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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929154

ABSTRACT

The dorsal lingual epithelium, which is composed of taste buds and keratinocytes differentiated from K14+ basal cells, discriminates taste compounds and maintains the epithelial barrier. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant mRNA modification in eukaryotic cells. How METTL3-mediated m6A modification regulates K14+ basal cell fate during dorsal lingual epithelium formation and regeneration remains unclear. Here we show knockout of Mettl3 in K14+ cells reduced the taste buds and enhanced keratinocytes. Deletion of Mettl3 led to increased basal cell proliferation and decreased cell division in taste buds. Conditional Mettl3 knock-in mice showed little impact on taste buds or keratinization, but displayed increased proliferation of cells around taste buds in a protective manner during post-irradiation recovery. Mechanically, we revealed that the most frequent m6A modifications were enriched in Hippo and Wnt signaling, and specific peaks were observed near the stop codons of Lats1 and FZD7. Our study elucidates that METTL3 is essential for taste bud formation and could promote the quantity recovery of taste bud after radiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Epithelium/metabolism , Homeostasis , Methylation , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Mice , RNA , Taste Buds/metabolism
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880692

ABSTRACT

RNA methylation is of great significance in the regulation of gene expression, among which the more important methylation modifiers are N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and 5-methylcytosine (m5C). The methylation process is mainly regulated by 3 kinds of proteins: methyltransferase, demethylase, and reader. m6A, m5C, and their related proteins have high abundance in the brain, and they have important roles in the development of the nervous system and the repair and remodeling of the vascular system. The neurovascular unit (NVU) is a unit of brain structure and function composed of neurons, capillaries, astrocytes, supporting cells, and extracellular matrix. The local microenvironment for NVU has an important role in nerve cell function repair, and the remodeling of NVU is of great significance in the prognosis of various neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
5-Methylcytosine , Adenosine/metabolism , Methylation , Methyltransferases/metabolism , RNA
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1869-1886, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887769

ABSTRACT

Methyltransferases (MTs) constitute a large group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a methyl moiety, most frequently from S-adenosyl-L-methionine, to their substrates. It plays an essential role in regulation of gene expression and synthesis of many natural compounds. Owing to its broad substrate spectrum, MTs make important contributions to diversify the spectrum of products through methylation modifications. Recently, great progress has been made in application of MTs for the biosynthesis of various natural products including phenylpropane compounds, fragrances, hormones and antibiotics, which is summarized in this review. Moreover, we highlighted the strategies of using MTs for efficient production and for expanding the diversity of these methylated natural products, and discussed the current challenges and future prospects in this area.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Methylation , Methyltransferases/metabolism
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1668-1675, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134496

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The Mettl3/Mettl14 methyltransferase complex installs the most ubiquitous internal mRNA modification- N6-methyladenosine (m6A). The vertebrate retina development is a multi-step process that requires fine-tuning of multiple cellular events, but very little is known about the potential function of Mettl3 and Mettl14 in this process. In this study, we demonstrated the spatio-temporal expression of Mettl3 and Mettl14 during retina development in mouse by quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence staining. We found that these two components of methyltransferase complex could be detected from the beginning of retina development; and the expression of Mettl3 and Mettl14 were gradually restricted to inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL); Double labeling showed that Mettl3 and Mettl14 had similar expression patterns in mature retinal INL and GCL. Overall, our spatio-temporal expression data provided the foundation for future research on the function of m6A modification in the retina development.


RESUMEN: El complejo Mettl3 / Mettl14 metiltransferasa establece la modificación interna más significativa de ARNm: N6- metiladenosina (m6A). El desarrollo de la retina de los vertebrados es un proceso de varios pasos que requiere múltiples eventos celulares; existe muy poca información sobre la función potencial de Mettl3 y Mettl14 en este proceso. En este estudio, demostramos la expresión espacio-temporal de Mettl3 y Mettl14 durante el desarrollo de la retina en ratón mediante PCR cuantitativa y tinción de inmunofluorescencia. Descubrimos que estos dos componentes del complejo de metiltransferasa podían ser detectados desde el comienzo del desarrollo de la retina; la expresión de Mettl3 y Mettl14 se restringió gradualmente a la capa nuclear interna (INL) y la capa de células ganglionares (GCL); se observó que Mettl3 y Mettl14 tenían patrones de expresión similares en INL y GCL retinianos maduros. En general, nuestros datos de expresión espacio-temporal proporcionan información para futuras investigaciones sobre la función de la modificación de m6A en el desarrollo de la retina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Retina/embryology , Retina/enzymology , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Staining and Labeling , Immunohistochemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methyltransferases/genetics , Mice, Inbred C57BL
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880483

ABSTRACT

Protein lysine methylation is a prevalent post-translational modification (PTM) and plays critical roles in all domains of life. However, its extent and function in photosynthetic organisms are still largely unknown. Cyanobacteria are a large group of prokaryotes that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis and are applied extensively in studies of photosynthetic mechanisms and environmental adaptation. Here we integrated propionylation of monomethylated proteins, enrichment of the modified peptides, and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to identify monomethylated proteins in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis). Overall, we identified 376 monomethylation sites in 270 proteins, with numerous monomethylated proteins participating in photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. We subsequently demonstrated that CpcM, a previously identified asparagine methyltransferase in Synechocystis, could catalyze lysine monomethylation of the potential aspartate aminotransferase Sll0480 both in vivo and in vitro and regulate the enzyme activity of Sll0480. The loss of CpcM led to decreases in the maximum quantum yield in primary photosystem II (PSII) and the efficiency of energy transfer during the photosynthetic reaction in Synechocystis. We report the first lysine monomethylome in a photosynthetic organism and present a critical database for functional analyses of monomethylation in cyanobacteria. The large number of monomethylated proteins and the identification of CpcM as the lysine methyltransferase in cyanobacteria suggest that reversible methylation may influence the metabolic process and photosynthesis in both cyanobacteria and plants.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Lysine/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Photosynthesis , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Synechocystis/growth & development
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(8): 1003-1009, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769825

ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out into the genetic mechanisms responsible for multidrug resistance in nine carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosaisolates from different hospitals in Recife, Brazil. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined by broth microdilution. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to detect the presence of genes encoding β-lactamases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs), 16S rRNA methylases, integron-related genes and OprD. Expression of genes coding for efflux pumps and AmpC cephalosporinase were assessed by quantitative PCR. The outer membrane proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The blaSPM-1, blaKPC-2 and blaGES-1 genes were detected in P. aeruginosaisolates in addition to different AME genes. The loss of OprD in nine isolates was mainly due to frameshift mutations, premature stop codons and point mutations. An association of loss of OprD with the overexpression of MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM was observed in most isolates. Hyper-production of AmpC was also observed in three isolates. Clonal relationship of the isolates was determined by repetitive element palindromic-PCR and multilocus sequence typing. Our results show that the loss of OprD along with overexpression of efflux pumps and β-lactamase production were responsible for the multidrug resistance in the isolates analysed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbapenems/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Mutation , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , beta-Lactam Resistance/genetics , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Aminoglycosides/metabolism , Amphotericin B/analogs & derivatives , Amphotericin B/metabolism , Antifungal Agents/metabolism , Brazil , Cephalosporinase/classification , Cephalosporinase/metabolism , Codon, Nonsense/metabolism , Enzyme Activation/genetics , Frameshift Mutation/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/genetics , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Point Mutation/genetics , Porins/metabolism , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid , beta-Lactamases/genetics
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(supl.1): 41-49, abr. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712420

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Aminoglycosides like streptomycin are well-known for binding at specific regions of ribosome RNA and then acting as translation inhibitors. Nowadays, several pathogens have been detected to acquire an undefined strategy involving mutation at non structural ribosome genes like those acting as RNA methylases. rsmG is one of those genes which encodes an AdoMet-dependent methyltransferase responsible for the synthesis of m 7 G527 in the 530 loop of bacterial 16S rRNA. This loop is universally conserved, plays a key role in ribosomal accuracy, and is a target for streptomycin binding. Loss of the m 7 G527 modification confers low-level streptomycin resistance and may affect ribosomal functioning. Objectives: After taking into account genetic information indicating that some clinical isolates of human pathogens show streptomycin resistance associated with mutations at rsmG , we decided to explore new hot spots for mutation capable of impairing the RsmG in vivo function and of promoting low-level streptomycin resistance. Materials and methods: To gain insights into the molecular and genetic mechanism of acquiring this aminoglycoside resistance phenotype and the emergence of high-level streptomycin resistance in rsmG mutants, we mutated Escherichia coli rsmG and also performed a genotyping study on rpsL from several isolates showing the ability to grow at higher streptomycin concentrations than parental strains. Results: We found that the mutations at rpsL were preferentially present in these mutants, and we observed a clear synergy between rsmG and rpsL genes to induce streptomycin resistance. Conclusion: We contribute to understand a common mechanism that is probably transferable to other ribosome RNA methylase genes responsible for modifications at central sites for ribosome function.


Introducción. Los aminoglucósidos son moléculas antibióticas capaces de inhibir la síntesis de proteínas bacterianas tras su unión al ribosoma procariota. La resistencia a aminoglucósidos está clásicamente asociada a mutaciones en genes estructurales del ribosoma bacteriano; sin embargo, varios estudios recientes han demostrado, de forma recurrente, la presencia de un nuevo mecanismo dependiente de mutación que no involucra genes estructurales. El gen rsmG es uno de ellos y se caracteriza por codificar una metiltransferasa que sintetiza el nucleósido m 7 G527 localizado en el loop 530 del ribosoma bacteriano, este último caracterizado como sitio preferencial al cual se une la estreptomicina. Objetivo. Partiendo de las recientes asociaciones clínicas entre las mutaciones en el gen rsmG y la resistencia a estreptomicina, este estudio se propuso la caracterización de nuevos puntos calientes de mutación en este gen que puedan causar resistencia a estreptomicina usando Escherichia coli como modelo de estudio. Materiales y métodos. Se indagó sobre el mecanismo genético y molecular por el cual se adquiere la resistencia a estreptomicina y su transición a la resistencia a altas dosis mediante mutagénesis dirigida del gen rsmG y genotipificación del gen rpsL . Resultados. Se encontró que la mutación N39A en rsmG inactiva la proteína y se reportó un nuevo conjunto de mutaciones en rpsL que confieren resistencia a altas dosis de estreptomicina. Conclusiones. Aunque los mecanismos genéticos subyacentes permanecen sin esclarecer, se concluyó que dichos patrones secuenciales de mutación podrían tener lugar en otros genes modificadores del ARN bacteriano debido a la conservación evolutiva y al papel crítico que juegan tales modificaciones en la síntesis de proteínas.


Subject(s)
Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Methyltransferases/genetics , Point Mutation , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional/genetics , RNA, Bacterial/metabolism , /metabolism , Streptomycin/pharmacology , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites/genetics , Catalytic Domain/genetics , Escherichia coli Proteins/chemistry , Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Methylation , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Methyltransferases/chemistry , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Phylogeny , Protein Conformation , RNA, Bacterial/genetics , /genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/metabolism , S-Adenosylmethionine/metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Deletion , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 140(7): 889-895, jul. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-656360

ABSTRACT

Background: Thiopurines (azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine) are highly effective medications but with potential adverse effects. Thiopurine methyltransferase (TMPT) is the key enzyme in their pharmacokinetics and is genetically regulated. A low activity of TPMT is associated with myelotoxicity. The genotype and enzyme activity can vary by ethnicity. Aim: To study the activity and genotype of TPMT in a group of Chilean subjects. Material and Methods: In 200 healthy adult blood donors, TPMT activity was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Deficient, low, normal or high levels were defined when enzymatic activity was < 5, 6-24,25-55 and > 56 nmol/grHb/h, respectively. Genotyping of TPMT (*1, *2, *3A, *3B, *3C) was performed by PCR. Results: Seventy seven women (38.5%) and 123 men (61.5%), with an average age of 34.9 years were studied. Eighteen subjects (9%) had a low enzymatic activity, 178 (89%) had normal activity, 4 (2%) had high activity and no genotype deficient subjects were identified. The wild type genotype (*1) was found in 184 (92%) individuals and 16 (8%) were heterozygous for the variants: *2 (n = 2), *3A (n = 13) and *3C (n = 1). No homozygous subjects for these variants were identified. Wild type genotype had an increased enzymatic activity (40.8 ± 7.2 nmol/gHb/h) compared to heterozygous group (21.2 ± 3 nmol/ gHb/h; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Less than 10% of a Chilean population sample has a low enzymatic activity or allelic variants in the TPMT gene, supporting the use of thiopurines according to international recommendations.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Methyltransferases/genetics , Chile , Whites/genetics , Whites/statistics & numerical data , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Indians, South American/genetics , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Genetic
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207070

ABSTRACT

Calmegin is a testis-specific molecular chaperon playing a key role in spermatogenesis. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms for calmegin expression are entirely unknown. Herein, we revealed that calmegin is transcriptionally regulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) and CpG methyltransferase. The cDNA microarray analysis of the human fibrosarcoma cells treated with trichostatin A (TSA) showed an increased level of calmegin mRNA. The induction of calmegin mRNA by TSA was added by the treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5'Aza- dC), implying that epigenetic alterations are involved in the transcriptional repression of the gene. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay using an anti-acetyl-histone H3 antibody exhibited that the proximal region (-152~-31) of the calmegin promoter is responsible for HDAC-mediated transcriptional repression of the gene. These results demonstrate that calmegin expression is regulated by HDAC and CpG methyltransferase in a coordinative way.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium-Binding Proteins/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Gene Expression Regulation , Histone Deacetylases/metabolism , Humans , Male , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Mice , Molecular Chaperones/genetics , Organ Specificity , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Testis/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190969

ABSTRACT

Arginine methylation has been implicated in the signal transduction pathway leading to cell growth. Here we show that a regenerating rat liver following partial hepatectomy exhibited elevated methyltransferase activity as shown by increased methylation of a subset of endogenous proteins in vitro. The 20-kDa protein was shown to be a major cytosolic protein undergoing methylation in regenerating hepatocytes. Methylation of the 20-kDa protein peaked at 1 d following partial hepatectomy, which gradually declined to a basal level within the next 14 d. Likewise, methylation of exogenously added bulk histones followed the similar time kinetics as the 20-kDa protein, reflecting time-dependent changes in methyltransferase activity in regenerating hepatocytes. Presence of exogenously added bulk histone in the in vitro methylation assay resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of methylation of the 20-kDa protein. All the histone subtypes tested, histone 1, 2A, 2B, 3 or 4, were able to inhibit methylation of the 20-kDa protein while addition of cytochrome C, a-lactalbumin, carbonic anhydrase, bovine serum albumin, and g globulin minimally affected methylation of the 20-kDa protein. Since methylation of the 20-kDa protein preceded proliferation of hepatocytes upon partial hepatectomy, it is tempting to speculate that the methylated 20-kDa protein by activated histone-specific methyltransferase may be involved in an early signal critical for liver regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytoplasm/chemistry , Hepatectomy , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Liver Regeneration/physiology , Methylation , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction/physiology , Subcellular Fractions/chemistry
14.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 1997 Feb-Apr; 34(1-2): 131-41
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-28926

ABSTRACT

Sialic acids comprise a large family of N- and O-substituted neuraminic acid derivatives as components of glycoconjugates. N-Glycolylneuraminic acid is formed from N-acetylneuraminic acid by the action of the CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase studied in various animals. O-Methylated sialic acids originate from the action of S-adenosylmethionine-8-O-methyltransferase studied in starfish. Sialic acids are O-acetylated at diverse positions by the action of acetyl-CoA-4-O- and -7-O-acetyltransferases found in various animals and, leading to the O-acetylation of sialic acid glycerol side chain, also in man. Some properties of these enzymes are described and biological implications discussed.


Subject(s)
Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase/metabolism , Acetylation , Animals , Humans , Methylation , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Sialic Acids/biosynthesis , Starfish/enzymology
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