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Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202471, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136576


ABSTRACT Purpose: the purpose of this research was to identify the sociodemographic and microbiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance rates of patients with diabetic foot infections, hospitalized in an emergency reference center. Methods: it was an observational and transversal study. The sociodemographic data were collected by direct interview with the patients. During the surgical procedures, specimens of tissue of the infected foot lesions were biopsied to be cultured, and for bacterial resistance analysis. Results: the sample consisted of 105 patients. The majority of patierns were men, over 50 years of age, married and with low educational level. There was bacterial growth in 95 of the 105 tissue cultures. In each positive culture only one germ was isolated. There was a high prevalence of germs of the Enterobacteriaceae family (51,5%). Gram-negative germs were isolated in 60% of cultures and the most individually isolated germs were the Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus aureus (20%) and Enterococcus faecalis (17,9%). Regarding antibiotic resistance rates, a high frequency of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin (63,0%) and to ciprofloxacin (55,5%) was found; additionally, 43,5% of the Gram-negative isolated germs were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Conclusions: the majority of patients were men, over 50 years of age, married and with low educational level. The most prevalent isolated germs from the infected foot lesions were Gram-negative bacteria, resistant to ciprofloxacin, and the individually most isolated germ was the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

RESUMO Objetivo: identificar o perfil sociodemográfico, microbiológico e de resistência bacteriana em pacientes com pé diabético infectado. Métodos: tratou-se de estudo observacional, transversal que avaliou os perfis sóciodemográfico e microbiológico de pacientes portadores de pé diabético infectado internados em Pronto Socorro de referência. Os dados sociodemográficos foram coletados por meio de entrevista. Foram colhidos, durante os procedimentos cirúrgicos, fragmentos de tecidos das lesões podais infectadas para realização de cultura/antibiograma. Resultados: a amostra foi composta por 105 pacientes. O perfil sociodemográfico mais prevalente foi o de pacientes do sexo masculino, acima dos 50 anos, casados e com baixa escolaridade. Das 105 amostras de fragmentos de tecidos colhidos para realização de cultura e antibiograma, 95 foram positivas, com crescimento de um único germe em cada um dos exames. Houve predomínio de germes da família Enterobacteriaceae (51,5%). Germes Gram-negativos foram isolados em 60,0% das culturas e os espécimes mais isolados individualmente foram os cocos Gram-positivos, Staphylococcus aureus (20,0%) e Enterococcus faecalis (17,9%). Considerando-se os perfis de resistência bacteriana, verificou-se alta taxa de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (63,0%) e à ciprofloxacino (55,5%); verificou-se, também, que 43,5% dos germes Gram-negativos eram resistentes à ciprofloxacino. Conclusões: o perfil sociodemográfico majoritário, foi o de homens, com mais de 50 anos e com baixa escolaridade. Concluímos que os germes mais prevalentes nas lesões podais dos pacientes diabéticos foram os Gram-negativos, resistentes ao ciprofloxacino e que o germe mais isolado individualmente foi o Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/microbiology , Diabetic Foot/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/drug therapy , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Infections , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 455-460, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042662


Resumen Introducción: El método de difusión de doble disco se presenta como una alternativa diagnóstica que permite identificar aislados de Staphylococcus aureus susceptibles a clindamicina, ante el aumento de resistencia a meticilina, reduciendo así la posibilidad de fallo en el tratamiento. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de resistencia a clindamicina inducida por eritromicina en S. aureus resistentes a meticilina (SARM) aislados de niños paraguayos. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal. Se colectaron 145 aislados S. aureus que causaron infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos y osteo-articulares en pacientes pediátricos del Hospital Central del Instituto de Previsión Social en el período de diciembre-2012 a noviembre-2013. La resistencia a clindamicina se determinó por métodos automatizados y de difusión de doble disco. Se realizó reacción de polimerasa en cadena para genes ermA, ermB, ermC y msrA de aislados representativos. Resultados: La resistencia global a meticilina y clindamicina fue de 67 y 13%, respectivamente (11% atribuible al mecanismo de resistencia a clindamicina inducible). Los genes ermC y msrA fueron detectados individualmente en 25 y 17% de los aislados, respectivamente, mientras que un aislado presentó ambos genes en simultáneo. Discusión: La frecuencia de mecanismo de resistencia inducible a clindamicina señala la importancia de los métodos de difusión de doble disco en la práctica microbiológica, así como se encuentran en los límites de puntos de cortes considerados como aceptables para el uso de este antimicrobiano para infecciones cutáneas y osteo-articulares causadas por SARM.

Background: The double disc diffusion method is an alternative diagnostic that allows the identification of Staphylococcus aureus isolates apparently susceptible to clindamycin but that may develop resistance due to an induction phenomena, mainly asociated to the increase in resistance to methicillin, thus increasing the possibility of failure in the treatment. Aim: To determine the frequency of induced clindamycin resistance in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from Paraguayan children. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, we collected 145 S. aureus isolates that caused skin and soft tissue and osteoarticular infections in pediatric patients of the Central Hospital I.P.S. in the period from December-2012 to November-2013. Resistance to clindamycin was determined by automated methods and double disc diffusion. PCR was performed for ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA genes from representative isolates. Results: The global resistance to methicillin and clindamycin was 67 and 13%, respectively (11% attributable to the inducible mechanism). The ermC and msrA genes were detected individually in 25 and 17% of the isolates respectively while an isolate presented both genes simultaneously. Discussion: The frequency of inducible resistance to clindamycin indicates the importance of double disc diffusion methods in microbiological practice, as well as being within the cut off points considered acceptable for the use of this antibiotic for skin infections. and osteoarticular caused by MRSA.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Clindamycin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Paraguay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Genes, Bacterial
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(4): 343-348, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043436


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Cell phones have become indispensable for professional activities, including healthcare. Thus, they are possible sources of bacterial contamination. There is a scarcity of data in the literature regarding identification of risk factors for contamination of cell phones with pathogenic bacteria. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence rates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and/or Enterobacteriaceae on cell phones belonging to hospital healthcare staff and university students in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, and to identify variables associated with such contamination. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in a public university's referral hospital and lecture buildings in 2017. METHODS: We sampled the surface of cell phones using the dipslide method, with Baird-Parker agar and Escherichia coli-coliform chromogenic (ECC) agar. We assessed the population's sociodemographic, behavioral and hygiene characteristics through interviews. Possible presence of S. aureus colonies was confirmed using agglutination tests, with evaluation of methicillin sensitivity. Colonies in ECC medium were counted. Stepwise logistic regression (forward P < 0.15) was performed to identify characteristics associated with bacterial contamination. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of S. aureus, MRSA and Enterobacteriaceae were, respectively, 32%, 4% and 3%. No difference was found between the hospital and university-based populations (P > 0.05). The only variable associated with bacterial contamination was the use of cloth/velvet/leather phone cases (odds ratio: 2.92; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-7.91). CONCLUSIONS: Potentially pathogenic bacteria were prevalent on the cell phones of this hospital and university population. Use of phone cases made of cloth-like material should be discouraged, especially in hospital settings.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cell Phone/statistics & numerical data , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Hospitals, University
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 371-375, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013795


Resumen Introducción: La piomiositis es la infección del músculo esquelético, entidad poco frecuente en pediatría. Objetivo: Describir las características de 21 niños con piomiositis. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo-analítico de niños ingresados con diagnóstico de piomiositis entre mayo de 2016 y abril de 2017 en el Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Resultados: Tasa de hospitalización de 21,5/10.000 admisiones (IC 95% 4,65- 71,43). La mediana de edad fue de 5,4 años (rango 1,25-11,6). El 90,4% presentaba algún factor predisponente. La localización más frecuente fue en miembros inferiores. La proteína C reactiva (PCR) estuvo elevada en todos los pacientes, con una media de 124 mg/L (DS 96), siendo significativamente más elevada en los pacientes que tuvieron hemocultivos positivos 206 (DS 101) vs 98 (DS 81), (p = 0,02). Se obtuvo rescate microbiológico en 17 pacientes (80,9%): Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) (n: 15) y Streptococcus pyogenes (n: 2). Se presentó con bacteriemia 23,8% de los pacientes. El 81% requirió drenaje quirúrgico. Conclusión: Staphylococcus aureus RM adquirido en la comunidad (SARMAC) es el patógeno predominante. En la selección del tratamiento empírico adecuado debería tenerse en cuenta: el patrón de resistencia local y el valor de PCR.

Background: Pyomyositis is the infection of skeletal muscle, a rare pathology in children. Aim To describe the characteristics of pyomyositis in pediatric patients. Methods: Prospective analytical study of hospitalized children diagnosed with pyomyositis from May 2016 to April 2017 at the Ricardo Gutiérrez Children's Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Results: Twenty-one patients with pyomyositis were identified. Annual rate: 21.5/10,000 admissions (95% CI 4.65-71.43). The median age was 5.4 years (range 1.25-11.6). The lower limbs were the most affected site. C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated in all patients, with a mean of 124 mg/L (SD 96), being significantly higher in patients with bacteremia: 206 (DS 101) vs 98 (DS 81), p = 0.02. Bacterial cultures were positive in 17/21 (80.9%): 15 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and 2 Streptococcus pyogenes. Blood cultures were positive in 5 (23.8%). Conclusion: MRSA-community acquired is the predominant pathogen in our setting. In the selection of the appropriate empirical treatment, the local resistance pattern and the CRP value should be taken into account.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Pyomyositis/diagnosis , Argentina , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Clindamycin/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Drainage , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Lower Extremity , Pyomyositis/microbiology , Pyomyositis/drug therapy , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(2): 82-91, apr 2019. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1025704


Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogenic type to humans, and the most common species responsible for a wide range of diseases such as furuncles, various abscesses, wounds abscesses resulting from surgical operations, dermatitis, soft tissue inflammation, arthritis, bones inflammation, bronchial pneumonia, inflammation of internal parts of the heart and injuries caused by toxins such as toxic shock syndorome and staphylococcus aureus syndrome and food poisoning. The current study aimed by finding the genes responsible for the virulence factors in S. aureus isolates by using the Single and Multiplex PCR mechanism (technology). A total of 60 specimens (urine, burn swabs, wound swaabs) from different clinical cases were collected from patients (in different age groups) who admitted to several health centers in Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital, Iraq, during a period extending from October 2016 to January 2017. Some virulence factors were investigated for 30 isolate only of MRSA using Single and Multiplex PCR for detection virulence factor genes which both coa gene encoding production of coagulase, clfA gene encoding for clumpting factor, spa gene encoding for protein A, fnbA gene encoding for fibronectin binding proteins, luks gene encoding prouction of Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL). Results 30 (100%) were possess coa, clfA, spa and fnbA genes, 13 (43.3%) were possess luks gene

Humans , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Staphylococcal Protein A , Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fibronectins , Coagulase , Coenzyme A/classification , Virulence Factors/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Leukocidins
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 139-142, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039225


ABSTRACT Introduction: This study aimed to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bloodstream infections in patients attending a teaching hospital, between 2011 and 2015. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration for daptomycin, linezolid, oxacillin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was accessed by broth microdilution. SCCmec type and clonal profile were determined by molecular tests. Vancomycin heteroresistance was evaluated using screening tests and by population analysis profile/area under the curve. Results: Among 200 S. aureus isolates, 55 (27.5%) were MRSA, carrying SCCmec II (45.5%) or IV (54.5%). The most frequent MRSA lineages were USA100 (ST5-II) (45.5%) and USA800 (ST5-IV) (30.9%). Six isolates were confirmed as vancomycin heteroresistant, showing area under the curve ratio 1.1, 1.2 or 1.3 (four USA100, one USA800 and one USA1100 isolates). Conclusions: Daptomycin and vancomycin non-susceptible MRSA clonal lineages were found in bloodstream infections over five years, highlighting the importance of continuous surveillance of multiresistant bacteria in hospitals.

Humans , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Daptomycin/pharmacology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross Infection/microbiology , Hospitals, Teaching
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 134-138, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039223


ABSTRACT This study characterized 30 MRSA isolates from intensive care unit (ICU) environment and equipment surfaces and healthy children. The SCCmec types I, IVa and V were detected in HA-MRSA isolates while CA-MRSA showed the SCCmec type IVa and V. Most isolates were classified as agr group II. All isolates presented the sei gene, and only HA-MRSA were positive for etb e tst genes. Three genotypes were related to Pediatric (ST5/SCCmecIV) and Berlin (ST45/SCCmecIV) clones. The present study showed molecular similarity between CA- and HA-MRSA isolates in hospital and community settings in a Brazilian region.

Humans , Cross Infection/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Staphylococcal Infections/genetics , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Brazil , Virulence Factors/isolation & purification , Virulence Factors/genetics , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Genotype
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(1): 8-14, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001504


ABSTRACT Introduction: Bacterial tonsillitis is an upper respiratory tract infection that occurs primarily in children and adolescents. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens in the etiology of tonsillitis and its relevance is due to its antimicrobial resistance and persistence in the internal tissues of the tonsils. Tonsillectomy is indicated in cases of recurrent tonsillitis after several failures of antibiotic therapy. Material and methods: In this study we evaluated 123 surgically removed tonsils from patients who had history of recurrent tonsillitis. The tonsils were submitted to microbiological analysis for detection of S. aureus. The isolates were identified by PCR for femA gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined by disk diffusion tests. All isolates were submitted to PCR to detect mecA and Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) genes. The genetic similarity among all isolates was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Results: Sixty-one S. aureus isolates were obtained from 50 patients (40.7%) with mean age of 11.7 years. The isolates showed high level resistance to penicillin (83.6%), 9.8% had inducible MLSb phenotype, and 18.0% were considered multidrug resistant (MDR). mecA gene was detected in two isolates and the gene coding for PVL was identified in one isolate. The genetic similarity analysis showed high diversity among the isolates. More than one genetically different isolate was identified from the same patient, and identical isolates were obtained from different patients. Conclusions: MDR isolates colonizing tonsils even without infection, demonstrate persistence of the bacterium and possibility of antimicrobial resistance dissemination and recurrence of infection. A specific clone in patients colonized by S. aureus was not demonstrated.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Tonsillitis/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Tonsillectomy/methods , Tonsillitis/surgery , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 603-609, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957466


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The behavior of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from central venous catheter-related infection was evaluated to determine its biofilm potential, antimicrobial resistance, and adhesion genes. METHODS: A total of 1,156 central venous catheters (CVC) were evaluated to screen for pathogens. Antimicrobial sensitivity, biofilm formation potential, and molecular analysis of MRSA were examined following standard guidelines. RESULTS: Of the 1,156 samples, 882 (76%) were colonized by bacteria or candida. Among the infected patients, 69% were male and 36% were female with median age of 32 years. Staphylococcus aureus infected 39% (344/882) of CVCs in patients. Of the 59% (208/344) of patients with MRSA, 57% had community acquired MRSA and 43% had hospital acquired MRSA. Linezolid and vancomycin killed 100% of MRSA; resistance levels to fusidic acid, doxycycline, clindamycin, azithromycin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamycin, tobramycin, and ofloxacin were 21%, 42%, 66%, 68%, 72%, 85%, 95%, 97%, and 98% respectively. Strong biofilm was produced by 23% of samples, moderate by 27%, and weak by 50% of MRSA. The presence of adhesion genes, sdrC and sdrD (90%), eno (87%), fnbA (80%), clfA and sdrE (67%), fnbB, sdrD (61%), and cna (51%), in most MRSA samples suggested that the adhesion genes are associated with biofilm synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: The superbug MRSA is a major cause of CVC-related infection. Antibiotic resistance to major classes of antibiotics and biofilm formation potential enhanced superbug MRSA virulence, leading to complicated infection. MRSA causes infection in hospitals, communities, and livestock.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/physiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Adhesion/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Middle Aged
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 371-376, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974237


ABSTRACT Background: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is spreading worldwide, but little is known about the epidemiology of this pathogen in Brazil. Objective: To evaluate clinical and microbiological features of children with S. aureus infections admitted to a university hospital. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study evaluating the potential risk factors for CA-MRSA, and a retrospective cohort evaluating in-hospital clinical outcomes. To include patients with both community and hospital-associated infections, we screened the results of the microbiological laboratory tests from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2016. According to the phenotype, we classified the isolates in Methicillin-Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), Hospital-Associated Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA), and CA-MRSA. Clinical data were collected from the patients' medical records. Results: We identified 279 cases of S. aureus infections (MSSA = 163, CA-MRSA = 69, HA-MRSA = 41). Overall, the incidence density of CA-MRSA and MSSA infections increased while the HA-MRSA incidence density decreased over the study period. CA-MRSA infected patients were more likely to present with skin and soft tissue infections (OR: 2.83, 95%CI: 1.54-5.33, p < 0.001) and osteomyelitis (OR: 4.76; 95%CI: 1.16-22.71, p = 0.014) when compared to MSSA and HA-MRSA infections. Unadjusted case fatality rates were similar between MSSA-infected patients (3.14%, 5/159) and CA-MRSA infected patients (3.80%, 3/79, p = 0.792), while HA-MRSA infected patients were more likely to die in the hospital (12.20%, 5/41, p = 0.013). Conclusions: CA-MRSA is an emergent pediatric pathogen in Brazil. Our results highlight the relevance of choosing an appropriate initial antimicrobial drug for treating children with severe S. aureus infections.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Phenotype , Reference Values , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(4): 380-389, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954633


Abstract Objective: Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large number of infections in pediatric population; however, information about the behavior of such infections in this population is limited. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical, epidemiological, and molecular characteristics of infections caused by methicillin-susceptible and resistant S. aureus (MSSA-MRSA) in a pediatric population. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study in patients from birth to 14 years of age from three high-complexity institutions was conducted (2008-2010). All patients infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus and a representative sample of patients infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus were included. Clinical and epidemiological information was obtained from medical records and molecular characterization included spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). In addition, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and virulence factor genes were detected. Results: A total of 182 patients, 65 with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus infections and 117 with methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections, were included in the study; 41.4% of the patients being under 1 year. The most frequent infections were of the skin and soft tissues. Backgrounds such as having stayed in day care centers and previous use of antibiotics were more common in patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections (p ≤ 0.05). Sixteen clonal complexes were identified and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains were more diverse. The most common cassette was staphylococcal cassette chromosomemec IVc (70.8%), which was linked to Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl). Conclusions: In contrast with other locations, a prevalence of infections in children under 1 year of age in the city could be observed; this emphasizes the importance of epidemiological knowledge at the local level.

Resumo Objetivo: O Staphylococcus aureus é responsável por um grande número de infecções na população pediátrica; contudo, as informações sobre o comportamento dessas infecções nessa população são limitadas. O objetivo do estudo foi descrever as características clínicas, epidemiológicas e moleculares de infecções causadas por Staphylococcus aureus suscetíveis e resistentes à meticilina (MSSA-MSRA) em uma população pediátrica. Método: Um estudo transversal descritivo foi realizado em pacientes entre 0 e 14 anos de idade de três instituições de alta complexidade (2008-2010). Todos os pacientes infectados com S. aureus resistentes à meticilina e uma amostra representativa de pacientes infectados com S. aureus suscetíveis à meticilina foram incluídos. As informações clínicas e epidemiológicas foram obtidas de prontuários médicos, e a caracterização molecular incluiu tipagem spa, Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado (PFGE) e Tipagem de sequências multilocus (MLST). Além disso, o Cassete Cromossômico Estafilocócico mec (SCCmec) e genes de fatores de virulência foram detectados. Resultados: 182 pacientes, 65 com infecções por S. aureus suscetíveis à meticilina e 117 com infecções por S. aureus resistentes à meticilina, foram incluídos no estudo; 41,4% dos pacientes com menos de um ano de idade. As infecções mais frequentes foram da pele e dos tecidos moles. Os históricos como internações em centros de atendimento e o uso prévio de antibióticos foram mais comuns em pacientes com infecções por S. aureus resistentes à meticilina (p ≤ 0,05). Dezesseis complexos clonais foram identificados, e as cepas de S. aureus suscetíveis à meticilina foram mais diversificadas. O cassete mais comum foi o Cassete Cromossômico Estafilocócicomec IVc (70,8%), relacionado à leucocidina de panton-valentine (pvl). Conclusões: Em comparação a outros locais, observamos uma prevalência de infecções em crianças com menos de um ano de idade na cidade; o que enfatiza a importância de conhecer a epidemiologia em nível local.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Skin Diseases, Infectious/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Soft Tissue Infections/microbiology , Virulence Factors/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Skin Diseases, Infectious/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Soft Tissue Infections/diagnosis , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Multilocus Sequence Typing
West Indian med. j ; 67(1): 57-59, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045818


ABSTRACT Objective: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with soft tissue infections in surgical patients. In severe cases, it may result in pneumonia, septicaemia and osteomyelitis. Limited data are available with regard to its prevalence and associations in the Caribbean. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of MRSA in patients hospitalized in the surgical wards of the Port-of-Spain General Hospital (POSGH), Trinidad and Tobago, and determine associated risk factors. Methods: Over the period of April 1 to August 1, 2013, all patients from the surgical wards of the POSGH who had had wound swabs taken were identified. Demographic data included duration of hospital stay, surgical and medical history, antibiotic use and type of wound swab. Microbiological reports were then retrieved and analyses done. Results: A total of 153 patients had wound swabs taken. There were 38 patients (24%) infected with Staphylococcus aureus, with 15 (39.5%) growing MRSA. Increased susceptibility to MRSA was associated with age, gender, ethnicity, duration of hospital stay, co-morbidities, previous antibiotic use, previous surgery and the type of wound (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of MRSA in the surgical wards of the POSGH was 39.5% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Risk factors included the age range of 60-69 years, patients with co-morbidities, hospital stays of longer than one week, previous surgery and prior use of antibiotics. We recommend more awareness of this problem in the practice of Caribbean medicine to improve infection rates.

RESUMEN Objetivo: El estafilococo dorado resistente a la meticilina (EDRM) se asocia con infecciones de tejidos blandos en pacientes quirúrgicos. En casos severos, puede dar lugar a pulmonía, septicemia y osteomielitis. Los datos disponibles con respecto a su prevalencia y asociaciones en el Caribe son limitados. Este estudio persigue evaluar la prevalencia de EDRM en pacientes hospitalizados en las salas quirúrgicas del Hospital General de Puerto de España (POSGH, siglas en inglés) en Trinidad y Tobago, y determinar los factores de riesgo asociados. Métodos: Durante el período del 1 de abril al 1 de agosto de 2013, fueron identificados todos los pacientes de las salas quirúrgicas del Hospital POSGH a quienes se les había practicado frotis de las heridas. Los datos demográficos incluyeron la duración de la estadía hospitalaria, las historias clínicas y quirúrgicas, el uso de antibióticos, y el tipo de frotis de la herida. Luego se obtuvieron los informes microbiológicos y se realizaron los análisis. Resultados: A un total de 153 pacientes se le tomaron frotis de heridas. Hubo 38 pacientes (24%) infectados con estafilococos dorados, de los cuales 15 (3.5%) presentaban EDRM creciente. El aumento de la susceptibilidad a EDRM se asoció con la edad, el género, la etnicidad, la duración de la estadía hospitalaria, las co-morbilidades, el uso previo de antibióticos, las cirugías previas, y el tipo de herida (p < 0.05). Conclusión: La prevalencia de EDRM en las salas quirúrgicas del Hospital POSGH fue 39.5% de aislados de estafilococos dorados. Los factores de riesgo incluyeron un rango de edad de 60-69 años, pacientes con co-morbilidades, estancia hospitalaria de más de una semana, cirugía previa, y uso previo de antibióticos. Recomendamos tomar más conciencia de este problema en la práctica médica en el Caribe a fin de mejorar las tasas de infección.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Surgical Wound Infection/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Trinidad and Tobago , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Hospitals, General
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(1): 55-59, Jan.-feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039208


ABSTRACT To characterize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from an intensive care unit of a tertiary-care teaching hospital, between 2005 and 2010. A total of 45 isolates were recovered from patients admitted to the intensive care unit in the study period. Resistance rates higher than 80% were found for clindamycin (100%), erythromycin (100%), levofloxacin (100%), azithromycin (97.7%), rifampin (88.8%), and gentamycin (86.6%). The SCCmec typing revealed that the isolates harbored the types III (66.7%), II (17.8%), IV (4.4%), and I (2.2%). Four (8.9%) isolates carried non-typeable cassettes. Most (66.7%) of the isolates were related to the Brazilian endemic clone from CC8/SCCmec III, which was prevalent (89.3%) between 2005 and 2007, while the USA100/CC5/SCCmec II lineage emerged in 2007 and was more frequent in the last few years. The study showed high rates of antimicrobial resistance among methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates and the replacement of Brazilian clone, a well-established hospital lineage, by the USA100 in the late 2000s, at the intensive care unit under study.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Reference Values , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Interspersed Repetitive Sequences , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(6): 465-468, dic. 2017. map, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894522


La asociación entre diseminación de infecciones comunitarias, pobreza y hacinamiento es bien conocida. En nuestro hospital observamos casos esporádicos de infecciones post-cesárea por cepas de Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente de origen comunitario (SAMRCo). En un estudio prospectivo de familias de José C. Paz atendidas en nuestro hospital, investigamos la relación entre antecedentes de infecciones de piel y partes blandas (IPPB) y hacinamiento extremo (hogares con necesidades básicas insatisfechas tipo 3, (NBI 3). Fueron incluidos 264 hogares; 109 (41.3%) tenían historia de IPPB y 59 (22.3%) eran NBI 3. El 61.0% de los hogares NBI 3 y el 35.6% de los hogares no NBI 3 refirieron IPPB (p = 0.00047). Georreferenciamos los domicilios con Google Maps y los ubicamos en un plano de José C. Paz NBI del censo nacional 2010. En barrios con un porcentaje de NBI > 9.7%, el 51.2% de los hogares tuvo antecedentes de IPPB. Cuando este porcentaje era ≤ 9.7% el porcentaje bajó al 31.1% (p = 0.0019). Estos resultados son sugestivos de diseminación comunitaria de estas infecciones asociada a hacinamiento y barrios pobres. Se debe considerar la presencia de SAMRCo en IPPB comunitarias. Por ello, en mujeres procedentes de zonas con alto porcentaje NBI o con antecedentes de IPPB se podría considerar la inclusión de la vancomicina o la clindamicina en la profilaxis de los partos por cesárea.

The association of the spread of community infections with poverty and overcrowding is well known. In our hospital, located in José C. Paz, we assist sporadic cases of post-cesarean infections caused by community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CaMRSA). In a prospective study of families treated at our hospital, we investigated the relationship between a history of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) and extreme overcrowding defined as households with unsatisfied basic needs type 3 (NBI 3). A total of 264 households were included in the study; 109 (41.3%) had a history of SSTI and 59 (22.3%) were NBI 3. A total of 61.0% of the NBI 3 households and 35.6% of the non-NBI 3 households reported SSTI (p = 0.00047). Using Google Maps, we georeferenced households and identified them on a NBI map adapted from the 2010 demographic census. In neighborhoods with NBI > 9.7%, 51.2% of the households had a history of SSTI. When NBI was < 9.7%, the percentage fell to 31.1% (p = 0.0019). These results are suggestive of an association of SSTI acquired in the community with overcrowding and poverty. The presence of CaMRSA in community SSTIs should be suspected. Vancomycin or clindamycin prophylaxis could be considered when cesarean deliveries are performed in women from areas with high NBI or with a history of SSTI.

Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Crowding , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/epidemiology , Soft Tissue Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Argentina/epidemiology , Poverty , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Family Characteristics , Prospective Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 833-838, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041437


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Wounds can be colonized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS: We evaluated the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in the wounds of patients treated at Basic Health Units in Brazil and identified risk factors associated with their presence. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of S. aureus and MRSA were 51.5% and 8.7%, respectively. There was a correlation between the presence of S. aureus in wounds and nostrils (p<0.01). A positive association was detected between S. aureus infection and previous benzylpenicillin use (p=0.02). No associations were observed for MRSA. CONCLUSIONS: Multidrug-resistant pathogens are present in primary healthcare settings in Brazil.

Humans , Male , Female , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Wounds and Injuries/microbiology , Primary Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(5): 493-499, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888910


Abstract Introduction Treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus remains as a clinical challenge due to emergence of new resistance mechanisms. Tedizolid is a next-generation oxazolidinone, recently approved for skin and soft tissues infections. We conducted a study to determine in vitro susceptibility to vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid and tedizolid in MRSA clinical isolates from adult patients with skin and soft tissue infections. Material and methods Methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were collected in three tertiary-care hospitals of Medellin, Colombia, from February 2008 to June 2010 as part of a previous study. Clinical characteristics were assessed by medical records and MIC values were determined by Epsilometer test. Genotypic analysis included spa typing, MLST, and SCCmec typing. Results A total of 150 MRSA isolates were evaluated and tedizolid MIC values obtained showed higher in vitro activity than other antimicrobials, with MIC values ranging from 0.13 µg/mL to 0.75 µg/mL and lower values of MIC50 and MIC90 (0.38 µg/mL and 0.5 µg/mL). In contrast, vancomycin and linezolid had higher MIC values, which ranged from 0.5 µg/mL to 2.0 µg/mL and from 0.38 µg/mL to 4.0 µg/mL, respectively. Tedizolid MICs were 2- to 5-fold lower than those of linezolid. Clinical characteristics showed high previous antimicrobial use and hospitalization history. The majority of the strains belong to the CC8 harboring the SCCmec IVc and were associated with the spa t1610 (29.33%, n = 44). Conclusion In vitro effectiveness of tedizolid was superior for isolates from skin and soft tissue infections in comparison with the other antibiotics evaluated. The above added to its less toxicity, good bioavailability, daily dose and unnecessity of dosage adjustment, make tedizolid in a promising alternative for the treatment of infections caused by MRSA.

Humans , Male , Female , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Soft Tissue Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Oxazoles/pharmacology , Organophosphates/pharmacology , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Daptomycin/pharmacology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Linezolid/pharmacology
Säo Paulo med. j ; 135(5): 420-427, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904108


ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of a variety of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in cystic fibrosis patients, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), has increased over the past decade. Given the increasing prevalence of MRSA and the few data available in the literature, better understanding of the clinical repercussions of colonization by this bacterium in cystic fibrosis patients becomes essential. This study aimed to evaluate the repercussions of chronic colonization by MRSA in cystic fibrosis patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study from January 2004 to December 2013 in a cystic fibrosis reference center. METHODS: Each patient with cystic fibrosis was evaluated for nutritional status (body mass index, BMI, and BMI percentile), pulmonary function and tomographic abnormalities (modified Bhalla scores) at the time of chronic colonization by MRSA or methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and throughout the study period. RESULTS: Twenty pairs of patients were included. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding nutritional characteristics. Spirometric data showed a trend towards greater obstruction of the airways in patients with MRSA. Patients with MRSA presented greater structural damage to their lungs, demonstrated not only by the total Bhalla score but also by its parameters individually. CONCLUSIONS: Patients colonized by MRSA presented greater functional and structural respiratory impairment at the time of chronic colonization. Disease progression was also faster in patients chronically colonized by MRSA than in those with MSSA. This was shown through comparisons that avoided possible confounding variables.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Cystic Fibrosis/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Chronic Disease , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(5): 487-490, oct. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899746


Resumen Introducción: El principal microorganismo implicado en las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos (IPTB) es Staphylococcus aureus, con incremento en las cepas resistentes a meticilina en los últimos años. Objetivo: Identificar la frecuencia de S. aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) en IPTB en niños que consultaron a un hospital de cuarto nivel en la ciudad de Medellín. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, a partir de la revisión de historias clínicas. Se incluyeron pacientes menores de 18 años con IPTB causadas por S. aureus que no cumplieran con criterios de enfermedad invasora. Resultados: La prevalencia de SARM en esta población fue de 31%. El principal diagnóstico fue absceso cutáneo (68%), seguido por infección de sitio quirúrgico (15%) y celulitis no purulenta (6%). Tenían alguna co-morbilidad 85% de los pacientes. Todos los aislados fueron sensibles a rifampicina y cotrimoxazol. Ocho por ciento de los aislados fueron resistentes a clindamicina. Se encontró mayor prevalencia de SARM en lactantes comparado con los mayores de 2 años (60 vs 23%, p = 0,0109). Conclusión: Ante la alta prevalencia de SARM en IPTB se recomienda incluir en el tratamiento empírico antimicrobianos con cobertura para estas cepas, principalmente para lactantes.

Background: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are very common in children and Staphylococcus aureus is the main agent, with an increase of methicillin resistant strains (MRSA) in recent years. Aim: To identify the frequency of MRSA in skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in children from a high complex hospital in Medellin, Colombia. Methods: This is a descriptive, retrospective study, information was obtained from medical records. We included patients younger than 18 years with SSTI due to S. aureus who did not meet criteria for invasive disease. Results: The prevalence of MRSA in this population was 31%. The main diagnosis was cutaneous abscess (68%), followed by surgical site infection (15%) and non-purulent cellulitis (6%). Eighty five percent of the patients had at least 1 comorbidity. All isolates were sensitive to rifampicin and cotrimoxazole and 8% of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin. There was a higher prevalence of MRSA in patients under 2 years compared to older (60 vs 23%, p = 0,0109). Conclusion: In view of the high prevalence of MRSA in SSTI, empirical treatment with adequate coverage for MRSA is recommended, especially for patients under 2 years of age.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/epidemiology , Soft Tissue Infections/epidemiology , Skin/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/drug therapy , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Methicillin Resistance/drug effects , Age Factors , Sex Distribution , Colombia/epidemiology , Soft Tissue Infections/microbiology , Soft Tissue Infections/drug therapy , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Hospitals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 680-684, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041427


Abstract INTRODUCTION: With the advancement of medicine and surgery, various types of medical devices have become part of treatment strategies. METHODS: Identification and antimicrobial sensitivity testing were done according to CLSI guidelines following standard microbiological practices. RESULTS: Urinary catheter infections (31%) were most frequent followed by central venous catheter (18%) and orthopedic implants (15%). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was a major cause of device-related infection after Escherichia coli (21%); other pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%), Pseudomonas spp. (10%), Acinetobacter spp. (8%) and Candida species (7%). None of MRSA was resistant to vancomycin (MIC ≥16µg/mL). Resistance rates were 98% and 97% for ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Escherichia coli and MRSA are major pathogens of medical device-related infections.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Prosthesis-Related Infections/microbiology , Prosthesis-Related Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Time Factors , Candida/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Equipment and Supplies/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Middle Aged
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 590-597, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897021


Abstract Globally, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a major cause of healthcare-associated infections. Healthcare workers (HCWs), patients and the environment may act as reservoirs for the spread of MRSA to patients and other HCWs. Screening and eradication of MRSA colonization is an effective method of reducing the MRSA infection rate. There are limited data on the prevalence of MRSA among Iranian HCWs. We performed a systematic search by using different electronic databases including Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, and Iranian Databases (from January 2000 to July 2016). Meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Biostat V2.2) software. The meta-analyses showed that the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA among HCWs were 22.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 19.3-26.6] and 32.8% (95% CI: 26.0-40.4) respectively. The high rate of nasal MRSA carriage among Iranian HCWs has been attributed to poor compliance to hand hygiene, injudicious use of antibiotics, and ineffective infection control and prevention measures. The rational use of antibiotics plus strict infection control are the main pillars for controlling multidrug resistant microorganisms such as MRSA in the hospital setting. These measurements should be applied nationally.

Humans , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Carrier State/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Iran/epidemiology