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Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 181-189, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007654


BACKGROUND@#Liver cancer is largely resistant to chemotherapy. This study aimed to identify the effective chemotherapeutics for β-catenin-activated liver cancer which is caused by gain-of-function mutation of catenin beta 1 ( CTNNB1 ), the most frequently altered proto-oncogene in hepatic neoplasms.@*METHODS@#Constitutive β-catenin-activated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were established by deleting exon 3 ( β-catenin Δ(ex3)/+ ), the most common mutation site in CTNNB1 gene. A screening of 12 widely used chemotherapy drugs was conducted for the ones that selectively inhibited β-catenin Δ(ex3)/+ but not for wild-type MEFs. Untargeted metabolomics was carried out to examine the alterations of metabolites in nucleotide synthesis. The efficacy and selectivity of methotrexate (MTX) on β-catenin-activated human liver cancer cells were determined in vitro . Immuno-deficient nude mice subcutaneously inoculated with β-catenin wild-type or mutant liver cancer cells and hepatitis B virus ( HBV ); β-catenin lox(ex3)/+ mice were used, respectively, to evaluate the efficacy of MTX in the treatment of β-catenin mutant liver cancer.@*RESULTS@#MTX was identified and validated as a preferential agent against the proliferation and tumor formation of β-catenin-activated cells. Boosted nucleotide synthesis was the major metabolic aberration in β-catenin-active cells, and this alteration was also the target of MTX. Moreover, MTX abrogated hepatocarcinogenesis of HBV ; β-catenin lox(ex3)/+ mice, which stimulated concurrent Ctnnb1- activated mutation and HBV infection in liver cancer.@*CONCLUSION@#MTX is a promising chemotherapeutic agent for β-catenin hyperactive liver cancer. Since repurposing MTX has the advantages of lower risk, shorter timelines, and less investment in drug discovery and development, a clinical trial is warranted to test its efficacy in the treatment of β-catenin mutant liver cancer.

Mice , Animals , Humans , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Mice, Nude , beta Catenin/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Hepatitis B virus , Nucleotides
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(5): 329-334, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530021


Introducción: El embarazo ectópico intersticial es una forma de presentación poco frecuente, con una incidencia del 2-4% de los embarazos ectópicos; sin embargo, a pesar de su baja incidencia la mortalidad es cinco veces mayor, impactando en las cifras de mortalidad materna y representando en torno al 10-15% de los casos. Objetivo: Presentar un caso de embarazo ectópico intersticial, cuya ocurrencia es poco frecuente, así como el abordaje satisfactorio del manejo médico con mifepristona y metotrexato. Caso clínico: Mujer de 28 años con antecedente de resección tubárica por quiste paraovárico derecho, quien acudió a urgencias por hallazgo en ecografía obstétrica de sospecha de embarazo intersticial izquierdo y se le administró manejo farmacológico con dosis de metotrexato y mifepristona, con éxito. Conclusiones: El manejo médico con metotrexato y mifepristona para el embarazo ectópico intersticial parece ser una elección eficaz en los casos con estabilidad hemodinámica y deseo de conservación de la fertilidad.

Background: Interstitial ectopic pregnancy represents a rare form of presentation, with an incidence of 2-4% of all ectopic pregnancies. However, despite its low incidence, it is associated with a five-fold increase in mortality, significantly impacting maternal mortality rates, accounting for approximately 10-15% of cases. Objective: To present a case of interstitial ectopic pregnancy, which is a rare occurrence, as well as the successful medical management approach with mifepristone and methotrexate. Case report: A 28-year-old women with a history of right paraovarian cyst tubal resection presented to the emergency department due to suspected left interstitial pregnancy identified on obstetric ultrasound. The patient was successfully managed with pharmacological treatment using doses of methotrexate and mifepristone. Conclusions: Medical management with methotrexate and mifepristone for interstitial ectopic pregnancy appears to be an effective choice in cases with hemodynamic stability and a desire for fertility preservation.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Mifepristone/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Pregnancy, Interstitial/drug therapy , Pregnancy, Ectopic , Ultrasonography , Fertility Preservation , Pregnancy, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging
FEMINA ; 51(4): 233-239, 20230430. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512399


Objetivo: Avaliar o índice de sucesso do tratamento da gravidez ectópica com o protocolo de dose única do metotrexato e verificar sua correlação com variáveis clínicas e dados dos exames complementares. Métodos: É um estudo epidemiológico observacional, analítico, retrospectivo, de delineamento transversal. Foi realizado de janeiro de 2014 a agosto de 2020 em um hospital público, de ensino, em nível terciário, do Sul do Brasil. Em 73 casos com diagnóstico de gestação ectópica íntegra, foi utilizado o protocolo de dose única de metotrexato intramuscular, com a dose de 50 mg/m2 de superfície corporal. As variáveis do estudo foram relacionadas ao sucesso do tratamento e abordaram as características clínicas na admissão, dos exames complementares e do tratamento realizado. As variáveis foram comparadas por análise de regressão de Poisson. O nível de significância estabelecido foi de p < 0,05. Resultados: O índice de sucesso foi de 83,6%, e em nove casos foi necessária uma segunda dose da medicação. Nível de ß-hCG inicial superior a 5.000 mUI/mL foi relacionado a menor chance de sucesso (odds ratio ajustado de 0,20 [0,05-0,95]). Tamanho da imagem anexial, presença de líquido livre na cavidade abdominal e demais variáveis estudadas não afetaram a chance de sucesso do tratamento. Conclusão: O protocolo de dose única de metotrexato mostrou-se uma opção válida para o tratamento da gestação ectópica íntegra, notadamente quando o nível de ß-hCG inicial é inferior 5.000 mUI/mL.

Objective: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the success rate of treatment of ectopic pregnancy with the single-dose methotrexate protocol and to verify its correlation with clinical variables and complementary exam data. Methods: This is a retrospective epidemiological observational analytical cross-sectional study. It was carried out from January 2014 to August 2020 in a tertiary level teaching hospital in southern Brazil. In 73 cases with a diagnosis of intact ectopic pregnancy, the intramuscular methotrexate single-dose protocol was applied with a dose of 50 mg/m2 of body surface. The study variables were related to the success of the treatment and addressed the clinical characteristics on admission, the complementary exams and the treatment performed. The variables were compared by Poisson regression analysis. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The success rate was 83.6%, and in nine cases a second dose of the medication was necessary. An initial ß-hCG level greater than 5,000 mIU/mL was related to a lower chance of success (adjusted odds ratio of 0.20 [0.05- 0.95]). The size of the adnexal image, the presence of free fluid in the abdominal cavity and other variables studied did not affect the chance of a successful treatment. Conclusion: The methotrexate single-dose protocol proved to be a valid option for the treatment of intact ectopic pregnancy, notably when the initial ß-hCG level is below 5,000 mIU/mL.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Ascitic Fluid , Salpingostomy , Smoking/adverse effects , Abdominal Pain/complications , Pelvic Inflammatory Disease , Hospitals, Public , Infertility, Female/complications , Injections, Intramuscular/methods , Intrauterine Devices/adverse effects
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 280-286, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970029


The lungs are one of the most common extra-articular organs involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is reported to occur in up to 60% to 80% of RA patients. Respiratory complications are the second leading cause of death due to RA. Although there is a wide spectrum of RA-associated respiratory diseases, interstitial lung disease is the most common manifestation and it impacts the prognosis of RA. There has been progress in understanding the management and progression of rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) and RA-associated respiratory diseases recently, for example, opportunistic pulmonary infectious diseases and toxicity from RA therapies. From a chest physicians' perspective, we will update the diagnosis and treatment of RA-associated ILD, methotrexate-associated lung disease, and the complication of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in RA in this review.

Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Prognosis , Lung
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1451819


Tecnologia: Dupilumabe e upadacitinibe. Comparadores: Azatioprina, metotrexato, ciclosporina, micofenolato de mofetila. Indicação: Tratamento de dermatite atópica severa em pacientes adultos. Pergunta: Dupilumabe e upadacitinibe são mais eficazes e tão seguros quanto ciclosporina ou outros agentes imunossupressores para obter os desfechos de saúde no tratamento sistêmico de dermatite atópica moderada a grave refratária à terapia atópica? Métodos: Levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado na base de dados PUBMED e Cochrane Library, seguindo estratégias de buscas predefinidas. Foi feita avaliação da qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas com a ferramenta AMSTAR2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews Version 2). Resultados: Foram selecionados três estudos que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. Conclusão: Dupilumabe, upadacitinibe, ciclosporina e azatioprina são mais eficazes que placebo nos desfechos de eficácia (reduzir sinais clínicos em escalas, reduzir sintomas em escalas) para tratamento da dermatite atópica moderada a grave refratária à terapia tópica, mas esses medicamentos não diferem entre si. Dupilumabe, upadacitinibe, ciclosporina e azatioprina são bem tolerados e seguros

Technology: Dupilumab, upadacitinibe. Comparators: Azathioprine, methotrexate, cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil. Indication: Treatment of severe atopic dermatitis in adult patients. Question: Are dupilumab and upadacitinib more effective and as safe as cyclosporine or other immunosuppressive agents for achieving health outcomes in the systemic treatment of moderate to severe atopic dermatitis refractory to atopic therapy? Methods: A bibliographic survey was done in the PUBMED e Cochrane Library databases, following predefined search strategies. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was evaluated using the AMSTAR-2 tool (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews Version 2). Results: Three studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected. Conclusion: Dupilumab, upadacitinib, cyclosporine, and azathioprine are more effective than placebo on efficacy endpoints (reduce clinical signs on scales, reduce symptoms on scales) for treating moderate to severe atopic dermatitis refractory to topical therapy, but these drugs do not differ from each other. Dupilumab, upadacitinib, cyclosporine, and azathioprine are well tolerated and safe

Humans , Male , Female , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Janus Kinase Inhibitors
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 642-648, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012206


Objective: To explore the prognostic factors of extracellular NK/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL) treated with pegaspargase/L-asparaginase. Methods: The clinical data of 656 ENKTL patients diagnosed at 11 medical centers in the Huaihai Lymphoma Working Group from March 2014 to April 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: a training set (460 cases) and a validation set (196 cases) at 7∶3, and the prognostic factors of the patients were analyzed. A prognostic scoring system was established, and the predictive performance of different models was compared. Results: Patients' median age was 46 (34, 57) years, with 456 males (69.5% ) and 561 nasal involvement (85.5% ). 203 patients (30.9% ) received a chemotherapy regimen based on L-asparaginase combined with anthracyclines, and the 5-year overall survival rate of patients treated with P-GEMOX regimen (pegaspargase+gemcitabine+oxaliplatin) was better than those treated with SMILE regimen (methotrexate+dexamethasone+cyclophosphamide+L-asparaginase+etoposide) (85.9% vs 63.8% ; P=0.004). The results of multivariate analysis showed that gender, CA stage, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) score, HGB, and EB virus DNA were independent influencing factors for the prognosis of ENKTL patients (P<0.05). In this study, the predictive performance of the prognostic factors is superior to the international prognostic index, Korean prognostic index, and prognostic index of natural killer lymphoma. Conclusion: Gender, CA stage, ECOG PS score, HGB, and EB virus DNA are prognostic factors for ENKTL patients treated with pegaspargase/L-asparaginase.

Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Asparaginase/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Etoposide , Cyclophosphamide , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , DNA/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 45(9): 503-510, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521771


Abstract Objective The availability of reliable and inexpensive markers that can be used to determine the risk of rupture during methotrexate (MTX) treatment in ectopic pregnancies (EPs) is considerable. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of systemic inflammatory markers such as leukocytes (or white blood cells, WBCs), the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet distribution width (PDW), which are among the parameters of the complete blood count (CBC), in the prediction of rupture of EPs under MTX treatment. Materials and Methods A total of 161 patients with tubal EP who underwent a single-dose methotrexate (MTX) protocol were retrospectively analyzed, and the control group (n = 83) included patients cured by MTX, while the ruptured group (n = 78) included patients who were operated on for tubal rupture during the MTX treatment. The features of EP, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) levels, sonographic findings, and CBC-derived markers such as WBC, NLR, and PDW, were investigated by comparing both groups. Results The NLR was found to be higher in the ruptured group, of 2.92 ± 0.86%, and significantly lower in the control group, of 2.09 ± 0.6%. Similarly, the PDW was higher (51 ± 9%) in the ruptured group, and it was significantly lower a (47 ± 13%) in the control group (p < 0.05). Other CBC parameters were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion Systemic inflammation markers derived from CBC can be easily applied to predict the risk of tubal rupture in Eps, since the CBC is an inexpensive and easy-to-apply test, which is first requested from each patient during hospitalization.

Resumo Objetivo A disponibilidade de marcadores confiáveis e baratos que podem ser usados para determinar o risco de ruptura durante o tratamento com metotrexato (MTX) em gestações ectópicas (GEs) é considerável. O objetivo do presente estudo é investigar o papel de marcadores inflamatórios sistêmicos, como leucócitos (ou glóbulos brancos, glóbulos brancos), a relação neutrófilo-linfócito (NLR) e largura de distribuição de plaquetas (PDW), que estão entre os parâmetros do hemograma completo (hemograma), na predição de ruptura de PEs sob tratamento com MTX. Materiais e Métodos Foram analisados retrospectivamente 161 pacientes com EP tubária submetidas a protocolo de dose única de metotrexato (MTX), sendo que o grupo controle (n = 83) incluiu pacientes curadas com MTX, enquanto o grupo roto (n = 78) incluíram pacientes operadas por ruptura tubária durante o tratamento com MTX. As características de EP, beta-gonadotrofina coriônica humana (β-hCG), achados ultrassonográficos e marcadores derivados de CBC, como WBC, NLR e PDW, foram investigados comparando os dois grupos. Resultados A RNL foi maior no grupo roto, de 2,92 ± 0,86%, e significativamente menor no grupo controle, de 2,09 ± 0,6%. Da mesma forma, o PDW foi maior (51 ± 9%) no grupo roto, e foi significativamente menor a (47 ± 13%) no grupo controle (p < 0,05). Outros parâmetros do hemograma foram semelhantes em ambos os grupos (p > 0,05). Conclusão Marcadores inflamatórios sistêmicos derivados do hemograma podem ser facilmente aplicados para predizer o risco de ruptura tubária na Eps, uma vez que o hemograma é um exame de baixo custo e fácil aplicação, solicitado primeiramente a cada paciente durante a internação.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy, Ectopic/drug therapy , Blood Platelets , Methotrexate/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(11): 1014-1020, Nov. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423268


Abstract Objective Cervical pregnancy is challenging for the medical community, as it is potentially fatal. The treatment can be medical or surgical; however, there are no protocols that establish the best option for each case. The objective of the present study was to describe the cases of cervical pregnancy admitted to a tertiary university hospital over a period of 18 years. Methods A retrospective study based on a review of the medical records of all cervical pregnancies admitted to the Women's Hospital at Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Southeastern Brazil, from 2000 to 2018. Results We identified 13 cases of cervical pregnancy out of a total of 673 ectopic pregnancies; only 1 case was initially treated with surgery because of hemodynamic instability. Of the 12 cases treated conservatively, 7 were treated with single-dose intramuscular methotrexate, 1, with intravenous and intramuscular methotrexate, 1, with intravenous methotrexate, 1, with 2 doses of intramuscular methotrexate, and 2, with intra-amniotic methotrexate. Of these cases, one had a therapeutic failure that required a hysterectomy. Two women received blood transfusions. Four women required cervical tamponade with a Foley catheter balloon for hemostasis. There was no fatal outcome. Conclusion Cervical pregnancy is a rare and challenging condition from diagnosis to treatment. Conservative treatment was the primary method of therapy used, with satisfactory results. In cases of increased bleeding, cervical curettage was the initial treatment, and it was associated with the use of a cervical balloon for hemostasis.

Resumo Objetivo A gravidez ectópica cervical é um desafio para a comunidade médica, pois pode ser fatal. O tratamento pode ser clínico ou cirúrgico, mas não existem protocolos que estabeleçam a melhor opção para cada caso. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever os casos de gravidez ectópica cervical internados em um hospital universitário terciário durante 18 anos. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo com revisão de prontuários de todas as gestações ectópicas cervicais internadas no Hospital da Mulher da Universidade Estadual de Campinas de 2000 a 2018. Resultados Foram identificados treze casos de gestação ectópica cervical em um total de 673 gestações ectópicas; apenas 1 caso foi inicialmente tratado com cirurgia por causa de instabilidade hemodinâmica. Dos 12 casos tratados conservadoramente, 7 foram tratados com metotrexato por via intramuscular em dose única, 1, com metotrexato pelas vias intravenosa e intramuscular, 1, com metotrexato por via intravenosa, 1, com 2 doses de metotrexato por via intramuscular, e 2, com metotrexato por via intra-amniótica. Desses casos, um apresentou falha terapêutica, e realizou-se uma histerectomia. Duas mulheres receberam transfusões de sangue. Quatro mulheres necessitaram de tamponamento cervical com cateter balão de Foley para hemostasia. Não houve casos fatais. Conclusão A gravidez cervical é uma condição rara e desafiadora desde o diagnóstico até o tratamento. O tratamento conservador foi o principal método terapêutico utilizado, com resultados satisfatórios. Nos casos de sangramento aumentado, a curetagem cervical foi o tratamento inicial, e foi associada ao uso de balão cervical para hemostasia.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Ectopic/surgery , Pregnancy, Ectopic/drug therapy , Methotrexate/therapeutic use
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(6): 720-726, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424123


BACKGROUND: Giant cell Arteritis (GCA) is the most common systemic vasculitis in patients over 50 years. Diagnosis is based on clinical, laboratory, imaging and biopsy. Temporal artery biopsy (TAB) may be inconclusive in up to 40% of patients. AIM: To describe disease features of patients diagnosed with GCA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of pathology reports of giant cell arteritis and clinical records of patients seen with the diagnosis between 2000 and 2019. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, histopathology, imaging, treatment and follow-up variables were analyzed. RESULTS: We fetched 32 patients with a median age at diagnosis of 70.5 years (range 57-90), 81% women. Twenty eight percent had polymyalgia. 72% had only cranial symptoms, 12% had extracranial involvement and 13% exclusive extracranial involvement. The median time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was two months (range 0.5-8). All had elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and c reactive protein. A TAB was performed in 27 patients and in 17 (65.4%) it confirmed the diagnosis. Transmural inflam- mation was the most frequent finding. All patients received steroids. Follow-up information was available from 25 patients and 92% received a steroid-spa- ring agent, usually methotrexate (74%). Ninety two percent achieved clinical remission in the first year and 59% had minor relapses during steroid tapering. CONCLUSIONS: Our patients showed frequent extracranial involvement and TAB was a useful diagnostic tool.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Giant Cell Arteritis/diagnosis , Giant Cell Arteritis/pathology , Giant Cell Arteritis/drug therapy , Steroids/therapeutic use , Temporal Arteries , Biopsy , C-Reactive Protein , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 276-284, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929185


We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of single-course initial regimens in patients with low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). In this trial (NCT01823315), 276 patients were analyzed. Patients were allocated to three initiated regimens: single-course methotrexate (MTX), single-course MTX + dactinomycin (ACTD), and multi-course MTX (control arm). The primary endpoint was the complete remission (CR) rate by initial drug(s). The primary CR rate was 64.4% with multi-course MTX in the control arm. For the single-course MTX arm, the CR rate was 35.8% by one course; it increased to 59.3% after subsequent multi-course MTX, with non-inferiority to the control (difference -5.1%,95% confidence interval (CI) -19.4% to 9.2%, P = 0.014). After further treatment with multi-course ACTD, the CR rate (93.3%) was similar to that of the control (95.2%, P = 0.577). For the single-course MTX + ACTD arm, the CR rate was 46.7% by one course, which increased to 89.1% after subsequent multi-course, with non-inferiority (difference 24.7%, 95% CI 12.8%-36.6%, P < 0.001) to the control. It was similar to the CR rate by MTX and further ACTD in the control arm (89.1% vs. 95.2%, P =0.135). Four patients experienced recurrence, with no death, during the 2-year follow-up. We demonstrated that chemotherapy initiation with single-course MTX may be an alternative regimen for patients with low-risk GTN.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Dactinomycin/adverse effects , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease/drug therapy , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210246, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1360442


RESUMO Objetivo descrever as necessidades de aprendizagem de familiares de crianças e adolescentes com câncer quanto ao tratamento com quimioterápicos antineoplásicos orais. Método pesquisa qualitativa descritiva desenvolvida em um hospital federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados nos meses de julho a setembro de 2020 a partir de entrevistas semiestruturadas com vinte e três familiares de crianças e adolescentes com câncer em quimioterapia antineoplásica oral. Os dados foram processados no software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires pela Classificação Hierárquica Descendente. Resultados dentre os temas que demandam aprendizagem pelos familiares estão administração oral, armazenamento e manipulação dos quimioterápicos orais, além dos efeitos adversos e emergências que demandam atendimento hospitalar. Conclusão e implicações para a prática no tratamento com quimioterápicos orais, as necessidades de aprendizagem dos familiares de crianças e adolescentes precisam ser problematizadas em práticas educativas dialógicas para, assim, favorecer a segurança, a adesão e a eficácia do tratamento.

RESUMEN Objetivo describir las necesidades de aprendizaje de familiares de niños y adolescentes con cáncer en cuanto al tratamiento con quimioterápicos antineoplásicos orales. Método investigación cualitativa descriptiva desarrollada en un hospital federal de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. Los datos fueron recogidos en los meses de julio a septiembre de 2020 a partir de entrevistas semiestructuradas con veintitrés familiares de niños y adolescentes con cáncer en quimioterapia antineoplásica oral. Los datos fueron procesados en el software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires por la Clasificación Jerárquica Descendente. Resultados entre los temas que demandan aprendizaje por los familiares están administración oral, almacenamiento y manipulación de los quimioterápicos orales, además de los efectos adversos y emergencias que demandan atención hospitalaria. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica en el tratamiento con quimioterápicos orales, las necesidades de aprendizaje de los familiares de niños y adolescentes necesitan ser problematizadas en prácticas educativas dialógicas para, así, favorecer la seguridad, la adhesión y la eficacia del tratamiento.

ABSTRACT Objective to describe the learning needs of family members of children and adolescents with cancer regarding treatment with oral antineoplastic chemotherapies. Method a descriptive qualitative research developed in a federal hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected in the months from July to September 2020 from semi-structured interviews with twenty-three family members of children and adolescents with cancer undergoing oral antineoplastic chemotherapy. Data was processed in the software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires by the Descending Hierarchical Classification. Results among the themes that demand learning by the family members are oral administration, storage and handling of oral antineoplastic drugs, as well as adverse effects and emergencies that require hospital care. Conclusion and implications for practice in oral antineoplastic treatment, the learning needs of family members of children and adolescents need to be problematized in dialogic educational practices in order to favor the safety, adherence, and efficacy of the treatment.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Health Education , Caregivers/education , Neoplasms/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Child Care , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Qualitative Research , Drug Storage , Temozolomide/therapeutic use , Mercaptopurine/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(3): e1075, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352028


Objetivo: Caracterizar las uveítis asociadas a la artritis idiopática juvenil. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal, donde se evaluaron las variables edad, raza, sexo, lateralidad de la uveítis, clasificación anatómica, agudeza visual mejor corregida, presencia de complicaciones y tratamiento. Resultados: Predominaron los mayores de seis años, el sexo femenino y la raza blanca. En cuanto a la lateralidad hubo mayor predominio de las bilaterales, con localización anatómica anterior. En los resultados visuales sobresalieron los que presentaban una agudeza visual mejor corregida ≥ 0,5. Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron: la pérdida visual, la hipertensión ocular y la queratopatía en banda. Con respecto al tratamiento, la mayoría de los pacientes tenían asociado metotrexate al tratamiento tópico y oral con esteroides. Conclusión: La uveítis asociada a la artritis idiopática juvenil sigue siendo un problema importante de salud en la infancia a pesar de los avances en los programas de atención a esta enfermedad; por tanto, el diagnóstico precoz, el seguimiento estricto y el tratamiento adecuado son los pilares para una mejor evolución(AU)

Objective: Characterize uveitis associated to juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Methods: A cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted based on evaluation of the following variables: age, race, sex, laterality of uveitis, anatomical classification, best corrected visual acuity, presence of complications and treatment. Results: A predominance was observed of patients aged over six years, female sex and white race. Bilateral uveitis prevailed, with anterior anatomical location. Patients with a best corrected visual acuity ≥ 0.5 stood out for their visual results. The most common complications were visual loss, ocular hypertension and band keratopathy. Most patients had methotrexate associated to topical and oral treatment with steroids. Conclusion: Uveitis associated to juvenile idiopathic arthritis continues to be an important health problem in childhood, despite the progress in the care of this condition. Therefore, early diagnosis, strict follow-up and appropriate treatment are the pillars of a better evolution(AU)

Humans , Female , Child , Arthritis, Juvenile/etiology , Uveitis/diagnosis , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Ocular Hypertension/complications , Early Diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
Rev. argent. reumatolg. (En línea) ; 32(3): 19-23, set. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1365497


Se describe el caso clínico de una paciente con diagnóstico histológico de mastitis granulomatosa idiopática, enfermedad poco frecuente en la que se utilizan inmunosupresores como tratamiento descripto y puede confundirse con otras entidades atendidas en la especialidad. Se describe el caso y se realiza una revisión de la literatura.

The clinical case of a patient with a histological diagnosis of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is described, a rare disease in which immunosuppressants are used as the described treatment and can be confused with other entities treated in the specialty. The case is described and a literature review is carried out.

Humans , Female , Adult , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Granulomatous Mastitis/diagnosis , Granulomatous Mastitis/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Granulomatous Mastitis/immunology
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(4): 323-328, Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280047


Abstract Complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) is a rare type of pregnancy, in which 15 to 20% of the cases may develop into gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). The diagnostic of GTN must be done as early as possible through weekly surveillance of serum hCG after uterine evacuation.We report the case of 23-year-old primigravida, with CHM but without surveillance of hCG after uterine evacuation. Two months later, the patient presented to the emergency with vaginal bleeding and was referred to the Centro de Doenças Trofoblásticas do Hospital São Paulo. She was diagnosed with high risk GTN stage/score III:7 as per The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics/World Health Organization (FIGO/WHO). The sonographic examination revealed enlarged uterus with a heterogeneous mass constituted of multiple large vessels invading and causing disarrangement of the myometrium. The patient evolved with progressive worsening of vaginal bleeding after chemotherapy with etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and vincristine (EMA-CO) regimen. She underwent blood transfusion and embolization of uterine arteries due to severe vaginal hemorrhage episodes, with complete control of bleeding. The hCG reached a negative value after the third cycle, and there was a complete regression of the anomalous vascularization of the uterus as well as full recovery of the uterine anatomy. The treatment in a reference center was essential for the appropriate management, especially regarding the uterine arteries embolization trough percutaneous femoral

Resumo Mola hidatiforme completa (MHC) é um tipo raro de gravidez, na qual 15 a 20% dos casos podem desenvolver neoplasia trofoblástica gestacional (NTG). O diagnóstico de NTG deve ser feito o mais cedo possível, pelo monitoramento semanal do hCG sérico após esvaziamento uterino. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente primigesta, de 23 anos de idade, com MHC, sem vigilância de hCG após esvaziamento uterino. Dois meses depois, a paciente compareceu na emergência com sangramento vaginal, sendo encaminhada ao Centro de Doenças Trofoblásticas do Hospital São Paulo, onde foi diagnosticada com NTG de alto risco, estádio e score de risco III:7 de acordo com a The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics/Organização Mundial de Saúde (FIGO/OMS). O exame ultrassonográfico revelou útero aumentado com uma massa heterogênea constituída pormúltiplos vasos volumosos invadindo e desestruturando o miométrio. A paciente evoluiu com piora progressiva do sangramento vaginal após quimioterapia com o regime etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and vincristine (EMA-CO). Ela foi submetida a transfusão de sangue e embolização das artérias uterinas devido aos episódios graves de hemorragia vaginal, com completo controle do sangramento. O hCG atingiu valor negativo após o terceiro ciclo, havendo regressão completa da vascularização uterina anômala, assim como recuperação da anatomia uterina. O tratamento em um centro de referência permitiu o manejo adequado, principalmente no que se refere à embolização das artérias uterinas através da punção percutânea da artéria femoral, que foi crucial para evitar a histerectomia, permitindo a cura da NTG e a manutenção da vida reprodutiva.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Arteriovenous Malformations/complications , Uterine Hemorrhage/therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease/complications , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease/drug therapy , Embolization, Therapeutic , Uterine Hemorrhage/etiology , Uterine Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Vincristine/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Dactinomycin/therapeutic use , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease/diagnostic imaging , Etoposide/therapeutic use , Uterine Artery
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(4): 311-316, Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280049


Abstract A cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is a scary and life-threatening complication of cesarean section (CS). Nevertheless, the incidence of CS is constantly growing. The CSP incidence is 0,15% of pregnancies after CS which represents 6,1% of all ectopic pregnancies in women with condition after CS. Therefore, it should be more present in the clinical daily routine. From mild nonspecific symptoms to hypovolemic shock, diagnosis and therapy must be performed quickly. With the progressive growth of the scar pregnancy, a uterine rupture involves the risk of severe bleeding, and an emergency hysterectomy could be necessary. Prolongation of pregnancy has been successful only in a few cases.We report 11 cases from our hospital in the past 10 years. In the discussion, treatment options of this complication with an increasing incidence, which is associated with serious morbidity and mortality, are presented based on the current literature. Treatment options include drug therapy, but also surgical or combined procedures with radiological intervention.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy, Ectopic/diagnosis , Pregnancy, Ectopic/therapy , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Cicatrix/complications , Uterine Hemorrhage/etiology , Uterine Rupture/etiology , Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Dilatation and Curettage , Hysterectomy
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(1): e201, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1180958


Resumen: Introducción: en los últimos años se viene presentando un fenómeno de disminución en las defunciones vinculadas al embarazo ectópico gracias a los avances en el diagnóstico precoz, lo que a su vez abrió las puertas al tratamiento médico con metotrexate en pacientes seleccionadas. El objetivo del presente trabajo es reportar la experiencia del tratamiento con metotrexate en el departamento de Paysandú y determinar secundariamente la satisfacción de las usuarias frente a éste y su fertilidad posterior. Método: se presenta un estudio retrospectivo, observacional, de los embarazos ectópicos tubarios tratados con metotrexate en Paysandú, durante el período del 1º de enero de 2014 al 31 de diciembre de 2017, comprendiendo cuatro años. Se consideró fracaso del tratamiento médico cuando fue necesario tratamiento quirúrgico y se definió como fertilidad futura al tiempo que transcurrió hasta lograr una gestación intrauterina espontánea. Resultados: se registraron 67 embarazos ectópicos en cuatro años, 13 recibieron metotrexate intramuscular con un porcentaje de éxito de 69,2%. Se determinó una fertilidad posterior de 25%. Conclusiones: el uso de metotrexate en el embarazo ectópico se practica en Paysandú desde hace casi una década con buenos resultados y una buena aceptación por parte de las usuarias.

Summary: Introduction : In recent years there has been a decrease in deaths related to ectopic pregnancy, thanks to progress made in early diagnosis, which in turn allowed for medical treatment with methotrexate in selected patients. The study's first objective is to report the experience of methotrexate treatment in the Department of Paysandú and its secondary objective is to determine users' satisfaction towards this treatment and find about their subsequent fertility. Method: a retrospective, observational study is presented of tubal ectopic pregnancies treated with methotrexate in Paysandú, from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2017, during a 4-year period. Failure of medical treatment was defined as the cases requiring surgical treatment and subsequent fertility was defined as the time it took to achieve a spontaneous intrauterine gestation. Results: 67 ectopic pregnancies were recorded in four years, 13 of which received intramuscular methotrexate with a success rate of 69.2%. Subsequent fertility was found to be 25%. Conclusions: methotrexate has been used to treat ectopic pregnancies in Paysandú for almost a decade, with good results and acceptable rates of user satisfaction.

Resumo: Introdução: nos últimos anos, observou-se uma diminuição dos óbitos relacionados à gravidez ectópica, graças aos avanços no diagnóstico precoce, que por sua vez abriram as portas para o tratamento médico com metotrexato em pacientes selecionadas. Objetivo: o objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a experiência do tratamento com metotrexato no Departamento de Paysandú e determinar secundariamente a satisfação das usuárias com o mesmo e sua consequente fertilidade. Métodos: apresenta-se um estudo retrospectivo e observacional de gestações ectópicas tubárias tratadas com metotrexato em Paysandú, durante o período de 1º de janeiro de 2014 a 31 de dezembro de 2017. Considerou-se como falha do tratamento médico quando o tratamento cirúrgico foi necessário e definiu-se fertilidade futura como o tempo decorrido até a obtenção de uma gravidez intrauterina espontânea. Resultados: foram registradas 67 gestações ectópicas em quatro anos, 13 receberam metotrexato intramuscular com taxa de sucesso de 69,2%. Uma fertilidade subsequente de 25% foi determinada. Conclusões: o uso do metotrexato na gravidez ectópica é praticado em Paysandú há quase uma década com bons resultados e boa aceitação pelas usuárias.

Pregnancy, Ectopic/therapy , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Fertility , Observational Study
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 86(1): 104-119, feb. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388624


INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: El embarazo en cicatriz de cesárea previa (ECC) es una entidad poco frecuente que puede tener graves consecuencias. Hasta la fecha no existen esquemas estandarizados de tratamiento y su manejo óptimo sigue siendo controvertido. Nuestro objetivo es realizar una revisión de la literatura publicada sobre el manejo del ECC y proponer un algoritmo. También exponemos tres casos de ECC resueltos con diferentes tratamientos en el Hospital Universitario Infanta Elena MÉTODOS: Búsqueda de la literatura en bases de datos utilizando las palabras clave: "embarazo en cicatriz cesárea"," gestación ectópica en cicatriz cesárea", "tratamiento", "manejo". RESULTADOS: Las opciones terapéuticas pueden ser médicas, quirúrgicas o una combinación de ambas. Los tratamientos quirúrgicos tienen altas tasas de éxito, sin embargo, son más invasivos y no están exentos de riesgo. La combinación de tratamientos parece aumentar la tasa de éxito, no obstante, podría implicar un mayor riesgo de efectos secundarios y costes. CONCLUSIONES: El manejo de los ECC debe de ser individualizado, basado en la evidencia científica, en los medios disponibles y la experiencia de los profesionales en los distintos procedimientos, guiándonos por el tipo de ECC y su grado de vascularización e invasión, grosor del miometrio, niveles de beta-hCG, presencia de actividad cardiaca, clínica y estabilidad hemodinámica de la paciente. Deben tenerse en cuenta las circunstancias y patología intercurrente de la mujer, así como su deseo genésico o de preservación del útero.

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is a rare entity that can cause serious consequences. Up to now, there are no standardized treatment schemes, and its optimal management remains controversial. Our objetive is to review the literature regarding CSP management and propose an algorithm. We also present three cases of CSP resolved with different treatments at Hospital Universitario Infanta Elena. METHODS: Literature search in databases using the following keywords: pregnancy with cesarean section, ectopic pregnancy with cesarean section, treatment, management. RESULTS: The therapeutic options can be medical, surgical or a combination of both. Surgical treatments have high success rates; however, they are more invasive and are not without risk. The combination of treatments seems to increase the success rate; however, it could imply a higher risk of side effects and costs. CONCLUSIONS: The management of CSP must be individualized; based on scientific evidence, on the means available, and on the experience of the professionals in the different procedures; guided by the type of CSP and its degree of vascularization and invasion, by the thickness of the myometrium, beta-hCG levels, presence of cardiac activity, and by clinical and hemodynamic stability of the patient. The circumstances and intercurrent pathology of the patient must be considered, as well as her desire for future pregnancy or preservation of the uterus.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnancy, Ectopic/therapy , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Cicatrix/etiology , Cicatrix/therapy , Pregnancy, Ectopic/surgery , Pregnancy, Ectopic/drug therapy , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Cicatrix/surgery , Cicatrix/drug therapy , Uterine Artery Embolization , High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation , Hysterectomy
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1175-1180, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888535


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical efficacy of high dose methotrexate (HD-MTX), temozolomide (TMZ), and rituximab (R) in the treatment of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL).@*METHODS@#Clinical data of patients with PCNSL diagnosed and treated in Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital from February 2010 to May 2017 were collected. First, patients were given 6-8 cycles of MTX (3.5 g/m@*RESULTS@#There were 42 patients enrolled in the study, 17 cases in HD-MTX+TMZ group and 25 cases in HD-MTX+TMZ+R group. The median PFS and OS times in HD-MTX+TMZ+R group were 56.7 months and N/A, respectively, while, 7.3 months and 34.7 months in HD-MTX+TMZ group, respectively. In addition, there was no significant difference in median survival between patients who received TMZ maintenance therapy and those who were only actively monitored. During the induction period, all the patients had grade 1-2 nausea and vomiting, while in the consolidation treatment period, no grade 3/4 toxicity was observed.@*CONCLUSION@#The combination of HD-MTX+TMZ+R in the treatment of PCNSL patients shows a definite short-term effect, which can increase the survival rate of the patients. The side effects are mild, and the patients can generally tolerate.

Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Central Nervous System , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/drug therapy , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Temozolomide/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1457-1464, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878178


BACKGROUND@#Clinical observational studies revealed that 99Tc-methylene diphosphonate (99Tc-MDP) could reduce joint pain and swollenness in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study aimed to evaluate the effects of 99Tc-MDP plus methotrexate (MTX) vs. MTX alone or 99Tc-MDP alone on disease activity and structural damage in MTX-naïve Chinese patients with moderate to severe RA.@*METHODS@#Eligible patients with moderate to severely active RA were randomized to receive 99Tc-MDP plus MTX (n = 59) vs. MTX (n = 59) alone or 99Tc-MDP (n = 59) alone for 48 weeks from six study sites across four provinces in China. The primary outcomes were the American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement (ACR20) response rates at week 24 and changes in modified total Sharp score at week 48.@*RESULTS@#At week 24, the proportion of participants achieving ACR20 was significantly higher in the MTX + 99Tc-MDP combination group (69.5%) than that in the MTX group (50.8%) or 99Tc-MDP group (47.5%) (P = 0.03 for MTX + 99Tc-MDP vs. MTX, and MTX + 99Tc-MDP vs.99Tc-MDP, respectively). The participants in the MTX + 99Tc-MDP group and the 99Tc-MDP group had significantly less important radiographic progression than the participants in the MTX group over the 48 weeks (MTX + 99Tc-MDP vs. MTX: P = 0.03, 99Tc-MDP vs. MTX: P = 0.03, respectively). There was no significant difference in terms of adverse events (AEs) among the groups. No serious AEs were observed.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study demonstrated that the combination of 99Tc-MDP with MTX inhibited structural damage and improved disease activity in RA patients compared with MTX and 99Tc-MDP monotherapies, without increasing the rate of AEs. Additional clinical studies of 99Tc-MDP therapy in patients with RA are warranted.@*TRIAL, ChiCTR-IPR-14005684;

Humans , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , China , Diphosphonates , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Technetium/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 14-16, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146466


La enfermedad trofoblástica gestacional (ETG) es una complicación del embarazo poco común. Corresponde a un espectro de lesiones proliferativas del tejido trofoblástico: Mola Hidatiforme (MH) en sus formas parcial y completa, Coriocarcinoma, Tumor Trofoblástico y Tumor Trofoblástico Epiteloide. Los distintos tipos de ETG presentan en común la hipersecreción de gonadotrofina coriónica humana (hCG). La hCG es una hormona glicoproteica con una estructura muy similar a la TSH, por lo cual puede estimular la función tiroidea en condiciones fisiológicas y en algunas condiciones patológicas. La ETG puede cursar con hipertiroidismo, el cual puede variar en intensidad, desde una presentación asintomática con alteración leve de hormonas tiroideas a un cuadro de hipertiroidismo manifiesto. Se presentan 3 casos clínicos de pacientes con ETG, específicamente MH que evolucionaron con tirotoxicosis transitoria. Los casos presentaron un cuadro leve de hipertiroidismo con pocos síntomas asociados. La taquicardia fue el único síntoma en la mayoría de los casos. En todas las pacientes las hormonas tiroideas se normalizaron después del tratamiento de la ETG. Conclusión: Se debe tener presente la posibilidad de hipertiroidismo en toda paciente con ETG. Un alto nivel de sospecha permitirá identificar a aquellas pacientes que cursen con hipertiroidismo, permitiendo así un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno.

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a rare complication of pregnancy. GTD includes a group of proliferative lesions of trophoblastic tissue: partial and complete hydatidiform mole, choriocarcinoma, epithelioid trophoblastic tumor, and placental site trophoblastic tumor. The different types of GTD have in common the hypersecretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). HCG is a glycoprotein hormone with a similar structure to TSH. In physiological and pathological conditions hCG can stimulate thyroid function. GTD can present with hyperthyroidism, which can vary in intensity, from an asymptomatic presentation with mild alteration of thyroid hormones to a manifest hyperthyroidism. We present 3 clinical cases of patients with GTD thyrotoxicosis. All cases presented mild hyperthyroidism. Tachycardia was the only symptom in most cases. In all patients thyroid hormones return to normal after treatment of GTD. Conclusion: In patients with GTD the possibility of hyperthyroidism should be kept in mind. A high level of suspicion will allow to identifying patients with hyperthyroidism.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease/complications , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/etiology , Propranolol/therapeutic use , Tachycardia , Thyrotoxicosis/etiology , Hydatidiform Mole , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease/drug therapy