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1.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 55-59, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013249

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) related to SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical data of 11 children with MIS-C, who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics of Peking University First Hospital from December 2022 to January 2023. Clinical characteristics, treatment, and follow-up of MIS-C were summarized in this study. Results: The 11 cases contained 7 boys and 4 girls, with an age of 4.4 (2.0, 5.5) years on admission. All the patients had fever, with a duration of 7(5, 9) days. Other clinical manifestations included rash in 7 cases, conjunctival hyperemia in 5 cases, red lips and raspberry tongue in 3 cases, lymphadenopathy in 3 cases, and swollen fingers and toes in 2 cases. There were 8 cases of digestive symptoms, 8 cases of respiratory symptoms, and 3 cases of nervous system symptoms. Eight patients had multi-system injuries, and one of them had shock presentation. All 11 patients were infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BF.7 variant. The laboratory examination results showed that all cases had elevated inflammatory indicators, abnormal coagulation function and myocardial damage. Six patients had elevated white blood cell counts, 5 cases had liver function abnormalities, 3 cases had kidney function abnormalities, and 8 cases had coronary artery involvement. All 11 patients received anti-infection treatment, of which 3 cases received only 2 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), while the remaining 8 cases received a combination of IVIG and 2 mg/(kg·d) methylprednisolone. Among the 8 cases with coronary artery disease, 6 cases received low molecular weight heparin anticoagulation therapy. All patients were followed up in 2 weeks after being discharged, and their inflammatory markers had returned to normal by that time. The 8 cases with coronary artery disease and 3 cases with pneumonia showed significant improvement or back to normal at the 4-week follow-up. All patients had no new complications or comorbidities during follow-up of more than 3 months. Conclusions: MIS-C may present with Kawasaki disease-like symptoms, with or without gastrointestinal, neurological, or respiratory symptoms. Elevated inflammatory markers, abnormal coagulation function, and cardiac injury contribute to the diagnosis of MIS-C. IVIG and methylprednisolone were the primary treatments for MIS-C, and a favorable short-term prognosis was observed during a follow-up period of more than 3 months.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , SARS-CoV-2 , Coronary Artery Disease , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Connective Tissue Diseases , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
2.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1550894

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El neumoencéfalo (sinonimia: aerocele o neumatocele intracerebral), se define como la presencia de gas dentro de cualquiera de los compartimentos intracraneales (intraventricular, intraparenquimatosa, subaracnoidea, subdural y epidural). Objetivo: Describir los hallazgos clínicos, estudios complementarios, conducta terapéutica y evolución de un caso con neumoencéfalo como complicación de bloqueo regional epidural por radiculopatía lumbosacra. Presentación de caso: Se presentó un paciente masculino de 57 años de edad que comenzó con un cuadro súbito de desorientación, excitabilidad psicomotriz y convulsiones tónico-clónicas, a partir de una inyección epidural de metilprednisolona como método analgésico. Conclusiones: El caso presentado exhibió manifestaciones neurológicas inespecíficas, la aparición súbita posterior al proceder invasivo hizo sospechar en un evento neurológico agudo o fenómeno tromboembólico. Los estudios complementarios como la tomografía axial computarizada craneal simple, permitió su diagnóstico para tener una conducta consecuente. El manejo conservador del neumoencéfalo como complicación del uso de anestesia epidural, constituyó una conducta terapéutica eficaz y repercutió en la satisfactoria evolución del paciente(AU)


Introduction: Pneumocephalus (synonym: aerocele or intracerebral pneumatocele), is defined as the presence of gas within any of the intracranial compartments (intraventricular, intraparenchymal, subarachnoid, subdural and epidural). Objective: To describe the clinical findings, complementary studies, therapeutic conduct and evolution of a case with pneumocephalus as a complication of regional epidural block due to lumbosacral radiculopathy Case presentation: A 57-year-old male patient was presented who began with a sudden episode of disorientation, psychomotor excitability and tonic-clonic seizures, following an epidural injection of methylprednisolone as an analgesic method. Conclusions: The case presented exhibited non-specific neurological manifestations, the sudden appearance after the invasive procedure raised suspicion of an acute neurological event or thromboembolic phenomenon. Complementary studies such as simple cranial computed axial tomography, allowed its diagnosis to have a consistent conduct. The conservative management of pneumocephalus as a complication of the use of epidural anesthesia constituted an effective therapeutic approach and had an impact on the patient's satisfactory evolution(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Radiculopathy/complications , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pneumoencephalography/methods , Tomography, Spiral Computed/methods , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods
3.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 1111-1117, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010176

ABSTRACT

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is clinically severe, with a high mortality rate and rare neuropsychiatric symptoms. In the course of diagnosis and treatment, it is necessary to actively determine whether the neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients are caused by neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) or macrophage activation syndrome. This paper retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 2 cases of SLE associated MAS with neuropsychiatric lesions, Case 1: A 30-year-old female had obvious alopecia in 2019, accompanied by emaciation, fatigue and dry mouth. In March 2021, she felt weak legs and fell down, followed by fever and chills without obvious causes. After completing relevant examinations, she was diagnosed with SLE and given symptomatic treatments such as hormones and anti-infection, but the patient still had fever. The relevant examinations showed moderate anemia, elevated ferritin, elevated triglycerides, decreased NK cell activity, and a perforin positivity rate of 4.27%, which led to the diagnosis of "pre-hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS)". In May 2021, the patient showed mental trance and babble, and was diagnosed with "SLE-associated MAS"after completing relevant examinations. After treatment with methylprednisolone, anti-infection and psychotropic drugs, the patient's temperature was normal and mental symptoms improved. Case 2: A 30-year-old female patient developed butterfly erythema on both sides of the nose on her face and several erythema on her neck in June 2019, accompanied by alopecia, oral ulcers, and fever. She was diagnosed with "SLE" after completing relevant examinations, and her condition was relieved after treatment with methylprednisolone and human immunoglobulin. In October 2019, the patient showed apathy, no lethargy, and fever again, accompanied by dizziness and vomiting. The relevant examination indicated moderate anemia, decreased NK cell activity, elevated triglycerides, and elevated ferritin. The patient was considered to be diagnosed with "SLE, NPSLE, and SLE-associated MAS". After treatment with hormones, human immunoglobulin, anti-infection, rituximab (Mabthera), the patient's condition improved and was discharged from the hospital. After discharge, the patient regularly took methylprednisolone tablets (Medrol), and her psychiatric symptoms were still intermittent. In November 2019, she developed symptoms of fever, mania, and delirium, and later turned to an apathetic state, and was given methylprednisolone intravenous drip and olanzapine tablets (Zyprexa) orally. After the mental symptoms improved, she was treated with rituximab (Mabthera). Later, due to repeated infections, she was replaced with Belizumab (Benlysta), and she was recovered from her psychiatric anomalies in March 2021. Through the analysis of clinical symptoms, imaging examination, laboratory examination, treatment course and effect, it is speculated that the neuropsychiatric symptoms of case 1 are more likely to be caused by MAS, and that of case 2 is more likely to be caused by SLE. At present, there is no direct laboratory basis for the identification of the two neuropsychiatric symptoms. The etiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms can be determined by clinical manifestations, imaging manifestations, cerebrospinal fluid detection, and the patient's response to treatment. Early diagnosis is of great significance for guiding clinical treatment, monitoring the condition and judging the prognosis. The good prognosis of the two cases in this paper is closely related to the early diagnosis, treatment and intervention of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Lupus Vasculitis, Central Nervous System , Fever/drug therapy , Erythema/drug therapy , Hormones/therapeutic use , Anemia , Alopecia/drug therapy , Triglycerides/therapeutic use , Ferritins/therapeutic use
4.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(1): e204, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1420116

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: describir las características de ocho pacientes pediátricos que se presentaron con síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico (MIS-C) asociado a SARS-CoV-2 y compromiso cardíaco. Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo de ocho pacientes con edades entre 1 y 13 años, con diagnóstico de MIS-C y compromiso cardíaco, asistidos en el CHPR. Se analiza su historia clínica, evolución y tratamiento. Resultados: los pacientes presentaron fiebre en el 100%, exantema e hiperemia conjuntival en el 88%, síntomas digestivos en el 50%, insuficiencia respiratoria en el 25% y shock en el 50%. Todos requirieron ingreso a cuidados intensivos. La alteración de la contractilidad cardíaca estuvo presente en el 63% de los pacientes, fue leve y segmentaria en el 80%, el 60% requirió soporte inotrópico por 3 días, recuperando una función normal en 7 días. La insuficiencia mitral se presentó en el 25% y el derrame pericárdico en el 38%, ambos de grado leve. Un paciente presentó dilatación de arterias coronarias con Z score < 2. El 85% de los pacientes presentó alteraciones del ECG, en el 29% se trató de alteración en la repolarización, en el 29% intervalo QTc prolongado, en el 15% bloqueo atrioventricular de 1er grado y bloqueo incompleto de rama derecha. Un paciente tuvo fibrilación auricular por 3 días con remisión espontánea a ritmo sinusal. Las troponinas estuvieron altas en el 57% de los pacientes y el ProBNP elevado en el 100%. Todos recibieron inmunoglobulinas, metilprednisolona y aspirina. Conclusiones: se presentaron ocho pacientes pediátricos con MIS-C y compromiso cardíaco, el 50% se presentó en shock, todos requirieron ingreso a cuidados intensivos. El 85% presento alteraciones en el ECG. El 63% presentó compromiso de la contractilidad sectorial y leve, se normalizó en 7 días. El 60% requirió soporte inotrópico por una media de 3 días.


Objective: describe the characteristics of 8 children who presented Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome associated with SARS-CoV2 infections (MIS-C) and cardiac involvement. Material and methods: descriptive, retrospective study of 8 patients of between 1 and 13 years of age, diagnosed with MIS-C and cardiac involvement, assisted at the Pereira Rossell Children Hospital, analysis of their medical records, evolution and treatment. Results: the patients showed: fever in 100% of the cases, rash and conjunctival hyperemia in 88%, digestive symptoms in 50%, respiratory failure in 25% and shock in 50%. All required admission to Intensive Care. Cardiac contractility alteration was present in 63% of patients, the affectation was mild and segmental in 80%, 60% required inotropic support for 3 days and recovered normal functions in 7 days. Mitral regurgitation was present in 25% of the cases and pericardial effusion in 38%, mild in both cases. One patient had dilated coronary arteries with a Z score <2. 85% of the patients presented ECG abnormalities, 29% present alteration of repolarization, 29% prolonged QTc, 15% 1st degree atrioventricular block and incomplete right bundle branch block. One patient had atrial fibrillation for 3 days with spontaneous remission to sinus rhythm. Troponins were increased in 57% of the patients and ProBNP elevated in 100%. All patients received Immunoglobulins, Methylprednisolone and Aspirin. Conclusions: we present eight pediatric patients with MIS-C and cardiac involvement, 50% suffered shock, all required admission to Intensive Care. ECG abnormalities were found in 85% of the patients. Mild and segmental contractility compromise was found in 63% of the patients and normalized in 7 days. 60% required inotropic support for a mean of 3 days.


Objetivo: descrever as características de 8 pacientes pediátricos que apresentaram Síndrome Inflamatória Multissistêmica (MIS-C) associada ao SARS-CoV-2 e comprometimento cardíaco. Material e métodos: estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, de oito pacientes com idade entre 1 e 13 anos, com diagnóstico de MIS-C e comprometimento cardíaco, assistidos pelo CHPR. Seu prontuário médico, evolução e tratamento são analisados. Resultados: os pacientes apresentaram febre em 100%, erupção cutânea e hiperemia conjuntival em 88%, sintomas digestivos em 50%, insuficiência respiratória em 25% e choque em 50%. Todos necessitaram de internação nos cuidados intensivos. A alteração da contratilidade cardíaca esteve presente em 63% dos pacientes, foi leve e segmentar em 80%, 60% necessitaram de suporte inotrópico por 3 dias, recuperando a função normal em 7 dias. A regurgitação mitral ocorreu em 25% dos pacientes e o derrame pericárdico em 38%, ambos de grau leve. Um paciente apresentou dilatação da artéria coronária com escore Z < 2. 85% dos pacientes apresentaram anormalidades no ECG, 29% foram alterações de repolarização, 29% intervalo QTc prolongado em bloqueio atrioventricular de 1º grau a 15% e bloqueio incompleto do ramo direito. Um paciente apresentou fibrilação atrial por 3 dias com remissão espontânea ao ritmo sinusal. As troponinas foram elevadas em 57% dos doentes e ProBNP elevado em 100%. Todos receberam imunoglobulinas, Metilprednisolona e aspirina. Conclusões: houve oito pacientes pediátricos com SMIM-C e comprometimento cardíaco, 50% em choque, todos necessitaram de internação em terapia intensiva. 85% apresentaram elevações no ECG. 63% apresentaram comprometimento setorial e de contratilidade leve, normalizados em 7 dias. 60% necessitaram de suporte inotrópico por uma média de 3 dias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , COVID-19/complications , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Heparin Antagonists/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1403142

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES), prototipo de enfermedad autoinmune, cursa con empujes y remisiones. Dada la diversidad de presentaciones posibles, su diagnóstico y tratamiento son un reto para el clínico, y se requiere tener un alto índice de sospecha. Objetivo: presentar el caso clínico de un adolescente que debuta con LES a forma de anemia hemolítica, probablemente gatillado por infección por virus de Epstein Barr. Caso clínico: Varón de 14 años, sin antecedentes a destacar. Consulta por fiebre de 7 días de evolución de hasta 39º C, odinofagia, astenia y adinamia. Al examen físico se constata palidez cutáneo mucosa, ictericia, adenopatías cervicales y hepatoesplenomegalia. El laboratorio muestra anemia severa regenerativa con aumento de las bilirrubinas a expensas de la indirecta sin hepatitis. Prueba de Coombs positiva. Anticuerpos específicos para Epstein Barr positivos, con lo que se diagnostica anemia hemolítica secundaria a mononucleosis y se inicia tratamiento corticoideo. En la evolución agrega eritema malar y limitación en flexión de codos y rodillas. Se reciben anticuerpos antinucleares y anti ADN nativo positivos con hipocomplementemia severa. Con diagnóstico de LES se inicia hidroxicloroquina y azatioprina, manteniéndose la prednisona. Conclusiones: Muchos virus (hepatitis C, Parvovirus B19, Epstein Barr y Citomegalovirus) se han descrito como posibles inductores o simuladores de LES. Es necesario mantener un alto índice de sospecha para realizar un diagnóstico oportuno y tratamiento precoz.


Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), prototype of autoimmune disease, progresses with flares and remissions. Given the diversity of possible presentations, its diagnosis and treatment are a challenge for the clinician, and a high index of suspicion is required. Objective: To present the clinical case of an adolescent who debuted with SLE in the form of hemolytic anemia, probably triggered by Epstein Barr virus infection. Clinical case: 14 - year - old male, with no history to highlight. Consultation for fever of 7 days of evolution of up to 39º C, odynophagia, asthenia and adynamia. Physical examination revealed mucous skin pallor, jaundice, cervical lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. The laboratory shows severe regenerative anemia with increased bilirubin at the expense of indirect without hepatitis. Positive Coombs test. Specific antibodies for Epstein Barr were positive, with which hemolytic anemia secondary to mononucleosis was diagnosed and corticosteroid treatment was started. In the evolution, it adds malar erythema and limitation in flexion of the elbows and knees. Positive antinuclear and anti-native DNA antibodies are received with severe hypocomplementemia. With a diagnosis of SLE, hydroxychloroquine and azathioprine were started, maintaining prednisone. Conclusions: Many viruses (hepatitis C, Parvovirus B19, Epstein Barr and Cytomegalovirus) have been described as possible inducers or mimics of SLE. It is necessary to maintain a high index of suspicion for timely diagnosis and early treatment.


Introdução: O lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES), protótipo de doença autoimune, evolui com impulsos e remissões. Dada a diversidade de apresentações possíveis, seu diagnóstico e tratamento são um desafio para o clínico, sendo necessário um alto índice de suspeição. Objetivo: apresentar o caso clínico de uma adolescente que iniciou com LES na forma de anemia hemolítica, provavelmente desencadeada por infecção pelo vírus Epstein Barr. Caso clínico: Homem de 14 anos, sem antecedentes a destacar. Consulta por febre de 7 dias de evolução de até 39º C, odinofagia, astenia e adinamia. O exame físico revelou palidez cutânea mucosa, icterícia, linfadenopatia cervical e hepatoesplenomegalia. O laboratório mostra anemia regenerativa grave com aumento da bilirrubina em detrimento da indireta sem hepatite. Teste de Coombs positivo. Anticorpos específicos para Epstein Barr foram positivos, com o qual foi diagnosticada anemia hemolítica secundária à mononucleose e iniciado tratamento com corticosteróides. Na evolução, acrescenta eritema malar e limitação na flexão dos cotovelos e joelhos. Anticorpos antinucleares e anti-DNA nativos positivos são recebidos com hipocomplementemia grave. Com diagnóstico de LES, iniciou-se hidroxicloroquina e azatioprina, mantendo-se prednisona. Conclusões: Muitos vírus (hepatite C, Parvovírus B19, Epstein Barr e Citomegalovírus) têm sido descritos como possíveis indutores ou mimetizadores do LES. É necessário manter um alto índice de suspeição para diagnóstico oportuno e tratamento precoce.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Infectious Mononucleosis/diagnosis , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/drug therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Infectious Mononucleosis/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy
6.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 37(1): e706, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1415403

ABSTRACT

El término miocarditis hace referencia a una inflamación del miocardio, que puede tener diversas causas (infecciones, tóxicos, enfermedades autoinmunes). Su diagnóstico es desafiante debido al gran espectro de presentaciones clínicas que puede adoptar, muchas veces imitando patologías más prevalentes como el infarto agudo de miocardio. La miocarditis asociada a enfermedades autoinmunes es poco frecuente, y la importancia de reconocerla radica en que el diagnóstico e inicio temprano del tratamiento son cruciales para mejorar su pronóstico. Presentamos aquí un caso clínico de una perimiocarditis lúpica.


Myocarditis refers to an inflammation of the myocardium, which can have various causes (infections, toxic substances, autoimmune diseases). Its diagnosis is challenging due to the wide spectrum of clinical presentations, often mimicking more prevalent pathologies such as acute myocardial infarction. Myocarditis associated with autoimmune diseases is rare, and the importance of recognizing is that early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are crucial to improve its prognosis. We present here a clinical case of lupus perimyocarditis.


O termo miocardite refere-se a uma inflamação do miocárdio, que pode ter várias causas (infecções, substâncias tóxicas, doenças autoimunes). Seu diagnóstico é desafiador devido ao amplo espectro de apresentações clínicas que pode ter, muitas vezes mimetizando patologias mais prevalentes como o infarto agudo do miocárdio. A miocardite associada a doenças autoimunes é rara, e a importância de reconhecê-la reside no fato de que o diagnóstico precoce e o início do tratamento são cruciais para melhorar seu prognóstico. Apresentamos aqui um caso clínico de perimiocardite lúpica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Heart Failure/therapy , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Chest Pain , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/drug therapy
7.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 369-375, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936161

ABSTRACT

Pituitary immune-related adverse events induced by programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitors in advanced lung cancer patients: A report of 3 cases SUMMARY Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand 1 (PD-L1) have been widely used in lung cancer treatment, but their immune-related adverse events (irAEs) require intensive attention. Pituitary irAEs, including hypophysitis and hypopituitarism, are commonly induced by cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 inhibitors, but rarely by PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) deficiency (IAD) is a special subtype of pituitary irAEs, without any other pituitary hormone dysfunction, and with no enlargement of pituitary gland, either. Here, we described three patients with advanced lung cancer who developed IAD and other irAEs, after PD-1 inhibitor treatment. Case 1 was a 68-year-old male diagnosed with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with high expression of PD-L1. He was treated with pembrolizumab monotherapy, and developed immune-related hepatitis, which was cured by high-dose methylprednisolone [0.5-1.0 mg/(kg·d)]. Eleven months later, the patient was diagnosed with primary gastric adenocarcinoma, and was treated with apatinib, in addition to pembrolizumab. After 17 doses of pembrolizumab, he developed severe nausea and asthenia, when methylprednisolone had been stopped for 10 months. His blood tests showed severe hyponatremia (121 mmol/L, reference 137-147 mmol/L, the same below), low levels of 8:00 a.m. cortisol (< 1 μg/dL, reference 5-25 μg/dL, the same below) and ACTH (2.2 ng/L, reference 7.2-63.3 ng/L, the same below), and normal thyroid function, sex hormone and prolactin. Meanwhile, both his lung cancer and gastric cancer remained under good control. Case 2 was a 66-year-old male with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma, who was treated with a new PD-1 inhibitor, HX008, combined with chemotherapy (clinical trial number: CTR20202387). After 5 months of treatment (7 doses in total), his cancer exhibited partial response, but his nausea and vomiting suddenly exacerbated, with mild dyspnea and weakness in his lower limbs. His blood tests showed mild hyponatremia (135 mmol/L), low levels of 8:00 a.m. cortisol (4.3 μg/dL) and ACTH (1.5 ng/L), and normal thyroid function. His thoracic computed tomography revealed moderate immune-related pneumonitis simultaneously. Case 3 was a 63-year-old male with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma. He was treated with first-line sintilimab combined with chemotherapy, which resulted in partial response, with mild immune-related rash. His cancer progressed after 5 cycles of treatment, and sintilimab was discontinued. Six months later, he developed asymptomatic hypoadrenocorticism, with low level of cortisol (1.5 μg/dL) at 8:00 a.m. and unresponsive ACTH (8.0 ng/L). After being rechallenged with another PD-1 inhibitor, teslelizumab, combined with chemotherapy, he had pulmonary infection, persistent low-grade fever, moderate asthenia, and severe hyponatremia (116 mmol/L). Meanwhile, his blood levels of 8:00 a.m. cortisol and ACTH were 3.1 μg/dL and 7.2 ng/L, respectively, with normal thyroid function, sex hormone and prolactin. All of the three patients had no headache or visual disturbance. Their pituitary magnetic resonance image showed no pituitary enlargement or stalk thickening, and no dynamic changes. They were all on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with prednisone (2.5-5.0 mg/d), and resumed the PD-1 inhibitor treatment when symptoms relieved. In particular, Case 2 started with high-dose prednisone [1 mg/(kg·d)] because of simultaneous immune-related pneumonitis, and then tapered it to the HRT dose. His cortisol and ACTH levels returned to and stayed normal. However, the other two patients' hypopituitarism did not recover. In summary, these cases demonstrated that the pituitary irAEs induced by PD-1 inhibitors could present as IAD, with a large time span of onset, non-specific clinical presentation, and different recovery patterns. Clinicians should monitor patients' pituitary hormone regularly, during and at least 6 months after PD-1 inhibitor treatment, especially in patients with good oncological response to the treatment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/drug therapy , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/therapeutic use , B7-H1 Antigen/therapeutic use , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Hyponatremia/drug therapy , Hypopituitarism/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Nausea/drug therapy , Pituitary Gland/pathology , Pneumonia , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/therapeutic use , Prolactin/therapeutic use
8.
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(4): 407-409, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1516685

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), an autoimmune disorder, has been documented as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection and a vaccination side effect. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the creation of CoronaVac vaccine and has been widely administered in Brazil.Patient, in the case, is an 82-years-old female who received the vaccine two days before an acute episode of gingivorrhagia and diffuse cutaneous petechiae. Other exams were made to look for other causes of secondary thrombocytopenia and all the results were normal. The patient showed improvement on the platelet levels three day after the beginning of the treatment with high dosage methylprednisolone.Knowing that other kinds of vaccine can generate ITP, the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine could be related to the symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control
10.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 16(2): 124-128, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525498

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB), y sus derivados, entre ellos el síndrome de Miller Fisher (SMF); junto a otras patologías de origen neurológico como la Polineuropatía desmielinizante inflamatoria crónica (CIDP), las polineuropatías de causa metabólica, miastenia gravis, esclerosis lateral amiotrófica (ELA), síndrome de Lambert-Eaton, encefalopatía de Wernicke entre otras; presentan signos y síntomas neurológicos de presentación común. De este modo, la importancia del examen neurológico acabado; y los exámenes de apoyo diagnóstico como: laboratorio -destacando el líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR)-, electromiografía, y toma de imágenes, son cruciales para esclarecer el diagnóstico. Así, es posible ofrecer un tratamiento de forma precoz, basado en la evidencia, y con el objetivo de disminuir la letalidad de la enfermedad. En el presente texto se plasma un subgrupo de patología de SGB, el SMF, el cual posee una incidencia significativamente baja, una clínica característica, y un pronóstico bastante ominoso sin un tratamiento adecuado. En el presente texto se plasma el reporte de un caso abordado en el Hospital San Pablo de Coquimbo, Chile.


Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and its derivatives, including Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), along others pathologies of neurological origin such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), metabolic polyneuropathies, myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Lambert-Eaton syndrome, Wernicke's encephalopathy and well as others, have common neurological signs and symptoms. In this way, the importance of a thorough neurological examination, and supporting diagnostic tests such as: laboratory, -cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-electromyography, and imaging, are crucial to clarify the diagnosis. Thus, it is possible to offer early, evidence-based treatment with an aim of reducing the disease's lethality. In the text below we present a subgroup of GBS pathology, MFS, which has a significantly low incidence, a characteristic clinical picture, and a rather ominous prognosis without adequate treatment. In the following text/paper is shown the report of a case approached in San Pablo Hospital, from Coquimbo, Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Miller Fisher Syndrome/diagnosis , Miller Fisher Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ophthalmoplegia/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Electromyography
12.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 59(2): 152-158, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388386

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome de WEBINO (wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia), se presenta por una lesión del tegmento pontino (incluye área pontina paramediana, fascículo longitudinal medial y núcleo del abducens). Presenta limitación bilateral en la aducción y exotropía en la posición de la mirada primaria, nistagmo del ojo que abduce e incapacidad para la convergencia. Reporte de caso: Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 14 años con antecedente de Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico que debutó con diplopía horizontal de inicio súbito. El diagnóstico de WEBINO fue clínico y asociado con hallazgos de lesión isquémico pontomesencefálica en Resonancia Nuclear Magnética y angioresonancia cerebral. Se administró tratamiento con Metilprednisolona y presentó resolución gradual de los síntomas, sin embargo una semana después falleció por criptococosis sistémica. Conclusiones: Hacer el diagnostico de WEBINO se hace desafiante por su rareza y por la precisión de su localización neuroanatómica. Se debe realizar una exploración detallada para definir la causa probable y establecer el tratamiento oportuno que favorezca el pronóstico neurológico.


Background: Wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (WEBINO) is presented by a lesion of the pontine tegment (includes paramedian pontine area, medial longitudinal fascicle and nuclei of the abducens). It presents bilateral limitation in adduction and exotropia in the position of the primary gaze, abducting eye nystagmus and inability to converge. Case report: We present the case of a 14-year-old patient with a history of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus who debuted with sudden onset horizontal diplopia. WEBINO's diagnosis was clinical and associated with findings of ponto-mesencephalic ischemic injury in magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. Treatment with Methylprednisolone was administered and she presented gradual resolution of the symptoms, however, one week later she died of systemic cryptococcosis. Conclusions: Making the WEBINO diagnosis is challenging due to its rarity and the precision of its neuroanatomical location. A detailed examination should be performed to define the probable cause and establish the appropriate treatment that favors the neurological prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Ocular Motility Disorders/drug therapy , Ocular Motility Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Diplopia , Pontine Tegmentum/pathology
13.
Rev. chil. anest ; 50(1): 126-158, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512436

ABSTRACT

According to different publications, the neurological level most frequently involved in traumatic spinal cord injury is cervical (16%-75%), followed by thoracic (16%-36%) and lumbar (9%-17%). The abrupt interruption of nerve conduction at the spinal level causes spinal shock, characterized by an acute neurological, hemodynamic, respiratory and urinary compromise, which associates with thermoregulation problems. Neurological repercussions are characterized by a motor compromise, evidenced as flaccid paralysis with areflexia, sensory damage, abolition of sympathetic activity and loss of adaptive reflexes in the territory located below the lesion. The management of traumatic spinal cord, both, isolated or associated with multiple trauma, must begin at the scene of the accident. The current trend is towards a selective immobilization identifiying the group of patients in whom it will have a real benefit. Clinical features of spinal shock and other clinical aspects of the spinal cord injury are described in detail. Diagnosis should include a complete neurological examination including imaging studies. The type of image of choice is computerized axial tomography (CT). Different treatment alternatives are analyzed, including early or delayed descompressive surgery, methylprednisolone, neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. Finally, anesthetic management is described, the objective of which should be to reduce the movement of the lesion area (especially during positioning and the laryngoscopy and intubation maneuver) and to maintain the medullary perfusion pressure within normal limits. Postoperative care should focus on pain management, prevention of thromboembolic events and weaning from mechanical ventilation.


El nivel neurológico más frecuentemente comprometido en las lesiones raquimedulares por trauma es el cervical (16%-75%), seguido del torácico (16%-36%) y lumbar (9%-17%) según diferentes publicaciones. La brusca interrupción de la conducción nerviosa a nivel medular origina el cuadro de medular, caracterizado por un agudo compromiso neurológico, hemodinámico, respiratorio y urinario, asociado a problemas de termorregulación, con repercusiones neurológicas caracterizadas por un compromiso motor que se manifiesta como una parálisis fláccida con arreflexia, daño sensitivo, desaparición de la actividad simpática y pérdida de reflejos de adaptación en el territorio ubicado por debajo de la lesión. El manejo del trauna raquimedular asociado o no a politraumatismo debe inicirse en la escena del accidente; la tendencia actual es hacia una inmovilización selectiva, haciendo una identificación del grupo de pacientes en los que tendrá un real beneficio. Se describe detalladamente el cuadro de medular o espinal y otros aspectos clínicos de la sección medular. El diagnóstico debe incluir un examen neurológico completo y estudios de imagenología; el tipo de imagen de elección es la tomografía axial computarizada (TAC). Se analizan las diferentes alternativas de tratamiento: cirugía descompresiva precoz o diferida, metilprednisolona, neuroprotección y neurorregeneración. Finalmente se detalla el manejo anestésico, cuyo objetivo debe perseguir el menor movimiento de la zona de la lesión (especialmente durante el posicionamiento y la maniobra de laringoscopía e intubación) y el mantenimiento de la presión de perfusión medular dentro de los límites más estables posilbes. Los cuidados posoperatorios deben estar dirigidos especialmente al manejo de la analgesia, la prevención de la enfermedad tromboembólica y la desconexión de la ventilación mecánica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Cord Injuries/diagnosis , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Postoperative Care , Spinal Cord Injuries/physiopathology , Blood Circulation , Body Temperature , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Decompression, Surgical , Airway Management , Arterial Pressure , Neuroprotection , Intubation , Anesthesia
14.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS | ID: biblio-1358025

ABSTRACT

A síndrome DRESS é uma reação adversa a medicamentos pouco conhecida dentro da prática clínica, porém com grande potencial de letalidade devido a combinação de manifestações cutâneas e envolvimento de múltiplos órgãos. Objetivo: identificar possíveis reações adversas graves e incomuns secundárias ao uso de medicações usadas frequentemente na prática clínica. Métodos: Trata-se de um relato de caso construído com base em levantamento de dados do prontuário do paciente e análise a partir de um referencial teórico para comprovação de sua relevância na prática clínica. Resultado: Enfatizou-se a importância de um reconhecimento precoce dessa condição, a fim de evitar desfechos graves


The DRESS syndrome is an adverse drug reaction that is unsual in clinical practice, but with a high potential for lethality, due to the combination of cutaneous manifestations and involvement of multiple organs. Objective: identify possible serious and unusual adverse reactions secondary to the use of medications frequently used in clinical practice. Methods: This is a case report built on the basis of data collection from the patient's medical record and analysis from a theoretical framework to prove its source in clinical practice. Outcome: The importance of early recognition of this condition was emphasized, in order to avoid serious outcomes


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Allopurinol/adverse effects , Exanthema , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/diagnosis , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/drug therapy , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Histamine Antagonists
15.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(3): e0010, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280122

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology that can affect the eye. The most common ocular manifestation related to VKH is bilateral diffuse uveitis associated to exudative retinal detachment. Although these patients respond well to steroid pulse therapy, we report a case of a 44-year-old female patient presenting bilateral exudative retinal detachment and clinical diagnosis of VKH, who did not respond to the first cycle of 3-day pulse therapy with methylprednisolone. The exudation was reabsorbed only after a second cycle of steroid therapy.


RESUMO A doença de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada é inflamatória e de etiologia desconhecida, podendo afetar o olho. A manifestação ocular mais comum relacionada à doença de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada é a uveíte difusa bilateral associada ao descolamento exsudativo da retina. Embora esses pacientes respondam bem à pulsoterapia com esteroides, relatamos um caso de paciente de 44 anos que apresentou descolamento exsudativo bilateral da retina com diagnóstico clínico de doença de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada que não respondeu ao primeiro ciclo de pulsoterapia de 3 dias com metilprednisolona. A exsudação apenas reabsorveu após uma segunda rodada de terapia com esteroides.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Retinal Detachment/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Pulse Therapy, Drug/methods , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(3): e1277, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156444

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La aplasia medular adquirida grave es una enfermedad hematológica infrecuente caracterizada por una disminución o ausencia de precursores hematopoyéticos en la médula ósea, lo cual se expresa con distintos grados de citopenias. Varios factores, infecciosos o no, pueden incidir en su origen. Su manejo es complejo y puede incluir tratamiento inmunosupresor y trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos alogénico. Objetivo: Demostrar la utilidad de la realización del trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos alogénico haploidéntico en pacientes con aplasia medular grave. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 21 años de edad, con antecedentes de salud, que en octubre del 2018 debutó con íctero, pancitopenia, lesiones purpúrico hemorrágicas en piel y mucosas, en el curso de una hepatitis aguda seronegativa. La biopsia de médula ósea mostró aplasia medular severa. Se inició tratamiento inmunosupresor con globulina antitimocίtica, ciclosporina A y metilprednisolona. Al cabo de los 6 meses mantenía trombocitopenia severa con necesidades transfusionales y en octubre de 2019 se decide realizar trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos alogénico con donante haploidéntico y empleando como tratamiento acondicionante globulina antitimocίtica, fludarabina, ciclofosfamida y bajas dosis de irradiación corporal total. En evaluación clίnica de julio de 2020 (dίa + 280 del trasplante) el paciente estaba asintomático y con parámetros hematológicos normales. Conclusiones: Se demostró que el trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos alogénico haploidéntico es un proceder realizable y útil en pacientes con aplasia medular grave, lo cual corrobora el beneficio clínico que puede aportar su ejecución en pacientes con esta enfermedad(AU)


Introduction: Acquired severe marrow aplasia is a rare hematological disease characterized by decrease or absence of hematopoietic precursors in bone marrow, which is expressed with different degrees of cytopenias. Several factors, infectious or not, can influence its origin. Its management is complex and may include immunosuppressive treatment and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Objective: To demonstrate the usefulness of performing haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in patients with severe medullary aplasia. Clinical case: A 21-year-old male patient, with medical history, who first presented, in October 2018, with icterus, pancytopenia, as well as purpuric hemorrhagic lesions on the skin and mucosa, in the course of acute seronegative hepatitis. The bone marrow biopsy showed severe marrow aplasia. Immunosuppressive treatment was started with antithymocytic globulin, cyclosporine A, and methylprednisolone. After six months, he maintained severe thrombocytopenia under transfusion requirements and, in October 2019, the decision was to perform allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation with a haploidentical donor and using antithymocyte globulin, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and low doses of total body irradiation as conditioning treatment. In the clinical assessment carried out in July 2020 (day +280 after transplantation), the patient was asymptomatic and with normal hematological parameters. Conclusions: Transplantation of haploidentic allogeneic hematopoietic progenitors was shown to be a feasible and useful procedure in patients with severe marrow aplasia, which corroborates the clinical benefit that its execution can bring in patients with this disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Tissue Donors/ethics , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Whole-Body Irradiation/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission/methods , Hematologic Diseases , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Cuba , Transplantation, Haploidentical/methods , Anemia, Aplastic/therapy , Antilymphocyte Serum
18.
Brasília; s.n; 5 ago 2020. 32 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | BRISA, LILACS, PIE | ID: biblio-1117760

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 11 artigos e 6 protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Interferons/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
19.
Brasília; s.n; 1 jul. 2020. 28 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | BRISA, LILACS, PIE | ID: biblio-1117618

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 14 artigos e 6 protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Febuxostat/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
20.
Brasília; s.n; 20 jul.2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | BRISA, LILACS, PIE | ID: biblio-1117679

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 14 artigos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Roxithromycin/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Cohort Studies , Interferons/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Amoxicillin/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
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