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1.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 36(2): 12-14, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352554

ABSTRACT

Los ácaros ectoparásitos del género Demodex spp (>140 especies) pertenecen a la familia Demodicidae, superfamilia Cheyletoidea, suborden Prostigmata, orden Trombidiformes, superorden Acariformes. Fueron descritos por primera vez en 1841 por Henle y Berger. El término Demodex deriva del griego: demos = grasa y dex = gusano incrustado. Tienen una longitud de 0.2- 0.4 mm, son transparentes y elongados. Su cuerpo se divide en tres secciones principales: 1) gnatosoma, región anterior, en donde se encuentra la apertura bucal; 2) podosoma, región en la que se encuentran sus cuatro pares de patas; y 3) el opistoma, región caudal o cola. Se adquieren poco después del nacimiento y se consideran parte del microbiota normal de muchos mamíferos, así como también del ser humano, en particular de la unidad pilosebácea. Por lo tanto, se ubican principalmente en el rostro, cuero cabelludo y región superior del tronco. Todas estas áreas corporales se caracterizan por la alta secreción sebácea, alimento primordial para el crecimiento y desarrollo de este ácaro; razón por la cual, además, su densidad aumenta durante la pubertad, periodo cuando proliferan las glándulas sebáceas. Dentro de las especies del género, encontramos exclusivamente en humanos, a D. folliculorum (440 µm), habitando frecuentemente el infundíbulo folicular y D. brevis (240 µm), que se localiza predominantemente en los ductos sebáceos y glándulas tarsales a nivel ocular.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Mite Infestations/diagnosis , Mite Infestations/parasitology , Metronidazole/administration & dosage , Mite Infestations/drug therapy
2.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 21-25, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292703

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La apendicitis aguda es una patología pediátrica quirúrgica que en su fase complicada requiere uso de antibióticos en el postoperatorio; encontrar la mejor opción como experiencia local, fue necesario. OBJETIVO. Comparar un esquema de antibioticoterapia triple vs un doble respecto a variables: demográficas, clínicas y de costos en pacientes pediátricos con apendicitis complicada. MATERIALES y MÉTODOS. Estudio analítico transversal. Población de 133 pacientes y una muestra de 93, operados por apendicitis complicada; 58 recibieron ampicilina + metronidazol + gentamicina y 35 ceftriaxona + metronidazol. Se comparó las variables: estadía hospitalaria, complicaciones y costo monetario de cada esquema. Se realizó en la Unidad de Cirugía Pediátrica del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín, en el periodo enero de 2017 a octubre de 2018. Los datos fueron analizados con R-Studio 1.8.366 para Windows. RESULTADOS. No hubo diferencia estadística con respecto a: estadía hospitalaria (p=0,261); complicaciones como infección del sitio quirúrgico (p=0,196), re-intervención quirúrgica (p=0,653) y costo (p=0,059). CONCLUSIÓN. Se comparó el esquema de antibioticoterapia triple vs un doble, utilizados en apendicitis complicada en pediatría. No se encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas en este reporte preliminar, con la diferencia de que con el esquema doble la frecuencia de administración fue menor y se evitó la exposición a los efectos colaterales de los aminoglicósidos.


INTRODUCTION. Acute appendicitis is a pediatric surgical pathology that in its complicated phase requires the use of antibiotics during the postoperative period; finding the best option as local experience was a must. OBJECTIVE. Compare a triple vs a double antibiotic therapy scheme respect demographic, clinical and cost variables in pediatric patients whit complicated apendicitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional analytical study. Population of 133 patients and sample of 93, with complicated appendicitis; 58 received ampicillin + metronidazole + gentamicin and 35 ceftriaxone + metronidazole. The following variables were compared; hospital stay, complications and monetary cost of each scheme. It was performed in the Pediatric Surgery Unit of the Hospital of Specialties Carlos Andrade Marin, during january 2017, through october 2018. The data were analyzed with R-Studio 1.8.366 for Windows. RESULTS. There was no statistical difference regarding hospital stay (p=0.261); complications such as surgical site infection (p=0.196), re-surgical intervention (p=0.653); nor cost (p=0.059). CONCLUSION. Triple vs. Double antibiotic therapy scheme used in complicated appendicitis in pediatrics was compared. No statistically significant differences were found in this preliminary report, how ever with the double scheme the frequency of administration was lower and exposure to side effects of aminoglycosides was avoided.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Appendicitis/complications , Gentamicins , Cephalexin , Ampicillin , Metronidazole , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pediatrics , Postoperative Complications , General Surgery , Cost-Benefit Analysis
3.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(1): 38-45, jun. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284260

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: determinar las principales características demográficas, clínicas, radiológicas y de función pulmonar de los pacientes con bronquiectasias en la Clínica del Pulmón. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: estudio observacional, retrospectivo. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de 23 pacientes con diagnóstico de dilataciones bronquiales. RESULTADOS: de los 23 pacientes, con una edad media de 49,4 ± 3,87 años, 13 corresponden al sexo femenino y 10 al sexo masculino, el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad desde el diagnóstico de la patología inicial es de 17,3 ± 2,92 años. La tuberculosis es la etiología principal en 15 pacientes (65,2%). Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes son la tos y expectoración mucopurulenta por varios años en la mayoría de los pacientes, al que añadimos la disnea y hemoptisis, la auscultación pulmonar revela la presencia de crépitos en 17 pacientes (73,9%). La Tomografía de Tórax de Alta Resolución distingue dos tipos de bronquiectasias: La sacular o quística y la cilíndrica, de localización unilobar, bilobar y multilobar (difuso). La Espirometría Forzada fue indicada en 10 pacientes (43,5%) 7 mujeres y 3 varones, el Síndrome Bronquial Obstructivo fue el hallazgo más frecuente. La asociación de Tetraciclina con Metronidazol indicado en 9 pacientes (39,1%) mejoró el cuadro clínico. La fisiopatología de esta entidad clínica está sujeta a una constante actualización. CONCLUSIONES: en pacientes tosedores crónicos, las bronquiectasias deben tener prioridad diagnóstica, se trata de una patología antigua, pero de actualidad permanente.


The purpose of this document is to determine the main epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with bronchiectasis at the Lung Clinic. METHOD: observational, retrospective study. The medical records of 23 patients diagnosed with bronchial dilation were reviewed. RESULTS: the results of the 23 patients studied, with a mean age of 49,4 ± 3,87 years, 13 correspond to the female sex and 10 to the male sex, indicate that the time of evolution of the disease from the diagnosis of the initial pathology is: 17,3 ± 2,92 years. Tuberculosis is the main etiology in 15 patients (65,2%). The most frequent clinical manifestations were cough and mucopurulent expectoration of several years in most of the patients, to which we must add dyspnea and hemoptysis, pulmonary auscultation reveals the presence of crepitus in 17 patients (73,9%). High Resolution Chest Tomography distinguishes two types of bronchiectasis: the saccular or cystic and the cylindrical, the localization is unilobar, bilobar and multilobar (diffuse). Forced spirometry was indicated in 10 patients (43,5%), 7 women and 3 men, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is the main diagnosis. The association of Tetracycline with Metronidazole indicated in 9 patients (39,1%) had positive results. The pathophysiology of this clinical entity is subject to constant updating. CONCLUSIONS: in chronic coughing patients, bronchiectasis must have diagnostic priority, it is an old pathology, but it is permanently current


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Bronchiectasis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Auscultation , Spirometry , Tuberculosis , Dyspnea , Hemoptysis , Metronidazole
4.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 15(2): 115-136, 20210516.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252504

ABSTRACT

Blastocystis es un stramenopile o cromista, pleomórfico no móvil. Se han identificado diecinue-ve subtipos de este organismo (ST1-ST19). Tiene una presencia a nivel mundial. Este microor-ganismo tiene un metabolismo intermediario anaeróbico. Un aspecto interesante de la bioquími-ca de este stramenopile está dado por la presencia de organelas similares a mitocondrias con un conjunto de rutas: cadena de fosforilación oxidativa incompleta, ciclo de Krebs parcial, metabo-lismo de ácidos grasos (anabolismo y catabolismo), metabolismo de aminoácidos y ensamblaje de proteínas con centros hierro/azufre. El tratamiento se ha basado tradicionalmente en metroni-dazol y otros imidazoles. Sin embargo, hay un número creciente de cepas resistentes a esos medicamentos. La reciente obtención del genoma nuclear y los estudios bioquímicos, proteómi-cos, metabolómicos, interactómicos permitirán el desarrollo racional de nuevos fármacos curati-vos. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir el metabolismo de Blastocystis spp


Blastocystis is a stramenopile or chromist, nonmobile pleomorphic. Nineteen subtypes of this organism (ST1-ST19) have been identified worldwide. This microorganism has an intermediate anaerobic metabolism. An interesting aspect of the biochemistry of this stramenopile is given by the presence of mitochondrial-like organelles with a set of pathways: incomplete oxidative phos-phorylation chain, partial Krebs cycle, fatty acid metabolism (anabolism and catabolism), amino acid metabolism and protein assembly with iron / sulfur centers. Treatment has traditionally been based on metronidazole and other imidazoles. However, there are a growing number of strains resistant to these drugs. The recent obtaining of the nuclear genome and the biochemical, proteomic, metabolomic and interactomic studies will allow the rational development of new curative drugs. The objective of this review is to describe the metabolism of Blastocystis spp.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Parasitic Diseases , Blastocystis , Metabolism , Anaerobiosis , Metronidazole , Antigens, Protozoan
5.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 58(1): e2919, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156427

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La osteomielitis mandibular crónica es considerada como una infección odontogénica que cursa con tumefacción de la cara, limitación de la abertura bucal y dolor. Pocas veces es tratada a través de gammagrafías con fijación a ciprofloxacino con la consiguiente obtención de resultados efectivos. Objetivo: Describir un caso clínico de osteomielitis mandibular crónica tratada con terapia antibiótica y quirúrgica. Presentación de caso: Paciente femenina de 63 años de edad que acudió al servicio de estomatología del Hospital María Auxiliadora, Lima, Perú; con un historial de tres meses de hinchazón creciente a nivel del borde inferior izquierdo de la mandíbula desde que le realizaron una extracción dentaria. Los exámenes tomográficos, gammagrafía, biopsia y antibiograma confirmaron la osteomielitis y la susceptibilidad bacteriana. La decorticación, debridamiento, exodoncia y la administración de metronidazol más vancomicina por dos meses permitió la remisión del cuadro. Conclusiones: El seguimiento clínico de dos años y las gammagrafías de evaluación permitieron verificar la presencia de regeneración ósea y ausencia de focos de reactivación. La osteomielitis crónica puede ser provocada por restos de exodoncias dentarias. Su diagnóstico y seguimiento clínico requiere de múltiples exámenes y controles a largo plazo(AU)


Introduction: Chronic mandibular osteomyelitis is considered to be an odontogenic infection manifesting as facial tumefaction, limited mouth opening and pain. It is not often enough treated with ciprofloxacin fixation gammagraphies with the consequent achievement of effective results. Objective: Describe a clinical case of chronic mandibular osteomyelitis treated with antibiotic and surgical therapy. Case presentation: A female 63-year-old patient attends the dental service at María Auxiliadora Hospital in Lima, Peru, with a history of three-months' swelling of the lower left edge of her mandible upon performance of a dental extraction. Tomographic examination, gammagraphy, biopsy and antibiograms confirmed the presence of osteomyelitis and bacterial susceptibility. Decortication, debridement, exodontia and administration of metronidazole plus vancomycin for two months led to remission of the patient's status. Conclusions: Two-year clinical follow-up and evaluation gammagraphies made it possible to verify the presence of bone regeneration and the absence of reactivation foci. Chronic osteomyelitis may be caused by remains of dental exodontias. Its diagnosis and clinical follow-up require a large number of long-term tests and controls(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Osteomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Surgery, Oral/methods , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Metronidazole/therapeutic use
6.
Femina ; 49(2): 109-114, 20210228. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224067

ABSTRACT

A endometrite crônica (EC) é uma doença que, apesar de ainda pouco investigada, tem sido associada a resultados reprodutivos desfavoráveis. Estudos têm mostrado que a EC pode prejudicar a receptividade endometrial, levando a falhas de implantação e perdas gestacionais recorrentes. Os métodos padronizados para diagnóstico incluem histeroscopia, histologia para pesquisa de plasmócitos e cultura endometrial para identificação de agentes bacterianos. O tratamento com antibióticos para EC parece melhorar as taxas de gestação e nascidos vivos em pacientes com falhas de implantação e perdas gestacionais recorrentes sem causa conhecida. Esta publicação tem por objetivo fazer uma revisão da etiologia, fisiopatologia, diagnóstico e tratamento da EC, seu impacto no microambiente endometrial e sua associação com infertilidade. Esta revisão narrativa da literatura atualizada sintetiza os achados encontrados em bases de dados computadorizadas.(AU)


Chronic endometritis (CE) is a poorly investigated disease, which has been related to adverse reproductive outcomes. Published studies have shown that CE can impair endometrial receptivity, which is associated with implantation failure and recurrent pregnancy loss. The standard tools for diagnosis include hysteroscopy, histology to identification of plasma cells and endometrial culture for identification of bacterial pathogens. Effective antibiotic treatment for CE seems to improve the pregnancy and live birth rates in patients with implantation failure and unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss. This paper intends to provide an overview of etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of CE, its impact on endometrial microenvironment and its association with infertility. This narrative review of the current literature synthesizes the findings retrieved from searches in computerized databases.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Endometritis/diagnosis , Endometritis/etiology , Endometritis/physiopathology , Endometritis/drug therapy , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Hysteroscopy , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Infertility, Female/complications , Metronidazole/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. fac. cienc. méd. (Impr.) ; 17(2): 31-36, jul.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1292596

ABSTRACT

La dermatitis periorificial, es una erupción acneiforme que comúnmente afecta la región perioral y con frecuencia se extiende alrededor de la nariz y los ojos. Los mayores reportes son en mujeres de 20 a 45 años y en menor proporción en menores de 18 años. Su etiología es desconocida, pero se ha asociado al uso de glucocorticoides tópicos, inhalados y sistémicos. Objetivo: presentar una serie de casos de dermatititis periorificial, asociados con el uso indiscriminado de glucocorticoides, que respondieron eficazmente al tratamiento con metronidazol tópico, solo o combinado con doxiciclina. Presentación de casos clínicos: se describen cinco pacientes de sexo femenino, edades comprendidas entre 4 y 18 años, atendidos en la consulta ambulatoria de Dermatología. En cuatro casos, se documentó el uso prolongado de glucocorticoides tópicos/inhalados, de estos, tres presentaron lesiones papulares eritematosas o color piel, escasas pústulas, asintomáticas o prurito leve, localizadas a nivel perioral, perinasal y periocular; perioral y perinasal en uno y solamente perioral en otro. El tratamiento con metronidazol tópico fue exitoso en los cinco pacientes y en uno se combinó con doxiciclina oral. Conclusiones: el manejo de la dermatitis periorificial puede responder eficazmente al metronidazol tópico y dada su asociación al uso de glucocorticoides, se recomienda evitar el uso injustificado y prolongado de los mismos, tanto en forma tópica como inhalada o sistémica...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Dermatitis, Perioral , Glucocorticoids , Dermatitis, Atopic , Metronidazole/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(3): 351-361, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138793

ABSTRACT

Resumen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) es un bacilo gramnegativo microaerófilo, capaz de colonizar la mucosa gástrica. Este microorganismo infecta a más de la mitad de la población mundial, por lo que se ha convertido en la infección bacteriana más común. La prevalencia de la infección y de las enfermedades asociadas a ella es alta, sobre todo en países en vías de desarrollo. El tratamiento recomendado para la erradicación es la triple terapia; sin embargo, su eficacia ha disminuido por el desconocimiento del patrón de susceptibilidad bacteriano por parte del personal médico y dada la aparición de cepas resistentes. La resistencia en H. pylori se asocia con la capacidad de adaptación de la bacteria a ambientes hostiles y al uso de los antibióticos. En Colombia, existen reportes acerca de que H. pylori presenta resistencia a amoxicilina, metronidazol, claritromicina, furazolidona, levofloxacina y tetraciclina. Los estudios del patrón de susceptibilidad determinaron que la frecuencia de resistencia de H. pylori es variable y demuestran la falta de datos en la mayoría del territorio del país. Sobre la base de lo anterior, el objetivo de esta revisión es describir los porcentajes de resistencia de H. pylori a los antibióticos amoxicilina, metronidazol, claritromicina, furazolidona, levofloxacina y tetraciclina, usados en el tratamiento de la infección en los estudios realizados en Colombia.


Abstract Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a microaerophilic gram-negative bacillus that colonizes the gastric mucosa. It infects more than half the world's population, making it the most common bacterial infection. The prevalence of infection and associated diseases is high in developing countries. The recommended treatment for its eradication is triple therapy; however, its efficacy has decreased due to the lack of knowledge of the bacterial susceptibility pattern among the medical staff and the emergence of resistant strains. H. pylori susceptibility is associated with the bacteria's ability to adapt to hostile environments and the use of antibiotics. In Colombia, it has been reported that H. pylori is resistant to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, furazolidone, levofloxacin, and tetracycline. Studies on the susceptibility pattern have determined that the frequency of H. pylori susceptibility is variable and demonstrate the lack of data in most of the Colombian territory. With this in mind, the objective of this review is to describe the percentage of resistance to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, furazolidone, levofloxacin and tetracycline, which are used for the treatment of H. pylori infection, according to studies conducted in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tetracycline , Efficacy , Helicobacter pylori , Clarithromycin , Levofloxacin , Furazolidone , Amoxicillin , Metronidazole , Prevalence , Disease Susceptibility , Disease Eradication
9.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(4): 263-265, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137976

ABSTRACT

Resumo Paciente do sexo feminino, 19 anos, com queixa de diplopia, náusea e vômito de início súbito. Ao exame físico, a paciente apresentava rotação da cabeça para a esquerda e limitação da adução do olho direito, sugerindo paresia do músculo reto medial. Ausência de ptose palpebral ou paresia de outra musculatura ocular extrínseca e sem outras alterações na avaliação oftalmológica. Foi relatado pelo paciente o uso de Metronidazol, duas doses de 500 mg, no mesmo dia em que os sintomas começaram. A ressonância magnética do crânio foi solicitada. O resultado mostrou um cisto da glândula pineal, estando os outros aspectos dentro da normalidade. A paresia do músculo reto medial e diplopia persistiram por 14 dias, mesmo após a suspensão do antibiótico, optando, assim, por iniciar a corticoterapia oral, evoluindo com boa resposta clínica, melhora dos sintomas e regressão da paresia muscular.


Abstract Female patient, 19 years old, with a complaint of diplopia, nausea and vomiting of sudden onset. Upon physical examination, the patient presented herself with the head position rotated to the left and limitation of adduction of the right eye, suggesting paresis of the medial rectus muscle. Absence of palpebral ptosis or paresis of other extrinsic musculature of the eye, and without other alterations in the ophthalmological evaluation. It was reported by the patient the use of Metronidazole, two doses of 500 mg, the same day the symptoms started. The magnetic resonance imaging of the skull was requested. The result showed a cyst of the pineal gland, the other aspects being within normality. The paresis of the medial rectus muscle and diplopia persisted for 14 days, even after the antibiotic was discontinued, thus opting to initiate oral corticosteroid therapy, evolving with good clinical response, improvement of symptoms and regression of muscular paresis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/chemically induced , Diplopia/chemically induced , Metronidazole/adverse effects , Metronidazole/toxicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Administration, Oral
10.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(3): 311-316, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279744

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La técnica PIPAC se presenta como una variante de tratamiento para los pacientes con carcinomato sis peritoneal que no son candidatos a una resección. Se describen de manera detallada los pasos y el procedimiento quirúrgico para la administración de quimioterapia intraperitoneal presurizada con dispositivo PIPAC.


ABSTRACT Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is a therapeutic option for patients with unresectable peritoneal carcinomatosis. The steps and the surgical technique of the PIPAC technique are thoroughly described.


Subject(s)
Drug Therapy/methods , Peritoneal Neoplasms/surgery , Peritoneal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cefuroxime/administration & dosage , Aerosols , Laparoscopes , Metronidazole/administration & dosage
11.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(3): 217-223, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115545

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Es importante mantener programas de vigilancia bacteriana para disminuir resistencia y definir esquemas farmacológicos adecuados. Los pacientes con abdomen agudo representan un grupo microbiológico especial. Objetivos: Hacer una revisión de agentes patógenos en pacientes adultos operados en nuestro Servicio de Urgencia por patología abdominal con líquido libre y analizar los resultados obtenidos de cultivos respecto a las cepas y la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos. Materiales y Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectiva con estadística descriptiva. Se incluyen pacientes consecutivos, mayores de 18 años, operados por abdomen agudo que presentan líquido libre intraperitoneal entre noviembre de 2017 y abril de 2018. Se excluyen casos con terapia antimicrobiana, hospitalización y/o cirugía en los 3 meses previos. Se registran los cultivos positivos, cepas aisladas, susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, datos demográficos y evolución clínica. Resultados: De 63 pacientes 55% fueron hombres, edad promedio 52,2 años. Las patologías más frecuentes fueron de origen apendicular (62%) y de causa entérica (30%). En un 44% el cultivo fue positivo y en 36% con más de un germen. Escherichia coli fue el patógeno más frecuente (64,2%) seguidos de Enterococcus faecium y Streptococcus anginosus (7,1%). De los otros patógenos cultivados sólo se observó resistencia múltiple en un caso aislado de Morganella Morganii. Conclusiones: Estos datos constituyen la realidad microbiológica local en abdomen agudo. La Escherichia Coli sigue siendo el germen más frecuente, debe enfrentarse con profilaxis y tratamiento antibiótico adecuado. Es necesario mantener vigilancia microbiología local para un manejo acorde.


Introduction: It is important to maintain bacterial surveillance programs to decrease resistance and define adequate pharmacological schemes. Patients with abdomen represent a special microbiological group. Objetives: Make a review of pathogens in adult patients operated in our Emergency Service for abdominal pathology with free fluid and analyze the results obtained from cultures with respect to the strains and susceptibility to antibiotics. Materials and Method: Prospective cohort study with descriptive statistics. We include consecutive patients, older than 18 years old, operated on by abdomen who present free intraperitoneal fluid between November 2017 and April 2018. Cases with antimicrobial therapy, hospitalization and/or surgery 3 months prior are excluded. Positive cultures, isolated strains, antimicrobial susceptibility, demographic data and clinical evolution are recorded. Results: Of 63 patients, 55% were men and the average age was 52.2 years. The most frequent pathologies were of appendicular origin (62%) and of enteric origin (30%). In 44% the crop was positive and in 36% with more than one germ. Escherichia coli was the most frequent pathogen (64.2%) followed by Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus anginosus (7.1%). Of the others, cultivated pathogens have only observed multiple resistance in an isolated case of Morganella Morganii. Conclusions: These data include the local microbiological reality in acute abdomen. Escherichia coli is still the most frequent germ that must be faced with the profile and the appropriate treatment. It is necessary to maintain local microbiology surveillance for a proper management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Abdomen, Acute/surgery , Abdomen, Acute/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Ascitic Fluid , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Streptococcus anginosus , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Abdomen, Acute/pathology , Metronidazole
12.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 24(1/2): 54-56, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1148257

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Ludwig's angina is one of the soft tissue infections of the neck and tongue floor with the most admissions to intensive care units (ICU) due to its compromise of the airway and complications from septic shock. The incidence is higher in the adult population, and with the use of the latest generation antibiotics, its incidence has decreased. One of the most frequent causes is the presence of an odontogenic focus such as abscesses, mainly in the second and third molars. Objective: To describe a clinical case, admitted to the hospital ICU, highlighting the comprehensive management and adequate antibiotic therapy. Main data of the case: 24-year-old female patient, a native of Latacunga, went to the emergency service of the Hospital del Sur de Quito for a fever of 10 days of evolution and taking the general condition with signs of shock, and intense pain in the tongue, with edema, and impaired phonation. For initial management, intravenous tramal, IV hydrocortisone, and a broad spectrum antibiotic with piperacillin with tazobactam 4 grams IV every 6 hours, and IV metronidazole every 8 hours. Conclusions: Ludwig's angina is a pathology that usually involves young patients, whose evolution is rapid and its inadequate management leads to death, associated with obstructive respiratory failure and severe sepsis, which requires a timely diagnosis.


Introducción: La angina de Ludwig constituye una de las infecciones de los tejidos blandos del cuello y piso de la lengua con más ingresos en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) por su compromiso de la vía aérea y complicaciones por shock séptico. La incidencia es mayor en la población adulta, y con el uso de los antibióticos de última generación, su incidencia ha disminuido. Una de las causas más frecuentes es la presencia de un foco odontogénico como los abscesos, principalmente en el segundo y el tercer molar. Objetivo: Describir un caso clínico, internado en la UCI del hospital, destacando el manejo integral y la terapia antibiótica adecuada. Datos principales del caso: paciente femenina de 24 años, natural de Latacunga, acude al servicio de emergencias del Hospital del sur de Quito por fiebre de 10 días de evolución y toma del estado general con signos de shock, y dolor intenso en lengua, con edema, y deterioro de la fonación. Para el abordaje inicial se administra tramadol por vía intravenosa (IV), hidrocortisona IV y antibiótico de amplio espectro con piperacilina con tazobactam 4 gramos IV cada 6 horas, y metronidazol IV cada 8 horas. Conclusiones: la angina de Ludwig es una afección que habitualmente involucra pacientes jóvenes, cuya evolución es rápida y su inadecuado abordaje conlleva a la muerte, asociado con insuficiencia respiratoria obstructiva y sepsis grave, por lo que requiere un diagnóstico oportuno


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Shock, Septic , beta-Lactamases , Dopamine , Ludwig's Angina , Metronidazole
13.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(2): e166204, mai. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122176

ABSTRACT

Medical management of abdominal abscesses in horses requires prolonged antibiotic therapy and presents varied success rates. A 6-year-old male horse with a history of colic and multiple abdominal punctures to relieve gas was attended. At admission, tachycardia, tachypnea, hyperthermia, mucosal congestion, dehydration, and rigid gait were observed. The association of physical examination, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings allowed the diagnoses of peritonitis and abdominal abscess. Supporting treatment plus broad spectrum antibiotic therapy was performed: daily intraperitoneal ceftriaxone (25 mg/kg, 7 days); daily intravenous gentamicin (6.6 mg/kg, 7 days); per os metronidazole three times a day (15 mg/kg 12 days), followed by the same dose twice a day (15 mg/kg 33 days), totaling 45 days of treatment. Plasma fibrinogen and ultrasonographic examination were the most effective tools to evaluate abscess evolution. There was normalization of the physical examination 24 h after beginning the treatment, consecutive regression of the nucleated cell count in the peritoneal fluid, and regression of plasma fibrinogen and size of the abscess. On the 10th treatment day, the animal was discharged from the hospital, maintaining oral therapy with metronidazole every 12 h (15 mg / kg). When the animal returned on the 30th day, an abscess size regression was observed. However, there was no resolution, and therapy with metronidazole was maintained. On the 45th day of treatment, a new hospital evaluation was performed, where the abscess resolved, and metronidazole was suspended. It is highlighted that the therapeutic association used in the treatment of abdominal infection and abscess resulted in a rapid clinical response.(AU)


O tratamento conservativo dos abscessos abdominais em equinos requer antibioticoterapia prolongada e apresenta variadas taxas de sucesso. Foi atendido um cavalo de seis anos de idade, com histórico de cólica e múltiplas punções abdominais por agulha para esvaziamento de gás. Na admissão, foram observados taquicardia, taquipnéia, hipertermia, congestão mucosa, desidratação e marcha rígida. A associação do exame físico, achados laboratoriais e ultrassonográficos permitiu o diagnóstico de peritonite e abscesso abdominal. Foi realizado tratamento suporte e antibioticoterapia de amplo espectro: ceftriaxona intraperitoneal diária (25 mg/kg, 7 dias); gentamicina intravenosa diária (6,6 mg/kg, 7 dias); metronidazol oral três vezes ao dia (15 mg/kg, 12 dias), seguido de mesma dose duas vezes ao dia, por mais 33 dias, totalizando 45 dias de tratamento. O fibrinogênio plasmático e o exame ultrassonográfico foram os recursos mais eficazes para a avaliação da evolução do abscesso. Após 24 horas do início do tratamento foi constatada a normalização do exame fisico, regressão progressiva da contagem de células nucleadas no líquido peritoneal, do fibrinogênio plasmático e do tamanho do abscesso. No 10° dia de tratamento o animal recebeu alta hospitalar, mantendo-se a terapia oral com metronidazol a cada 12 horas (15 mg/Kg). Em retorno, ao 30° dia, observou-se regressão do tamanho do abscesso, entretanto, não houve resolução, tendo sido mantida a terapia com metronidazol. No 45º dia de tratamento, realizou-se nova avaliação hospitalar, onde foi observada a resolução do abscesso e a admnistração do metronidazol foi suspensa. Destaca-se, que a associação terapêutica utilizada no tratamento de infecção abdominal e abscesso resultou em rápida resposta clínica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peritonitis/veterinary , Ceftriaxone/administration & dosage , Gentamicins/administration & dosage , Abdominal Abscess/veterinary , Horses , Metronidazole/administration & dosage , Ultrasonics , Fibrinogen , Injections, Intraperitoneal/veterinary
14.
Infectio ; 24(1): 9-14, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1090537

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ceftolozane/tazobactam + metronidazole (C/T+M) and ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) compared with 8 alternatives used in the treatment of complicated intraabdominal infection (cIAI) and complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) respectively. Methods: A Monte Carlo simulation decision model was used for the estimation and comparison of treatment-related costs, and quality adjusted life years for patients with cIAI treated with C/T+M in comparison with cefepime + metronidazole, ciprofloxacin + metronidazole, doripenem, levofloxacin + metronidazole, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime + metronidazole or imipenem/cilastatin and patients with cUTI treated with C/T in comparison with cefepime, ciprofloxacin, doripenem, levofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime or imipenem/cilastatin. Local costs were estimated using base cases identified by experts and consulting local databases. Sensitivity values of the PACTS (Program to Assess Ceftolozane/Tazobactam Susceptibility) study in Latin America were used in the model. Results: C/T+M and C/T obtained incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) that were below the Colombian cost-effectiveness threshold (3 GDP per capita) in most comparisons, and were dominated by meropenem, considering only gram-negative microorganisms. Sensitivity assessments were also carried out, in which only the population with P. aeruginosa infections was considered, showing positive results for C/T+M and C/T (cost-effective or dominant with regards to all comparators). Conclusions: C/T+M and C/T could be cost-effective alternatives in the treatment of CIAI and CUTI in Colombia, when there is an adequate and rational use of antibiotics. The results of the sensitivity analyses showed dominance and cost-effectiveness with regards to every comparator in patients infected with P. aeruginosa


Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar la costo-efectividad de ceftolozano/tazobactam + metronidazol (C/T + M) y ceftolozano/tazobactam (C/T) en comparación con 8 alternativas utilizadas en el tratamiento de las infecciones intraabdominales complicadas (IAAc) e infecciones del tracto urinario complicadas (ITUc) respectivamente. Métodos: Se usó un modelo de decisión de simulación de Monte Carlo para la estimación y comparación de los costos relacionados con el tratamiento y los años de vida ajustados por calidad para pacientes con IAAc tratados con C/T + M, en comparación con cefepima + metronidazol, ciprofloxacina + metronidazol, doripenem , levofloxacina + metronidazol, meropenem, piperacilina / tazobactam, ceftazidima + metronidazol o imipenem/cilastatina, y pacientes con ITUc tratados con C/T en comparación con cefepime, ciprofloxacina, doripenem, levofloxacina, meropenem, piperacilina / tazobactam, ceftazidima o imipenem/cilastatina . Los costos locales se estimaron por medio de casos base identificados por expertos y consultando bases de datos locales. Se utilizaron los valores de sensibilidad bacteriana del estudio PACTS (Programa para evaluar la susceptibilidad al ceftolozano/tazobactam) en América Latina para poblar el modelo. Resultados: C/T + M y C/T obtuvieron razones de costo-efectividad incrementales (RCEI) que estaban por debajo del umbral de costo-efectividad colombiano (3 PIB per cápita) en la mayoría de las comparaciones, y fueron dominados por meropenem, considerando solo microorganismos gran-negativos También se llevaron a cabo análisis de sensibilidad, en los que solo se consideró la población con infecciones por P. aeruginosa, mostrando resultados positivos para C/T + M y C/T (costo efectivo o dominante con respecto a todos los comparadores). Conclusiones: C/T + M y C/T podrían ser alternativas costo efectivas en el tratamiento de IAAc e ITUc en Colombia, cuando existe un uso adecuado y racional de antibióticos. Los resultados de los análisis de sensibilidad mostraron dominio y costo-efectividad en relación con todos los comparadores en pacientes infectados con P. aeruginosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Urinary Tract , Intraabdominal Infections , Tazobactam , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Colombia , Sepsis , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
15.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): 448-456, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114920

ABSTRACT

Enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens due to their intrinsic multiresistance and the acquisition of new antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). Enterococcus faecalis has been shown to be one of the main pathogens in persistent endodontic infections, therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the phenotype and resistance genotype of strains of E. faecalis isolated from teeth with persistent endodontic lesions, to the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in dentistry. Thirteen strains of E. faecalis of different pulsotype were analyzed to evaluate the susceptibility to antibiotics, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, tetracycline, erythromycin and metronidazole, using the Epsilometer test (E- test) and the presence of beta-lactamases with nitrocefin test. Finally, the detection of ARG was performed with a molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and confirmed by the sequencing of the amplification products. Fisher's exact test was used, using 95 % confidence. Regarding the phenotype of resistance, the evaluated strains, independent of the pulsotype, were totally resistant to the action of metronidazole. Antibiotics with higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) after metronidazole include tetracycline and erythromycin. In contrast, lower MIC are applied to the combination of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid. The nitrocefin test was positive only in one strain. Genotypically, two genetically distant strains isolated from a single patient, presented a genotype of resistance to erythromycin, determined by the presence of the ermB gene. No statistically significant relationship was found between phenotypic resistance and the presence of ARG in relation to erythromycin (p> 0.05). It was concluded that isolates of E. faecalis from persistent endodontic infections showed phenotypes of resistance to several antimicrobial agents, all of which were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Periodic evaluation of susceptibility to antibiotics is suggested as an important practice for the surveillance of antibiotic resistance in oral strains.


Los enterococos son importantes patógenos nosocomiales debido a su multi resistencia intrínseca y la adquisición de nuevos genes de resistencia a los antibióticos (ARG). Enterococcus faecalis es uno de los principales patógenos en infecciones endodónticas persistentes, por lo tanto, el objetivo principal de este estudio fue evaluar el fenotipo y el genotipo de resistencia de cepas de E. faecalis aisladas de dientes con lesiones endodóncicas persistentes, a los antibióticos comúnmente recetados en odontología. Se analizaron 13 cepas de E. faecalis de diferentes pulsotipos para evaluar la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos, amoxicilina, amoxicilina / ácido clavulánico, tetraciclina, eritromicina y metronidazol, utilizando la prueba de Epsilometría (E-test) y la presencia de beta-lactamasas con prueba de nitrocefina. Finalmente, la detección de ARG se realizó con una técnica molecular de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) y se confirmó mediante la secuenciación de los productos de amplificación. Se utilizó la prueba exacta de Fisher, con un 95 % de confianza. En cuanto al fenotipo de resistencia, las cepas evaluadas, independientes del pulsotipo, fueron totalmente resistentes a la acción del metronidazol. Los antibióticos con los valores más altos de concentración mínima inibitoria (CMI) después del metronidazol incluyen tetraciclina y eritromicina. En contraste, las CMI mas bajas se aplican a la combinación de amoxicilina con ácido clavulánico. La prueba de nitrocefina fue positiva solo en una cepa. Genotípicamente, dos cepas distantes genéticamente, aisladas de un mismo paciente fueron positivas para el gen ermB. No se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la resistencia fenotípica y la presencia de ARG en relación con la eritromicina (p> 0,05). Se concluyó que los aislamientos de E. faecalis de infecciones endodónticas persistentes mostraron fenotipos de resistencia a varios agentes antimicrobianos, todos los cuales fueron susceptibles a amoxicilina / ácido clavulánico. Se sugiere una evaluación periódica de la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos como una práctica importante para la vigilancia de la resistencia a los antibióticos en las cepas orales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Tetracycline , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Erythromycin , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Clavulanic Acid/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Metronidazole
16.
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(4): 1-8, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1122308

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: A remoção de todas as bactérias patogênicas do sistema de canais radiculares é de primordial importância para o sucesso da terapia endodôntica. Objetivo: O estudo teve como objetivo determinar a eficácia antimicrobiana de três antibióticos e sua nova combinação contra patógenos endodônticos selecionados. Métodos: Neste estudo in vitro, foram utilizadas cepas bacterianas associadas à condição endodôntica refratária e determinado CIM e MBC de Clindamicina (C), Metronidazol (M), Doxiciclina (D), bem como sua combinação de DMC. Cultivamos Candida Albicans, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Escherichia Coli, Enterococcus Faecalis, Streptococcus Mutans, Bacillus Subtilis subsp. spizizenii, Actinomyces Actinomycetemcomitans em meios de cultura seletivos. Analisamos os dados usando o teste 't' emparelhado, ANOVA unidirecional e o teste post hoc HSD de Tuckey. Resultados: A clindamicina inibiu significativamente o crescimento de C. Albicans (90%) e S. Mutans (90%) e P. Aeruginosa, E. Coli, E. Coli, E. Faecalis, B. Subtilis e A. Actinomycetemcomitans eram resistentes a ele. O metronidazol não inibiu nenhuma das bactérias. A doxiciclina inibiu significativamente C. Albicans (90%),P. Aeruginosa (90%) e S. Mutans (90%), enquanto E.Coli, E. Faecalis, B. Subtilis e A. Actinomycetemcomitanseram resistentes a ela. A combinação de CMD inibiu significativamente todos os micróbios. Entretanto, em concentrações bactericidas de CMD, E. Faecalis (p = 0,024),B. Subtilis (p = 0,021) e A. Actinomycetemcomitans (p =0,041) foram eliminados significativamente, enquanto C.Albicans (p = 0,164), P. Aeruginosa (p = 0,489), E. Coli (p= 0,106) e S. Mutans (p = 0,121) apresentaram resistência. Conclusão: O CMD combinado pode ser usado contra patógenos endodônticos resistentes para obter resultados endodônticos previsíveis. (AU)


Background: Removal of all the pathogenic bacteria from the root canal system is of prime importance for the success of endodontic therapy. Objective: The study aimed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of three antibiotics and their new combination against selected endodontic pathogens. Methods: In this in-vitro study, we used bacterial strains associated with the refractory endodontic condition and determined MIC and MBC of Clindamycin (C), Metronidazole (M), Doxycycline (D) as well as their combination CMD. We cultured Candida Albicans, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Escherichia Coli, Enterococcus Faecalis, Streptococcus Mutans, Bacillus Subtilis subsp. spizizenii, Actinomyces Actinomycetemcomitans on selective culture media. We analyzed the data using paired 't' test, one-way ANOVA, and Tuckey's HSD post hoc test. Results: Clindamycininhibited the growth of C. Albicans (90%) and S. Mutans (90%) significantly and P. Aeruginosa, E. Coli, E. Faecalis, B. Subtilis, and A. Actinomycetemcomitans were resistantto it. Metronidazole did not inhibit any of the bacteria. Doxycycline inhibited C. Albicans (90%), P. Aeruginosa(90%), and S. Mutans (90%) significantly while E. Coli,E. Faecalis, B. Subtilis, and A. Actinomycetemcomitans were resistant to it. The combination of CMD inhibited all the microbes significantly. However, at bactericidal concentrations of CMD, E. Faecalis (p = 0.024), B. Subtilis (p = 0.021) and A. Actinomycetemcomitans(p = 0.041) were eliminated significantly, while C. Albicans (p = 0.164), P. Aeruginosa (p = 0.489), E. Coli (p = 0.106) and S. Mutans (p = 0.121) showed resistance. Conclusion: Combination CMD can be used against resistant endodontic pathogens to achieve predictable endodontic results. (AU)


Subject(s)
Clindamycin , Doxycycline , Dental Pulp Cavity , Metronidazole , Anti-Infective Agents
17.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3299, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1126959

ABSTRACT

Objective: to evaluate the use of the 2D-FlexRuler as a facilitating tool for the early calculation of the predictive scar factor of chronic wounds. Method: a descriptive study with a quantitative, experimental, longitudinal and prospective approach. The sample consisted of 22 outpatients. 32 chronic wounds were analyzed. The wound edges were identified and drawn on the 2D-FlexRuler. The calculations of the areas of chronic wounds were obtained by manual, traditional methods, by software and Matlab algorithm. These areas were compared with each other to determine the efficiency of the proposed ruler in relation to traditional methods. Results: the calculation of the wound area by the traditional method and Kundin's coefficient show average errors greater than 40%. The manual estimation of the area with the 2D-FlexRuler is more accurate in relation to traditional measurement methods, which were considered quantitatively disqualified. When compared with the reference method, for example, the Klonk software, the data obtained by 2D-FlexRuler resulted in an error of less than 1.0%. Conclusion: the 2D-FlexRuler is a reliable metric platform for obtaining the anatomical limits of chronic wounds. It facilitated the calculation of the wound area under monitoring and allowed to obtain the scar predictive factor of chronic wounds with precocity in two weeks.


Objetivo: avaliar o uso da régua 2D-FlexRuler como ferramenta facilitadora para o cálculo precoce do fator preditivo cicatricial de feridas crônicas. Método: estudo descritivo com abordagem quantitativa, experimental, longitudinal e prospectiva. A amostra foi de 22 pacientes ambulatoriais. Foram analisadas 32 feridas crônicas. As bordas das feridas foram identificadas e desenhadas na 2D-FlexRuler. Os cálculos das áreas das feridas crônicas foram obtidos pelos métodos manuais, tradicionais, por softwares e algoritmo Matlab. Essas áreas foram comparadas entre si para determinar a eficiência da régua proposta em relação aos métodos tradicionais. Resultados: o cálculo da área da ferida pelo método tradicional e coeficiente de Kundin demonstram erros médios maiores do que 40%. A estimativa manual da área com a 2D-FlexRuler é mais exata em relação aos métodos tradicionais de medição, os quais foram considerados quantitativamente desqualificados. Quando comparada com o método de referência, i.e., o software Klonk, os dados obtidos pela 2D-FlexRuler resultaram em um erro menor que 1,0%. Conclusão: a régua 2D-FlexRuler é uma plataforma métrica confiável para a obtenção dos limites anatômicos de feridas crônicas. Facilitou o cálculo da área da ferida sob monitoramento e permitiu obter o fator preditivo cicatricial de feridas crônicas com precocidade em duas semanas.


Objetivo: evaluar el uso de la regla 2D-FlexRuler como herramienta facilitadora para el cálculo temprano del factor predictivo de cicatrices en heridas crónicas. Método: estudio descriptivo con enfoque cuantitativo, experimental, longitudinal y prospectivo. La muestra consistió en 22 pacientes ambulatorios. Se analizaron 32 heridas crónicas. Los bordes de la herida fueron identificados y dibujados en 2D-FlexRuler. Los cálculos de las áreas de heridas crónicas se obtuvieron por métodos manuales, tradicionales, por software y algoritmo Matlab. Estas áreas se compararon entre sí para determinar la eficiencia de la regla propuesta en relación con los métodos tradicionales. Resultados: el cálculo del área de la herida por el método tradicional y el coeficiente de Kundin muestran errores promedio superiores al 40%. La estimación manual del área con 2D-FlexRuler es más precisa en relación con los métodos de medición tradicionales, que se consideraron descalificados cuantitativamente. Al ser comparados con el método de referencia, es decir, el software Klonk, los datos obtenidos por 2D-FlexRuler arrojaron un error de menos del 1,0%. Conclusión: la regla 2D-FlexRuler es una plataforma métrica confiable para obtener los límites anatómicos de las heridas crónicas. Facilitó el cálculo del área de la herida bajo monitoreo y permitió obtener el factor predictivo de cicatriz de heridas crónicas con precocidad en dos semanas.


Subject(s)
Weights and Measures , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries , Software , Cicatrix , Dimensional Measurement Accuracy , Surgical Wound , Metronidazole
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811269

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to understand the nationwide patterns of antibiotic prescription after tooth extraction in adult patients.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study analyzed dental records from the National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort (NHIS–NSC) database on 503,725 tooth extractions performed in adults (≥19 years) during 2011–2015. Patient sex, age, household income, systemic disease (diabetes mellitus and hypertension), type of dental institution, region of dental institution, year of prescription, and type of tooth extraction procedure were considered. The antibiotic prescription rate and broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription frequency were analyzed using chi-squared tests. Factors affecting the prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: The rate of antibiotic prescription after tooth extraction was 81.85%. Penicillin was most commonly prescribed (45.25%), followed by penicillin with beta-lactamase inhibitors (18.76%), metronidazole (12.29%), and second- to fourth-generation cephalosporins (11.52%). The proportion of broad-spectrum antibiotics used among all prescribed antibiotics was 45.88%.CONCLUSION: The findings of this study demonstrate that the rate of antibiotic prescription after tooth extraction is higher in Korea than in other countries. Furthermore, broad-spectrum antibiotics are used more frequently, which may indicate unnecessary drug prescription, an important contributor to antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents , beta-Lactamase Inhibitors , Cephalosporins , Cohort Studies , Dental Records , Drug Prescriptions , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Family Characteristics , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Metronidazole , National Health Programs , Penicillins , Prescriptions , Tooth Extraction , Tooth
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200303, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135270

ABSTRACT

Giardiasis is an infectious disease caused by Giardia duodenalis. The pro-drug metronidazole (MTZ) is the first-line treatment for giardiasis. Parasite's proteins as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), ferredoxin (Fd), nitroreductase-1 (NR-1) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) participate in MTZ activation. Here, we showed Giardia trophozoites long-term exposed to MTZ presented higher IC50 than controls, showing the drug influenced the parasite survival. That reduction in MTZ's susceptibility does not seem to be related to mutations in the genes pfor, fd, nr-1 or trxr. It points that different mechanism as alterations in other metabolic pathways can account for Giardia resistance to MTZ therapy.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance/genetics , Prodrugs , Giardia lamblia/drug effects , Giardia lamblia/genetics , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Activation, Metabolic , Nucleotides
20.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 576-581, oct 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046621

ABSTRACT

This work is aimed at studying the problems of timely diagnostics and therapy of various forms of rosacea, identifying the factors that influence the compliance, prognosis, and quality of life of the patients, as well as the stages of combination therapy. The efficiency of rosacea therapy is determined by the timely identification of patients, as well as the clinical variety of the disease. Complex therapy of rosacea includes identification of the precipitating factors, basic skincare, and the use of systemic and local pathogenetic preparations. The "Gold Standard" of topical rosacea therapy is the antimicrobial and antiprotozoal drug called metronidazole. An important role in disease therapy is played by active cooperation between the doctor and the patient. Comprehensiveness, timeliness, and rationality of rosacea therapy are defined not only by the mechanisms of the disease development but also by aggravating factors, the need for basic care and photosensitivity of the patients


Subject(s)
Photosensitivity Disorders , Retinoids/therapeutic use , Isotretinoin/therapeutic use , Patient Compliance , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Rosacea/diagnosis , Combined Modality Therapy , Metronidazole/therapeutic use
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