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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880431

ABSTRACT

In this study, cytometric beads array(CBA) was used to determine the immunoglobulin content in humoral immunity evaluation of biomedical materials. The bovine-derived acellular dermal matrix was selected as a test sample and implanted into Balb/C mice subcutaneously to 4 weeks according to the high, medium and low dose groups. Four weeks later, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3, IgA, and IgM were measured by CBA. The data of the test group and the control group were analyzed statistically. The results showed that compared with the negative control group, there was no significant difference in the IgG3, IgA content in the positive control group, while the IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgM contents were significantly higher than the negative control group; no significant differences were seen in the sample groups. The results show that the method is suitable for analysis of immunoglobulin content in humoral immunity evaluation of biomedical materials.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred CBA
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(9): e6188, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888993

ABSTRACT

PA-824 is a novel bicyclic nitroimidazole anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug. Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. (CS) was proven to be a good immunomodulatory compound. This research aimed to investigate the effect of CS on PA-824 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infected mice (female CBA/J mice, 6 to 8 weeks of age and 20±2 g of weight). Mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups: PA-824, CS, PA-824+CS, and control. To verify the effect of PA-824 and CS on M.tb, after drug administration, mice lungs were harvested and bacterial colony formations were measured. Cells were isolated from infected lungs and spleens to analyze the percentage of CD4+ T cells (CD11a positive). Lung cells were cultured to detect the secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) by ELISA. IFN-γ and IL-10 double-positive CD4+ cells in peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. The expression levels of IL-2 and IL-10 in mice lungs were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. Results showed that PA-824 combined with CS led to the lowest lung colony-forming units (CFU) counts among treated groups. Furthermore, this beneficial outcome might be associated with the decreased CD11a on CD4+ cells in mice lungs and spleens. Moreover, the suppressed secretion of IFN-γ and IL-10, and IL-10 expressions, as well as the decreased IFN-γ and IL-10 double-positive CD4+ cells in blood, could also be associated with the positive effect. However, no significant effect on IL-2 production was found. The combination of PA-824 and CS had more effective bacteriostatic and immunomodulatory effects on M.tb infected mice than PA-824 alone. In conclusion, CS has the potential to be an effective adjuvant in TB treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cordyceps/chemistry , Interleukin-10/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Nitroimidazoles/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Disease Models, Animal , Flow Cytometry , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Immunomodulation/immunology , Mice, Inbred CBA , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology
3.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 135-140, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331674

ABSTRACT

Due to the advantages in genetic manipulation, mice have become one of the most commonly used mammalian models for the study of mechanisms underlying myopia development. However, the vast majority of laboratory mouse strains are incapable of synthesizing melatonin, a neurohormone that may play an important role in myopia generation in humans. The present study investigated refractive development profiles in the CBA/CaJ mouse, a strain proficient in melatonin, and determined whether and how its refractive development could be affected by form-deprivation. Eccentric infrared photoretinoscopy revealed that this animal could be stably refracted, and the refractive error underwent developmental changes, which increased with age in the hyperopic direction and eventually got stable approximately 9 weeks after birth. The absolute values of refractive error in CBA/CaJ mice were larger than those of age-matched C57BL/6 mice, whereas the time points when refractive error reached steady state were similar between the two strains. Five weeks of form-deprivation applied to 3-week-old CBA/CaJ mice by translucent occluder wear caused a significant myopic shift in refractive error, indicating that this strain could be adequately used as a myopia model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Eye , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred CBA , Myopia , Refraction, Ocular , Sensory Deprivation
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1941-1946, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-248076

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Previous studies have suggested that primary degeneration of hair cells causes secondary degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), but the effect of SGN degeneration on hair cells has not been studied. In the adult mouse inner ear ouabain can selectively and permanently induce the degeneration of type 1 SGNs while leaving type 2 SGNs, efferent fibers, and sensory hair cells relatively intact. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic changes in hair cell ribbon synapse induced by loss of SGNs using ouabain application to the round window niche of adult mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In the analysis, 24 CBA/CAJ mice aged 8-10 weeks, were used, of which 6 normal mice were used as the control group. After ouabain application in the round window niche 6 times in an hour, ABR threshold shifts at least 30 dB in the three experimental groups which had six mice for 1-week group, six for 1-month group, and six for 3-month group. All 24 animals underwent function test at 1 week and then immunostaining at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The loss of neurons was followed by degeneration of postsynaptic specializations at the afferent synapse with hair cells. One week after ouabain treatment, the nerve endings of type 1 SGNs and postsynaptic densities, as measured by Na/K ATPase and PSD-95, were affected but not entirely missing, but their partial loss had consequences for synaptic ribbons that form the presynaptic specialization at the synapse between hair cells and primary afferent neurons. Ribbon numbers in inner hair cells decreased (some of them broken and the ribbon number much decreased), and the arrangement of the synaptic ribbons had undergone a dynamic reorganization: ribbons with or without associated postsynaptic densities moved from their normal location in the basal membrane of the cell to a more apical location and the neural endings alone were also found at more apical locations without associated ribbons. After 1 month, when the neural postsynaptic densities had completed their degeneration, most ribbons were lost and the remaining ribbons had no contact with postsynaptic densities; after 3 months, the ribbon synapses were gone except for an occasional remnant of a CtBP2-positive vesicle. Hair cells were intact other than the loss of ribbons (based on immunohistochemistry and DPOAE).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>These findings define the effect of SGN loss on the precise spatiotemporal size and location of ribbons and the time course of synaptic degeneration and provide a model for studying plasticity and regeneration.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Hair Cells, Auditory , Cell Biology , Physiology , Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner , Cell Biology , Physiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred CBA , Synapses , Physiology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the roles of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune-type recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).@*METHODS@#RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6 in the trophoblast cells of murine RSA and normal pregnant models. The COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6 protein expressions were determined by using immunohistochemisry staining method. The COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6 protein expressions were determined by ELISA.@*RESULTS@#The embryo loss rates in experiment group was significantly higher than that in normal pregnancy control group, the expression of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6 in the trophoblast cells of murine RSA and normal pregnant models. The expression of COX-2 in autoimmune-type recurrent spontaneous abortion was significantly lesser than in normal pregnant models. The expression of TNF-α, IL-6 in autoimmune-type recurrent spontaneous abortion was significantly higher than in normal pregnant models. There was a positively correlation between TNF-α and IL-6. There was no relationship between COX-2, TNF-α and IL-6.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The abnormal expression of COX-2, TNF-α and IL-6 may result in RSA.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Habitual , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Animals , Autoimmunity , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Blood , Genetics , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Embryo, Mammalian , Chemistry , Metabolism , Female , Interleukin-6 , Blood , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , Maternal-Fetal Relations , Mice , Mice, Inbred CBA , Statistics, Nonparametric , Trophoblasts , Chemistry , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Blood , Genetics , Metabolism
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-646807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Overexposure to intense sound can cause temporary or permanent hearing loss. Post-exposure recovery of thresholds has been assumed to indicate reversal of damage to the inner ear without persistent consequences for auditory function. However, there was a report that acoustic overexposures causing moderate temporary threshold shift caused acute loss of afferent nerve terminals and delayed degeneration of the cochlear ganglion cells while cochlear sensory cells were intact. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the numerical changes of ribbon synapses and efferents to the outer hair cells in ears with temporary noise-induced threshold shifts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four-week old CBA mice with normal Preyer's reflexes were used. Mice were exposed to white noise of 110 dB SPL for one hour. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) were recorded before exposure and at four different post-exposure times, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after noise exposure. Ribbon synapses and efferents near cochlear nerve terminals were stained and calculated in the control group mice at two post-exposure times, 3 and 5 days after the exposure. RESULTS: In the noise-exposed ears, there was no loss of hair cells, in either inner hair cells or outer hair cells. ABR and DPOAE showed maximum threshold shifts after noise-exposure; they returned to the normal pre-exposure values by at day 5. The number of ribbon synapses tended to decrease at 3 days after noise-exposure, but the number of efferent fibers was not statistically different from those of the control mice. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the loss of ribbon synapses could be related with the recovery course of temporary threshold shift, even to the point of full hearing recovery.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Animals , Cochlear Nerve , Ear , Ear, Inner , European Continental Ancestry Group , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Ganglion Cysts , Hair , Hair Cells, Auditory , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred CBA , Noise , Presynaptic Terminals , Reflex , Synapses
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(2): 163-169, Mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-617060

ABSTRACT

The specimen distribution pattern of a species can be used to characterise a population of interest and also provides area-specific guidance for pest management and control. In the municipality of Dracena, in the state of São Paulo, we analysed 5,889 Lutzomyia longipalpis specimens collected from the peridomiciles of 14 houses in a sector where American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is transmitted to humans and dogs. The goal was to analyse the dispersion and a theoretical fitting of the species occurrence probability. From January-December 2005, samples were collected once per week using CDC light traps that operated for 12-h periods. Each collection was considered a sub-sample and was evaluated monthly. The standardised Morisita index was used as a measure of dispersion. Adherence tests were performed for the log-series distribution. The number of traps was used to adjust the octave plots. The quantity of Lu. longipalpis in the sector was highly aggregated for each month of the year, adhering to a log-series distribution for 11 of the 12 months analysed. A sex-stratified analysis demonstrated a pattern of aggregated dispersion adjusted for each month of the year. The classes and frequencies of the traps in octaves can be employed as indicators for entomological surveillance and AVL control.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Dog Diseases/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Psychodidae/classification , Brazil/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Mice, Inbred CBA , Population Density , Population Dynamics , Seasons
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14960

ABSTRACT

Six transmembrane protein of prostate 2 (STAMP2) plays a key role in linking inflammatory and diet-derived signals to systemic metabolism. STAMP2 is induced by nutrients/feeding as well as by cytokines such as TNFalpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6. Here, we demonstrated that STAMP2 protein physically interacts with and decreases the stability of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx), thereby counteracting HBx-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. STAMP2 suppressed the HBx-mediated transcription of lipogenic and adipogenic genes. Furthermore, STAMP2 prevented HBx-induced degradation of IRS1 protein, which mediates hepatic insulin signaling, as well as restored insulin-mediated inhibition of gluconeogenic enzyme expression, which are gluconeogenic genes. We also demonstrated reciprocal expression of HBx and STAMP2 in HBx transgenic mice. These results suggest that hepatic STAMP2 antagonizes HBx-mediated hepatocyte dysfunction, thereby protecting hepatocytes from HBV gene expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Gene Expression , Gluconeogenesis/genetics , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Insulin/pharmacology , Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins/genetics , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Male , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred CBA , Mice, Transgenic , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein Binding , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteolysis , Receptor, Insulin/metabolism , Trans-Activators/physiology , Transcriptional Activation
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(1): 23-31, Feb. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578812

ABSTRACT

Leishmania amazonensis causes different diseases depending on the host and parasitic virulence factors. In this study, CBA mice were infected with L. amazonensis isolates from patients with localized (Ba125), diffuse cutaneous (Ba276) or visceral leishmaniasis (Ba109). Mice infected with Ba125 and Ba276 progressed rapidly and lesions displayed an infiltrate rich in parasitized macrophages and were necrotic and ulcerated. Ba109 induced smaller lesions and a mixed inflammatory infiltrate without necrosis or ulceration. Ba109 induced an insidious disease with lower parasite load in CBA mice, similar to human disease. Levels of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 did not differ among the groups. Because all groups were unable to control the infection, expression of IL-4 associated with low production of IFN-γ in the early phase of infection may account for susceptibility, but others factors may contribute to the differences observed in inflammatory responses and infection progression. Evaluation of some parasitic virulence factors revealed that Ba276 exhibits higher ecto-ADPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities compared to the Ba109 and Ba125 strains. Both Ba276 and Ba125 had higher arginase activity in comparison to Ba109. Finally, these data suggest that the differences in enzyme activities among parasites can account for differences in host inflammatory responses and infection progression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Inflammation/immunology , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , /biosynthesis , /biosynthesis , Leishmania mexicana , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/immunology , Bone Marrow , Disease Progression , Leishmania mexicana/enzymology , Leishmania mexicana/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology , Liver , Mice, Inbred CBA , Spleen , Virulence Factors/immunology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227295

ABSTRACT

The faded mouse is a coat color mutant that shows faded coat color and age-related loss of pigmentation. This mutation is transmitted by an autosomal recessive gene with 100% penetrance. In the present study, we carried out linkage analysis of the faded (fe) gene using intra-specific backcross panels. Affected faded mice were carefully confirmed by their faded coat color at about 4 weeks of age. In the intra-specific backcross between faded and CBA mice (n=198), the fe gene was mapped to a region 2.1 cM distal to D10mit191. Therefore, the gene order was defined as follows: centromere-D10mit51 (12.4+/-2.4 cM)-D10mit191 (2.1+/-1.0 cM)-fe-D10mit44 (13.3+/-2.4 cM)-D10mit42 (14.4+/-2.5 cM). This linkage map of the fe locus will provide a good entry point to isolate the fe gene. Since the faded mouse has pigmentary abnormalities, this mutant may be a useful model for studies of pigmentary abnormalities in humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 , Gene Order , Genes, Recessive , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred CBA , Penetrance , Pigmentation
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-260988

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of Chinese drugs for invigorating qi and tonifying Shen (IQTS) on expression of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in spleen and maternal-fetal interface of abortion-prone mice during pregnancy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>CBA female mice were mated with DBA/2 male mice to establish abortion-prone models, which were randomly divided into 4 groups, the negative control group (fed with normal saline), the positive control group (treated with CsA), the Chinese medicine group (treated with IQTS), and the Chinese and Western medicine group (treated with IQTS+CsA). Mice were sacrificed in batches on the 9th and the 14th day of gestation, their splenic and decidual tissues were taken out to analyse CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cell expression by flow cytometry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the negative control group, the expression of splenic CD4+CD25+ regulatory T all significantly increased on the 9th day of gestation (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). There was no statistical difference in intergroup comparison of the three treatment groups (P > 0.05). Compared with the negative control group, the expression of splenic CD4+CD25+ regulatory T all significantly increased on the 14th day of gestation (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Of them, its expression was the highest in the Chinese and Western medicine group, showing significant difference from that in the Chinese medicine group and the positive group (P < 0.01). The difference between the Chinese medicine group and the positive group was insignificant (P > 0.05). On day 9 of gestation, compared with the negative control group, the expressions of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T in maternal-fetal interface increased in the three treated groups, showing no statistical significance (P > 0.05). Its expression was ordered from high to low in sequence as the Chinese and Western medicine group, the positive control group, the Chinese medicine group, and the negative control group. On day 14 its expression was obviously enhanced in the Chinese and Western medicine group, showing statistical difference from that in the negative control group (P < 0.05). But its expression was obviously enhanced in the Chinese medicine group and the positive group, showing insignificant difference from that in the negative group. The same sequence was found in the percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells in CD4+ T cells.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Chinese drugs for IQTS could up-regulate the expression of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T in spleen of abortion-prone mice in the early and late pregnancy stages. When combined with CsA, it also could up-regulate its expression in maternal-fetal interface in the mid and late pregnancy stages, suggesting that Chinese drugs for IQTS are facilitate to maintain the immune tolerance state in mice during pregnancy.</p>


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred CBA , Phytotherapy , Pregnancy , Spleen , Cell Biology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Cell Biology , Metabolism
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 70(1): 145-149, Feb. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539744

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate different mating strategies among endogamic strains to create F1 populations of mice, minimising the effect of inbreeding depression on somatic development and embryo yield. Females from the strains Swiss, CBA and C57Bl/6 were divided in nine experimental mate arrangements. The total numbers of pups born alive per dam and somatic development, estimated by weighing and measuring the crown-rump length, were recorded. Superovulation response was evaluated in outbreed females. Litter size differed among endogamic dams, irrespective of the sire. Somatic development results suggest heterosis and imprinting phenomena, once a differential parental effect was demonstrated. There was no difference in corpora lutea, ova or embryos recovered (P > 0.05), but recovery and viability rates differ among F1 groups (P < 0.05). The association of dam prolificity with somatic development and superovulation response of the pups should be considered for experimental F1 populations establishment. The use of outbreed animals, however, did not reduce response variability to hormone treatment.


Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar diferentes estratégias de cruzamento entre linhagens endogâmicas para a formação de populações de camundongos F1, minimizando o efeito da depressão por endogamia nos resultados de desenvolvimento somático e produção de embriões. Fêmeas das linhagens Swiss, CBA e C57Bl/6, foram distribuídas em nove possíveis cruzamentos. Foram registrados o número de filhotes nascidos vivos por matriz e o desenvolvimento somático dos mesmos, mensurado pelo peso e comprimento. A resposta superovulatória foi avaliada nas fêmeas cruzadas. O tamanho das ninhadas diferiu entre as linhagens das matrizes, de forma independente da linhagem dos reprodutores. Os resultados do desenvolvimento somático sugerem a ocorrência de heterose e imprinting, uma vez que foi demonstrado um efeito parental diferenciado. Não foram observadas diferenças no número de corpos lúteos, estruturas ou embriões recuperados (P > 0,05), mas as taxas de recuperação e o percentual de embriões viáveis diferiram entre os grupos (P < 0,05). A associação da prolificidade da linhagem das matrizes com as características do desenvolvimento somático e resposta superovulatória dos filhotes deve ser considerada no estabelecimento de populações experimentais F1. O uso de animais cruzados, contudo, não reduziu a variabilidade da resposta aos tratamentos hormonais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Animals, Newborn/growth & development , Crosses, Genetic , Embryo, Mammalian/physiology , Embryonic Development/physiology , Genomic Imprinting/genetics , Animals, Newborn/genetics , Embryonic Development/genetics , Genomic Imprinting/physiology , Mice, Inbred CBA
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196504

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Morphological studies on presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss, have been performed in several different strains of mice that demonstrate hearing loss with auditory pathology. The C57BL/6 (C57) mouse is a known model of early onset presbycusis, while the CBA mouse is characterized by relatively late onset hearing loss. We performed this study to further understand how early onset hearing loss is related with the aging process of the cochlea. METHODS: We compared C57 cochlear pathology and its accompanying apoptotic processes to those in CBA mice. Hearing thresholds and outer hair cell functions have been evaluated by auditory brainstem response (ABR) recordings and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE). RESULTS: ABR recordings and DPOAE studies demonstrated high frequency hearing loss in C57 mice at P3mo of age. Cochlear morphologic studies of P1mo C57 and CBA mice did not show differences in the organ of Corti, spiral ganglion, or stria vascularis. However, from P3mo and onwards, a predominant early outer hair cell degeneration at the basal turn of the cochlea in C57 mice without definitive degeneration of spiral ganglion cells and stria vascularis/spiral ligament, compared with CBA mice, was observed. Additionally, apoptotic processes in the C57 mice also demonstrated an earlier progression. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the C57 mouse could be an excellent animal model for early onset 'sensory' presbycusis in their young age until P6mo. Further studies to investigate the intrinsic or extrinsic etiologic factors that lead to the early degeneration of organ of Corti, especially in the high frequency region, in C57 mice may provide a possible pathological mechanism of early onset hearing loss.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Apoptosis , Cochlea , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Hair , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Ligaments , Mice , Mice, Inbred CBA , Models, Animal , Organ of Corti , Presbycusis , Spiral Ganglion , Stria Vascularis
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318228

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the ototoxicity of co-administration of kanamycin and furosemide in mouse and establish a reliable model to induce a sensorineural hearing loss.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>CBA/J mice strain was selected, with the age around 3-4 weeks old, to be received a single subcutaneous injection of kanamycin at dose of 1 g/kg and another single intraperitoneal injection of furosemide at dose of 0.4 g/kg 30 - 45 min afterward. The auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold shift was tested. The series of experimental methods including propidium iodide, phalloidin staining, semithin section toluidine blue staining, TUNEL, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to observe the characteristics of the lesion of cochlea and hair cells. The time course was set as following: before injection, 12, 24, 48 hours and 1, 2, 4, 12 weeks after injections, respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The ABR threshold shift was firstly presented a significant increase at 12 h after injection at 2, 4, 8 kHz, then the ABR threshold kept going up during next 36 h until it was presented a stable level around 90 dB. Pathological examination showed an absence of outer hair cells at basal turn rapidly since 12 h after treatment, and then by 48 h the most commonly observed lesion, where all outer hair cells throughout the length of the cochlea were killed, in the contrast, however, the inner hair cells loss were delayed and mild. TUNEL-positive nuclei demonstrated that most hair cells died via an apoptotic pathway. In scanning electron microscopy abundance of necrotic outer hair cells were detected by 24 h after treatment, in which reticular lamina were collapsed. Then all outer hair cells were replaced by expansion of heads of supporting cells. At 48 h after treatment, marginal cells presented a swollen and some of them were observed to be fused. In addition, spherical cell extrusion appeared to leak out from some marginal cells. By 2 weeks, nearly all microvillus were lost and marginal cells presented a shape of stone-like change. A significant and progressive decrease in strial vascularis thickness was found, of which the reason probably related with a reduction in volume of marginal cells.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This systemic protocol eliminates hair cells extensively in vivo, and it could be a reliable model to examine different aspects of cochlear pathology in transgenic or mutant mice strains.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Death , Cochlea , Pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Synergism , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Furosemide , Hair Cells, Auditory , Cell Biology , Pathology , Kanamycin , Mice , Mice, Inbred CBA
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-260686

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate its mechanism of inducing the maternal-fetal immune tolerance by studying the effects of Shoutai pills on the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokine and pregnancy in maternal-fetal interface of mice with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The normal pregnancy and RSA model were respectively induced with CBA/J x BALB/c and CBA/J x DBA/2. The mice with RSA were randomly divided into model group and low, middle and high dose groups of Shoutai pills. The mice were killed in 14 days after administration and embryo resorption rate was counted and their decidual and placental tissues were co-cultured to detect the expressions of IL-4, IL-10, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha with ELISA.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The embryo resorption rate of the model group was significantly higher than the normal pregnancy, middle and high dose groups of Shoutai pills could decreased the embryo resorption rate of the mice with RSA (P < 0.05). All the doses in 3 groups of Shoutai pills could decreased the expression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha (P < 0. 05) and there was no obvious difference between normal pregnancy group and all groups of Shoutai pills. Middle and high doses of Shoutai pills could increased the expression of IL-4 and IL-10 (P < 0.05) and there was no obvious differences between normal pregnancy and high dose group of Shoutai pills.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The mechanism about Shoutai pills can change Th1 /Th2 cytokine towards Th2 bias, which induced the maternal-fetal immune tolerance.</p>


Subject(s)
Abortion, Habitual , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Animals , Cytokines , Allergy and Immunology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Embryo Loss , Female , Humans , Male , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred CBA , Mice, Inbred DBA , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Th1 Cells , Allergy and Immunology , Th2 Cells , Allergy and Immunology
17.
Salvador; s.n; 2009. 87 p. ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-540424

ABSTRACT

A autofagia vem sendo alvo de estudos que demonstram sua participação em infecções por diversos patógenos intracelulares. A depender do patógeno, a autofagia pode facilitar a sobrevivência intracelular do patógeno ou pode funcionar como controle da infecção pela célula hospedeira. Pouco se sabe sobre a participação da autofagia na infecção por Leishmanía. Foi demonstrado que o vacúolo parasitóforo induzido por L. mexícana adquire nutrientes citosólicos por microautofagia. Além disso, recentemente foi demonstrado que a indução de autofagia promove aumento da carga parasitária de L. amazonensís em macrófagos infectados. Esses dados sugerem a participação do processo autofágico no estabelecimento da infecção por Leishmanía, como um mecanismo que favorece a sobrevivência intracelular do parasito. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi determinar a influência da autofagia na infecção, in vitro, de macrófagos de camundongos CBA/J por L. amazonensís. Macrófagos foram induzidos à autofagia por duas formas, fisiológica ou farmacológica, após ou antes da infecção por L. amazonensís ou exposição a partículas de levedo ou zimosan. O percentual de infecção e de fagocitose foi estimado. Os resultados mostram que a indução de autofagia, após a infecção, não altera o percentual de macrófagos infectados, mas promove o aumento na carga parasitária de macrófagos infectados por L. amazonensís. Além disso, a prévia indução de autofagia promove a inibição da capacidade fagocítica do macrófago murino. Estudos adicionais serão realizados no intuito de esclarecer os mecanismos pelos quais a indução de autofagia favorece a infecção por L. amazonensís e altera a capacidade fagocítica do macrófago murino.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Autophagy , Enzyme Activation/physiology , Infection Control , Leishmania braziliensis/cytology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , Mice, Inbred CBA , Macrophages/physiology , Macrophages/parasitology , Phagocytosis
18.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 131-137, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-282071

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This report aims to describe the oxidative damage profile in brain of presenilin1 and presenilin2 conditional double knockout mice (dKO) at both early and late age stages, and to discuss the correlation between oxidative stress and the Alzheimer-like phenotypes of dKO mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The protein level of Abeta(42) in dKO cortex and free 8-OHdG level in urine were measured by ELISA. Thiobarbituric acid method and spectrophotometric DNPH assay were used to determine the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in cortex, respectively. SOD and GSH-PX activities were assessed by SOD Assay Kit-WST and GSH-PX assay kit, separately.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Significant decrease of Abeta(42) was verified in dKO cortex at 6 months as compared to control mice. Although lipid peroxidation (assessed by MDA) was increased only in dKO cortex at 3 months and protein oxidation (assessed by carbonyl groups) was basically unchanged in dKO cortex, ELISA analysis revealed that free 8-OHdG, which was an indicator of DNA lesion, was significantly decreased in urine of dKO mice from 3 months to 12 months. Activities of SOD and GSH-PX in dKO and control cortices showed no statistical difference except a significant increase of GSH-PX activity in dKO mice at 9 months.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Oxidative damage, especially DNA lesion, was correlated with the neurodegenerative symptoms that appeared in dKO mice without the deposition of Abeta(42). Triggers of oxidative damage could be the inflammatory mediators released by activated microglia and astrocytes.</p>


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Alzheimer Disease , Genetics , Metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Urine , Animals , Deoxyguanosine , Urine , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Methods , Glutathione , Metabolism , Hydrazines , Metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation , Genetics , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred CBA , Mice, Knockout , Physiology , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress , Physiology , Peptide Fragments , Urine , Presenilin-1 , Presenilin-2 , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Methods , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728388

ABSTRACT

The influence of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) on the bone marrow (BM) natural suppressor (NS) cells of intact Ehrlich carcinoma -bearing CBA mice was studied. Bone marrow NS cells were fractionated into three fractions by isopycnic centrifugation on percoll gradients: NS1 (rho=1.080 g/ml), NS2 (rho=1.090 g/ml) and NS3 (1.100>rho>1.090 g/ml). These fractions were highly different in their sensitivity to known NS cell inductors (interleukin (IL)-2, IL-3 or histamine). None of the NS fractions isolated from the intact mice spontaneously produced antiproliferative activity, however, they showed a high level of NS (antiproliferative and natural killer cell inhibitory) activity under the influence of AFP. A single injection of AFP to intact mice led to an increase of spontaneous NS activity and the inhibition of natural killer cell activity. NS activity, especially NS2, was increased in when tumor cells were subcutaneously inoculated three days after AFP injection. In the AFP-treated mice, the tumor mass at 14 days was 60% larger than that in the untreated mice. Our data confirmed that AFP is a tumor marker that can inhibit cancer immunity and plays a role in cancer pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
alpha-Fetoproteins , Animals , Bone Marrow , Centrifugation, Isopycnic , Interleukin-3 , Killer Cells, Natural , Mice , Mice, Inbred CBA , Povidone , Silicon Dioxide
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310737

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To compare the thresholds of auditory brain-stem response (ABR) and frequency characteristics in five normal rodent species: CBA, BABL/c, C57BL, KunMing mice and guinea pigs.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Auditory brain-stem responses in four species of mice and guinea pigs were investigated with IHS-SmartEP 3.91 system. The thresholds and characteristics of ABR in each frequency were measured by the stimulated sound of tone-pip. Acoustic frequency-threshold curves in these five rodent species were made. The optimal response frequencies were assessed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The thresholds of guinea pigs were the lowest in five rodent species, and KunMing mice, CBA mice, BALB/c mice, C57BL mice in turn. All the thresholds of ABR in these experimental animals were the lowest in 10 kHz. The thresholds became increasing in higher frequency (> 10 kHz), and in lower frequency (< 10 kHz). This was a common characteristic in frequency threshold curves of ABR in these five rodent species.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The hearing of guinea pigs was the best in these five rodent species. The hearing of KunMing mice was sharper than those of the other mice. Stimuli of 10 kHz was the optimal frequency in these live rodent species, and the optimal frequency range was from 8 kHz to 24 kHz.</p>


Subject(s)
Acoustic Stimulation , Animals , Audiometry , Auditory Threshold , Physiology , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Physiology , Female , Guinea Pigs , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred CBA , Species Specificity
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