negativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prostheses and Implants , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Hip Joint , Infections , Joints , Knee , Anti-Bacterial Agents
17.
Infectio ; 25(2): 101-107, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250075

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Estimar la resistencia del Staphylococcus aureus frente a diferentes antibióticos usados para el manejo ambulatorio de piodermias. Métodos: Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y de tendencias mediante modelos de regresión segmentada. Resultados: La mayor resistencia se presentó a la oxacilina, con mediana de 54,3% (RIQ: 43 - 58,8), seguido de eritromicina con el 20%, (RIQ: 15,4 - 26,5), clindami cina con el 14% (RIQ: 7,9 - 20), gentamicina con el 7,5% (RIQ: 0 -10), trimetoprima/sulfametoxazol (SXT) con el 5,5% (RIQ: 4 - 11), y ciprofloxacina con 2,1% (RIQ: 2 - 8.4). La tendencia de la resistencia del S. aureus a la oxacilina fue creciente con un cambio anual porcentual no significativo de (0,07) (IC 95%: -3,7; 3,9). Para eritromicina, clindamicina, ciprofloxacina, trimetoprima/sulfametoxazol, y gentamicina hubo decrecimiento. Conclusiones: La resistencia del S. aureus a oxacilina fue ligeramente creciente para el periodo 2010 al 2019 y francamente creciente en los últimos 3 años, superando en promedio a lo reportado a nivel país y Latinoamérica. Los antibióticos con menor resistencia fueron ciprofloxacina, SXT, clindamicina para uso sistémico, y ácido fusídico, mupirocina para manejo tópico y descolonización. Es pertinente articular la vigilancia del S. aureus en la atención ambulatoria a la red de vigilancia nacional.


Abstract Objective: To estimate the resistance trend of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) against different antibiotics in a reference dermatology outpatient center in Colombia. Methods: Descriptive and trend analyzes were performed using segmented regression models for the period 2010 to 2019. Results: The greatest resistance was presented to oxacillin, with a median of 54.3% (RIQ: 43 - 58.8), followed by erythromycin with 20%, (RIQ: 15.4 - 26.5), then clindamycin with 14% (RIQ: 7.9 - 20), gentamicin with 7.5% (RIQ: 0 -10), trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole (SXT) with 5.5% (RIQ: 4 - 11), and ciprofloxacin with 2.1% (RIQ: 2 - 8.4). The trend of S. aureus resistance to oxacillin from 2010 to 2019 was increasing with a non-significant Annual Percent Change (APC) of (0.07) (95% CI -3.7, 3.9). APC for erythromycin (-1.2) (95% CI: -11.3; 10), clindamycin (-1.7) (95% CI: 11; -12.9), ciprofloxacin (-25.4) (95% CI: -44.6; 0.5) and trimethoprim / sul famethoxazole (-20.7) (95% CI: -43.5; 11.2), were decreasing not significant. For gentamicin the trend was decreasing and significant (-44.2) (95% CI: -19.9; -61.1). Conclusions: The resistance of S. aureus to oxacillin exhibited a slightly increasing trend for the period 2010 to 2019 and increasing in the last 3 years, exceeding on average that reported at the country level and the world average. Antibiotics for outpatient management of skin and soft tissue pyoderma with less resistance were ciprofloxacin, SXT, clindamycin for systemic use, and fusidic acid, mupirocin for topical management and decolonization. It is important to articulate surveillance of S. aureus in outpatient care to the national surveillance network.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Dermatology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus aureus , Sulfamethoxazole , Gentamicins , Ciprofloxacin , Fusidic Acid , Anti-Bacterial Agents
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(2): 300-302, abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388214

ABSTRACT

Resumen Staphylococcus aureus coloniza la nasofaringe en un tercio de los individuos sanos y además es causante de infecciones graves en pediatría, como endocarditis, neumonía e infecciones osteoarticulares. Posee varios mecanismos de virulencia, siendo la leucocidina de Panton Valentine (LPV) uno de ellos, una exotoxina que causa muerte celular. Su producción está comúnmente relacionada con Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) e infecciones pulmonares y musculo-esqueléticas graves. Sin embargo, la producción de LPV no es exclusiva de SARM. Se presentan dos casos clínicos de pacientes con infección por Staphylococcus aureus sensible a meticilina productora de esta exotoxina.


Abstract Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nasopharynx in one third of healthy individuals and is also responsible for several infections in pediatrics such as endocarditis, pneumonia and osteoarticular infections. It has several virulence mechanisms, such as Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL), which is an exotoxin that causes cell death. It is commonly related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and more serious pulmonary and musculoskeletal infections. However, PVL is not exclusive to MRSA. Two clinical cases of patients with infection by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus producing this exotoxin are presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy , Pediatrics , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacterial Toxins , Exotoxins , Leukocidins , Methicillin/pharmacology
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 343-351, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248926

ABSTRACT

The emergence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (LA-MRSA) and the potential role of pigs in the evolution of these strains has led to increased interest in research of these microorganisms. However, this has contributed to a lack of research in the isolation and characterization of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains (MSSA). In this study, the prevalence of S. aureus in pigs in the nursery and finishing stages were analyzed. The susceptibility profiles to antibiotics, tolerance to heavy metals, and biofilm production of the isolates were evaluated using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. A total of 1,250 colonies suggestive of Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 128 pigs, of which 63.6% (n = 795) belonged to this microbial genus. Sixty-seven colonies isolated from 34 animals (26.5%) were confirmed as S. aureus (8.4%). No strains resistant to copper, zinc, or methicillin were detected; however, all strains presented a resistance profile to at least three different classes of antimicrobials and 21 produced biofilms. These data are of concern, as they indicate the need for increased surveillance in the use of antimicrobials as well as reinforce the importance of studies on MSSA strains.(AU)


A emergência de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à meticilina associadas à pecuária (LA-MRSA) e o papel potencial dos suínos na evolução dessas cepas têm levado ao aumento do interesse na pesquisa desses microrganismos. No entanto, isso tem contribuído para a falta de estudos sobre o isolamento e a caracterização de cepas de S. aureus sensíveis à meticilina (MSSA). Neste estudo, foi analisada a prevalência de S. aureus em suínos nas fases de creche e terminação. Os perfis de suscetibilidade aos antibióticos, a tolerância a metais pesados e a produção de biofilme dos isolados foram avaliados por meio de técnicas fenotípicas e genotípicas. Um total de 1.250 colônias sugestivas de Staphylococcus spp. foi isolado de 128 suínos, das quais 63,6% (n = 795) pertenciam a esse gênero microbiano. Sessenta e sete colônias isoladas de 34 animais (26,5%) foram confirmadas como S. aureus (8,4%). Nenhuma cepa resistente ao cobre, ao zinco ou à meticilina foi detectada; entretanto, todas as cepas apresentaram perfil de resistência a pelo menos três classes diferentes de antimicrobianos e 21 produziam biofilme. Esses dados são preocupantes, pois indicam a necessidade de maior vigilância no uso de antimicrobianos, bem como reforçam a importância de estudos com cepas de MSSA.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Swine , Virulence Factors/analysis , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Biofilms
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): 11-17, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147054

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina adquirido de la comunidad (SARM-AC) se han incrementado en los últimos años. Neumonías necrotizantes y empiemas por SARM-AC son cada vez más frecuentes en niños.Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de neumonías por SARM-AC y sus características clínico-epidemiológicas, en comparación con las neumonías por Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) en la misma población.Material y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, observacional, transversal, de pacientes internados con neumonía por SARM-AC en el Hospital de Niños Víctor J. Vilela (período: 1/2008-12/2017).Resultados. De 54 neumonías por Staphylococcus aureus, 46 (el 85 %) fueron SARM-AC. El índice de neumonías por SARM-AC varió de 4,9/10 000 (2008) a 10/10 000 egresos (2017). Presentaron sepsis/shock séptico el 41 %; empiema, el 96 %; neumotórax, el 35 %; requirieron drenaje pleural el 90 % y toilette quirúrgica el 55 %. Ingresaron a Terapia Intensiva el 65 %; la mitad necesitó asistencia respiratoria mecánica. Hubo dos muertes. Resistencia de las cepas: el 17 % a gentamicina, el 13 % a eritromicina, el 11 % a clindamicina. En las neumonías por SARM-AC vs. las neumonías por SP, se observó mayor riesgo de sepsis (IC 95 %; RR 7,38; 3,32-16,38) e ingreso a Terapia Intensiva (RR 4,29; 2,70-6,83). No hubo muertes por SP.Conclusiones. La prevalencia de neumonías por SARM-AC se duplicó durante la última década. Comparadas con las neumonías por SP, las neumonías por SARM-AC se acompañaron, más frecuentemente, de cuadros de sepsis y shockséptico, ingreso a Terapia Intensiva y asistencia respiratoria.


Introduction. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections have increased in recent years. CA-MRSA necrotizing pneumonia and empyema are now more common in children.Objectives. To determine the prevalence of CA-MRSA pneumonia and its clinical and epidemiological characteristics compared to Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) pneumonia in the same population.Material and methods. Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study of patients hospitalized due to CA-MRSA pneumonia at Hospital de Niños Víctor J. Vilela (period: January 2008-December 2017).Results. Out of 54 Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia cases, 46 (85 %) corresponded to CA-MRSA. The rate of CA-MRSA pneumonia ranged from 4.9/10 000 (2008) to 10/10 000 hospital discharges (2017). Sepsis/septic shock was observed in 41 %; empyema, in 96 %; pneumothorax, in 35 %; 90 % of cases required pleural drainage and 55 %, surgical debridement. Also, 65 % of patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU); half of them required assisted mechanical ventilation. Two patients died. Strain resistance: 17 %, gentamicin; 13 %, erythromycin; and 11 %, clindamycin. Compared to SP pneumonia, CA-MRSA pneumonia showed a higher risk for sepsis (95 % confidence interval; relative risk: 7.38; 3.32-16.38) and admission to the ICU (RR: 4.29; 2.70-6.83). No patient died due to SP pneumonia.Conclusions. The prevalence of CA-MRSA pneumonia doubled in the past decade. Compared to SP pneumonia, CA-MRSA pneumonia was more commonly accompanied by sepsis and septic shock, admission to the ICU, and ventilatory support requirement


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Argentina/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric
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