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1.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 47: e39, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424270

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To calculate the economic impact of violence across Mexico in 2021 and project costs for 2021-2030. Methods. Incidence data was obtained from the Executive Secretariat of the National Public Security System, (SESNSP), National Population Council (CONAPO), National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI), and the National Survey of Victimization and Perception of Public Safety (ENVIPE). Our model incorporates incidence estimates of the costs of events associated with violence (e.g., homicides, hospitalizations, rapes, extortions, robbery, etc). Results. The economic impact of crime and violence in Mexico for the year 2021 has been estimated at about $192 billion US dollars, which corresponds to 14.6% of the national GDP. By reducing violence 50% by 2030, we estimate savings of at least US$110 billion dollars. This represents a saving of US$1 376 372 for each company and more than US$66 771 for each Mexican. Conclusion. Violence and homicides have become one of the most pressing public health and economic concerns for their effect on health, development, and economic growth. Due to low cost and high impact, prevention is the most efficient way to respond to crime and violence while also being an essential component of sustainable strategies aimed at improving citizen security.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Calcular el impacto económico de la violencia en el 2021 en todo México y proyectar sus costos para el período 2021-2030. Métodos. Los datos de incidencia se obtuvieron del Secretariado Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública (SESNSP), el Consejo Nacional de Población (CONAPO), el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI), y la Encuesta Nacional de Victimización y Percepción sobre Seguridad Pública (ENVIPE). Nuestro modelo incorpora estimaciones de la incidencia de los costos de los eventos asociados a la violencia (por ejemplo, homicidios, hospitalizaciones, violaciones, extorsiones, robos, etc.) Resultados. Se ha estimado que el impacto económico del delito y la violencia en México para el año 2021 es de alrededor de US$ 192 000 millones de dólares estadounidenses, lo que corresponde al 14,6% del PIB nacional. Estimamos que una reducción del 50% de la violencia para el 2030 supondría un ahorro de al menos US$110 000 millones. Esto representa un ahorro de US$1 376 372 para cada empresa y de más de US$66 771 para cada mexicano. Conclusión. La violencia y los homicidios se han convertido en una de las preocupaciones económicas y de salud pública más apremiantes por su efecto sobre la salud, el desarrollo y el crecimiento económico. Debido a su bajo costo y alto impacto, la prevención es la forma más eficiente de responder al delito y la violencia, al tiempo que es un componente esencial de las estrategias sostenibles dirigidas a mejorar la seguridad ciudadana.


RESUMO Objetivo. Estimar o impacto econômico da violência no México em 2021 e fazer a projeção de custos para o período 2021-2030. Métodos. Os dados de incidência da violência no país foram obtidos da Secretaria Executiva do Sistema Nacional de Segurança Pública (SESNSP), do Conselho Nacional de População (CONAPO), do Instituto Nacional de Estatística e Geografia (INEGI) e da Pesquisa Nacional de Vitimização e Percepção de Segurança Pública (ENVIPE). O modelo incorpora estimativas de incidência de custos de eventos associados à violência (como homicídios, internações hospitalares, estupros, extorsões e roubos). Resultados. O impacto econômico da criminalidade e da violência no México foi estimado em torno de US$192 bilhões em 2021, o que equivale a 14,6% do produto interno bruto (PIB) nacional. Estima-se que reduzir a violência em 50% até 2030 pode resultar em uma economia de US$ 110 bilhões ou mais, o que representa uma redução de gastos de US$1 376 372 para cada empresa e de mais de US$66 771 para cada cidadão do México. Conclusão. A violência e os homicídios são um dos problemas econômicos e de saúde pública mais prementes por suas consequências à saúde, ao desenvolvimento e ao crescimento econômico do país. Devido ao seu baixo custo e alto impacto, a prevenção é a forma mais eficiente de combater a criminalidade e a violência, além de ser um componente essencial de qualquer estratégia sustentável para aumentar a segurança da população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Violence/economics , Violence/trends , Damage Assessment in the Economic Sector , Incidence , Crime/economics , Crime/trends , Mexico/epidemiology
2.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(5): 1-9, nov. 23, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435331

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chlorine, ethyl alcohol, and quaternary ammonium are disinfectants with antiviral activity against SARS-Cov2. However, there are no previous reports of their use and handling for cleaning and disinfection in dental offices. Objetive: To determine the use and management of disinfectants in critical and non-critical areas used by dentists in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods: A validated cross-sectional survey was applied online to 100 dentists in San Luis Potosí between February and June 2021. Participants were informed about the handling of personal data according to the standard DOF regulations (DOF 07-05-2010). Results: A total of 100 dentists were included in the study, 63% female and 37% male, with a mean age of 26 years. The most widely used disinfectants during the pandemic in critical areas were Lysol® and 0.1% sodium hypochlorite in non-critical areas. Eighty-five percent of dentists know the adverse effects of inappropriate use of disinfectants, 72% did not have any sign or symptom associated with the use of disinfectants. The most used protection barrier was gloves (97%). Sixty-seven per cent of dentists disposed of disinfectant waste down the drain. Conclusion: Sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium compounds and/or ethanol are used to clean non-critical and critical areas in dental offices. However, appropriate measures for their management are not adopted. It is necessary to implement educational strategies to improve the use and management of disinfectants in dental practice.


Introducción: Cloro, alcohol etílico y amonio cuaternario son desinfectantes que muestran actividad antiviral contra el SARS-Cov2, sin embargo, no existen reportes previos de su uso y manejo para la limpieza y desinfección en clínicas dentales. Objetivo: Determinar el uso y manejo de los desinfectantes en áreas críticas y no críticas empleados por los odontólogos en San Luis Potosí durante la COVID-19. Material y Métodos: Encuesta transversal validada y aplicada on-line a 100 odontólogos de San Luis Potosí durante febrero-junio 2021. Se informó a los participantes sobre el manejo de datos personales de acuerdo a la norma (DOF 05-07-2010). Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 100 odontólogos, 63% del sexo femenino y 37% del sexo masculino, con una edad promedio de 26 años. Los desinfectantes más utilizados durante la pandemia en las áreas críticas fueron el Lysol® y el hipoclorito de sodio al 0.1% en áreas no críticas. El 85% de los odontólogos conocen los efectos adversos del uso inadecuado de los desinfectantes, 72% no tuvieron algún signo o síntoma asociado al uso de desinfectantes. La barrera de protección más utilizada fueron los guantes (97%). El 67% de los odontólogos eliminó los desechos de desinfectantes por la coladera. Conclusión: Para la limpieza de las áreas no críticas y críticas en las clínicas dentales se utilizan el hipoclorito de Sodio y compuestos de amonio cuaternario y/o etanol, sin embargo, no se utilizan las medidas adecuadas para su manejo. Es necesario implementar estrategias educativas para mejorar el uso y manejo de desinfectantes en la práctica dental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Infection Control/methods , Dentists , Disinfectants , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disinfectants/adverse effects , Mexico/epidemiology
3.
s.l; IMSS; jun 25, 2022. 50 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442575

ABSTRACT

La fuerza laboral es el pilar que sostiene a la salud nacional, la economía y la sociedad. El programa Entornos Laborales Seguros y Saludables (ELSSA) propone trabajar juntos; el gobierno, las organizaciones obreras, y las empresas, integrando esfuerzos para establecer una nueva cultura de prevención y promoción de la salud en los centros de trabajo, e impulsar una vida saludable y el bienestar de las personas trabajadoras. De esta manera el programa ELSSA postula que la forma en que desarrollamos nuestro trabajo, el espacio donde laboramos y las relaciones que establecemos en nuestro entorno, son recursos poderosos para crear salud y bienestar. El objetivo de este documento es sintetizar las ideas generales del programa ELSSA, presentando sus objetivos centrales, las necesidades para su implementación, las acciones principales que recomendamos, los beneficios directos e indirectos asociados a su desarrollo y, por último, el valor de un abordaje integral y coordinado de este programa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Occupational Health , Occupational Health Policy , Gender-Based Violence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Promotion , Mexico/epidemiology
4.
Salud trab. (Maracay) ; 30(1): 7-19, jun. 2022. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1411859

ABSTRACT

Los pescadores suelen ejercer su actividad en altamar en condiciones precarias y sometidos a diversas exigencias de trabajo que con el tiempo derivan en diversos daños a la salud entre los que se encuentran los trastornos musculoesqueléticos (TME), los cuales se reportan a nivel mundial, como la principal causa de discapacidad y jubilaciones anticipadas. Objetivo: Identificar las exigencias laborales, daños musculoesqueléticos y dolor asociados a la actividad laboral de los pescadores en Progreso, Yucatán, México, con la intención de visibilizar y generar evidencia empírica en materia laboral en trabajadores de este sector, ante la carencia de información, pese a que es una de las actividades más peligrosas en el mundo. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, analítico y transversal. Participaron 134 pescadores a los que se les aplicó una encuesta individual, previo consentimiento informado. Las variables se analizaron y controlaron en el programa JMP versión 15, con un nivel de significancia menor a p<0.05 y un intervalo de confianza del 95%. Resultados: Las principales exigencias que se señalan son posturas forzadas y movimientos repetitivos. Las zonas del cuerpo más afectadas, espalda, cintura y caderas (44%), miembros superiores (40%), inferiores (30%) y cuello (17%). Conclusión: Los resultados evidencian la relación de los trastornos musculoesqueléticos con las exigencias laborales. Se destaca la presencia de dolor en espalda baja, hombros y cuello. por lo que es necesario implementar programas de capacitación y evaluación ergonómica sobre posturas y cargas, así como programas de rehabilitación a corto plazo(AU)


Fishermen usually carry out their activity on the high seas in precarious conditions and subject to various work demands that over time lead to various health damages, among which are musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), which are reported worldwide, such as the leading cause of disability and early retirement. Objective: Identify labor demands, musculoskeletal damages problems and pain associated with the work activity of fishermen in Progress, Yucatán, México, with the intention of making visible and generating empirical evidence on labor matters in workers in this sector, given the lack of information, despite the fact it is one of the most dangerous activities in the world. Materials y Methods: Descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study. 134 fishermen participated to whom an individual survey was applied, with prior informed consent. The variables were analyzed and controlled in the program JMP version 15, with a significance level of less than p<0.05 and a 95% confidence Interval. Results: The main demands that are pointed out are forced postures and repetitive movements. The most affected areas of the body: back, waist and hips (44%), upper limbs (40%) lower limbs (30%) and neck (17%). The results show the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders with work demands. Conclusions: The presence of pain in the lower back, shoulders and neck stands out. Therefore, it is necessary to implement ergonomic training and evaluation programs on postures and loads, as well as short-term rehabilitation programs(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Risk Factors , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Mexico/epidemiology
5.
Salud trab. (Maracay) ; 30(1): 21-32, jun. 2022. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1411883

ABSTRACT

El burnout (desgate emocional) es una problemática que tiene consecuencias en las y los trabajadores expuestos a determinados riesgos y exigencias. Durante la pandemia por COVID-19 en México aumentó la carga laboral del personal de salud, por lo que esta investigación tiene como propósito explorar la relación entre los datos sociodemográficos, de salud, de las condiciones laborales y burnout entre los profesionales de salud de atención prehospitalaria a inicios de la pandemia en México. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio cuantitativo y descriptivo, se realizó una encuesta en línea en la que participaron 80 trabajadores/as del área prehospitalaria de un universo de aproximadamente 21 mil personas para indagar sus condiciones laborales y la exposición a factores estresantes, así como la prevalencia de la despersonalización, el agotamiento emocional y la realización personal, dimensiones emocionales que definen el burnout. Resultados: El 11.25% de la muestra presenta burnout de acuerdo con el instrumento; en el resto de la muestra destaca que un porcentaje alto de participantes, no tienen burnout, refieren niveles elevados de despersonalización y agotamiento emocional, lo que indica un síndrome en proceso, por lo que es importante dar seguimiento para evitar el avance del burnout en el personal de salud en general y el prehospitalario en particular. Conclusiones: El personal prehospitalario reconoce su trabajo como actividad de riesgo, no obstante, también destacan que su labor favorece la realización personal y la ayuda a otros, que funcionan como factores protectores(AU)


Burnout (emotional exhaustion) is a problem that has consequences for workers, exposed to certain risks and demands. During the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico, the workload of health workers increased, so this research aims to explore the relationship between sociodemographic, health, working conditions and burnout syndrome data between prehospital care health professionals at the beginning of the pandemic in Mexico. Materials and Methods: Quantitative and descriptive study, an online survey was carried out in which 80 workers from the pre-hospital area participated to investigate their working conditions and exposure to stressors, as well as the prevalence of depersonalization, exhaustion emotional and personal fulfillment, which are the emotional dimensions that define burnout. Results: 11.25% of the sample presents burnout according to the instrument; In the rest of the sample, it stands out that a high percentage of participants, who do not have burnout, report high levels of depersonalization and emotional exhaustion, which indicates a syndrome in process, so it is important to follow up to avoid the progression of burnout in health personnel in general and pre-hospital personnel in particular. Conclusions: The prehospital staff recognize their work as a risky activity; however, they also emphasize that their work favors personal fulfillment and helps others, which function as protective factors(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Burnout, Professional , Workload , Prehospital Care , Burnout, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Personnel, Hospital , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Personnel , Mexico/epidemiology , Occupational Groups
6.
Rev. ADM ; 79(3): 136-145, mayo-jun. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377862

ABSTRACT

Durante la pandemia por COVID-19, la presencia de un incremento de fracturas y/o fisuras verticales ha sido reportada por Cirujanos Dentistas en diferentes países y foros, Objetivo: Determinar por medio de un análisis si existe una relación con este aumento de casos y la evolu- ción de la pandemia. Material y método: Se recopilaron los casos de fracturas verticales no restaurables durante el periodo de mayor índice de casos de contagio y defunciones por COVID-19 en la Ciudad de Chihuahua, México. Resultados: Durante el primer pico de casos y defunciones causadas por la pandemia, se incrementó el número de casos de fracturas verticales no tratables. Conclusiones: Existió una relación entre la evolución de la pandemia con la aparición de casos de fracturas dentales verticales no restaurables (AU)


During the COVID-19 pandemic, the presence of an increase in fractures and/or vertical fissures has been reported by Dental Surgeons in different countries and forums. Objective: To determine through an analysis, if there is a relationship with this increase in cases and the evolution of the pandemic. Material and methods: The cases of non-restorable vertical fractures were collected during the period of highest rate of cases of contagion and deaths due to COVID-19 in the City of Chihuahua, Mexico. Results: during the 1st peak of cases and deaths caused by the pandemic, the number of cases of untreatable vertical fractures increased. Conclusions: There was a relationship between the evolution of the pandemic and the appearance of cases of non-restorable vertical dental fractures (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tooth Fractures/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Mexico/epidemiology , Root Canal Therapy , Tooth Root/injuries , Dental Fissures/epidemiology , Age and Sex Distribution , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission
7.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 116-128, abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MMyP | ID: biblio-1367223

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la enfermedad COVID-19 en el embarazo es la primera causa de muerte materna en México, y se ha reportado que favorece las formas graves de la enfermedad. Objetivo: describir las características clínicas, obstétricas y perinatales de pacientes embarazadas con enfermedad COVID-19 atendidas en la UMAE "Luis Castelazo Ayala" del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Material y métodos: estudio observacional, transversal y retrospectivo de pacientes embarazadas con COVID-19 atendidas de marzo a diciembre del 2020. Las características epidemiológicas, complicaciones y resultados perinatales se analizaron con estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Resultados: se incluyeron 133 pacientes: 84.5% presentaron enfermedad leve, 8% moderada y 8.5% severa y crítica. Las comorbilidades preexistentes fueron: obesidad, diabetes e hipotiroidismo. Los principales síntomas: tos, cefalea, fiebre, rinorrea y anosmia. En casos severos y críticos la taquicardia, taquipnea e hipoxemia estuvieron presentes. En las formas severa y crítica se observaron: linfoneutropenia, hiperglucemia y transaminasemia. El fibrinógeno y dímero D sin cambios. El parto pretérmino, el oligohidroamnios, la hipertensión gestacional, la preeclampsia severa y la neumonía fueron las principales complicaciones. El 75% de los recién nacidos no presentaron complicaciones. Conclusiones: el comportamiento clínico de la enfermedad fue, en su mayoría, leve, e incluso en los casos moderados así como en los severos y complicados los resultados del binomio fueron favorables. No hubo muerte materna ni se evidenció transmisión vertical.


Background: COVID-19 disease is the leading cause of maternal death in Mexico. The data published to date indicate that pregnancy favors severe forms of the disease. Objective: To describe the clinical, obstetric and perinatal characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 disease treated at the UMAE "Luis Castelazo Ayala" of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Material and methods: Observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study of pregnant women with COVID-19 treated from March to December 2020. The epidemiological characteristics, complications and perinatal results were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: 133 patients included: 84.5% with mild disease, 8 % moderate and 8.5% severe and critical. Pre-existing comorbidities: obesity, diabetes and hypothyroidism. Main symptoms: cough, headache, fever, rhinorrhea and anosmia. In severe and critical cases, tachycardia, tachypnea, and hypoxemia were present. Lymphoneutropenia, hyperglycemia, and transaminasemia were seen in severe and critical forms. Fibrinogen and D dimer stayed unchanged. Preterm delivery, oligohydramnios, gestational hypertension, severe preeclampsia, and pneumonia were the main complications. 75% of the newborns without complications. Conclusions: The clinical behavior of the disease was mostly mild and even in moderate cases, and even in moderate as well as severe and complicated cases, the binomial results were favorable. There was no maternal death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Trimesters , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Peripartum Period , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology
8.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 156-163, abr. 2022. mapas, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367310

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en un contexto donde la prevalencia de diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial ha aumentado significativamente en años recientes, las enfermedades renales adquieren importancia por la potencial demanda de atención especializada y de recursos en salud que requieren. Objetivo: analizar la distribución geográfica de la nefropatía diabética (ND) y la insuficiencia renal (IR) con base en las consultas otorgadas en unidades de primer nivel del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) durante 2019, para identificar las unidades médicas con mayor carga de atención. Material y métodos: estudio ecológico-exploratorio en el que se estimaron indicadores por cada mil derechohabientes en relación a las consultas otorgadas por ND e IR según la ocasión de servicio, la unidad médica familiar (UMF) de primer nivel y la representación. Se utilizó estadística espacial para analizar dichos indicadores. Resultados: el 45% de las consultas otorgadas fue por ND y el 52.4% por IR. La mayor carga por ND se registró en la UMF No. 50 de Cd. Juárez (Chihuahua) y en la No. 49 Gabino Barreda (Veracruz Sur), con 1.7 consultas de primera vez y 148.3 subsecuentes por mil derechohabientes, respectivamente. Mientras que en la UMF No. 40 Manlio Fabio Altamirano y No. 25 Cotaxtla, en Veracruz Norte, la mayor carga fue por IR, con 4.9 consultas de primera vez y 134.2 subsecuentes por mil derechohabientes, respectivamente. Conclusiones: los resultados podrían contribuir al fortalecimiento de las unidades médicas que así lo requieran y en la distribución eficiente de los recursos disponibles para atender la demanda de servicios de salud de ND e IR en el IMSS


Background: In a context where the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension has increased significantly in recent years, kidney diseases become important for the potential demand for specialized health care and resources required. Objective: To analyze the geographical distribution of Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) and Renal Insufficiency (RI) based on the medical consultations given in first-level units of IMSS during 2019, to identify the medical units with the highest burden of care. Material and methods: Ecological-exploratory study in which indicators were estimated for every thousand persons in relation to medical consultations given by ND and RI according to service time, first-level medical unit (UMF) and representation to analyze the magnitude and geographic distribution at the national level. Results: 45% of medical consultations were by ND and 52.4% by RI. The highest burden per DN was registered in UMF No. 50 Cd. Juarez (Chihuahua) and No. 49 Gabino Barreda (Veracruz Sur), with 1.7 first-time medical consultations and 148.3 subsequent medical consultations per 1,000 persons, respectively. While in UMF No. 40 Manlio Fabio Altamirano and No. 25 Cotaxtla, in Veracruz Norte, the highest burden was for RI, with 4.9 first-time medical consultations and 134.2 subsequent medical consultations per 1000 persons, respectively. Conclusions: The results could contribute to strengthening of medical units where it is necessary and the efficient allocation of resources available to meet the demand for health services of ND and RI in IMSS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Diabetic Nephropathies/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Geographic Information Systems , Spatial Analysis , Mexico/epidemiology
9.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 142-148, abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367399

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la mortalidad asociada a infarto del miocardio (IM) no solo se debe a complicaciones cardiovasculares, sino también a complicaciones intrahospitalarias no cardiovasculares (CIHNC). El índice leuco-glucémico (ILG) se ha utilizado como un marcador pronóstico para el desarrollo de complicaciones cardiovasculares en el IM. Centramos este estudio en identificar el punto de corte de ILG para el desarrollo de CIHNC en pacientes con infarto de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IAMCEST). Material y métodos: en este diseño de un solo centro y transversal, incluimos pacientes con IAMCEST. El análisis bioquímico incluyó glucosa y leucocitos; se calculó ILG. Se realizaron análisis univariados y bivariados, curva ROC y análisis multivariado para el desarrollo de IAMCEST. Resultados: incluimos 1294 pacientes, 79.8% hombres y 20.2% mujeres. Las principales comorbilidades fueron: hipertensión arterial sistémica, diabetes mellitus y dislipidemia. Seiscientos cuarenta y cuatro pacientes (49.8%) presentaron CIHNC. El ILG > 1200 con área bajo la curva (AUC) 0.817 predice el desarrollo de CIHNC en pacientes con IAMCEST. Las variables que aumentaron el desarrollo de CIHNC fueron: ILG > 1200, creatinina > 0.91 mg/dL, diabetes mellitus y edad > 65 años. La neumonía intrahospitalaria y las complicaciones cardiovasculares aumentaron el riesgo de muerte entre los pacientes con IAMCEST. Conclusión: un LGI > 1200 aumentó más de nueve veces el riesgo de desarrollo de CIHNC en pacientes con IAMCEST.


Background: The myocardial infarction-associated (MI) mortality is not only due cardiovascular complications, but intrahospital non-cardiovascular complications (IHnCVCs). The leuko-glycemic index (LGI) has been used as a prognostic marker for the development of cardiovascular complications in MI. We focused this study on identifying the cut-off point of LGI for the IHnCVCs development in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).Material and methods: In this single-center and cross-sectional design, we included patients with STEMI. The biochemical analysis included glucose and leucocytes; with them we calculated the LGI. Receiver operating characteristic curve, univariate and bivariate analysis, and multivariate analysis for IHnCVCs development were performed. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: We included 1294 patients, 79.8% were men and 20.2% women. The main comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Six hundred forty-four (49.8%) patients presented IHNCVCs. The LGI > 1200 (AUC 0.817) predict the IHNCVCs development in STEMI patients. The variables that increased the IHNCVCs development were LGI > 1200, creatinine > 0.91 mg/dL, diabetes mellitus and age > 65 years. Hospital acquired pneumonia and cardiovascular complications increase the risk of death among STEMI patients. Conclusion: A LGI > 1200 increased, just over nine times, the risk of IHnCVC development in STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Glycemic Index , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/blood , Prognosis , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Nonagenarians , Mexico/epidemiology
10.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 30(1): 1-3, 04-abr-2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1378881

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad por virus del Zika ha sufrido una importante disminución en la notificación de casos. A nivel mundial se observa un descenso aproximado del 58%, comparado con el mismo periodo en 2020. En México ocurre una situación similar, pues en la semana epidemiológica 48 solamente se han confirmado 34 casos. Dicha situación coincide con la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2, la cual se vive desde el 2019; sin embargo, es de suma importancia reestablecer las acciones de vigilancia epidemiológica enfocadas en el Zika para así continuar con las medidas de prevención y control dirigidas a minimizar el impacto de la enfermedad.


Zika virus disease has suffered a significant decrease in case reporting. Worldwide, an approximate decrease of 58% is observed, compared to the same period in 2020. Mexico is experiencing a similar situation, given that at epidemiological week 48 only 34 cases have been confirmed. This situation coincides with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which has been experienced since 2019; however, it is of the utmost importance to reestablish epidemiological surveillance actions aimed at Zika to continue with prevention and control measures focused on minimizing the impact of the illness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pandemics/history , Zika Virus/growth & development , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Epidemiological Monitoring , Mexico/epidemiology
11.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 30(2): 25-29, 01-abr-2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1378926

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el síndrome de fragilidad se caracteriza por la disminución de la reserva fisiológica y una menor resistencia a los factores estresantes, como resultado del deterioro progresivo en los sistemas fisiológicos. Objetivo: determinar la relación de fragilidad y depresión en el adulto mayor hospitalizado. Metodología: estudio descriptivo, transversal y correlacional. Se incluyeron adultos mayores hospitalizados en una unidad médica de tercer nivel con edad mínima de 70 años. Se utilizó la escala FRAIL versión mexicana para la fragilidad y la escala de depresión geriátrica de Yesavage. Para la prueba de normalidad de las escalas se utilizó la prueba de Shapiro-Wilk, y para obtener la correspondencia de las variables el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Resultados: se incluyeron 31 adultos mayores con edad promedio de 75 años (± 3.4), 14 (45.2%) mujeres y 17 (54.8%) hombres. Para la escala de fragilidad y depresión se encontró: w = 0.053 y w = 0.059, respectivamente. Se obtuvo un coeficiente de correlación de Pearson de 0.709. Conclusión: se determinó que existe correlación entre la fragilidad y la depresión en el adulto mayor hospitalizado.


Introduction: The frailty syndrome is characterized by decreased physiological reserve and decreased resistance to stressors, as a result of progressive deterioration in physiological systems. Objective: To determine the relationship between frailty and depression in hospitalized older adults. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional, and correlational study. Were included older adults hospitalized in a third level care unit with a minimum age of 70 years. The FRAIL Mexican version Scale for frailty and the Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale were used. For the normality test of the scales, the Shapiro-Wilk test was used, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to obtain the correspondence of the variables. Results: Thirty-one older adults with a mean age of 75 years (± 3.4) were included, 14 (45.2%) women and 17 (54.8%) men. For the Fraility and Depression scale were found a w = 0.053 and w = 0.059, respectively. A Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.709 was obtained. Conclusion: There is a correlation between frailty and depression in hospitalized older adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Depression , Correlation of Data , Mexico/epidemiology
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 157-165, abr. 2022. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388353

ABSTRACT

Resumen La brucelosis es una zoonosis desatendida y un problema de salud pública en países en desarrollo, que también causa grandes pérdidas económicas en la ganadería. En México es endémica y Chiapas un estado al sur del país, destaca por la presencia de la enfermedad en humanos. Por medio de la revisión del estado del arte, se encontró que factores como la alta producción de ganado bovino, las limitadas estrategias institucionales de control de la enfermedad en el ganado, la falta de regulación sanitaria del género Brucella en productos lácteos y cárnicos y la ubicación del estado de Chiapas en la frontera con Centroamérica, podrían ser condicionantes para la prevalencia de brucelosis humana en esta región de México.


Abstract Brucellosis is a neglected zoonosis and a public health problem in developing countries that also causes great economic losses in livestock. In Mexico it is endemic and Chiapas, a state in the south of the country, stands out for the presence of the disease in humans. Through the review of the state of the art it was found that factors such as the high production of cattle, the limited institutional strategies to control the disease in livestock, the lack of sanitary regulation of the genus Brucella in dairy and meat products and the location of the state of Chiapas on the border with Central America could be determining factors for the prevalence of human brucellosis in this region of Mexico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Brucella , Brucellosis/veterinary , Brucellosis/epidemiology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Livestock , Mexico/epidemiology
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): .45-52, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388331

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad de Chagas es una infección parasitaria crónica sistémica, de importancia global, causada por Trypanosoma cruzi. OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra T cruzi en mujeres embarazadas en el estado de Morelos, México. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 1.620 sueros de mujeres embarazadas mediante dos pruebas serológicas: ELISAc (antígeno crudo nativo) y ELISAr (antígeno recombinante, no nativo). Las muestras reactivas se analizaron posteriormente mediante hemaglutinación indirecta (HAI). Se utilizaron dos enfoques de detección, en paralelo (son positivas las muestras reactivas por cualquier método) y en serie (son positivas las muestras confirmadas por HAI). Se evaluaron factores sociodemográficos y de salud asociados a la presencia de anticuerpos contra T. cruzi mediante razones de momios al 95%. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo una seroprevalencia de 4,87% con el diagnóstico en paralelo y de 0,43% en serie. A partir de los resultados en paralelo las mujeres que fueron atendidas en los hospitales generales de Tetecala y Jojutla tuvieron, respectivamente, 2,2 y 2,0 veces mayor posibilidad de presentar anticuerpos contra T cruzi con respecto a las mujeres que fueron atendidas en el Hospital General de Cuautla. CONCLUSIÓN: La prevalencia de anticuerpos contra T cruzi en mujeres embarazadas en el estado de Morelos fluctuó entre 0,43 y 4,87%, según el antígeno y el abordaje utilizado. Es necesario continuar con la vigilancia de la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra T cruzi en mujeres embarazadas en el estado de Morelos, México, con las técnicas de mayor sensibilidad y especificidad disponibles.


BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a globally important chronic systemic parasitic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. AIM: To determine the prevalence of antibodies against T cruzi in pregnant women from the state of Morelos, México. METHODS: 1,620 sera from pregnant women were analyzed using two serological tests: ELISAc (native crude antigen) and ELISAr (recombinant, non-native antigen). Reactive samples were subsequently analyzed by indirect hemagglutination (IHA). Two detection approaches were used, in parallel (reactive samples by any method are positive) and serial (samples confirmed by IHA are positive). Sociodemographic and health factors associated with the presence of antibodies against T cruzi were evaluated using 95% odds ratios. RESULTS: A seroprevalence of 4.87% was obtained with parallel diagnosis and 0.43% in series. From the parallel results, the women who were attended at the general hospitals of Tetecala and Jojutla had respectively 2.2 and 2.0 times greater chance of presenting antibodies against T cruzi compared to the women who were attended at the General Hospital of Cuautla. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of antibodies against T cruzi in pregnant women from the state of Morelos fluctuated between 0.43 and 4.87%, depending on the antigen and the approach used. It is necessary to continue with the surveillance of the seroprevalence of antibodies against T cruzi in pregnant women from the state of Morelos, Mexico, using the techniques with the highest sensitivity and specificity available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Trypanosoma cruzi , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Pregnant Women , Mexico/epidemiology
14.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 25: e220003, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360904

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to describe trends in lung cancer (LC) mortality and trends in tobacco use. Methods: This is an ecological time-series study to determine mortality trends due to lung cancer resulting from tobacco consumption, based on secondary open-access sources, such as the National Surveys. Smoking prevalence, tobacco use trends, mortality rates, and percentage were determined by LC. The mortality trend from LC was calculated, and a linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of the General Law for Tobacco Control. Results: The prevalence of tobacco use decreased steadily between 1988 and 2015, particularly in men. Mortality rates and percentage decreased between 1998 and 2018. During this period, the mortality rate decreased from 6.3 to 5.4 per 100,000 population (−0.032/100,000 each year, p<0.001), with a net decrease of 0.9 per 100,000. We observe increases in mortality in women in the central and southeastern regions. Of 32 states, 18 showed a tendency to loss (p<0.005). The rate of change for men was −0.24, with a total reduction of 2.17 before the introduction of the laws and −0.32 after their introduction, a total reduction of 3.24 (p<0.005). Women showed no reduction. Conclusions: Mortality rates showed a limited decrease. Strategies need to be strengthened, mainly in the central and southeastern regions, and to focus on the control of tobacco use by women.


RESUMO: Objetivos: Descrever tendências na mortalidade por câncer de pulmão e no uso do tabaco. Métodos: Realizamos um estudo ecológico de séries temporais para determinar a tendência de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão de acordo com o consumo de tabaco, com base em fontes secundárias de acesso aberto, como as Pesquisas Nacionais. Prevalência de tabagismo, tendências de uso de tabaco, porcentagem e taxas de mortalidade foram determinadas pelo câncer de pulmão. A tendência de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão foi calculada e uma análise de regressão linear foi realizada para avaliar o impacto da lei geral para o controle do tabagismo. Resultados: A prevalência do uso de tabaco diminuiu continuamente entre 1988 e 2015, principalmente em homens. As taxas e percentuais de mortalidade diminuíram entre 1998 e 2018. Durante esse período, a taxa de mortalidade diminuiu de 6,3 para 5,4 por 100 mil habitantes (-0,032 por 100 mil a cada ano, p<0,001), com redução líquida de 0,9 por 100 mil. Observamos aumentos na mortalidade de mulheres nas regiões Centro e Sudeste. Dos 32 estados, 18 apresentaram tendência à perda (p<0,005). A taxa de mudança para os homens foi de -0,24, com redução total de 2,17 antes da introdução das leis e -0,32 após a sua introdução — redução total de 3,24 (p<0,005). As mulheres não apresentaram redução. Conclusões: As taxas de mortalidade mostraram redução limitada. Estratégias precisam ser fortalecidas, principalmente nas regiões Centro e Sudeste, e deve-se enfocar o controle do uso do tabaco pelas mulheres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco , Lung Neoplasms , Brazil , Mortality , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology
15.
Salud bienestar colect ; 5(3): 21-45, dic. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398396

ABSTRACT

Este articulo nos ayuda a comprender la determinación social de la salud en la población mexicana y su vínculo con la vulnerabilidad frente a la pandemia por Covid 19, se desarrolló un recorrido socio histórico que abordó 5 categorías de análisis: escolaridad, pobreza, acceso a servicios de salud y servicios básicos de vivienda, todos estos campos de análisis nos ayudan a comprender la distribución asimétrica en la cual la población mexicana enfrento a la pandemia, una determinación social que nos ayuda a develar las escasas fuentes de bienestar social y la calidad de vida diferenciados entre las regiones del país, situación que en el contexto de la pandemia por Covid-19 amplió las brechas de letalidad por contagio entre las entidades en toda una República Mexicana que se ahogó entre sus propias decisiones histórico sociales.


This article helps us understand the social determination of health in the Mexican population and its link with vulnerability to the Covid 19 pandemic, a socio-historical journey was developed that addressed 5 categories of analysis: schooling, poverty, access to services health and basic housing services, all these fields of analysis help us to understand the asymmetric distribution in which the Mexican population faced the pandemic, a social determination that helps us to reveal the scarce sources of social welfare andquality of life differentiated between the regions of the country, a situation that in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic widened the lethality gaps due to contagion between entities in an entire Mexican Republic that drowned between its own historical social decisions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Poverty , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Health , Prevalence , Mortality , Educational Status , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Housing , Mexico/epidemiology
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(12): 5897-5904, Dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350491

ABSTRACT

Resumen El presente ensayo critico-reflexivo problematiza las dinámicas laborales en el marco de la informalidad considerado como un determinante para acceso al sistema de salud en México y discute la vulnerabilidad de los trabajadores ante la pandemia por el virus SARS-CoV-2. El presente trabajo pretende contribuir en la visibilización del problema para motivar la construcción en propuestas que contribuyan a mejorar la vida de trabajadores y trabajadoras garantizando su derecho a la salud.


Abstract This critical-reflective essay problematizes the labor dynamics in the framework of informality considered as a determinant for access to the health system in Mexico and discusses the vulnerability of workers to the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This analysis aims to contribute to the construction of proposals aimed at improving the lives of male and female workers by guaranteeing their right to health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Pandemics , Health Services Accessibility , Mexico/epidemiology
17.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(4): 1109-1118, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360725

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate feeding practices in the first year of life and their association with the development of overweight and obesity in children in Mexico. Methods: the association between overweight and obesity with different feeding practices were evaluated. The data was processed using the statistical package Stata version 14 using logistic regression models. Results: 396 children were evaluated; the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6% and 7.7% presented a possible risk of overweight. 6.9% had exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life and 71.7% were fed infant formula. The variables significantly associated with the development of overweight and obesity in the first year of life were the age of the child (p =0.043, RR=0.57), the introduction of fluids in the first three days of life (p=0.02, RR=2.90), consumption of foods with a high sugar content (p =0.01, RR=0.25), consumption of milk other than breast (p =0.02, RR3.25) and egg consumption (p =0.05; RR=0.28). Conclusions: our results show that it is essential to attend complementary feeding practices and reinforce exclusive breastfeeding in the first year of life, as measures to prevent overweight and obesity to improve health in childhood.


Resumen Objetivos: evaluar las prácticas de lactancia y alimentación en el primer año de vida y su asociación con desarrollo del sobrepeso y obesidad de niños en México. Métodos: estudio transversal, analítico, y explicativo, se evaluó la asociación entre sobrepeso y obesidad con las distintas prácticas de alimentación en menores de un año de edad. Resultados: se evaluaron 396 menores, la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad fue de 6% y 7.7% presentaba posible riesgo de sobrepeso. El 6.9% tuvo lactancia materna exclusiva en los primeros 6 meses de vida; 71.7% fueron alimentados con fórmula infantil. Las variables asociadas significativamente con el desarrollo de sobrepeso y obesidad en el primer año de vida fueron: la edad del menor (p =0.043; RR=0.57), introducción de líquidos en los tres primeros días de vida (p=0.02; RR=2.90), consumo de alimentos con alto contenido de azúcar (p = 0.01; RR=0.25), consumo de leches distintas al pecho (p = 0.02; RR=3.25) y consumo de huevo (p =0.05; RR=0.28). Conclusiones: nuestros resultados muestran que es fundamental atender las prácticas de alimentación complementaria y reforzar la lactancia materna exclusiva en el primer año de vida, como medidas de prevención del sobrepeso y obesidad para mejorar la salud en la infancia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Breast Feeding , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Maternal Behavior , Mexico/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
19.
Rev. invest. clín ; 73(4): 222-230, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347568

ABSTRACT

Background: Information regarding diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with type 1 diabetes (PWT1D) in Mexico is limited. We developed an on-line platform Registro Nacional de Pacientes con Diabetes Tipo 1 (RENACED-DT1). Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the characteristics and healthcare of PWT1D registered in RENACED-DT1. Methods: Analyses of 965 PWT1D from July 2014 to January 2018 in different endocrinology clinics around Mexico. Results: Sixty-one percent were female with median age of 21 years, age at diagnosis 11 years, and disease duration at inclusion 8.2 years. Treatment regimen was basal-bolus in 61% and insulin-pumps in 21% (mainly in the private sector); 33.3% with self-monitoring of blood-glucose (SMBG) ≥4 times/day. Mean HbA1c at last follow-up was 8.7 ± 2.1% (72±23 mmol/mol), 18% had HbA1c < 7% (53 mmol/mol), and 35% > 9% (75 mmol/mol). SMBG ≥ 4 times/day was associated with HbA1c < 7%. Time since diagnosis > 10 years, female sex, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, SMBG < 4 times/day, and any hypoglycemia were associated with microvascular complications (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Percentage of patients achieving HbA1c < 7% is low; increased blood glucose monitoring is associated with better glycemic control. The achievement of optimal glycemic control must be increased to reduce the incidence of chronic complications and improve quality of life in PWT1D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Registries , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Mexico/epidemiology
20.
Rev. invest. clín ; 73(4): 231-237, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347569

ABSTRACT

Background: Central nervous system international prognosis index (CNS-IPI) is validated in European and the USA cancer databases. However, no validation has been done in Mexican population. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the impact of the CNS-IPI on central nervous system (CNS) relapse and survival in Mexican patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Methods: In this retrospective analysis, clinical, biochemical, and histological variables and the CNS-IPI were analyzed. Results: Six hundred and forty-two patients with DBLCL were included in the study. The mean ± SD age was 56.8 ± 14.9 years. Most had an ECOG of 0-1: 75% (n = 484) had absence of B-symptoms and advanced disease (clinical stage: III-IV, n = 433, 67.4%). According to the CNS-IPI, almost one-half were in the low-risk category. According to the CNS-IPI, CNS relapse rate was 1.36% (95% CI: 83.2-92.8), 3.1% (95% CI: 132.4-162.8), and 7.4% (95% CI 61-91) for patients in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk categories, respectively. The median overall survival in the high-risk group (CNS-IPI) was 22 months, and it has not been achieved after 80 months of follow-up for the other groups. Conclusions: CNS-IPI was associated with survival; therefore, we propose its use as a prognostic tool for prospective validation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/drug therapy , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis , Vincristine/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Doxorubicin/therapeutic use , Central Nervous System , Retrospective Studies , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Mexico/epidemiology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
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