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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1309-1314, Nov.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355688

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a blind technique for sciatic and femoral nerve block in rabbit cadavers by evaluating the spread of 1% methylene blue at two different volumes. Nine recently euthanized rabbits weighing 2.5(0.3kg were used. The sciatic (SN) and femoral (FN) nerves of each limb were randomly assigned for injection with 1% methylene blue at 0.2mL/kg (G0.2) or 0.3mL/kg (G0.3). Nerves were dissected and measured for depth and extension of staining (cm). Mean comparisons were performed using paired t test. The relation between volume and nerve staining ( 2cm was assessed using chi-square test. The mean depth of SN was 1.9±0.2 and 1.6±0.3cm and staining 1.9±1.4 and 2.0±1.2cm, respectively in G0.2 and G0.3. No relation was found between depth and dye spread and there was no association between nerve staining ( 2.0cm and volume of solution. The FN failed to be stained in all subjects. In conclusion, SN injection can be successfully performed without guidance in rabbits. The lower volume (0.2mL/kg) is recommended to avoid systemic toxicity.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de uma técnica para bloqueio às cegas dos nervos isquiático e femoral em cadáveres de coelhos, por meio da avaliação da dispersão de azul de metileno 1% em dois volumes distintos. Nove coelhos recém-eutanasiados, com peso 2,5(0,3kg, foram utilizados. Os nervos isquiático (NI) e femoral (NF) de cada membro foram aleatoriamente designados para injeção com azul de metileno 1% a 0,2mL/kg (G0,2) ou 0,3mL/kg (G0,3). Em seguida, foram dissecados e mensurados em relação à sua profundidade e extensão corada (cm). As médias foram comparadas por meio de teste t pareado. A relação entre volume e extensão corada ( 2cm foi avaliada utilizando-se teste de qui-quadrado. A profundidade média do NI foi 1,9±0,2 e 1,6±0,3cm, e a extensão corada 1,9±1,4 e 2,0±1,2cm, respectivamente, no G0,2 e no G0,3. Não houve relação entre a profundidade e a extensão corada ou entre a extensão corada ( 2,0cm e o volume de solução. Não foi observada coloração do NF em nenhum cadáver. Concluiu-se que a injeção do NI pode ser realizada com sucesso sem auxílio de tecnologias em coelhos. O menor volume (0,2mL/kg) é recomendado para evitar toxicidade sistêmica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Peripheral Nerves , Sciatic Nerve , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods
2.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(4): 611-619, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291154

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La cirugía para extirpación de metástasis en un cuello previamente intervenido afronta un reto para lograr una resección exitosa. El presente estudio pretende demostrar la utilidad de la técnica de inyección de azul de metileno, guiada por ecografía, para la localización intraoperatoria de lesiones recurrentes en cáncer de tiroides, para facilitar su resección. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo, en pacientes reintervenidos por recurrencia de carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides, durante un periodo de dos años y medio. Se utilizó la inyección intratumoral de azul de metileno guiada por ecografía para su identificación intraoperatoria de recurrencia. Se hizo análisis de variables demográficas y clínicas. Resultados. Este estudio incluyó 10 procedimientos en 9 pacientes, 77,8 % mujeres, con una media de edad de 54 años. Todos tenían un nivel de tiroglobulina detectable y elevado antes de la intervención; posteriormente, el 89 %presentó un descenso y el 33 % una adecuada respuesta bioquímica. La técnica agregó 10 minutos al tiempo quirúrgico. En el 100 % se identificaron de manera intraoperatoria los ganglios marcados; el promedio de ganglios resecados fue de 12, de los cuales, 6 fueron positivos, todos con carcinoma papilar de tiroides. Esta técnica se consideró de gran utilidad y de bajo costo en todos los casos. Discusión. Esta técnica se muestra como una estrategia efectiva para la identificación intraoperatoria de las recurrencias corregionales en carcinoma de tiroides, permitiendo una disección ganglionar exitosa, disminuyendo complicaciones, tiempo quirúrgico y, especialmente, costos frente a otras intervenciones


Introduction. The approach of a previously operated neck for metastasis resection faces a challenge to achieve a successful resection. The present study aims to demonstrate the usefulness of the ultrasound-guided injection of methylene blue technique for the intraoperative localization of recurrent lesions in thyroid cancer to facilitate their resection. Methods. An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in patients reoperated for recurrences of differentiated thyroid carcinoma over a period of two and a half years, using ultrasound-guided intratumoral injection of methylene blue for its intraoperative identification. An analysis of demographic and clinical variables was carried out and its advantages over other methods were identified. Results. This study included 10 procedures in nine patients, 77.8% women and 22.2% men, with a mean age of 54 years. All had a detectable and elevated thyroglobulin level before the intervention, 89% had a decrease in its level and 33% had an adequate biochemical response. The technique added 10 minutes to the surgical time. All marked lymph nodes were identified intraoperatively. The average number of lymph nodes resected was 12, of which six were positive, all with papillary thyroid carcinoma. It was considered of great utility and low cost in all cases. Discussion. This technique shows to be an effective strategy for the intraoperative identification of locoregional recurrences in thyroid carcinoma, allowing a successful lymph node dissection, reducing complications, surgical time and especially costs compared to other interventions


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Reoperation , Ultrasonography , Lymph Node Excision , Methylene Blue
3.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 140-140, Jan.-Feb. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155804
4.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2021. 54 p. ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1362071

ABSTRACT

A terapia fotodinâmica (TFD) vem se mostrando como um método eficaz no controle de micro-organismos patogênicos, sendo investigada para o tratamento de diversas doenças infecciosas, como a candidose bucal. Recentemente, alguns agentes potencializadores dessa terapia têm sido estudados, incluindo a Quitosana (QT), um polímero natural extraído do exoesqueleto de crustáceos. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito potencializador da QT na TFD mediada pelo fotossensibilizador Azul de Metileno (AM) sobre cepas de Candida albicans, investigando sua ação em culturas planctônicas, biofilmes e células persistentes ao fluconazol. Além disso, foi avaliado a capacidade da QT em interferir na absorção do AM pelas células de Candida. Foram utilizadas duas cepas de C. albicans, sendo uma padrão (ATCC 18804) e uma clínica isolada de candidose orofaríngea (70). Para os ensaios em culturas planctônicas, as cepas de C. albicans foram cultivadas em caldo Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB) por 24 horas. Os biofilmes foram formados por 48 horas no fundo das placas de 96 poços. Para indução de células persistentes, C. albicans foi cultivada com altas concentrações de fluconazol por 48 horas. A seguir, foram realizados os tratamentos com QT a 5 mg/mL (pH de 6,5), AM nas concentrações de 300 ou 600 µM, e irradiação com LED (660 nm) na densidade de energia de 30 J/cm2. Foram incluídos oito grupos experimentais: TFD com AM e QT na presença de Luz (AM+QT+L+), AM e QT sem Luz (AM+QT+L-), QT e Luz (QT+L+), QT sem Luz (QT+L-), TFD com AM e Luz (AM+L+), AM sem Luz (AM+L-), Solução Fisiológica com Luz (F-L+) e apenas Solução Fisiológica (F-L-). Após os tratamentos, foi realizada contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC/mL). Para determinar a absorção do fotossensibilizador pelas células de C. albicans, as células foram lisadas e centrifugadas para leitura da densidade óptica. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de Tukey (p<0,05%). Na TFD em culturas planctônicas, o AM (300 µm) reduziu as células de Candida em 1,6 log (UFC/mL), enquanto que a associação AM+QT levou à redução de 4,7 log. Na TFD em biofilmes, ocorreu redução microbiana de 2,9 log para o tratamento com AM (600 µm) e de 5,3 log para AM+QT. Em relação às células persistentes, a redução encontrada foi de 0,8 log para AM e 1,5 log para AM+QT. No teste de absorção, a penetração do AM nas células de Candida (DO 0,02) foi aumentada na presença da QT (DO 0,39). Concluiu-se que a QT potencializou o efeito antimicrobiano da TFD em culturas planctônicas, biofilmes e células persistentes de C. albicans, provavelmente por facilitar a penetração do AM nas células fúngicas.


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to be an effective method to control pathogenic microorganisms, being investigated for the treatment of several infectious diseases, such as oral candidiasis. Recently, some agents that enhance this therapy have been studied, including Chitosan (CS), a natural polymer extracted from the exoskeleton of crustaceans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentiating effect of CS on Methylene Blue (MB) photosensitizer-mediated PDT on Candida albicans strains, investigating its action on planktonic cultures, biofilms and persister cells to fluconazole. In addition, the ability of CS to interfere with MB absorption by Candida cells was evaluated. Two strains of C. albicans were used, one standard (ATCC 18804) and one isolated clinical of oropharyngeal candidosis (70). For assays in planktonic cultures, C. albicans strains were cultivated in Yeast Nitrogen Base broth (YNB) for 24 hours. Biofilms were formed for 48 hours at the bottom of 96-well plates. For the induction of persister cells, C. albicans was cultivated with high concentrations of fluconazole for 48 hours. Next, treatments were performed with CS at 5 mg/mL (pH 6.5), MB at concentrations of 300 or 600 µM, and irradiation with LED (660 nm) at an energy density of 30 J/cm2. eight experimental groups were included: PDT with MB and CS in the presence of Light (MB+CS+L+), MB and CS without Light (MB+CS+L-), CS and Light (CS+L+), CS without Light (CS +L-), PDT with MB and Light (MB+L+), MB without Light (MB+L-), Physiological Solution with Light (F-L+) and Physiological Solution only (FL-). After the treatments, colony forming units (CFU/mL) were counted. To determine the absorption of the photosensitizer by C. albicans cells, the cells were lysed and centrifuged for optical density reading. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05%). In PDT in planktonic cultures, MB (300 µm) reduced Candida cells by 1.6 log (CFU/mL), while the MB+CS association led to a 4.7 log reduction. In PDT in biofilms, there was a microbial reduction of 2.9 log for the treatment with MB (600 µm) and of 5.3 log for MB+CS. Regarding persister cells, the reduction found was 0.8 log for MB and 1.5 log for MB+CS. In the absorption test, the penetration of MB into Candida cells (OD 0.02) was increased in the presence of CS (OD 0.39). It was concluded that CS potentiated the antimicrobial effect of PDT in planktonic cultures, biofilms and persister cells of C. albicans, probably by facilitating the penetration of MB into fungal cells .


Subject(s)
Photochemotherapy , Candida albicans , Chitosan , Methylene Blue , Analysis of Variance , Photosensitizing Agents , Biofilms
5.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(3): e1612, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355511

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Although considered a safe procedure, sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has a non-negligible risk of major postoperative complications related to it, with special attention to gastric leaks. Aim: Evaluate the clinical value of the methylene blue test (MBT) in predicting the occurrence of post-SG leaks. Methods: Retrospective study that included 1136 patients who underwent SG with intraoperative MBT between 2012 and 2016. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predicted value (NPV) were calculated to determine the clinical correlation between the MBT and the occurrence of postoperative leaks. Staple line oversewing was performed in all patients who presented positive MBT. Results: Laparoscopic SG was performed in 97.0% of cases; open in 2.3%, and robotic in 0.7%. MBT was positive in 19 cases (1.67%). One positive MBT occurred during an open SG and the other 18 at laparoscopy. Moreover, there were nine cases (0.8%) of postoperative leaks, among which, only two presented positive MBT. MBT diagnostic value was evaluated through the calculation of sensitivity (22.0%), specificity (98.0%), PPV (11.0%) and NPV (99.0%). There were no cases of allergic reaction or any other side effect with the use of the methylene blue solution. Conclusion: MBT showed high specificity and negative predictive value, thus presenting an important value to rule out the occurrence of postoperative leaks.


RESUMO Racional: Embora considerada procedimento seguro, a gastrectomia vertical (GV) apresenta risco não desprezível de complicações pós-operatórias importantes relacionadas a ela, com atenção especial para fístulas gástricas Objetivo: Avaliar a aplicabilidade clínica do teste do azul de metileno (TAM) na predição da ocorrência de fístulas após a GV. Método: Estudo retrospectivo que incluiu 1136 pacientes operados entre 2012 e 2016 com aplicação do TAM intraoperatório. Sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) e valor preditivo negativo (VPN) foram calculados na tentativa de determinar a correlação clínica entre os resultados do TAM e a ocorrência de fístulas pós-operatórias. Sobressutura da linha de grampos foi realizada em todos os pacientes que apresentaram TAM positivo. Resultados: GV laparoscópica foi realizada em 97,0% dos casos; por laparotomia em 2,3% e roboticamente em 0,7%. TAM foi positivo em 19 casos (1,67%). Um dos casos positivos ocorreu na laparotomia e os outros 18 na laparoscopia. Ainda, houve nove casos (0,8%) de fístulas pós-operatórias, dentre os quais, apenas dois apresentaram TAM positivo. O valor diagnóstico do TAM foi avaliado através dos cálculos de sensibilidade (22,0%), especificidade (98,0%), VPP (11,0%) e VPN (99,0%). Não houve casos de reação alérgica ou qualquer outro efeito colateral advindo do uso da solução de azul de metileno. Conclusão: TAM mostrou alta especificidade e VPN, apresentando importância em descartar a ocorrência de fístulas pós-operatórias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Laparoscopy , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Gastrectomy , Methylene Blue
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200266, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285556

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS This scoping review summarizes the findings of clinical trials using methylene blue (MB) for the treatment of various health conditions. This research method allowed mapping main findings, clarifying research topics, and identifying gaps in the literature.


Abstract studies evaluating effective drugs for health conditions are of crucial importance for public health. Methylene blue (MB) is an accessible synthetic drug that presents low toxicity and has been used in several health areas due to its effectiveness. Objective: this scoping review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of relevant research regarding the use of MB for the treatment of health conditions. Methods: a five-stage framework Arksey and O'maley scoping review was conducted. The literature was searched in Cochrane Library database using Mesh term "methylene blue". Data were collected by two independent reviewers and submitted to descriptive synthesis. Results: The search resulted in 429 records, from which 16 were included after exclusion criteria were applied. The therapeutic use of MB was identified for acute conditions (malaria and septic shock), chronic conditions (discogenic back pain, bipolar disorder, refractory neuropathic pain, and post-traumatic stress disorder), and postoperative care (vasoplegic syndrome, and pain after haemorrhoidectomy, lumbar discectomy, and traumatic thoracolumbar fixation). Conclusion: there is much evidence emerging from clinical trials about the therapeutic use of MB for acute, chronic, and postoperative conditions; however, many gaps were identified, which open further avenues for future research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Chronic Disease/drug therapy , Acute Pain/drug therapy
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21210030, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339317

ABSTRACT

Abstract Nowadays, a prompt and reliable diagnosis is one of the most critical measures for leprosy control. The current diagnostic is based on clinical exams by a health care professional, and it may not recognize early signs of the disease. Therefore, other leprosy diagnosis methods are needed that are sensitive, disease-specific, and easy to deliver to the end-user. This study describes the construction of an electrochemical DNA biosensor to detect PCR products of Mycobacterium leprae using methylene blue as an indicator of the hybridization. The capture probe was immobilized on the graphite electrode modified with poly(4-aminophenol). The electrode surface was morphologically characterized by atomic force microscopy. Linear voltammetry was used to monitor the concentration of methylene blue on the DNA biosensor, which indicated a limit detection of 1 x 10-10 mol/L. The biosensor showed selective when placed to hybridize with a non-complementary sequence. This study suggests that the electrochemical DNA biosensor developed is promising for detecting DNA of Mycobacterium leprae.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Aminophenols , Methylene Blue , Mycobacterium leprae
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 318-325, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Methylene blue is the most commonly used tracer for sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy (SLNB) in China. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of clinical application of SLNB using methylene blue dye (MBD) for early breast cancer and the prognosis of patients with different SLN and non-SLN statuses.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological data of patients with early breast cancer treated at the Peking University First Hospital between 2013 and 2018. We calculated the SLN identification rate (IR) in SLNB with MBD and the false-negative rate (FNR), and analyzed the prognosis of patients with different SLN and non-SLN statuses using Kaplan-Meier curves.@*RESULTS@#Between January 2013 and December 2018, 1603 patients with early breast cancer underwent SLNB with MBD. The SLN IR was 95.8% (1536/1603). Two SLNs (median) were detected per patient. There were significant differences in FNR between patients with SLN micrometastasis and macrometastasis (19.0% vs. 4.5%, χ2 = 12.771, P < 0.001). Chi-square test showed that there were significant differences in SLN successful detection rates among patients with different vascular tumor embolism status (96.3% vs. 90.8%, χ2 = 9.013, P = 0.003) and tumor (T) stages (96.6% vs. 94.1%, χ2 = 5.189, P = 0.023). Multivariate analysis showed that vascular tumor embolism was the only independent factor for SLN successful detection (odds ratio: 0.440, 95% confidence interval: 0.224-0.862, P = 0.017). Survival analysis showed a significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS) between patients with non-SLN metastasis and patients without non-SLN metastasis (P = 0.006).@*CONCLUSION@#Our single-center data show that, as a commonly used tracer in SLNB in China, MBD has an acceptable SLN IR and a low FNR in frozen sections. This finding is consistent with reports of dual tracer-guided SLNB. Positive SLNs with non-SLN metastasis are associated with DFS.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/surgery , China , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Methylene Blue , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8853, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089343

ABSTRACT

Anaphylactic shock can be defined as an acute syndrome, and it is the most severe clinical manifestation of allergic diseases. Anaphylactoid reactions are similar to anaphylactic events but differ in the pathophysiological mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibitors during anaphylaxis suggest that NO might decrease the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis but exacerbate associated vasodilation. Therefore, blocking the effects of NO on vascular smooth muscle by inhibiting the guanylate cyclase (GC) would be a reasonable strategy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of NO/cGMP pathway inhibitors methylene blue (MB), Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), and indigo carmine (IC) in shock induced by compound 48/80 (C48/80) in rats. The effect was assessed by invasive blood pressure measurement. Shock was initiated by C48/80 intravenous bolus injection 5 min before (prophylactic) or after (treatment) the administration of the inhibitors MB (3 mg/kg), L-NAME (1 mg/kg), and IC (3 mg/kg). Of the groups that received drugs as prophylaxis for shock, only the IC group did not present the final systolic blood pressure (SBP) better than the C48/80 group. Regarding shock treatment with the drugs tested, all groups had the final SBP similar to the C48/80group. Altogether, our results suggested that inhibition of GC and NO synthase in NO production pathway was not sufficient to revert hypotension or significantly improve survival.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cyclic GMP/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anaphylaxis/drug therapy , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Indigo Carmine/administration & dosage , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage
11.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 33: e003304, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090387

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Considering its potential as an alternative therapy to combat multiresistant bacteria, photodynamic therapy has been improved and better studied in recent years, and determining its optimized application patterns is important. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the action of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy mediated by methylene blue in the absence of preincubation of infectious agents in the photosensitizer. Method: Standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used, which was or was not submitted to two methylene blue concentrations (0.1 μg/mL and 500 mg/mL) applied alone or in combination with a variety of red laser emission parameters (660 nm); in both cases, the streak was performed immediately after mixing between the photosensitizer and the solution containing the bacteria. Results: In the dishes with only methylene blue application neither antibacterial was produced, nor inhibition at the application points of the photodynamic therapy in the case of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, in the cultures of Staphylococcus aureus in which laser emission was associated with the concentration of 500 mg/mL of the photosensitizer, inhibition was present at the laser application points. Conclusion: The time of exposure to the photosensitizer prior to the application of phototherapy seems to be an essential factor for the optimized action of photodynamic therapy, especially in the case of Gram-negative bacteria.


Resumo Introdução: Considerando seu potencial como forma de combate alternativo a bactérias multirresistentes, a terapia fotodinâmica vem sendo aperfeiçoada e mais bem estudada nos últimos anos, sendo importante determinar seus padrões otimizados de aplicação. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ação da terapia fotodinâmica antimicrobiana mediada pelo azul de metileno na ausência de pré-incubação dos agentes infecciosos no fotossenbilizante. Método: Foram usadas cepas padrão de Staphylococcus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as quais foram submetidas ou não à 2 concentrações de azul de metileno (0,1 µg/mL and 500 mg/mL) aplicadas isoladamente ou em associação com variados parâmetros de emissão de laser vermelho (660 nm); em ambos os casos, a semeadura foi realizada imediatamente após a mistura entre o fotossensibilizante e a solução contendo as bactérias. Resultados: Nas placas em que houve somente aplicação de azul de metileno não houve qualquer efeito antibacteriano, assim como não houve inibição nos pontos de aplicação da terapia fotodinâmica no caso da bactéria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No entanto, nas culturas de Staphylococcus aureus em que houve a emissão laser associada à concentração de 500 mg/ml do fotossensibilizante, houve presença de inibição nos pontos de aplicação do laser. Conclusão: Conclui-se que há indícios de que o tempo de exposição ao fotossensibilizante prévio à aplicação da fototerapia é um fator essencial para a otimização da terapia fotodinâmica, especialmente no caso de bactérias Gram-negativas.


Resumen Introducción: Considerando su potencial como forma de combate alternativo a bacterias multirresistentes, la terapia fotodinámica se ha perfeccionada y mejor estudiada en los últimos años, siendo importante determinar sus patrones optimizados de aplicación. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la acción de la terapia fotodinámica antimicrobiana mediada por el azul de metileno en la ausencia de preincubación de los agentes infecciosos en el fotosenbilizante. Método: Se utilizaron cepas estándares de Staphylococcus aureus y Pseudomonas aeruginosa, las cuales fueron sometidas o no a las 2 concentraciones de azul de metileno (0,1 μg/mL y 500 mg/mL) aplicadas aisladamente o en asociación con variados parámetros de emisión de láser rojo (660 nm); en ambos casos, la siembra fue realizada inmediatamente después de la mezcla entre el fotosensibilizante y la solución conteniendo las bacterias. Resultados: En las placas con aplicación solamente de azul de metileno no hubo ningún efecto antibacteriano, así como no hubo inhibición en los puntos de aplicación de la terapia fotodinámica en el caso de la bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sin embargo, en los cultivos de Staphylococcus aureus en los que se produjo la emisión láser asociada a la concentración de 500 mg/mL del fotosensibilizante, hubo presencia de inhibición en los puntos de aplicación del láser. Conclusión: Se concluye que hay indicios de que el tiempo de exposición al fotosensibilizante previo a la aplicación de la fototerapia es un factor esencial para la optimización de la terapia fotodinámica, especialmente en el caso de bacterias Gram-negativas.


Subject(s)
Photochemotherapy , Bacteria , Methylene Blue
12.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135527

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate, in vitro, the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) compared to laser therapy and the use of a photosensitizer alone. Material and Methods: The following therapies were used: PDT, laser therapy and photosensitizer alone. For PDT, methylene blue (MB) at different concentrations and red laser InGaAlP 660nm were used. For the use of low-power laser (LPL) alone, red laser InGaAlP 660 nm and infrared laser AsGaAl, 830 nm, both in continuous emission were used. Standard ATCC strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) species were used. The antibacterial effect of PDT was quantified by the diameter of the inhibition halos. Results: PDT (LPL 660 nm, 320 J/cm2) with MB at concentration of 50 µg/mL showed antibacterial efficacy only when tested against S. aureus and E. coli strains, as well as with the isolated use of MB at the same concentration. Using LPL alone, whether red or infrared, with different dosimetry, no antibacterial effect was observed. In none of the therapeutic modalities used, P. aeruginosa inactivation was observed. Conclusion: Antibacterial effects of PDT (LPL 660 nm + MB 50 µg/mL) were observed for S. aureus and E. coli, as well as with the isolated use of MB (50 µg/mL). For P. aeruginosa, no antibacterial effect with any of the protocols recommended in the study was observed.


Subject(s)
Photochemotherapy/instrumentation , In Vitro Techniques , Low-Level Light Therapy/instrumentation , Methylene Blue , Anti-Bacterial Agents/immunology , Staphylococcus aureus , Brazil , Statistics, Nonparametric
13.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135522

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the immediate microleakage of carious fissures sealed with a caries infiltrant covered by a flowable composite or solely with a flowable composite. Material and Methods: Extracted carious molars (n=20) were selected and paired among the experimental groups according to caries progression scores. Experimental groups (n=10) were divided according to the following sealing techniques: 1) caries infiltrant (Icon) + flowable composite (Z350 flow); 2) flowable composite (Z350 flow). Specimens were immersed in 3% methylene blue and evaluated in a stereomicroscope. Microleakage scores were attributed independently by two calibrated evaluators and the mode value was considered as the mean for the specimen. Binomial tests were used to test differences between two independent sample proportions at 5% significance level. Results: In the flowable composite group, a higher prevalence of dye penetration along the full depth of the fissure was observed, compared with caries infiltrant + flowable composite (p<0.05). For specimens showing dye penetration up to half of the fissure, in caries infiltrant + flowable composite group, all specimens showed dye penetration into the sealant, but not over the infiltrant. Conclusion: Using caries infiltrant as sealing material under a flowable composite cover is effective to improve the immediate sealing ability in carious fissures compared to sealing with flowable composite.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pit and Fissure Sealants/chemistry , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Leakage/diagnostic imaging , Dental Materials/chemistry , Molar , Brazil , Methylene Blue
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878386

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the anti-caries effect and safety of Er:YAG laser combined with fluoride and methylene blue-photodynamic therapy (MB-PDT).@*METHODS@#A total of 28 rat dental caries models were established and randomly divided into seven groups: photodynamic therapy (PDT) group, laser combined with fluoride group, laser group, sodium fluoride group, and 0.9% saline control group. Spectrophotometric optical density was used to reflect the growth of Streptococcus mutans. Laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (LF) instrument was utilized to detect the demineralization degree of dental caries. Histopathological sections were employed to observe the damage of dental pulp and buccal mucosa.@*RESULTS@#The optical density (OD) value of the PDT and combination groups was significantly lower than that of other treatment groups (P<0.05). An increase in LF value and demineralization occurred in varying degrees with different treatment methods. Histopathological observation showed that pulp and buccal mucosa injury was more obvious in the combination group of 70 mw·cm⁻² and Er:YAG laser group compared with other groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Under the same parameters, the combined group and PDT have good germicidal efficacy, but PDT has fewer adverse reactions and less damage. It is an effective and safe method for caries prevention.


Subject(s)
Cariostatic Agents , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Fluorides , Humans , Laser Therapy , Lasers, Solid-State , Methylene Blue , Photochemotherapy
15.
Odontol. vital ; (31): 37-44, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1091426

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Comparar in vitro la microfiltración apical en premolares unirradiculares obturados con cemento a base de resina epóxica y cemento biocerámico. Método: 40 piezas dentales unirradiculares fueron seleccionadas y divididas en dos grupos para ser obturadas esperando el tiempo de fraguado de acuerdo con las instrucciones del fabricante. El grupo A se obturó con cemento biocerámico Endosequence y, el grupo B, con cemento a base de resina epóxica AH-Plus: posteriormente los dos grupos fueron sellados con barniz de uñas hasta 3mm de la parte apical, luego se colocaron las muestras en la incubadora a 37ºC. Ambos fueron sometidos a 750 ciclos de termociclado, para reproducir el ambiente parecido a la cavidad oral. Para análisis de microfiltración se utilizó el método de difusión del colorante, se sumergieron en azul de metileno al 2 % por 6 días, posteriormente los especímenes fueron sometidos en una bomba de vacío. Los dientes fueron cortados longitudinalmente para ser evaluadas mediante el estereomicroscopio. El análisis estadístico fue hecho mediante T-Student y Chi-Cuadrado. Resultados: El grupo A corresponde a Endosequence obtuvo una medida de 0,55mm y el grupo B corresponde a AH-Plus 1,20mm con un estimado de significancia de p=0,013. Conclusión: El análisis de ambos cementos de obturación demostró que Endosequence posee menor microfiltración apical que AH-Plus.


Abstract Aim: To compare in vitro by the stereomiscroscope the lesser apical microfiltration in uniradicular premolars, between the cement based on Epoxy Resin and Bioceramic cement. Method: The study was performed on 40 uniradicular dental pieces divided into two groups, the samples were prepared using the protaper system and the obturation was performed using the lateral condensation technique, the first group was sealed withEndosequence bioceramic cement and the second group with Cement based on AH-Plus epoxy resin, then sealed with nail varnish up to 3mm from the apical part, then the samples were placed in the incubator at 37ºC, waiting for the set time corresponding to each group according to the manufacturer's instructions . The two groups of the present study were submitted to 750 cycles of thermocycling, to provide an environment similar to the oral cavity, then longitudinal cuts were made to the samples. The microfiltration was evaluated using the dye diffusion method, immersed in 2% methylene blue for 6 days, then the specimens were subjected to a vacuum pump. The teeth were cut longitudinally to be evaluated by the stereomicroscope. The statistical analysis was through T-Student and Chi-Square. Results: Group A corresponds to Endosequence obtained a mean of 0,55mm and Group B corresponds to AH-Plus 1,20mm with an estimated significance of p = 0,013. Conclusion: Both obturation cements have significant differences, therefore Endosequence has less apical microfiltration than AHPlus.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Obturation , Bicuspid/pathology , Microstraining/analysis , Ceramics/therapeutic use , Thermal Gradient , Epoxy Resins/therapeutic use , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Dental Occlusion
16.
Insuf. card ; 14(4): 147-153, Octubre-Diciembre 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053202

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar el empleo preoperatorio de azul de metileno (AM) como prevención del desarrollo de síndrome vasopléjico en pacientes bajo implante de dispositivos de asistencia ventricular izquierda (DAVI), considerando: porcentaje de pacientes que desarrollan vasoplejía, requerimiento de vasopresores, morbimortalidad postoperatoria y seguridad del empleo del fármaco. Métodos. Fueron incluidos pacientes sometidos al implante de DAVI de flujo continuo (HeartMate II o HeartWare) entre enero de 2009 y enero de 2014. Los pacientes fueron aleatorizados a AM en dosis de 1,5 mg/Kg, previamente a la circulación extracorpórea, seguido por una infusión de 0,5 mg/Kg/hora del mismo. Se definió síndrome vasopléjico en base a hipotensión arterial con presión capilar pulmonar baja, índice cardíaco normal o elevado, resistencias sistémicas descendidas y requerimiento vasopresor. Un valor de P<0,05 se consideró significativo. Resultados. En el lapso del estudio fueron incluidos 64 pacientes, 33 de los cuales recibieron AM (dosis promedio 3,5 mg/kg) y 31 pacientes representaron el grupo control. Veinte (31,1%) pacientes desarrollaron vasoplejía, 6 (18,2%) pacientes en el grupo AM frente a 14 (45,2%) del grupo control (P=0,01; OR 0,27 con IC de 0,08-0,84). El requerimiento de vasopresores resulto, asimismo, inferior en los pretratados, 23 (69,7%) pacientes versus 30 (96,8%) pacientes (P=0,004; OR 0,07; IC 0,003-0,522). La mortalidad postoperatoria resulto de 13 (20,3%) pacientes, 4 (12,1%) de ellos en el grupo AM frente a 9 (29%) del grupo control (P=0,06; OR 0,35; IC 0,106-1,117). En todos los pacientes tratados con AM se evidenció el cambio de coloración de la orina. Cinco (7,8%) pacientes presentaron hipertensión arterial, requiriendo vasodilatadores endovenosos, 3 (9,1%) pacientes en el grupo AM frente a 2 (6,4%) en el grupo control (valor de P=0,3). Conclusiones. El empleo preoperatorio de AM se asoció con la reducción del desarrollo de síndrome vasopléjico, así como del requerimiento vasopresor. Se observó una reducción de complicaciones postoperatorias y una tendencia a menor mortalidad. Un número mayor de pacientes requiere ser valorado para comprobar la utilidad de esta estrategia


Introduction. The objective of this study was to analyze preoperative utilization of methylene blue (MB) for preventing development of vasoplegic syndrome in patients underwent left ventricle assist device (LVAD) implant considering: percentage of patients developing vasoplegia, vasopresor requirement, perioperative morbidity and mortality and safety associated with MB s use. Methods. There were admitted patients underwent an implant of a LVAD of continuous flow (HeartMate II or HeartWare) from January 2009 to January 2014. Patients were randomized to MB, 1.5 mg/Kg one hour before extracorporeal circulation followed for 0.5 mg/kg/hour or placebo (control group). It was defined vasoplegia by: arterial hypotension, low capillary pulmonary pressure, normal or elevated cardiac index, descended systemic vascular resistances and vasopresor requirement. A P<0.05 was considered significant. Results. There were included 64 patients, 33 of them were randomized to MB (average dose 3.5 mg/Kg) and 31 patients represented control group. Twenty (31.1%) patients developed vasoplegia, 6 (18.2%) patients from MB s group versus 14 (45.2%) patients from control group (P=0.01, OR 0.27, IC de 0.08-0.84). Vasopressor requirement was lower in those receiving MB 23 (69.7%) patients versus 30 (96.8%) patients (P=0.004, OR 0.07, IC 0.003- 0.522). Postoperative mortality was 13 (20.3%) patients, 4 (12.1%) of them receiving MB versus 9 (29%) patients from control group (P=0.06, OR 0.35 IC 0.106-1.117). In all treated patients it was evident a change in urine s color and also five (7.8%) patients developed arterial hypertension, requiring vasodilators 3 (9.1%) patients from MB s group versus 2 (6.4%) from control (valor de P=0.3). Conclusions. The preoperative use of MB was associated with reduction of vasoplegia and a lower vasopresor requirements. It was also observed reduction of postoperative complications and a trend to reduced mortality. A superior number of patients needs to be evaluated for proving the value of this strategy


Introdução. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a utilização pré-operatória do azul de metileno (AM) para prevenir o desenvolvimento da síndrome vasoplégica em pacientes submetidos a implante de dispositivo de assistência ventricular esquerda (DAVE), considerando: porcentagem de pacientes em desenvolvimento de vasoplegia, necessidade de vasopresor, morbidade e mortalidade e segurança perioperatórias associado ao uso do AM. Métodos. Foram admitidos pacientes submetidos a um implante de uma DAVE de fluxo contínuo (HeartMate II ou HeartWare) de janeiro de 2009 a janeiro de 2014. Os pacientes foram randomizados para AM, 1,5 mg/kg uma hora antes da circulação extracorpórea, seguidos por 0,5 mg/kg/hora ou placebo (grupo controle). Foi definida vasoplegia por: hipotensão arterial, pressão pulmonar capilar baixa, índice cardíaco normal ou elevado, resistências vasculares sistêmicas descendentes e necessidade de vasopresor. Um P<0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados. Foram incluídos 64 pacientes, 33 deles foram randomizados para MB (dose média de 3,5 mg / kg) e 31 pacientes representaram o grupo controle. Vinte (31,1%) pacientes desenvolveram vasoplegia, 6 (18,2%) pacientes do grupo AM versus 14 (45,2%) pacientes do grupo controle (P=0,01; OR 0,27; IC de 0,08-0,84). A necessidade de vasopressores foi menor nos pacientes que receberam AM 23 (69,7%) versus 30 (96,8%) pacientes (P=0,004; OR 0,07; IC 0,003-0,522). A mortalidade pós-operatória foi de 13 (20,3%) pacientes, 4 (12,1%) deles recebendo AM versus 9 (29%) pacientes do grupo controle (P=0,06; OR 0,35; IC 0,106-1,117). Em todos os pacientes tratados, foi evidente uma alteração na cor da urina e também cinco (7,8%) pacientes desenvolveram hipertensão arterial, exigindo vasodilatadores 3 (9,1%) pacientes do grupo AM versus 2 (6,4%) do controle (valor de P=0,3). Conclusões. O uso pré-operatório de AM foi associado à redução da vasoplegia e menor necessidade de vasopresor. Também foi observada redução das complicações pós-operatórias e tendência à redução da mortalidade. Um número superior de pacientes precisa ser avaliado para provar o valor dessa estratégia


Subject(s)
Thoracic Surgery , Vasoplegia , Methylene Blue
17.
Coluna/Columna ; 18(3): 176-180, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019777

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the dura mater using the photosensitizers aluminum chloride phthalocyanine and methylene blue in in vivo assays. Methods Fifty-six male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; one submitted to PDT and the other submitted to the photosensitizers without their photoactivation (control). The photosensitizers were applied to the dura mater after laminectomy at the T10 level. The methods used for assessment were the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) functional evaluation scale and study of the dura mater by light microscopy. Results No changes in motor activity were observed in the animals submitted to PDT compared to control. Histological and pathological evaluation did not show any differences between the group exposed to activated photosensitizers and the control group with regard to the inflammatory process and tissue necrosis. Conclusion The joint use of PDT with the photosensitizing pharmaceuticals aluminum chloride phthalocyanine and methylene blue did not induce any clinical neurotoxic effects or histological changes in the dura mater of the animals studied. Level de evidence V; Expert Opnion.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos da terapia fotodinâmica (PDT) na dura-máter usando os fotossensibilizadores cloreto de alumínio ftalocianina e azul de metileno em ensaios in vivo. Métodos Cinquenta e seis ratos Wistar machos divididos em dois grupos; um submetido à PDT e o outro submetido aos fotossensibilizadores sem a fotoativação (controle). Os fotossensibilizadores foram aplicados sobre a dura-máter depois de laminectomia no nível T10. Os métodos de avaliação usados foram a escala de avaliação funcional de Basso, Beattie e Bresnahan (BBB) e o estudo da dura-máter por microscopia óptica. Resultados Não foram observadas alterações da atividade motora dos animais submetidos à PDT com relação ao grupo controle. A avaliação histológica e histopatológica não mostrou diferenças entre o grupo exposto aos fotossensibilizadores ativados e o grupo controle, com relação ao processo inflamatório e à necrose tecidual. Conclusões O uso conjunto de PDT e os fármacos fotossensibilizantes cloreto de alumínio ftalocianina e azul de metileno não induziu efeitos neurotóxicos clínicos e/ou alterações histológicas sobre a dura-máter dos animais estudados. Nível de evidência V; Opinião de Especialista.


RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar los efectos de la terapia fotodinámica (PDT) en la duramadre utilizando los fotosensibilizadores de ftalocianina de aluminio clorada y azul de metileno en ensayos in vivo. Métodos Cincuenta y seis ratas Wistar machos se dividieron en 2 grupos; uno fue sometido a PDT y el otro sometido a fotosensibilizadores sin fotoactivación (control). Los fotosensibilizadores se aplicaron a la duramadre después de la laminectomía en el nivel T10. Los métodos de evaluación utilizados fueron la escala de evaluación funcional de Basso, Beattie y Bresnahan (BBB) y el estudio de la duramadre mediante microscopía óptica. Resultados No hubo cambios en la actividad motora de los animales sometidos a PDT en relación con el grupo de control. La evaluación histológica e histopatológica no mostró diferencias entre el grupo expuesto a fotosensibilizadores activados y el grupo de control con respecto al proceso inflamatorio y la necrosis tisular. Conclusiones El uso conjunto de PDT con las sustancias fotosensibilizadores ftalocianina de aluminio clorada y azul de metileno no indujo efectos neurotóxicos clínicos o cambios histológicos en la duramadre de los animales estudiados. Nivel de evidencia V; Opinión del Especialista.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dura Mater , Phytochemicals , Lasers , Methylene Blue
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vasoplegic syndrome is an increasingly recognized disease in perioperative medicine and is characterized by severe hypotension, normal or elevated cardiac output, and decreased systemic vascular resistance. It occurs commonly after cardiopulmonary bypass but may also occur after other types of surgery.CASE: Vasoplegic syndrome developed in our patient during posterior lumbar interbody fusion because of administering nicardipine after phenylephrine. However, the blood pressure did not increase as expected despite simultaneous use of norepinephrine and vasopressin to increase the reduced systemic vascular resistance.CONCLUSIONS: We present a case of vasoplegic syndrome that developed during posterior lumbar interbody fusion and was treated successfully with methylene blue.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Cardiac Output , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Humans , Hypotension , Methylene Blue , Nicardipine , Norepinephrine , Phenylephrine , Vascular Resistance , Vasoplegia , Vasopressins
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759675

ABSTRACT

There has been increasing use of the H₂O₂-based teeth bleaching agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bleaching effectiveness of the laser irradiation combined with nitrogen doped-TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs) on the stained resin. Nitrogen (N) doped-TiO₂ NPs were prepared under sol-gel method. Light absorbance, X-ray diffraction patterns of NPs, and bleaching of methylene blue and stained resins were evaluated. For bleaching of stained resin, NPs-containing gel was used. For irradiation, light of two different wavelengths was used. Unlike TiO₂, N-TiO₂ showed high absorbance after 400 nm. N-TiO₂, which have used TiN as a precursor, showed a new rutile phase at the TiN structure. For methylene blue solution, N-TiO₂ with 3% H₂O₂ resulted in the greatest absorbance decrease after laser irradiation regardless of wavelength. For stained resin test, N-TiO₂ with 3% H₂O₂ resulted in the greatest color difference after laser irradiation, followed by group that used N-TiO₂ without 3% H₂O₂.


Subject(s)
Methods , Methylene Blue , Nanoparticles , Nitrogen , Tin , Tooth Bleaching Agents , X-Ray Diffraction
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