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Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 933-940, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980844


BACKGROUND@#Given the general unavailability, common adverse effects, and complicated administration of tetracycline, the clinical application of classic bismuth quadruple therapy (BQT) is greatly limited. Whether minocycline can replace tetracycline for Helicobacter pylori ( H . pylori ) eradication is unknown. We aimed to compare the eradication rate, safety, and compliance between minocycline- and tetracycline-containing BQT as first-line regimens.@*METHODS@#This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 434 naïve patients with H . pylori infection. The participants were randomly assigned to 14-day minocycline-containing BQT group (bismuth potassium citrate 110 mg q.i.d., esomeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., metronidazole 400 mg q.i.d., and minocycline 100 mg b.i.d.) and tetracycline-containing BQT group (bismuth potassium citrate/esomeprazole/metronidazole with doses same as above and tetracycline 500 mg q.i.d.). Safety and compliance were assessed within 3 days after eradication. Urea breath test was performed at 4-8 weeks after eradication to evaluate outcome. We used a noninferiority test to compare the eradication rates of the two groups. The intergroup differences were evaluated using Pearson chi-squared or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Student's t -test for continuous variables.@*RESULTS@#As for the eradication rates of minocycline- and tetracycline-containing BQT, the results of both intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses showed that the difference rate of lower limit of 95% confidence interval (CI) was >-10.0% (ITT analysis: 181/217 [83.4%] vs . 180/217 [82.9%], with a rate difference of 0.5% [-6.9% to 7.9%]; PP analysis: 177/193 [91.7%] vs . 176/191 [92.1%], with a rate difference of -0.4% [-5.6% to 6.4%]). Except for dizziness more common (35/215 [16.3%] vs . 13/214 [6.1%], P = 0.001) in minocycline-containing therapy groups, the incidences of adverse events (75/215 [34.9%] vs . 88/214 [41.1%]) and compliance (195/215 [90.7%] vs . 192/214 [89.7%]) were similar between the two groups.@*CONCLUSION@#The eradication efficacy of minocycline-containing BQT was noninferior to tetracycline-containing BQT as first-line regimen for H . pylori eradication with similar safety and compliance.@*TRIAL, ChiCTR 1900023646.

Humans , Bismuth/therapeutic use , Metronidazole/therapeutic use , Esomeprazole/pharmacology , Minocycline/pharmacology , Helicobacter pylori , Potassium Citrate/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Tetracycline/adverse effects , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Amoxicillin
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 415 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416418


For a drug to excerpt pharmacological action after oral intake, it first needs to be released from the formulation, get into solution (dissolve), be absorbed, and reach the systemic circulation. Since only solubilized drugs can be absorbed, and thus have therapeutic effect, the understanding of the dissolution and drug release processes of a drug product is of primary importance. Such understanding allows a robust formulation development with an ideal in vivo performance. In order to meet set standards, the performance assessment of oral drug products, such as dissolution testing, often applies conditions that are not reflective of the in vivo environment. The use of non-physiologically relevant dissolution method during the drug product development phase can be misleading and give poor mechanistic understanding of the in vivo dissolution process. Hence, we hypothesized that applying physiologically relevant conditions to the dissolution test would result in more accurate in vivo predictability for a robust and precise development process. Since the buffering system in the intestinal lumen operates at low molarity values, phosphate buffer at low buffer capacity was used as a first approach to an in vivo relevant parameter. Furthermore, a biphasic system was used, that is, the low buffer capacity medium was paired with an organic layer (n-octanol) to mimic the concurrent drug absorption that happens with the in vivo dissolution. Both poorly and highly soluble drugs in immediate release formulations (ibuprofen and metronidazole, respectively) were tested in this set-up to assess the dissolution in the aqueous medium and the partitioning to the organic phase. Additionally, enteric coated formulations were tested in bicarbonate buffer at the in vivo reported molarities values to assess the impact of buffer species on drug dissolution. The evaluated parameters were the buffer system (bicarbonate buffer vs. phosphate buffer), buffer capacity and medium pH. In all approaches, dissolution was also carried out in compendial buffer for comparison purposes. Our results demonstrate that the USP-recommended dissolution method greatly lacked discriminatory power, whereas low buffer capacity media discriminated between manufacturing methods. The use of an absorptive phase in the biphasic dissolution test assisted in controlling the medium pH due to the drug removal from the aqueous medium. Hence, the applied noncompendial methods were more discriminative to drug formulation differences and manufacturing methods than conventional dissolution conditions. In this study, it was demonstrated how biphasic dissolution and a low buffer capacity can be used to assess drug product performance differences. This can be a valuable approach during the early stages of drug product development for investigating drug release with improved physiological relevance. Similarly, all the enteric coated formulations displayed a fast release in phosphate buffer and complied with the compendial performance specifications. On the other hand, they all had a much slower drug release in bicarbonate buffer and failed the USP acceptance criteria. Also, the nature of the drug (acid vs base) impacted the dissolution behavior in bicarbonate buffer. This study indicates that compendial dissolution test for enteric coated tablets lacks physiological relevance and it needs to be reevaluated. Thus, an in vivo relevant performance method for EC products is needed. Overall, the findings of this thesis comprehensively demonstrates that meaningful differences in performance and accordance to clinical reports were only obtained when physiological relevant conditions were applied. Hence, our results indicate that the central hypothesis was answered positively

Para que um medicamento exerça a ação farmacológica após a ingestão oral, ele primeiro precisa ser liberado da formulação, dissolver, ser absorvido e atingir a circulação sistêmica. Uma vez que apenas medicamentos solubilizados podem ser absorvidos e, assim, ter efeito terapêutico, a compreensão dos processos de dissolução e liberação de um medicamento é de extrema importância. Tal compreensão permite o desenvolvimento de uma formulação robusta com o desempenho in vivo ideal. Para atender aos padrões regulatórios previamente estabelecidos, a avaliação da performance de formulações orais, como por exemplo, o teste de dissolução, frequentemente aplica condições que não refletem o ambiente fisiológico. O uso de métodos de dissolução não fisiologicamente relevante durante a fase de desenvolvimento do medicamento pode gerar resultados equivocados sem uma compreensão mecanistica do processo de dissolução in vivo. Portanto, a hipótese desse trabalho é que a aplicação de condições fisiologicamente relevantes no teste de dissolução resultaria em uma predição mais precisa da dissolução in vivo para um processo de desenvolvimento robusto e preciso. Uma vez que o sistema tampão no lúmen intestinal possui baixa molaridade, o tampão fosfato com baixa capacidade tamponante foi usado como uma primeira abordagem como um meio de dissolução fisiologicamente relevante. Além disso, foi utilizado um sistema bifásico, ou seja, o meio de baixa capacidade tamponante combinado a uma fase orgânica (n-octanol) para imitar a absorção in vivo. Formulações de liberação imediata contendo fármacos de baixa e de alta solubilidade (ibuprofeno e metronidazol, respectivamente) foram testadas no sistema bifásico para avaliar a dissolução no meio aquoso e a partição para a fase orgânica. Ademais, formulações com revestimento entérico foram testadas em tampão bicarbonato nos valores de molaridades fisiológicos para avaliar o impacto da espécie tamponante na dissolução do fármaco. Os parâmetros avaliados foram o sistema tampão (tampão bicarbonato vs. tampão fosfato), capacidade tamponante e pH médio. Em todas as abordagens, a dissolução também foi realizada em tampão farmacopeico para fins de comparação. Nossos resultados demonstraram que o método de dissolução farmacopeico não foi discriminativo, enquanto o meio com menor capacidade tamponante diferenciou entre as formulações obtidas via granulação úmida ou compressão direta. Ademais, a utilização da fase orgânica no teste de dissolução bifásica auxiliou no controle do pH do meio aquoso. Portanto, os métodos não compendiais aplicados foram mais discriminativos do que as condições de dissolução convencionais. Neste estudo, foi demonstrado como a dissolução bifásica e uma baixa capacidade tamponante podem ser usadas para avaliar as diferenças na performance de formulações. Esta pode ser uma abordagem valiosa durante os estágios iniciais do desenvolvimento de medicamentos para investigar a liberação destes sob condições fisiologicamente relevantes. Da mesma forma, todas as formulações com revestimento entérico exibiram uma liberação rápida em tampão de fosfato e atenderam às especificações farmacopeicas. Entretanto, a liberação do fármaco foi muito mais lenta em tampão de bicarbonato e consequentemente não cumpriram com as especificações farmacopeicas. Além disso, a natureza do fármaco (ácido vs. base) impactou o comportamento de dissolução no tampão de bicarbonato. Este estudo indica que o teste de dissolução convencional para comprimidos de liberação retardada não possui relevância fisiológica e precisa ser reavaliado. Portanto, os resultados desta tese demonstram de forma abrangente que diferenças significativas na performance condizentes com relatórios clínicos foram obtidas apenas quando as condições fisiológicas relevantes foram aplicadas. Esses resultados indicam que a hipótese central foi respondida positivamente

Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Pharmacologic Actions , Process Optimization , Dissolution , Drug Development/instrumentation , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/instrumentation , Drug Compounding , Efficiency , Drug Liberation , Health Services Needs and Demand/classification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Metronidazole/adverse effects
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 36(2): 12-14, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352554


Los ácaros ectoparásitos del género Demodex spp (>140 especies) pertenecen a la familia Demodicidae, superfamilia Cheyletoidea, suborden Prostigmata, orden Trombidiformes, superorden Acariformes. Fueron descritos por primera vez en 1841 por Henle y Berger. El término Demodex deriva del griego: demos = grasa y dex = gusano incrustado. Tienen una longitud de 0.2- 0.4 mm, son transparentes y elongados. Su cuerpo se divide en tres secciones principales: 1) gnatosoma, región anterior, en donde se encuentra la apertura bucal; 2) podosoma, región en la que se encuentran sus cuatro pares de patas; y 3) el opistoma, región caudal o cola. Se adquieren poco después del nacimiento y se consideran parte del microbiota normal de muchos mamíferos, así como también del ser humano, en particular de la unidad pilosebácea. Por lo tanto, se ubican principalmente en el rostro, cuero cabelludo y región superior del tronco. Todas estas áreas corporales se caracterizan por la alta secreción sebácea, alimento primordial para el crecimiento y desarrollo de este ácaro; razón por la cual, además, su densidad aumenta durante la pubertad, periodo cuando proliferan las glándulas sebáceas. Dentro de las especies del género, encontramos exclusivamente en humanos, a D. folliculorum (440 µm), habitando frecuentemente el infundíbulo folicular y D. brevis (240 µm), que se localiza predominantemente en los ductos sebáceos y glándulas tarsales a nivel ocular.(AU)

Humans , Mite Infestations/diagnosis , Mite Infestations/parasitology , Metronidazole/administration & dosage , Mite Infestations/drug therapy
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 81(4): 559-562, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389807


Las adenopatías cervicales benignas en lactantes son relativamente frecuentes, se definen como el aumento de volumen ganglionar de más de 1 cm, sin síntomas sistémicos y cuando están presentes, el término correcto es adenitis. Para su estudio, las adenitis se dividen en: locales, sistémicas, unilaterales, bilaterales, agudas, crónicas, y por edad, con diferentes etiologías. Se presenta el caso clínico de un lactante de 11 meses de edad con diagnóstico de adenitis cervical abscedada unilateral aguda, con cuadro de 72 h de evolución, con crecimiento constante a nivel cervical derecho, compromiso del estado general, fiebre y anorexia, por lo que se inician antibióticos de primera línea para los agentes bacterianos más frecuentes (Staphylococcus aureus y Streptococcus pyogenes), con evolución tórpida a las 48 h, por lo que se solicita ultrasonido cervical, ya que la familia no contaba con recursos para solicitar cultivo o tomografía, reportando el ultrasonido ganglio cervical de 3,5 cm de diámetro abscedado, por lo que se agrega cobertura para anaerobios, con respuesta muy favorable a las 24 h. Queda la duda del origen de los anaerobios en la paciente, sin antecedentes de importancia y en grupo etario diferente al afectado por esos gérmenes. Consideramos este caso interesante por su comportamiento atípico, para el enriquecimiento del ejercicio de la otorrinolaringología, recalcando el invaluable apoyo de la clínica y solo con un ultrasonido, ya que no siempre se tendrán todos los recursos disponibles, pero siguiendo las pautas de lo reportado en la literatura, se tuvo una resolución exitosa.

Benign cervical lymphadenopathies in infants are relatively frequent, they are defined as an increase in lymph node volume of more than 1 cm, without systemic symptoms, and when they are present, the correct term is adenitis. For its study, adenitis is divided into: local, systemic, unilateral, bilateral, acute, chronic, and by age, with different etiologies. An 11-month-old infant with a diagnosis of acute unilateral abscessed cervical adenitis, with a 72 h evolution, with constant growth at the right cervical level, fever and anorexia, for which first-line antibiotics were started to the most frequent bacterial agents (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes), with torpid evolution at 48 h, for which only cervical ultrasound is requested, since the family did not have the resources to request culture or tomography, reporting the cervical ganglion ultrasound of 3.5 cm of abscessed diameter, so coverage for anaerobes is added, with a very favorable response at 24 hrs. There remains the doubt of the origin of the anaerobes in the patient, without important antecedents and in an age group different from that affected by these germs. We consider this case interesting due to its atypical behavior, for the enrichment of the otolaryngology exercise, emphasizing the invaluable support of the clinic, and only with an ultrasound, since other clinical tools were not available, but following the guidelines of what is reported in literature, there was a successful resolution.

Humans , Female , Infant , Lymphadenopathy/drug therapy , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcal Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcus pyogenes , Cefuroxime/therapeutic use , Ultrasonography/methods , Metronidazole/therapeutic use
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 21-25, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292703


INTRODUCCIÓN. La apendicitis aguda es una patología pediátrica quirúrgica que en su fase complicada requiere uso de antibióticos en el postoperatorio; encontrar la mejor opción como experiencia local, fue necesario. OBJETIVO. Comparar un esquema de antibioticoterapia triple vs un doble respecto a variables: demográficas, clínicas y de costos en pacientes pediátricos con apendicitis complicada. MATERIALES y MÉTODOS. Estudio analítico transversal. Población de 133 pacientes y una muestra de 93, operados por apendicitis complicada; 58 recibieron ampicilina + metronidazol + gentamicina y 35 ceftriaxona + metronidazol. Se comparó las variables: estadía hospitalaria, complicaciones y costo monetario de cada esquema. Se realizó en la Unidad de Cirugía Pediátrica del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín, en el periodo enero de 2017 a octubre de 2018. Los datos fueron analizados con R-Studio 1.8.366 para Windows. RESULTADOS. No hubo diferencia estadística con respecto a: estadía hospitalaria (p=0,261); complicaciones como infección del sitio quirúrgico (p=0,196), re-intervención quirúrgica (p=0,653) y costo (p=0,059). CONCLUSIÓN. Se comparó el esquema de antibioticoterapia triple vs un doble, utilizados en apendicitis complicada en pediatría. No se encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas en este reporte preliminar, con la diferencia de que con el esquema doble la frecuencia de administración fue menor y se evitó la exposición a los efectos colaterales de los aminoglicósidos.

INTRODUCTION. Acute appendicitis is a pediatric surgical pathology that in its complicated phase requires the use of antibiotics during the postoperative period; finding the best option as local experience was a must. OBJECTIVE. Compare a triple vs a double antibiotic therapy scheme respect demographic, clinical and cost variables in pediatric patients whit complicated apendicitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional analytical study. Population of 133 patients and sample of 93, with complicated appendicitis; 58 received ampicillin + metronidazole + gentamicin and 35 ceftriaxone + metronidazole. The following variables were compared; hospital stay, complications and monetary cost of each scheme. It was performed in the Pediatric Surgery Unit of the Hospital of Specialties Carlos Andrade Marin, during january 2017, through october 2018. The data were analyzed with R-Studio 1.8.366 for Windows. RESULTS. There was no statistical difference regarding hospital stay (p=0.261); complications such as surgical site infection (p=0.196), re-surgical intervention (p=0.653); nor cost (p=0.059). CONCLUSION. Triple vs. Double antibiotic therapy scheme used in complicated appendicitis in pediatrics was compared. No statistically significant differences were found in this preliminary report, how ever with the double scheme the frequency of administration was lower and exposure to side effects of aminoglycosides was avoided.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Appendicitis/complications , Gentamicins , Cephalexin , Ampicillin , Metronidazole , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pediatrics , Postoperative Complications , General Surgery , Cost-Benefit Analysis
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(1): 38-45, jun. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284260


OBJETIVOS: determinar las principales características demográficas, clínicas, radiológicas y de función pulmonar de los pacientes con bronquiectasias en la Clínica del Pulmón. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: estudio observacional, retrospectivo. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de 23 pacientes con diagnóstico de dilataciones bronquiales. RESULTADOS: de los 23 pacientes, con una edad media de 49,4 ± 3,87 años, 13 corresponden al sexo femenino y 10 al sexo masculino, el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad desde el diagnóstico de la patología inicial es de 17,3 ± 2,92 años. La tuberculosis es la etiología principal en 15 pacientes (65,2%). Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes son la tos y expectoración mucopurulenta por varios años en la mayoría de los pacientes, al que añadimos la disnea y hemoptisis, la auscultación pulmonar revela la presencia de crépitos en 17 pacientes (73,9%). La Tomografía de Tórax de Alta Resolución distingue dos tipos de bronquiectasias: La sacular o quística y la cilíndrica, de localización unilobar, bilobar y multilobar (difuso). La Espirometría Forzada fue indicada en 10 pacientes (43,5%) 7 mujeres y 3 varones, el Síndrome Bronquial Obstructivo fue el hallazgo más frecuente. La asociación de Tetraciclina con Metronidazol indicado en 9 pacientes (39,1%) mejoró el cuadro clínico. La fisiopatología de esta entidad clínica está sujeta a una constante actualización. CONCLUSIONES: en pacientes tosedores crónicos, las bronquiectasias deben tener prioridad diagnóstica, se trata de una patología antigua, pero de actualidad permanente.

The purpose of this document is to determine the main epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with bronchiectasis at the Lung Clinic. METHOD: observational, retrospective study. The medical records of 23 patients diagnosed with bronchial dilation were reviewed. RESULTS: the results of the 23 patients studied, with a mean age of 49,4 ± 3,87 years, 13 correspond to the female sex and 10 to the male sex, indicate that the time of evolution of the disease from the diagnosis of the initial pathology is: 17,3 ± 2,92 years. Tuberculosis is the main etiology in 15 patients (65,2%). The most frequent clinical manifestations were cough and mucopurulent expectoration of several years in most of the patients, to which we must add dyspnea and hemoptysis, pulmonary auscultation reveals the presence of crepitus in 17 patients (73,9%). High Resolution Chest Tomography distinguishes two types of bronchiectasis: the saccular or cystic and the cylindrical, the localization is unilobar, bilobar and multilobar (diffuse). Forced spirometry was indicated in 10 patients (43,5%), 7 women and 3 men, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is the main diagnosis. The association of Tetracycline with Metronidazole indicated in 9 patients (39,1%) had positive results. The pathophysiology of this clinical entity is subject to constant updating. CONCLUSIONS: in chronic coughing patients, bronchiectasis must have diagnostic priority, it is an old pathology, but it is permanently current

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Bronchiectasis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Auscultation , Spirometry , Tuberculosis , Dyspnea , Hemoptysis , Metronidazole
Rev. Fac. Odontol. Porto Alegre (Online) ; 62(1): 121-128, jan.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1445005


Introdução: Tumores fétidos são uma complicação devastadora do câncer e causam muito desconforto e isolamento para o paciente. Eles geralmente se desenvolvem nos últimos seis meses de vida e são muito difíceis de tratar com sucesso. O objetivo desta revisão sistemática foi analisar as evidências da efetividade do metronidazol tópico e/ou sistêmico no tratamento de mau odor em feridas tumorais malignas. Resultados: Foram encontrados inicialmente 62 artigos, e destes, apenas 4 artigos na íntegra contemplaram os critérios de inclusão. Dois deles foram ensaios clínicos, sendo 1 duplo-cego, randomizado e 1, não controlado de fase III. Um artigo foi retrospectivo com coleta de dados de 10 anos e 1 foi de coorte prospectivo. Destes, 3 analisaram a eficácia do tratamento de tumores malignos com mau odor com o uso de metronidazol tópico e apenas 1 comparou o uso de metronidazol tópico com sistêmico. Discussão: Um fator que contribui para o mau odor não ser controlado de forma adequada, diz respeito a falta de protocolos padronizados para tal. Ao longo dos anos, estudiosos no assunto, tentam encontrar intervenções acessíveis e eficazes para reduzir as graves recorrências do mau odor em feridas necróticas. Conclusão: Tanto a via tópica quanto à sistêmica demonstram ser eficazes no controle do mau odor. Os resultados desta revisão destacam a falta de pesquisa nesta área com pouca evidência para direcionar a prática clínica no tratamento dessas lesões. Outros estudos se fazem necessários, para se estabelecer protocolos mais efetivos no controle desta condição angustiante, vivenciada por alguns pacientes oncológicos.

Introduction: Fetid tumors are a devastating complica-tion of cancer and cause much discomfort and patient isolation. They usually develop themselves in the last six months of life and they are very difficult to be success-fully treated. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the evidence on the effectiveness of topical and/or systemic metronidazole for the treatment of bad odor in malignant tumor wounds. Results: Sixty-two articles were initially found, and of these, only 4 articles met the inclusion criteria. Two of them were clinical trials, being 1 double-blind, randomized and 1 non-controlled phase III studies. One study was retrospective with a 10-years data collection period and 1 was a cohort prospective study. Of these, 3 analyzed the efficacy of treating malignant tumors with a bad odor using topical metronidazole and only 1 compared the use of topical and systemic metronidazole. Discussion: A factor that contributes to the bad odor not being properly controlled is the lack of standardized protocols. Over the years, studies have tried to find affordable and effective interventions to reduce serious recurrences of bad odor in necrotic wounds.Conclusion: Both topical and systemic routes have been shown to be effective in controlling bad odor. The results of this systematic review highlight the lack of research in this area with little evidence to guide clinical practice in the treatment of these injuries. Further studies are needed to establish more effective protocols to control this distressing condition, experienced by some cancer patients.

Effectiveness , Body Odor , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Neoplasms
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 15(2): 115-136, 20210516.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252504


Blastocystis es un stramenopile o cromista, pleomórfico no móvil. Se han identificado diecinue-ve subtipos de este organismo (ST1-ST19). Tiene una presencia a nivel mundial. Este microor-ganismo tiene un metabolismo intermediario anaeróbico. Un aspecto interesante de la bioquími-ca de este stramenopile está dado por la presencia de organelas similares a mitocondrias con un conjunto de rutas: cadena de fosforilación oxidativa incompleta, ciclo de Krebs parcial, metabo-lismo de ácidos grasos (anabolismo y catabolismo), metabolismo de aminoácidos y ensamblaje de proteínas con centros hierro/azufre. El tratamiento se ha basado tradicionalmente en metroni-dazol y otros imidazoles. Sin embargo, hay un número creciente de cepas resistentes a esos medicamentos. La reciente obtención del genoma nuclear y los estudios bioquímicos, proteómi-cos, metabolómicos, interactómicos permitirán el desarrollo racional de nuevos fármacos curati-vos. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir el metabolismo de Blastocystis spp

Blastocystis is a stramenopile or chromist, nonmobile pleomorphic. Nineteen subtypes of this organism (ST1-ST19) have been identified worldwide. This microorganism has an intermediate anaerobic metabolism. An interesting aspect of the biochemistry of this stramenopile is given by the presence of mitochondrial-like organelles with a set of pathways: incomplete oxidative phos-phorylation chain, partial Krebs cycle, fatty acid metabolism (anabolism and catabolism), amino acid metabolism and protein assembly with iron / sulfur centers. Treatment has traditionally been based on metronidazole and other imidazoles. However, there are a growing number of strains resistant to these drugs. The recent obtaining of the nuclear genome and the biochemical, proteomic, metabolomic and interactomic studies will allow the rational development of new curative drugs. The objective of this review is to describe the metabolism of Blastocystis spp.

Humans , Male , Female , Parasitic Diseases , Blastocystis , Metabolism , Anaerobiosis , Metronidazole , Antigens, Protozoan
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 58(1): e2919, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156427


Introducción: La osteomielitis mandibular crónica es considerada como una infección odontogénica que cursa con tumefacción de la cara, limitación de la abertura bucal y dolor. Pocas veces es tratada a través de gammagrafías con fijación a ciprofloxacino con la consiguiente obtención de resultados efectivos. Objetivo: Describir un caso clínico de osteomielitis mandibular crónica tratada con terapia antibiótica y quirúrgica. Presentación de caso: Paciente femenina de 63 años de edad que acudió al servicio de estomatología del Hospital María Auxiliadora, Lima, Perú; con un historial de tres meses de hinchazón creciente a nivel del borde inferior izquierdo de la mandíbula desde que le realizaron una extracción dentaria. Los exámenes tomográficos, gammagrafía, biopsia y antibiograma confirmaron la osteomielitis y la susceptibilidad bacteriana. La decorticación, debridamiento, exodoncia y la administración de metronidazol más vancomicina por dos meses permitió la remisión del cuadro. Conclusiones: El seguimiento clínico de dos años y las gammagrafías de evaluación permitieron verificar la presencia de regeneración ósea y ausencia de focos de reactivación. La osteomielitis crónica puede ser provocada por restos de exodoncias dentarias. Su diagnóstico y seguimiento clínico requiere de múltiples exámenes y controles a largo plazo(AU)

Introduction: Chronic mandibular osteomyelitis is considered to be an odontogenic infection manifesting as facial tumefaction, limited mouth opening and pain. It is not often enough treated with ciprofloxacin fixation gammagraphies with the consequent achievement of effective results. Objective: Describe a clinical case of chronic mandibular osteomyelitis treated with antibiotic and surgical therapy. Case presentation: A female 63-year-old patient attends the dental service at María Auxiliadora Hospital in Lima, Peru, with a history of three-months' swelling of the lower left edge of her mandible upon performance of a dental extraction. Tomographic examination, gammagraphy, biopsy and antibiograms confirmed the presence of osteomyelitis and bacterial susceptibility. Decortication, debridement, exodontia and administration of metronidazole plus vancomycin for two months led to remission of the patient's status. Conclusions: Two-year clinical follow-up and evaluation gammagraphies made it possible to verify the presence of bone regeneration and the absence of reactivation foci. Chronic osteomyelitis may be caused by remains of dental exodontias. Its diagnosis and clinical follow-up require a large number of long-term tests and controls(AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Osteomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Surgery, Oral/methods , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Metronidazole/therapeutic use
Femina ; 49(2): 109-114, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224067


A endometrite crônica (EC) é uma doença que, apesar de ainda pouco investigada, tem sido associada a resultados reprodutivos desfavoráveis. Estudos têm mostrado que a EC pode prejudicar a receptividade endometrial, levando a falhas de implantação e perdas gestacionais recorrentes. Os métodos padronizados para diagnóstico incluem histeroscopia, histologia para pesquisa de plasmócitos e cultura endometrial para identificação de agentes bacterianos. O tratamento com antibióticos para EC parece melhorar as taxas de gestação e nascidos vivos em pacientes com falhas de implantação e perdas gestacionais recorrentes sem causa conhecida. Esta publicação tem por objetivo fazer uma revisão da etiologia, fisiopatologia, diagnóstico e tratamento da EC, seu impacto no microambiente endometrial e sua associação com infertilidade. Esta revisão narrativa da literatura atualizada sintetiza os achados encontrados em bases de dados computadorizadas.(AU)

Chronic endometritis (CE) is a poorly investigated disease, which has been related to adverse reproductive outcomes. Published studies have shown that CE can impair endometrial receptivity, which is associated with implantation failure and recurrent pregnancy loss. The standard tools for diagnosis include hysteroscopy, histology to identification of plasma cells and endometrial culture for identification of bacterial pathogens. Effective antibiotic treatment for CE seems to improve the pregnancy and live birth rates in patients with implantation failure and unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss. This paper intends to provide an overview of etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of CE, its impact on endometrial microenvironment and its association with infertility. This narrative review of the current literature synthesizes the findings retrieved from searches in computerized databases.(AU)

Humans , Female , Endometritis/diagnosis , Endometritis/etiology , Endometritis/physiopathology , Endometritis/drug therapy , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Hysteroscopy , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Infertility, Female/complications , Metronidazole/therapeutic use
Rev. fac. cienc. méd. (Impr.) ; 17(2): 31-36, jul.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1292596


La dermatitis periorificial, es una erupción acneiforme que comúnmente afecta la región perioral y con frecuencia se extiende alrededor de la nariz y los ojos. Los mayores reportes son en mujeres de 20 a 45 años y en menor proporción en menores de 18 años. Su etiología es desconocida, pero se ha asociado al uso de glucocorticoides tópicos, inhalados y sistémicos. Objetivo: presentar una serie de casos de dermatititis periorificial, asociados con el uso indiscriminado de glucocorticoides, que respondieron eficazmente al tratamiento con metronidazol tópico, solo o combinado con doxiciclina. Presentación de casos clínicos: se describen cinco pacientes de sexo femenino, edades comprendidas entre 4 y 18 años, atendidos en la consulta ambulatoria de Dermatología. En cuatro casos, se documentó el uso prolongado de glucocorticoides tópicos/inhalados, de estos, tres presentaron lesiones papulares eritematosas o color piel, escasas pústulas, asintomáticas o prurito leve, localizadas a nivel perioral, perinasal y periocular; perioral y perinasal en uno y solamente perioral en otro. El tratamiento con metronidazol tópico fue exitoso en los cinco pacientes y en uno se combinó con doxiciclina oral. Conclusiones: el manejo de la dermatitis periorificial puede responder eficazmente al metronidazol tópico y dada su asociación al uso de glucocorticoides, se recomienda evitar el uso injustificado y prolongado de los mismos, tanto en forma tópica como inhalada o sistémica...(AU)

Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Dermatitis, Perioral , Glucocorticoids , Dermatitis, Atopic , Metronidazole/therapeutic use
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 133(3): 26-29, sept. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425281


La diarrea clostridial es una enfermedad aguda con compromiso colónico que puede poner en riesgo la vida de un paciente. Su agente etiológico es el Clostridium difficile y se ha asociado al uso indiscriminado y por largo plazo de antibióticos de amplio espectro. Su cuadro clínico es variable, puede ir desde un cuadro de diarrea hasta la perforación colónica, que puede determinar la realización de una colectomía de urgencia o incluso provocar la muerte del enfermo. El diagnóstico de certeza se realiza mediante la detección de la toxina clostridial en materia fecal, por técnicas de inmunoensayo enzimático. La terapéutica se realiza con metronidazol o vancomicina por vía oral. El tratamiento quirúrgico está indicado ante la presencia de megacolon tóxico o perforación intestinal, y en aquellos pacientes con toxicidad sistémica con fracaso de la terapéutica médica. (AU)

Clostridial diarrhea is an acute disease with colonic involvement that can be life-threatening for a patient. Its etiologic agent is the Clostridium difficile and it has been associated with the indiscriminate and long-term use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Its clinical picture varies from a picture of diarrhea to colonic perforation that can determine the performance of an emergency colectomy or even the death of the patient. The certainty diagnosis is carried out by detecting clostridial toxin in fecal matter by enzyme immunoassay techniques. The therapy is carried out with metronidazole or vancomycin orally. Surgical treatment is indicated in the presence of toxic mega colon, intestinal perforation or in those patients with systemic toxicity with failure of medical therapy. (AU)

Humans , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/chemically induced , Clostridioides difficile/pathogenicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/diagnosis , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/therapy , Diagnostic Imaging , Metronidazole/administration & dosage
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(3): 351-361, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138793


Resumen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) es un bacilo gramnegativo microaerófilo, capaz de colonizar la mucosa gástrica. Este microorganismo infecta a más de la mitad de la población mundial, por lo que se ha convertido en la infección bacteriana más común. La prevalencia de la infección y de las enfermedades asociadas a ella es alta, sobre todo en países en vías de desarrollo. El tratamiento recomendado para la erradicación es la triple terapia; sin embargo, su eficacia ha disminuido por el desconocimiento del patrón de susceptibilidad bacteriano por parte del personal médico y dada la aparición de cepas resistentes. La resistencia en H. pylori se asocia con la capacidad de adaptación de la bacteria a ambientes hostiles y al uso de los antibióticos. En Colombia, existen reportes acerca de que H. pylori presenta resistencia a amoxicilina, metronidazol, claritromicina, furazolidona, levofloxacina y tetraciclina. Los estudios del patrón de susceptibilidad determinaron que la frecuencia de resistencia de H. pylori es variable y demuestran la falta de datos en la mayoría del territorio del país. Sobre la base de lo anterior, el objetivo de esta revisión es describir los porcentajes de resistencia de H. pylori a los antibióticos amoxicilina, metronidazol, claritromicina, furazolidona, levofloxacina y tetraciclina, usados en el tratamiento de la infección en los estudios realizados en Colombia.

Abstract Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a microaerophilic gram-negative bacillus that colonizes the gastric mucosa. It infects more than half the world's population, making it the most common bacterial infection. The prevalence of infection and associated diseases is high in developing countries. The recommended treatment for its eradication is triple therapy; however, its efficacy has decreased due to the lack of knowledge of the bacterial susceptibility pattern among the medical staff and the emergence of resistant strains. H. pylori susceptibility is associated with the bacteria's ability to adapt to hostile environments and the use of antibiotics. In Colombia, it has been reported that H. pylori is resistant to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, furazolidone, levofloxacin, and tetracycline. Studies on the susceptibility pattern have determined that the frequency of H. pylori susceptibility is variable and demonstrate the lack of data in most of the Colombian territory. With this in mind, the objective of this review is to describe the percentage of resistance to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, furazolidone, levofloxacin and tetracycline, which are used for the treatment of H. pylori infection, according to studies conducted in Colombia.

Humans , Tetracycline , Efficacy , Helicobacter pylori , Clarithromycin , Levofloxacin , Furazolidone , Amoxicillin , Metronidazole , Prevalence , Disease Susceptibility , Disease Eradication
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(4): 263-265, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137976


Resumo Paciente do sexo feminino, 19 anos, com queixa de diplopia, náusea e vômito de início súbito. Ao exame físico, a paciente apresentava rotação da cabeça para a esquerda e limitação da adução do olho direito, sugerindo paresia do músculo reto medial. Ausência de ptose palpebral ou paresia de outra musculatura ocular extrínseca e sem outras alterações na avaliação oftalmológica. Foi relatado pelo paciente o uso de Metronidazol, duas doses de 500 mg, no mesmo dia em que os sintomas começaram. A ressonância magnética do crânio foi solicitada. O resultado mostrou um cisto da glândula pineal, estando os outros aspectos dentro da normalidade. A paresia do músculo reto medial e diplopia persistiram por 14 dias, mesmo após a suspensão do antibiótico, optando, assim, por iniciar a corticoterapia oral, evoluindo com boa resposta clínica, melhora dos sintomas e regressão da paresia muscular.

Abstract Female patient, 19 years old, with a complaint of diplopia, nausea and vomiting of sudden onset. Upon physical examination, the patient presented herself with the head position rotated to the left and limitation of adduction of the right eye, suggesting paresis of the medial rectus muscle. Absence of palpebral ptosis or paresis of other extrinsic musculature of the eye, and without other alterations in the ophthalmological evaluation. It was reported by the patient the use of Metronidazole, two doses of 500 mg, the same day the symptoms started. The magnetic resonance imaging of the skull was requested. The result showed a cyst of the pineal gland, the other aspects being within normality. The paresis of the medial rectus muscle and diplopia persisted for 14 days, even after the antibiotic was discontinued, thus opting to initiate oral corticosteroid therapy, evolving with good clinical response, improvement of symptoms and regression of muscular paresis.

Humans , Female , Adult , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/chemically induced , Diplopia/chemically induced , Metronidazole/adverse effects , Metronidazole/toxicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Administration, Oral
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(3): 311-316, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279744


RESUMEN La técnica PIPAC se presenta como una variante de tratamiento para los pacientes con carcinomato sis peritoneal que no son candidatos a una resección. Se describen de manera detallada los pasos y el procedimiento quirúrgico para la administración de quimioterapia intraperitoneal presurizada con dispositivo PIPAC.

ABSTRACT Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is a therapeutic option for patients with unresectable peritoneal carcinomatosis. The steps and the surgical technique of the PIPAC technique are thoroughly described.

Drug Therapy/methods , Peritoneal Neoplasms/surgery , Peritoneal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cefuroxime/administration & dosage , Aerosols , Laparoscopes , Metronidazole/administration & dosage
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 24(1/2): 54-56, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1148257


Introduction: Ludwig's angina is one of the soft tissue infections of the neck and tongue floor with the most admissions to intensive care units (ICU) due to its compromise of the airway and complications from septic shock. The incidence is higher in the adult population, and with the use of the latest generation antibiotics, its incidence has decreased. One of the most frequent causes is the presence of an odontogenic focus such as abscesses, mainly in the second and third molars. Objective: To describe a clinical case, admitted to the hospital ICU, highlighting the comprehensive management and adequate antibiotic therapy. Main data of the case: 24-year-old female patient, a native of Latacunga, went to the emergency service of the Hospital del Sur de Quito for a fever of 10 days of evolution and taking the general condition with signs of shock, and intense pain in the tongue, with edema, and impaired phonation. For initial management, intravenous tramal, IV hydrocortisone, and a broad spectrum antibiotic with piperacillin with tazobactam 4 grams IV every 6 hours, and IV metronidazole every 8 hours. Conclusions: Ludwig's angina is a pathology that usually involves young patients, whose evolution is rapid and its inadequate management leads to death, associated with obstructive respiratory failure and severe sepsis, which requires a timely diagnosis.

Introducción: La angina de Ludwig constituye una de las infecciones de los tejidos blandos del cuello y piso de la lengua con más ingresos en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) por su compromiso de la vía aérea y complicaciones por shock séptico. La incidencia es mayor en la población adulta, y con el uso de los antibióticos de última generación, su incidencia ha disminuido. Una de las causas más frecuentes es la presencia de un foco odontogénico como los abscesos, principalmente en el segundo y el tercer molar. Objetivo: Describir un caso clínico, internado en la UCI del hospital, destacando el manejo integral y la terapia antibiótica adecuada. Datos principales del caso: paciente femenina de 24 años, natural de Latacunga, acude al servicio de emergencias del Hospital del sur de Quito por fiebre de 10 días de evolución y toma del estado general con signos de shock, y dolor intenso en lengua, con edema, y deterioro de la fonación. Para el abordaje inicial se administra tramadol por vía intravenosa (IV), hidrocortisona IV y antibiótico de amplio espectro con piperacilina con tazobactam 4 gramos IV cada 6 horas, y metronidazol IV cada 8 horas. Conclusiones: la angina de Ludwig es una afección que habitualmente involucra pacientes jóvenes, cuya evolución es rápida y su inadecuado abordaje conlleva a la muerte, asociado con insuficiencia respiratoria obstructiva y sepsis grave, por lo que requiere un diagnóstico oportuno

Humans , Female , Adult , Shock, Septic , beta-Lactamases , Dopamine , Ludwig's Angina , Metronidazole
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(3): 217-223, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115545


Resumen Introducción: Es importante mantener programas de vigilancia bacteriana para disminuir resistencia y definir esquemas farmacológicos adecuados. Los pacientes con abdomen agudo representan un grupo microbiológico especial. Objetivos: Hacer una revisión de agentes patógenos en pacientes adultos operados en nuestro Servicio de Urgencia por patología abdominal con líquido libre y analizar los resultados obtenidos de cultivos respecto a las cepas y la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos. Materiales y Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectiva con estadística descriptiva. Se incluyen pacientes consecutivos, mayores de 18 años, operados por abdomen agudo que presentan líquido libre intraperitoneal entre noviembre de 2017 y abril de 2018. Se excluyen casos con terapia antimicrobiana, hospitalización y/o cirugía en los 3 meses previos. Se registran los cultivos positivos, cepas aisladas, susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, datos demográficos y evolución clínica. Resultados: De 63 pacientes 55% fueron hombres, edad promedio 52,2 años. Las patologías más frecuentes fueron de origen apendicular (62%) y de causa entérica (30%). En un 44% el cultivo fue positivo y en 36% con más de un germen. Escherichia coli fue el patógeno más frecuente (64,2%) seguidos de Enterococcus faecium y Streptococcus anginosus (7,1%). De los otros patógenos cultivados sólo se observó resistencia múltiple en un caso aislado de Morganella Morganii. Conclusiones: Estos datos constituyen la realidad microbiológica local en abdomen agudo. La Escherichia Coli sigue siendo el germen más frecuente, debe enfrentarse con profilaxis y tratamiento antibiótico adecuado. Es necesario mantener vigilancia microbiología local para un manejo acorde.

Introduction: It is important to maintain bacterial surveillance programs to decrease resistance and define adequate pharmacological schemes. Patients with abdomen represent a special microbiological group. Objetives: Make a review of pathogens in adult patients operated in our Emergency Service for abdominal pathology with free fluid and analyze the results obtained from cultures with respect to the strains and susceptibility to antibiotics. Materials and Method: Prospective cohort study with descriptive statistics. We include consecutive patients, older than 18 years old, operated on by abdomen who present free intraperitoneal fluid between November 2017 and April 2018. Cases with antimicrobial therapy, hospitalization and/or surgery 3 months prior are excluded. Positive cultures, isolated strains, antimicrobial susceptibility, demographic data and clinical evolution are recorded. Results: Of 63 patients, 55% were men and the average age was 52.2 years. The most frequent pathologies were of appendicular origin (62%) and of enteric origin (30%). In 44% the crop was positive and in 36% with more than one germ. Escherichia coli was the most frequent pathogen (64.2%) followed by Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus anginosus (7.1%). Of the others, cultivated pathogens have only observed multiple resistance in an isolated case of Morganella Morganii. Conclusions: These data include the local microbiological reality in acute abdomen. Escherichia coli is still the most frequent germ that must be faced with the profile and the appropriate treatment. It is necessary to maintain local microbiology surveillance for a proper management.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Abdomen, Acute/surgery , Abdomen, Acute/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Ascitic Fluid , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Streptococcus anginosus , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Abdomen, Acute/pathology , Metronidazole
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(2): e166204, mai. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1122176


Medical management of abdominal abscesses in horses requires prolonged antibiotic therapy and presents varied success rates. A 6-year-old male horse with a history of colic and multiple abdominal punctures to relieve gas was attended. At admission, tachycardia, tachypnea, hyperthermia, mucosal congestion, dehydration, and rigid gait were observed. The association of physical examination, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings allowed the diagnoses of peritonitis and abdominal abscess. Supporting treatment plus broad spectrum antibiotic therapy was performed: daily intraperitoneal ceftriaxone (25 mg/kg, 7 days); daily intravenous gentamicin (6.6 mg/kg, 7 days); per os metronidazole three times a day (15 mg/kg 12 days), followed by the same dose twice a day (15 mg/kg 33 days), totaling 45 days of treatment. Plasma fibrinogen and ultrasonographic examination were the most effective tools to evaluate abscess evolution. There was normalization of the physical examination 24 h after beginning the treatment, consecutive regression of the nucleated cell count in the peritoneal fluid, and regression of plasma fibrinogen and size of the abscess. On the 10th treatment day, the animal was discharged from the hospital, maintaining oral therapy with metronidazole every 12 h (15 mg / kg). When the animal returned on the 30th day, an abscess size regression was observed. However, there was no resolution, and therapy with metronidazole was maintained. On the 45th day of treatment, a new hospital evaluation was performed, where the abscess resolved, and metronidazole was suspended. It is highlighted that the therapeutic association used in the treatment of abdominal infection and abscess resulted in a rapid clinical response.(AU)

O tratamento conservativo dos abscessos abdominais em equinos requer antibioticoterapia prolongada e apresenta variadas taxas de sucesso. Foi atendido um cavalo de seis anos de idade, com histórico de cólica e múltiplas punções abdominais por agulha para esvaziamento de gás. Na admissão, foram observados taquicardia, taquipnéia, hipertermia, congestão mucosa, desidratação e marcha rígida. A associação do exame físico, achados laboratoriais e ultrassonográficos permitiu o diagnóstico de peritonite e abscesso abdominal. Foi realizado tratamento suporte e antibioticoterapia de amplo espectro: ceftriaxona intraperitoneal diária (25 mg/kg, 7 dias); gentamicina intravenosa diária (6,6 mg/kg, 7 dias); metronidazol oral três vezes ao dia (15 mg/kg, 12 dias), seguido de mesma dose duas vezes ao dia, por mais 33 dias, totalizando 45 dias de tratamento. O fibrinogênio plasmático e o exame ultrassonográfico foram os recursos mais eficazes para a avaliação da evolução do abscesso. Após 24 horas do início do tratamento foi constatada a normalização do exame fisico, regressão progressiva da contagem de células nucleadas no líquido peritoneal, do fibrinogênio plasmático e do tamanho do abscesso. No 10° dia de tratamento o animal recebeu alta hospitalar, mantendo-se a terapia oral com metronidazol a cada 12 horas (15 mg/Kg). Em retorno, ao 30° dia, observou-se regressão do tamanho do abscesso, entretanto, não houve resolução, tendo sido mantida a terapia com metronidazol. No 45º dia de tratamento, realizou-se nova avaliação hospitalar, onde foi observada a resolução do abscesso e a admnistração do metronidazol foi suspensa. Destaca-se, que a associação terapêutica utilizada no tratamento de infecção abdominal e abscesso resultou em rápida resposta clínica.(AU)

Animals , Peritonitis/veterinary , Ceftriaxone/administration & dosage , Gentamicins/administration & dosage , Abdominal Abscess/veterinary , Horses , Metronidazole/administration & dosage , Ultrasonics , Fibrinogen , Injections, Intraperitoneal/veterinary
Infectio ; 24(1): 9-14, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1090537


Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ceftolozane/tazobactam + metronidazole (C/T+M) and ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) compared with 8 alternatives used in the treatment of complicated intraabdominal infection (cIAI) and complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) respectively. Methods: A Monte Carlo simulation decision model was used for the estimation and comparison of treatment-related costs, and quality adjusted life years for patients with cIAI treated with C/T+M in comparison with cefepime + metronidazole, ciprofloxacin + metronidazole, doripenem, levofloxacin + metronidazole, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime + metronidazole or imipenem/cilastatin and patients with cUTI treated with C/T in comparison with cefepime, ciprofloxacin, doripenem, levofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime or imipenem/cilastatin. Local costs were estimated using base cases identified by experts and consulting local databases. Sensitivity values of the PACTS (Program to Assess Ceftolozane/Tazobactam Susceptibility) study in Latin America were used in the model. Results: C/T+M and C/T obtained incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) that were below the Colombian cost-effectiveness threshold (3 GDP per capita) in most comparisons, and were dominated by meropenem, considering only gram-negative microorganisms. Sensitivity assessments were also carried out, in which only the population with P. aeruginosa infections was considered, showing positive results for C/T+M and C/T (cost-effective or dominant with regards to all comparators). Conclusions: C/T+M and C/T could be cost-effective alternatives in the treatment of CIAI and CUTI in Colombia, when there is an adequate and rational use of antibiotics. The results of the sensitivity analyses showed dominance and cost-effectiveness with regards to every comparator in patients infected with P. aeruginosa

Objetivo: Evaluar la costo-efectividad de ceftolozano/tazobactam + metronidazol (C/T + M) y ceftolozano/tazobactam (C/T) en comparación con 8 alternativas utilizadas en el tratamiento de las infecciones intraabdominales complicadas (IAAc) e infecciones del tracto urinario complicadas (ITUc) respectivamente. Métodos: Se usó un modelo de decisión de simulación de Monte Carlo para la estimación y comparación de los costos relacionados con el tratamiento y los años de vida ajustados por calidad para pacientes con IAAc tratados con C/T + M, en comparación con cefepima + metronidazol, ciprofloxacina + metronidazol, doripenem , levofloxacina + metronidazol, meropenem, piperacilina / tazobactam, ceftazidima + metronidazol o imipenem/cilastatina, y pacientes con ITUc tratados con C/T en comparación con cefepime, ciprofloxacina, doripenem, levofloxacina, meropenem, piperacilina / tazobactam, ceftazidima o imipenem/cilastatina . Los costos locales se estimaron por medio de casos base identificados por expertos y consultando bases de datos locales. Se utilizaron los valores de sensibilidad bacteriana del estudio PACTS (Programa para evaluar la susceptibilidad al ceftolozano/tazobactam) en América Latina para poblar el modelo. Resultados: C/T + M y C/T obtuvieron razones de costo-efectividad incrementales (RCEI) que estaban por debajo del umbral de costo-efectividad colombiano (3 PIB per cápita) en la mayoría de las comparaciones, y fueron dominados por meropenem, considerando solo microorganismos gran-negativos También se llevaron a cabo análisis de sensibilidad, en los que solo se consideró la población con infecciones por P. aeruginosa, mostrando resultados positivos para C/T + M y C/T (costo efectivo o dominante con respecto a todos los comparadores). Conclusiones: C/T + M y C/T podrían ser alternativas costo efectivas en el tratamiento de IAAc e ITUc en Colombia, cuando existe un uso adecuado y racional de antibióticos. Los resultados de los análisis de sensibilidad mostraron dominio y costo-efectividad en relación con todos los comparadores en pacientes infectados con P. aeruginosa.

Humans , Female , Urinary Tract , Intraabdominal Infections , Tazobactam , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Colombia , Sepsis , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology