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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285628

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabbits , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Bacteroides , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Prevotella , Bacteroidetes , Ruminococcus , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dysbiosis , Inflammation , Mice, Inbred C57BL
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941037

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of mibefradil on skeletal muscle mass, function and structure in obese mice.@*METHODS@#Fifteen 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomized equally into normal diet group (control group), high-fat diet (HFD) group and high-fat diet +mibefradil intervention group (HFD +Mibe group). The grip strength of the mice was measured using an electronic grip strength meter, and the muscle content of the hindlimb was analyzed by X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels of the mice were measured with GPO-PAP method. The cross-sectional area of the muscle fibers was observed with HE staining. The changes in the level of autophagy in the muscles were detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay, and the activation of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway was detected with Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with those in the control group, the mice in HFD group had a significantly greater body weight, lower relative grip strength, smaller average cross sectional area of the muscle fibers, and a lower hindlimb muscle ratio (P < 0.05). Immunofluorescence assay revealed a homogenous distribution of LC3 emitting light red fluorescence in the cytoplasm in the muscle cells in HFD group and HFD+Mibe group, while bright spots of red fluorescence were detected in HFD group. In HFD group, the muscular tissues of the mice showed an increased expression level of LC3 II protein with lowered expressions of p62 protein and phosphorylated AKT and mTOR (P < 0.05). Mibefradil treatment significantly reduced body weight of the mice, lowered the expression level of p62 protein, and increased forelimb grip strength, hindlimb muscle ratio, cross-sectional area of the muscle fibers, and the expression levels of LC3 II protein and phosphorylated AKT and mTOR (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Mibefradil treatment can moderate high-fat diet-induced weight gain and improve muscle mass and function in obese mice possibly by activating AKT/mTOR signal pathway to improve lipid metabolism and inhibit obesityinduced autophagy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Diet, High-Fat , Mibefradil/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the roles of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in ozone-induced pulmonary inflammation and airway remodeling in mice.@*METHODS@#Sixteen wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice and 16 ACE2 knock-out (KO) mice were exposed to either filtered air or ozone (0.8 ppm) for 3 h per day for 5 consecutive days. Masson's staining and HE staining were used to observe lung pathologies. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and the total cell count was determined. The total proteins and cytokines in BALF were determined by BCA and ELISA method. The transcription levels of airway remodeling-related indicators in the lung tissues were detected using real-time quantitative PCR. The airway resistance of the mice was measured using a small animal ventilator with methacholine stimulation.@*RESULTS@#Following ozoneexposure ACE2 KO mice had significantly higher lung pathological scores than WT mice (P < 0.05). Masson staining results showed that compared with ozone-exposed WT mice, ozone-exposed ACE2 KO mice presented with significantly larger area of collagen deposition in the bronchi [(19.62±3.16)% vs (6.49±1.34)%, P < 0.05] and alveoli [(21.63±3.78)% vs (4.44±0.99)%, P < 0.05]. The total cell count and total protein contents in the BALF were both higher in ozone-exposed ACE2 KO mice than in WT mice, but these differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The concentrations of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, CXCL1/KC and MCP-1 in the BALF were all higher in ozone-exposed ACE2 KO mice than in ozone-exposed WT mice, but only the difference in IL-1β was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The transcription levels of MMP-9, MMP-13, TIMP 4, COL1A1, and TGF-β in the lung tissues were all significantly higher in ozone-exposed ACE2 KO mice (P < 0.01). No significant difference was found in airway resistance between ozone-exposed ACE KO mice and WT mice after challenge with 0, 10, 25, or 100 mg/mL of methacholine.@*CONCLUSION@#ACE2 participates in ozone-induced lung inflammation and airway remodeling in mice.


Subject(s)
Airway Remodeling , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Methacholine Chloride , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Ozone/adverse effects , Pneumonia
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940983

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore whether the using of mimetic peptide Gap27, a selective inhibitor of connexin 43 (Cx43), could block the death of dopamine neurons and influence the expression of Cx43 in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease mouse models.@*METHODS@#Eighteen C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, 6-OHDA group and 6-OHDA+Gap27 group, with 6 mice in each group. Bilateral substantia nigra stereotactic injection was performed. The control group was injected with ascorbate solution, 6-OHDA group was injected with 6-OHDA solution, and 6-OHDA+Gap27 group was injected with 6-OHDA and Gap27 mixed solution. Immuno-histochemical staining was used to detect the number of dopamine neurons, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of Cx43 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), immuno-fluorescence staining was used to detect the distribution of Cx43 protein, the contents of Cx43 protein and Cx43 phosphorylation at serine 368 (Cx43-ps368) in mouse midbrain were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#After injection of 6-OHDA, numerous dopamine neurons in substantia nigra died as Cx43 content increased, Cx43-ps368 content decreased. Mixing Gap27 while injecting 6-OHDA could reduce the number of death dopamine neurons and weaken the changes of Cx43 and Cx43-ps368 content caused by 6-OHDA. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive positive neurons in 6-OHDA group decreased to 27.7% ± 0.02% of the control group (P < 0.01); The number of TH immunoreactive positive neurons in 6-OHDA+Gap27 group was (1.64±0.16) times higher than that in 6-OHDA group (P < 0.05); The content of total Cx43 protein in 6-OHDA group was (1.44±0.07) times higher than that in 6-OHDA+Gap27 group (P < 0.05) while (1.68±0.07) times higher than that in control group (P < 0.01). In 6-OHDA group, the content of Cx43-ps368 protein and its proportion in total Cx43 protein were significantly lower than that in 6-OHDA+Gap27 group (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In 6-OHDA mouse models, mimetic peptide Gap27 played a protective role in reducing the damage to substantia nigra dopamine neurons, which was induced by 6-OHDA. The overexpression of Cx43 protein might have neurotoxicity to dopamine neuron. Meanwhile, decreasing Cx43 protein level and keeping Cx43-ps368 protein level may be the protective mechanisms of Gap27.


Subject(s)
Animals , Connexin 43/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Dopaminergic Neurons/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidopamine/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Peptides/pharmacology , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/pharmacology
5.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 616-628, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940978

ABSTRACT

Objective: To prepare graphene oxide (GO)-containing gelatin methacrylate anhydride (GelMA) hydrogel and to investigate the effects of in situ photopolymerized GO-GelMA composite hydrogel in wound vascularization of full-thickness skin defect in mice. Methods: The experimental study method was used. The 50 μL of 0.2 mg/mL GO solution was evenly applied onto the conductive gel, and the structure and size of GO were observed under field emission scanning electron microscope after drying. Human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) were divided into 0 μg/mL GO (without GO solution, the same as below) group, 0.1 μg/mL GO group, 1.0 μg/mL GO group, 5.0 μg/mL GO group, and 10.0 μg/mL GO group treated with GO of the corresponding final mass concentration, and the absorbance value was detected using a microplate analyzer after 48 h of culture to reflect the proliferation activity of cells (n=6). HSFs and human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were divided into 0 μg/mL GO group, 0.1 μg/mL GO group, 1.0 μg/mL GO group, and 5.0 μg/mL GO group treated with GO of the corresponding final mass concentration, and the migration rates of HSFs at 24 and 36 h after scratching (n=5) and HUVECs at 12 h after scratching (n=3) were detected by scratch test, and the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by HSFs after 4, 6, and 8 h of culture was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (n=3). The prepared GO-GelMA composite hydrogels containing GO of the corresponding final mass concentration were set as 0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group, 0.1 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group, 1.0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group, and 5.0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group to observe their properties before and after cross-linking, and to detect the release of GO after soaking with phosphate buffer solution for 3 and 7 d (n=3). The full-thickness skin defect wounds were made on the back of 16 6-week-old female C57BL/6 mice. The mice treated with in situ cross-linked GO-GelMA composite hydrogel containing GO of the corresponding final mass concentration were divided into 0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group, 0.1 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group, 1.0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group, and 5.0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group according to the random number table, with 4 mice in each group. The general condition of wound was observed and the wound healing rate was calculated on 3, 7, and 14 d of treatment, the wound blood perfusion was detected by laser Doppler flowmetry on 3, 7, and 14 d of treatment and the mean perfusion unit (MPU) ratio was calculated, and the wound vascularization on 7 d of treatment was observed after hematoxylin-eosin staining and the vascular density was calculated (n=3). The wound tissue of mice in 0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group and 0.1 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group on 7 d of treatment was collected to observe the relationship between the distribution of GO and neovascularization by hematoxylin-eosin staining (n=3) and the expression of VEGF by immunohistochemical staining. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement, one-way analysis of variance, and Tukey's method. Results: GO had a multilayered lamellar structure with the width of about 20 μm and the length of about 50 μm. The absorbance value of HSFs in 10.0 μg/mL GO group was significantly lower than that in 0 μg/mL GO group after 48 h of culture (q=7.64, P<0.01). At 24 h after scratching, the migration rates of HSFs were similar in the four groups (P>0.05); at 36 h after scratching, the migration rate of HSFs in 0.1 μg/mL GO group was significantly higher than that in 0 μg/mL GO group, 1.0 μg/mL GO group, and 5.0 μg/mL GO group (with q values of 7.48, 10.81, and 10.20, respectively, P<0.01). At 12 h after scratching, the migration rate of HUVECs in 0.1 μg/mL GO group was significantly higher than that in 0 μg/mL GO group, 1.0 μg/mL GO group, and 5.0 μg/mL GO group (with q values of 7.11, 8.99, and 14.92, respectively, P<0.01), and the migration rate of HUVECs in 5.0 μg/mL GO group was significantly lower than that in 0 μg/mL GO group and 1.0 μg/mL GO group (with q values of 7.81 and 5.33, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01 ). At 4 and 6 h of culture, the VEGF expressions of HSFs in the four groups were similar (P>0.05); at 8 h of culture, the VEGF expression of HSFs in 0.1 μg/mL GO group was significantly higher than that in 0 μg/mL GO group and 5.0 μg/mL GO group (with q values of 4.75 and 4.48, respectively, P<0.05). The GO-GelMA composite hydrogels in the four groups were all red liquid before cross-linking, which turned to light yellow gel after cross-linking, with no significant difference in fluidity. The GO in the GO-GelMA composite hydrogel of 0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group had no release of GO at all time points; the GO in the GO-GelMA composite hydrogels of the other 3 groups was partially released on 3 d of soaking, and all the GO was released on 7 d of soaking. From 3 to 14 d of treatment, the wounds of mice in the 4 groups were covered with hydrogel dressings, kept moist, and gradually healed. On 3, 7, and 14 d of treatment, the wound healing rates of mice in the four groups were similar (P>0.05). On 3 d of treatment, the MPU ratio of wound of mice in 0.1 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group was significantly higher than that in 0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group, 1.0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group, and 5.0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group (with q values of 10.70, 11.83, and 10.65, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01). On 7 and 14 d of treatment, the MPU ratios of wound of mice in the four groups were similar (P>0.05). The MPU ratio of wound of mice in 0.1 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group on 7 d of treatment was significantly lower than that on 3 d of treatment (q=14.38, P<0.05), and that on 14 d of treatment was significantly lower than that on 7 d of treatment (q=27.78, P<0.01). On 7 d of treatment, the neovascular density of wound of mice on 7 d of treatment was 120.7±4.1 per 200 times of visual field, which was significantly higher than 61.7±1.3, 77.7±10.2, and 99.0±7.9 per 200 times of visual field in 0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group, 1.0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group, and 5.0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group (with q values of 12.88, 7.79, and 6.70, respectively, P<0.01), and the neovascular density of wound of mice in 1.0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group and 5.0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group was significantly higher than that in 0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group (with q values of 5.10 and 6.19, respectively, P<0.05). On 7 d of treatment, cluster of new blood vessels in wound of mice in 0.1 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group was significantly more than that in 0 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group, and the new blood vessels were clustered near the GO; a large amount of VEGF was expressed in wound of mice in 0.1 μg/mL GO composite hydrogel group in the distribution area of GO and new blood vessels. Conclusions: GO with mass concentration lower than 10.0 μg/mL had no adverse effect on proliferation activity of HSFs, and GO of 0.1 μg/mL can promote the migration of HSFs and HUVECs, and can promote the secretion of VEGF in HSFs. In situ photopolymerized of GO-GelMA composite hydrogel dressing can promote the wound neovascularization of full-thickness skin defect in mice and increase wound blood perfusion in the early stage, with GO showing an enrichment effect on angiogenesis, and the mechanism may be related to the role of GO in promoting the secretion of VEGF by wound cells.


Subject(s)
Anhydrides , Animals , Endothelial Cells , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Female , Gelatin/pharmacology , Graphite , Hematoxylin , Humans , Hydrogels/pharmacology , Methacrylates , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Skin Abnormalities , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
6.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 629-639, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940969

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the heterogeneity and growth factor regulatory network of dermal fibroblasts (dFbs) in mouse full-thickness skin defect wounds based on single-cell RNA sequencing. Methods: The experimental research methods were adopted. The normal skin tissue from 5 healthy 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (the same mouse age, sex, and strain below) was harvested, and the wound tissue of another 5 mice with full-thickness skin defect on the back was harvested on post injury day (PID) 7. The cell suspension was obtained by digesting the tissue with collagenase D and DNase Ⅰ, sequencing library was constructed using 10x Genomics platform, and single-cell RNA sequencing was performed by Illumina Novaseq6000 sequencer. The gene expression matrices of cells in the two kinds of tissue were obtained by analysis of Seurat 3.0 program of software R4.1.1, and two-dimensional tSNE plots classified by cell group, cell source, and gene labeling of major cells in skin were used for visual display. According to the existing literature and the CellMarker database searching, the expression of marker genes in the gene expression matrices of cells in the two kinds of tissue was analyzed, and each cell group was numbered and defined. The gene expression matrices and cell clustering information were introduced into CellChat 1.1.3 program of software R4.1.1 to analyze the intercellular communication in the two kinds of tissue and the intercellular communication involving vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signal pathways in the wound tissue, the relative contribution of each pair of FGF subtypes and FGF receptor (FGFR) subtypes (hereinafter referred to as FGF ligand receptor pairs) to FGF signal network in the two kinds of tissue, and the intercellular communication in the signal pathway of FGF ligand receptor pairs with the top 2 relative contributions in the two kinds of tissue. The normal skin tissue from one healthy mouse was harvested, and the wound tissue of one mouse with full-thickness skin defect on the back was harvested on PID 7. The multiple immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect the expression and distribution of FGF7 protein and its co-localized expression with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), stem cell antigen 1 (SCA1), smooth muscle actin (SMA), and PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα) protein. Results: Both the normal skin tissue of healthy mice and the wound tissue of full-thickness skin defected mice on PID 7 contained 25 cell groups, but the numbers of cells in each cell group between the two kinds of tissue were different. Genes PDGFRα, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1, lymphatic endothelial hyaluronic acid receptor 1, receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase C, keratin 10, and keratin 79 all had distinct distributions on two-dimensional tSNE plots, indicating specific cell groups respectively. The 25 cell groups were numbered by C0-C24 and divided into 9 dFb subgroups and 16 non-dFb groups. dFb subgroups included C0 as interstitial progenitor cells, C5 as adipose precursor cells, and C13 as contractile muscle cells related fibroblasts, etc. Non-dFb group included C3 as neutrophils, C8 as T cells, and C18 as erythrocytes, etc. Compared with that of the normal skin tissue of healthy mice, the intercellular communication in the wound tissue of full-thickness skin defected mice on PID 7 was more and denser, and the top 3 cell groups in intercellular communication intensity were dFb subgroups C0, C1, and C2, of which all communicated with other cell groups in the wound tissue. In the wound tissue of full-thickness skin defected mice on PID 7, VEGF signals were mainly sent by the dFb subgroup C0 and received by vascular related cell groups C19 and C21, PDGF signals were mainly sent by peripheral cells C14 and received by multiple dFb subgroups, EGF signals were mainly sent by keratinocyte subgroups C9 and C11 and received by the dFb subgroup C0, and the main sender and receiver of FGF signals were the dFb subgroup C6. In the relative contribution rank of FGF ligand receptor pairs to FGF signal network in the normal skin tissue of healthy mice and the wound tissue of full-thickness skin defected mice on PID 7, FGF7-FGFR1 was the top 1, and FGF7-FGFR2 or FGF10-FGFR1 was in the second place, respectively; compared with those in the normal skin tissue, there was more intercellular communication in FGF7-FGFR1 signal pathway, while the intercellular communication in FGF7-FGFR2 and FGF10-FGFR1 signal pathways decreased slightly or did not change significantly in the wound tissue; the intercellular communication in FGF7-FGFR1 signal pathway in the wound tissue was stronger than that in FGF7-FGFR2 or FGF10-FGFR1 signal pathway; in the two kinds of tissue, FGF7 signal was mainly sent by dFb subgroups C0, C1, and C2, and received by dFb subgroups C6 and C7. Compared with that in the normal skin tissue of healthy mouse, the expression of FGF7 protein was higher in the wound tissue of full-thickness skin defected mouse on PID 7; in the normal skin tissue, FGF7 protein was mainly expressed in the skin interstitium and also expressed in the white adipose tissue near the dermis layer; in the two kinds of tissue, FGF7 protein was co-localized with DPP4 and SCA1 proteins and expressed in the skin interstitium, co-localized with PDGFRα protein and expressed in dFbs, but was not co-localized with SMA protein, with more co-localized expression of FGF7 in the wound tissue than that in the normal skin tissue. Conclusions: In the process of wound healing of mouse full-thickness skin defect wound, dFbs are highly heterogeneous, act as potential major secretory or receiving cell populations of a variety of growth factors, and have a close and complex relationship with the growth factor signal pathways. FGF7-FGFR1 signal pathway is the main FGF signal pathway in the process of wound healing, which targets and regulates multiple dFb subgroups.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 , Epidermal Growth Factor , Fibroblasts , Imidazoles , Ligands , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Skin Abnormalities , Soft Tissue Injuries , Spinocerebellar Ataxias , Sulfonamides , Thiophenes , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940946

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the dynamic changes of macrophage numbers and apoptosis during Schistosoma japonicum infection, and to investigate the possible mechanisms of macrophage apoptosis induced by S. japonicum soluble egg antigen (SEA).@*METHODS@#C57BL/6 mice at ages of 6~8 weeks were randomly divided into 4 groups, including three experimental groups and a normal control group. Each mouse in the experimental groups was infected with (12 ± 1) cercariae of S. japonicum via the abdominal skin, and all mice in an experimental group were sacrificed 3, 5, 8 weeks post-infection, respectively, while mice in the control group were not infected with S. japonicum cercariae and sacrificed on the day of S. japonicum infection in the experimental group. Mouse liver specimens and peritoneal exudation cells were sampled in each group, and the dynamic changes of macrophage numbers and apoptosis were detected. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were isolated, purified and treated with S. japonicum SEA, PBS and ovalbumin (OVA) in vitro, and the macrophage apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression of BCL-2 protein family members were determined in macrophages using real-time quantitative PCR (qP-CR) and Western blotting assays, and the activation of caspase 3 was determined using flow cytometry and Western blotting. In addition, macrophages were in vitro treated with S. japonicum SEA in presence of a caspase inhibitor, H2O2 or N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and the apoptosis of macrophages was detected using flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#The total macrophage numbers continued to increase in mouse liver [(0.873 ± 0.106) × 106, (2.737 ± 0.460) × 106 and (3.107 ± 0.367) × 106 cells, respectively; F = 81.900, P < 0.01] and peritoneal specimens [(5.282 ± 1.136) × 105, (7.500 ± 1.200) × 105 and (12.800 ± 0.800) × 105 cells, respectively; F = 55.720, P < 0.01] 3, 5 and 8 weeks post-infection with S. japonicum, and the numbers of apoptotic macrophages also continued to increase in mouse liver [(0.092 ± 0.018) × 106, (0.186 ± 0.025) × 106 and (0.173 ± 0.0270) × 106 cells; F = 57.780, P < 0.01] and peritoneal specimens [(0.335 ± 0.022) × 105, (0.771 ± 0.099) × 105 and (1.094 ± 0.051) × 105 cells; F = 49.460, P < 0.01] 3, 5 and 8 weeks post-infection with S. japonicum. The apoptotic rate of SEA-treated macrophages [(24.330 ± 0.784)%] was significantly higher than that of PBS-[(18.500 ± 1.077)%] and OVA-treated macrophages [(18.900 ± 1.350)%] (both P values < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the mRNA or protein expression of Bcl-2 [Bcl - 2 mRNA expression: (1.662 ± 0.943) vs. (1.000 ± 0.000), t = 1.215, P > 0.05; BCL protein expression: (0.068 ± 0.004) vs. (0.070 ± 0.005), t = 0.699, P > 0.05], Bax [Bax mRNA expression: (0.711 ± 0.200) vs. (1.000 ± 0.000), t = 2.507, P > 0.05; BAX protein expression: (0.089 ± 0.005) vs. (0.097 ± 0.003), t = 2.232, P > 0.05] and Bak [Bak mRNA expression: (1.255 ± 0.049) vs. (1.00 ± 0.00), t = 0.897, P > 0.05; BAK protein expression: (0.439 ± 0.048) vs. (0.571 ± 0.091), t = 2.231, P > 0.05] between in SEA- and PBS-treated macrophages. S. japonicum SEA induced macrophage apoptosis in the presence of a caspase inhibitor (F = 0.411, P > 0.05); however, SEA failed to induce macrophage apoptosis in the presence of H2O2 or NAC (F = 11.880 and 9.897, both P values < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#S. japonicum SEA may induce macrophage apoptosis through promoting reactive oxygen species expression during S. japonicum infections in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Caspases , Hydrogen Peroxide , Macrophages , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , RNA, Messenger , Schistosoma japonicum , Schistosomiasis japonica , bcl-2-Associated X Protein
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939909

ABSTRACT

Although anti-thrombotic therapy has been successful for prevention of deaths from acute myocardial infarction (MI), by far, there are few preventive and therapeutic options for ischemic heart failure (IHF) after MI. Qi-Tai-Suan (QTS) is an oleanolic acid (OA) derivative which once underwent a clinical trial for treating hepatitis. In this study, we investigated the potential cardioprotective effect of QTS on IHF. IHF mouse model was constructed by coronary artery ligation in male C57BL/6J mice, and the protective effects of QTS on IHF were examined by echocardiography measurement, histological and TUNEL analysis, etc. We found that QTS exhibited promising cardioprotective effect on IHF. QTS treatment significantly improved cardiac function of IHF mice and the symptoms of heart failure. Notably, QTS had much better oral bioavailability (F = 41.91%) in mice than its parent drug OA, and took effects mainly as its original form. Mechanistically, QTS ameliorated ischemic heart failure likely through suppression of cardiac apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Taken together, QTS holds great promise as a preventive and therapeutic agent for ischemic heart failure and related diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Fibrosis , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myocardial Ischemia/pathology , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939908

ABSTRACT

Pseudo-allergic reactions (PARs) widely occur upon application of drugs or functional foods. Anti-pseudo-allergic ingredients from natural products have attracted much attention. This study aimed to investigate anti-pseudo-allergic compounds in licorice. The anti-pseudo-allergic effect of licorice extract was evaluated in rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 (RBL-2H3) cells. Anti-pseudo-allergic compounds were screened by using RBL-2H3 cell extraction and the effects of target components were verified further in RBL-2H3 cells, mouse peritoneal mast cells (MPMCs) and mice. Molecular docking and human MRGPRX2-expressing HEK293T cells (MRGPRX2-HEK293T cells) extraction were performed to determine the potential ligands of MAS-related G protein-coupled receptor-X2 (MRGPRX2), a pivotal target for PARs. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and licorice chalcone A (LA) were screened and shown to inhibit Compound48/80-induced degranulation and calcium influx in RBL-2H3 cells. GA and LA also inhibited degranulation in MPMCs and increase of histamine and TNF-α in mice. LA could bind to MRGPRX2, as determined by molecular docking and MRGPRX2-HEK293T cell extraction. Our study provides a strong rationale for using GA and LA as novel treatment options for PARs. LA is a potential ligand of MRGPRX2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Degranulation , Glycyrrhiza , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , Mast Cells/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Rats , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Receptors, Neuropeptide/therapeutic use
10.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 416-428, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939880

ABSTRACT

Abivertinib, a third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is originally designed to target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-activating mutations. Previous studies have shown that abivertinib has promising antitumor activity and a well-tolerated safety profile in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. However, abivertinib also exhibited high inhibitory activity against Bruton's tyrosine kinase and Janus kinase 3. Given that these kinases play some roles in the progression of megakaryopoiesis, we speculate that abivertinib can affect megakaryocyte (MK) differentiation and platelet biogenesis. We treated cord blood CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells, Meg-01 cells, and C57BL/6 mice with abivertinib and observed megakaryopoiesis to determine the biological effect of abivertinib on MK differentiation and platelet biogenesis. Our in vitro results showed that abivertinib impaired the CFU-MK formation, proliferation of CD34+ HSC-derived MK progenitor cells, and differentiation and functions of MKs and inhibited Meg-01-derived MK differentiation. These results suggested that megakaryopoiesis was inhibited by abivertinib. We also demonstrated in vivo that abivertinib decreased the number of MKs in bone marrow and platelet counts in mice, which suggested that thrombopoiesis was also inhibited. Thus, these preclinical data collectively suggested that abivertinib could inhibit MK differentiation and platelet biogenesis and might be an agent for thrombocythemia.


Subject(s)
Acrylamides/pharmacology , Animals , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Cell Differentiation , Megakaryocytes/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Piperazines/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology
11.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 422-445, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939868

ABSTRACT

Aging-induced changes in the immune system are associated with a higher incidence of infection and vaccination failure. Lymph nodes, which filter the lymph to identify and fight infections, play a central role in this process. However, careful characterization of the impact of aging on lymph nodes and associated autoimmune diseases is lacking. We combined single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) with flow cytometry to delineate the immune cell atlas of cervical draining lymph nodes (CDLNs) of both young and old mice with or without experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). We found extensive and complicated changes in the cellular constituents of CDLNs during aging. When confronted with autoimmune challenges, old mice developed milder EAU compared to young mice. Within this EAU process, we highlighted that the pathogenicity of T helper 17 cells (Th17) was dampened, as shown by reduced GM-CSF secretion in old mice. The mitigated secretion of GM-CSF contributed to alleviation of IL-23 secretion by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and may, in turn, weaken APCs' effects on facilitating the pathogenicity of Th17 cells. Meanwhile, our study further unveiled that aging downregulated GM-CSF secretion through reducing both the transcript and protein levels of IL-23R in Th17 cells from CDLNs. Overall, aging altered immune cell responses, especially through toning down Th17 cells, counteracting EAU challenge in old mice.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases , Disease Models, Animal , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Th17 Cells/metabolism , Uveitis/pathology , Virulence
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939850

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify whether periodontitis induces gut microbiota dysbiosis via invasion by salivary microbes. First, faecal and salivary samples were collected from periodontally healthy participants (PH group, n = 16) and patients with severe periodontitis (SP group, n = 21) and analysed by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Significant differences were observed in both the faecal and salivary microbiota between the PH and SP groups. Notably, more saliva-sourced microbes were observed in the faecal samples of the SP group. Then, the remaining salivary microbes were transplanted into C57BL6/J mice (the C-PH group and the C-SP group), and it was found that the composition of the gut microbiota of the C-SP group was significantly different from that of the C-PH group, with Porphyromonadaceae and Fusobacterium being significantly enriched in the C-SP group. In the colon, the C-SP group showed significantly reduced crypt depth and zonula occludens-1 expression. The mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and tight junction proteins were significantly higher in the C-SP group. To further investigate whether salivary bacteria could persist in the intestine, the salivary microbiota was stained with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester and transplanted into mice. We found that salivary microbes from both the PH group and the SP group could persist in the gut for at least 24 h. Thus, our data demonstrate that periodontitis may induce gut microbiota dysbiosis through the influx of salivary microbes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microbiota , Periodontitis , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/metabolism
13.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 741-752, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939833

ABSTRACT

Environmental threats often trigger innate defensive responses in mammals. However, the gradual development of functional properties of these responses during the postnatal development stage remains unclear. Here, we report that looming stimulation in mice evoked flight behavior commencing at P14-16 and had fully developed by P20-24. The visual-evoked innate defensive response was not significantly altered by sensory deprivation at an early postnatal stage. Furthermore, the percentages of wide-field and horizontal cells in the superior colliculus were notably elevated at P20-24. Our findings define a developmental time window for the formation of the visual innate defense response during the early postnatal period and provide important insight into the underlying mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Fear/physiology , Mammals , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neurons/physiology , Superior Colliculi/physiology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939821

ABSTRACT

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that has become a major gastroenterologic problem during recent decades. Numerous complicating factors are involved in UC development such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and microbiota disorder. These factors exacerbate damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. Spirulina platensis is a commercial alga with various biological activity that is widely used as a functional ingredient in food and beverage products. However, there have been few studies on the treatment of UC using S. platensis aqueous extracts (SP), and the underlying mechanism of action of SP against UC has not yet been elucidated. Herein, we aimed to investigate the modulatory effect of SP on microbiota disorders in UC mice and clarify the underlying mechanisms by which SP alleviates damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was used to establish a normal human colonic epithelial cell (NCM460) injury model and UC animal model. The mitochondrial membrane potential assay 3-‍‍(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,‍5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and staining with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst 33258 were carried out to determine the effects of SP on the NCM460 cell injury model. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), western blot, and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing were used to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of action of SP on UC in C57BL/6 mice. In vitro studies showed that SP alleviated DSS-induced NCM460 cell injury. SP also significantly reduced the excessive generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prevented mitochondrial membrane potential reduction after DSS challenge. In vivo studies indicated that SP administration could alleviate the severity of DSS-induced colonic mucosal damage compared with the control group. Inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress was associated with increases in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the expression of tight junction proteins (TJs) post-SP treatment. SP improved gut microbiota disorder mainly by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and the expression of TJs in the colon. Our findings demonstrate that the protective effect of SP against UC is based on its inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine overproduction, inhibition of DSS-induced ROS production, and enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes and TJs in the colonic mucosal barrier.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Colitis/prevention & control , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Colon/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inflammation/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Spirulina
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939805

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Long-term treatment of olanzapine, the most widely-prescribed second-generation antipsychotic, remarkably increases the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), whereas the mechanism for olanzapine-induced NAFLD remains unknown. Excessive hepatic fat accumulation is the basis for the pathogenesis of NAFLD, which results from the disturbance of TG metabolism in the liver. Apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5) is a key regulator for TG metabolism in vivo that promotes TG accumulation in hepatocytes, thereby resulting in the development of NAFLD. However, there are no data indicating the role of apoA5 in olanzapine-induced NAFLD. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the role of apoA5 in olanzapine-induced NAFLD.@*METHODS@#This study was carried out via animal studies, cell experiment, and ApoA5 gene knockdown experiment. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomized into a control group, a low-dose group, and a high-dose group, which were treated by 10% DMSO, 3 mg/(kg·d) olanzapine, and 6 mg/(kg·d) olanzapine, respectively for 8 weeks. The lipid levels in plasma, liver function indexes, and expression levels of ApoA5 were detected. HepG2 cells were treated with 0.1% DMSO (control group), 25 μmol/L olanzapine (low-dose group), 50 μmol/L olanzapine (medium-dose group), and 100 μmol/L olanzapine (high-dose group) for 24 h. HepG2 cells pretreated with 100 μmol/L olanzapine were transfected with siRNA and scrambled siRNA (negative control), respectively. We observed the changes in lipid droplets within liver tissues and cells using oil red O staining and fat deposition in liver tissues using HE staining. The mRNA and protein levels of ApoA5 were determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively.@*RESULTS@#After intervention with 3 and 6 mg/(kg·d) olanzapine for 8 weeks, there was no significant difference in body weight among the 3 groups (P>0.05). Olanzapine dose-dependently increased the plasma TG, ALT and AST levels, and reduced plasma ApoA5 levels (all P<0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in plasma cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C, and TC) levels among the 3 groups (all P>0.05). Olanzapine dose-dependently up-regulated ApoA5 protein levels in liver tissues (all P<0.05), but there was no significant change in ApoA5 mRNA expression among groups (P>0.05). In the control group, the structure of liver tissues was intact, the morphology of liver cells was regular, and only a few scattered lipid droplets were found in the cells. In the olanzapine-treated group, there was a large amount of lipid deposition in hepatocytes, and cells were balloon-like and filled with lipid droplet vacuoles. The nucleus located at the edge of cell, and the number of lipid droplets was increased significantly, especially in the high-dose group. Likewise, when HepG2 cells were treated with olanzapine for 24 h, the number and size of lipid droplets were significantly elevated in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, olanzapine dose-dependently up-regulated ApoA5 protein levels in HepG2 cells (all P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in ApoA5 mRNA expression among groups (P>0.05). Compared with the HepG2 cells transfected with scrambled siRNA, the number and size of lipid droplets in HepG2 cells transfected with ApoA5 siRNA were significantly reduced.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The short-term intervention of olanzapine does not significantly increase body weight of mice, but it can directly induce hypertriglyceridemia and NAFLD in mice. Olanzapine inhibits hepatic apoA5 secretion but does not affect hepatic apoA5 synthesis, resulting in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Inhibition of apoA5 secretion plays a key role in the development of olanzapine-related NAFLD, which may serve as an intervention target for this disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apolipoprotein A-V/genetics , Body Weight , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/chemically induced , Olanzapine/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Triglycerides
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939787

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects of Schisandra chinensis oil (SCEO) against aristolochic acid I (AA I)-induced nephrotoxicity in vivo and in vitro and elucidate the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups according to a random number table, including control group, AA I group, and AA I +SCEO (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) groups (n=5 per group). Pretreatment with SCEO was done for 2 days by oral administration, while the control and AA I groups were treated with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. Mice of all groups except for the control group were injected intraperitoneally with AA I (5 mg/kg) from day 3 until day 7. Histopathological examination and apoptosis of kidney tissue were observed by hematoxylin and eosin and TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (SCr), as well as renal malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione, r-glutamyl cysteingl+glycine (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expressions of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYP1A2, and nad(p)hquinonedehydrogenase1 (NQO1) were analyzed using ELISA, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot, respectively. In vitro, SCEO (40 µ g/mL) was added 12 h before treatment with AA I (40 µ mol/mL for 48 h) in human renal proximal tubule cell line (HK-2), then apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed by flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#SCEO 0.5 and 1 g/kg ameliorated histopathological changes and TUNEL+ staining in the kidney tissues of mice with AA I-induced nephrotoxicity, and reduced serum levels of ALT, AST, BUN and SCr (P<0.01 or P<0.05). SCEO 0.5 and 1 g/kg alleviated the ROS generation in kidney, containing MDA, GSH and SOD (P<0.01 or P<0.05). SCEO 1 g/kg increased the expressions of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 and decreased NQO1 level in the liver tissues (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Besides, in vitro studies also demonstrated that SCEO 40 µ g/mL inhibited apoptosis and ROS generation (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#SCEO can alleviate AA I-induced kidney damage both in vivo and in vitro. The protective mechanism may be closely related to the regulation of metabolic enzymes, thereby inhibiting apoptosis and ROS production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Aristolochic Acids/toxicity , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Schisandra , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939710

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the main factors of platelet spreading and provide the foundation for related research.@*METHODS@#Platelets (2×107/ml) were draw from C57BL/6J mouse and kept at 22 ℃ for 1-2 hours. Platelets (2×107/ml) were were allowed to adhere and spread on the fibrinogen-coated slides, after staining F-actin in platelets, the platelets were observed with the confocal microscopy. The effects of different concentrations of fibrinogen (10 μg/ml, 30 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml) and kinds of agonists [thrombin(0.01,0.05,0.1 U/ml), ADP(5,10,20 μmol/L), U46619(0.125,0.25,0.5 μmol/L)] on platelets were analyzed. The platelet spreading was successful if the spreading rate was higher after treated with agonists.@*RESULTS@#Compared to the group which coated with 10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml fibrinogen, the platelet density is optimal when coated with 30 μg/ml fibrinogen. In addition, under the stimulation of thrombin, ADP and U46619, the spreading rate of platelets showed a certain concentration-dependent increasing.@*CONCLUSION@#The platelet spreading is easily influenced by various factors, the platelet spreading can be induced successfully at 0.1 U/ml thrombin, 20 μmol/L ADP and 0.5 μmol/L U46619 on the slide coated with 30 μg/ml fibrinogen.


Subject(s)
15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid/pharmacology , Adenosine Diphosphate , Animals , Blood Platelets/physiology , Fibrinogen , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Platelet Adhesiveness/physiology , Thrombin/pharmacology
18.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 370-380, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939572

ABSTRACT

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disease caused by complex endocrine and metabolic abnormalities in women of childbearing age. Metformin is the most widely used oral hypoglycemic drug in clinic. In recent years, metformin has been used in the treatment of PCOS, but its mechanism is not clear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of metformin on PCOS and its mechanism through PCOS mouse model. Female C57BL/6J mice aged 4-5 weeks were intragastrically given letrozole (1 mg/kg daily) combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 21 days to establish the PCOS model. After modeling, metformin (200 mg/kg daily) was intragastrically administered. One month later, the body weight and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured. Hematoxylin eosin (H&E) staining was used to detect the pathological changes of ovary. The serum levels of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), E2 and testosterone (T) were measured by ELISA. The expression of DDX4/MVH was detected by immunohistochemistry. DDX4/MVH and PCNA were co-labeled by immunofluorescence. The protein levels of DDX4/MVH, PCNA, cyclin D2, AMPK and mTOR were detected by Western blot. The results showed that after metformin treatment, the body weights of PCOS mice were gradually returned to normal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved, serum E2 levels were increased, while AMH, LH, T levels and LH/FSH ratio were decreased. Ovarian polycystic lesions were reduced with reduced atresia follicles. Furthermore, the number of proliferative female germline stem cells (FGSCs) and levels of proliferation related proteins (PCNA, cyclin D2) were significantly increased, and the p-mTOR and p-AMPK levels were markedly up-regulated. These results suggest that metformin treatment not only improves hyperandrogenemia, glucose intolerance and polycystic ovarian lesions in PCOS, but also activates the function of FGSCs. The underlying mechanism may be related to the phosphorylation of AMPK and mTOR. These findings provide new evidence to use metformin in the treatment of PCOS and follicular development disorder.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Animals , Cyclin D2 , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/therapeutic use , Humans , Luteinizing Hormone/therapeutic use , Metformin/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oogonial Stem Cells/metabolism , Ovarian Cysts/drug therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/drug therapy , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 333-352, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939569

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms underlying exercise-induced neuroprotective effects after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remained elusive, and there is a lack of effective treatments for TBI. In this study, we investigated the effects of an integrative approach of exercise and Yisaipu (TNFR-IgG fusion protein, TNF inhibitor) in a mouse TBI model. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to a sedentary group or a group that followed a voluntary exercise regimen. The effects of 6-week prophylactic preconditioning exercise (PE) alone or in combination with post-TBI Yisaipu treatment on moderate TBI associated deficits were examined. The results showed that combined treatments of PE and post-TBI Yisaipu were superior to single treatments on reducing sensorimotor and gait dysfunctions in mice. These functional improvements were accompanied by reduced systemic inflammation largely via decreased serum TNF-α, boosted autophagic flux, and mitigated lesion volume after TBI. Given these neuroprotective effects, composite approaches such as a combination of exercise and TNF inhibitor may be a promising strategy for facilitating functional recovery from TBI and are worth further investigation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Recovery of Function , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
20.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 496-500, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936038

ABSTRACT

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is the main metabolite produced in the process of phospholipid metabolism, which can promote proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of cells, and maintain the barrier function of vascular endothelium. The latest researches showed that S1P can alleviate acute lung injury (ALI) and the inflammation caused by ALI, while the dosage of S1P is still needed to be considered. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been a emerging therapy with potential therapeutic effects on ALI because of their characteristics of self-replication and multi-directional differentiation, and their advantages in hematopoiesis, immune regulation, and tissue repair. S1P can promote differentiation of MSCs and participate in immune regulation, while MSCs can regulate the homeostasis of S1P in the body. The synergistic effect of S1P and MSC provides a new treatment method for ALI. This article reviews the production and biological function of S1P, receptor and signal pathway of S1P, the therapeutic effects of S1P on ALI, and the research advances of S1P combined with MSCs in the treatment of ALI, aiming to provide theoretical references for the development of S1P targeted drugs in the treatment of ALI and the search for new combined treatment schemes for ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Animals , Lung/metabolism , Lysophospholipids/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Sphingosine/pharmacology
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