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Salud pública Méx ; 56(4): 379-385, jul.-ago. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-733303


This commentary addresses some of the diverse questions of current interest with regard to the health effects of air pollution, including exposure-response relationships, toxicity of inhaled particles and risks to health, multipollutant mixtures, traffic-related pollution, accountability research, and issues with susceptibility and vulnerability. It considers the challenges posed to researchers as they attempt to provide useful evidence for policy-makers relevant to these issues. This commentary accompanies papers giving the results from the ESCALA project, a multi-city study in Latin America that has an overall goal of providing policy-relevant results. While progress has been made in improving air quality, driven by epidemiological evidence that air pollution is adversely affecting public health, the research questions have become more subtle and challenging as levels of air pollution dropped. More research is still needed, but also novel methods and approaches to address these new questions.

Este comentario aborda algunos de los temas de interés actual en relación con los efectos de la contaminación del aire sobre la salud, tales como las relaciones exposición-respuesta, la toxicidad y riesgos para la salud de las partículas inhaladas, las mezclas de contaminantes múltiples, la contaminación relacionada con el tráfico, la investigación sobre responsabilidad, y los problemas de susceptibilidad y vulnerabilidad. Considera los retos que se presentan a los investigadores que intentan proporcionar evidencia para los responsables políticos en estas cuestiones. Este texto acompaña otros trabajos con resultados del proyecto ESCALA, un estudio en varias ciudades de América Latina que tiene como objetivo general proporcionar resultados relevantes para la política pública. Aunque ha habido avances para mejorar la calidad del aire, gracias a la evidencia epidemiológica de que la contaminación aérea está afectando negativamente a la salud pública, las preguntas de investigación se han vuelto más sutiles y difíciles a medida que los niveles de contaminación se reducen. Se necesita más investigación, pero también nuevos métodos y enfoques capaces de enfrentar estas preguntas.

Animals , Mice , Choline/analogs & derivatives , Neuromuscular Junction/metabolism , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Prodrugs/metabolism , Choline/metabolism , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Electric Stimulation , Edrophonium/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Mice, Inbred Strains , Methylamines/pharmacology , Neostigmine/pharmacology , Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents/pharmacology , Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors/pharmacology , Piperidines/pharmacology , Rana pipiens
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2000 Apr; 38(4): 373-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59195


Spontaneous mutants resistant to methionine sulfoximine (Msx), methyl alanine (Mal) and methyl ammonium chloride (Mac) were derived from A. chroococcum strain A103. Msx and Mal-resistant mutants expressed 1.73 to 10.98% of the fully derepressed nitrogenase activity when grown in Burk's medium containing ammonium acetate. Mac-resistant mutants did not express nitrogenase activity in ammonium acetate supplemented medium. The mutants excreted ammonia even after 2 days of growth and some mutants excreted more ammonia as compared to the parent. Selected mutants were inoculated on wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) under field conditions. Majority of the derepressed mutants increased grain yield of wheat and barley varying from 1.2 to 33.3%. However, host-dependent effects on grain yield were observed with different mutants. Two mutants, Mal 27 and Mac 19 showed significant increase in grain yields of both the crops. The results suggest that metabolic analogue-resistant mutants of Azotobacter have potential for use as a biofertilizer for cereal crops.

Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Ammonia/metabolism , Azotobacter/drug effects , Edible Grain/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Methionine Sulfoximine/pharmacology , Methylamines/pharmacology , Mutation , Nitrogen Fixation , Nitrogenase/genetics
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 1996 Jan; 40(1): 23-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-107873


The effect of intracellular pH perturbations on the portal vein preparations of spontaneously hypertensive rats and their control Wistar Kyoto rats was investigated. Intracellular alkalinity induced by application of 20 mM NH4Cl or 20 mM trimethylamine produced dilatation of both preparations. Intracellular acidity induced by washout of the previous ammonium and trimethylamine solutions or by application of 20 mM sodium propionate solution caused constriction of both preparations. These responses of the portal veins of both animals to intracellular pH variations were qualitatively the same in nonactivated preparations and in preparations precontracted with 26 mM K+ or 1 microM norepinephrine. Recovery from acidic constrictions induced by washout of ammonium and trimethylamine solutions was significantly slower in spontaneous hypertensive rats than in Wistar Kyoto rats preparations. Conceivably, a lower intracellular pH in the vascular smooth muscle of the resistance vessels of hypertensive patients, as compared to normotensive individuals, may partly account for the hypertensive phenomena.

Ammonium Chloride/pharmacology , Animals , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypertension/genetics , Methylamines/pharmacology , Muscle Tonus/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Norepinephrine/pharmacology , Portal Vein/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 26(4): 373-81, Apr. 1993. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-148748


In this report we analyze the kinetics of activation of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase from kidney proximal tubules by the regulatory ligands Mg2+ and MgATP2-, and we examine modifications in the effects of these ligands that are promoted by organic solutes of natural occurrence that stabilize or destabilize protein structure and function. The solutes tested were trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMA-O), sucrose and urea. TMA-O and sucrose were chosen as representative of the different methylamines and polyols, respectively, that accumulate in living organisms. The results lead to the conclusion that free Mg2+ and the MgATP2- complex both activate the rate-determining E2-->E1 transition during the catalytic cycle of the enzyme, by binding to nonidentical and independent regulatory sites. They also indicate that TMA-O, sucrose and urea not only promote global modifications in the enzyme structure, but also modify specific interactions of the ligands Mg2+ and MgATP2- at their regulatory sites

Animals , Rabbits , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Calcium-Transporting ATPases/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Magnesium/metabolism , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/enzymology , Enzyme Activation , Calcium-Transporting ATPases/drug effects , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/enzymology , Drug Interactions , Ligands , Methylamines/pharmacology , Oxidants/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Sucrase/pharmacology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Urea/pharmacology