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1.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 111 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396973

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desse trabalho foi identificar as consequências moleculares e funcionais da falta da proteína Ric8b no epitélio olfatório de camundongos. Para esse fim, comparamos o transcriptoma de epitélio olfatório de camundongos knock-out tecido específico para a proteína RIC8B (Ric8b cKO) com o dos seus irmãos tipo selvagem (WT). Identificamos muitos genes que apresentaram expressão reduzida no epitélio olfatório do camundongo Ric8b cKO, mas também vários genes que apresentaram a sua expressão aumentada. A maioria dos genes com expressão reduzida corresponde a genes normalmente expressos em neurônios olfatórios maduros, como por exemplo os genes de receptores olfatórios, o que é compatível com o fato já conhecido de que os camundongos Ric8b cKO apresentam um menor número desses neurônios. Inesperadamente, apesar de a maioria dos genes de receptores olfatórios ter a sua expressão diminuída no camundongo Ric8b cKO, observamos que um grupo destes genes de receptores teve a sua expressão aumentada. Os camundongos Ric8b cKO apresentaram também genes marcadores de outros tipos celulares que não neurônios canônicos com expressão aumentada no seu epitélio olfatório. Dentre eles, os mais significativamente alterados foram os genes marcadores de neurônios Trpc2+ tipo B (que expressam a guanilato ciclase solúvel Gucy1b2). Sabe-se que este tipo de neurônio é responsável pela sensibilidade a diferentes gases, e concordantemente, observamos que os camundongos Ric8b cKO apresentaram um aumento da sensibilidade a gás carbônico. Como o olfato apresenta um papel importante na regulação de ingestão alimentar, analisamos como os camundongos Ric8b cKO se comportam frente a diferentes dietas. Interessantemente, observamos que esses animais não apresentam preferência por alimento rico em gorduras quando comparado aos seus irmãos tipo selvagem. Nossos resultados sugerem, portanto, que a ausência da proteína RIC8B resulta na alteração de representatividade de neurônios canônicos e não canônicos no epitélio olfatório de camundongos, o que por sua vez leva a alterações funcionais e comportamentais


The objective of this work was to identify the molecular and functional consequences of the lack of the RIC8B protein in the main olfactory epithelium of mice. To this end, we compared the olfactory epithelium transcriptome of Ric8b tissue-specific knock-out mice (Ric8b cKO) with that of their wild-type littermates (WT). We identified many genes with differential expression, many of which were downregulated and also some which were upregulated in the olfactory epithelium of the Ric8b cKO mice. Most of the downregulated genes correspond to genes normally expressed in mature olfactory sensory neurons, such as olfactory receptor genes. This is compatible with the already known fact that the Ric8b cKO mice have less of this kind of neuron. Unexpectedly, even though most of the olfactory receptor genes were downregulated, we observed a subset of these genes that had their expression upregulated in the Ric8b cKO mice. The Ric8b cKO mice also showed upregulation for genes that are markers for cell types other than canonic neurons in their olfactory epithelium. Among these, the most significantly altered were the markers for neurons Trpc2+ type B (that express the soluble guanylate cyclase Gucy1b2). It is known that this kind of neuron is responsible for sensitivity to different gases. Accordingly, we observed that the Ric8b cKO mice presented a higher sensitivity to carbon dioxide. Since olfaction has an important role in food intake, we analyzed how the Ric8b cKO mice behaved with different diets. Interestingly, we observed that the Ric8b cKO mice lack preference for high fat diet when compared to their wild-type littermates. Our results indicate, therefore, that the lack of the RIC8B protein results in altered representativity of canonic and non-canonic neurons in the olfactory epithelium of mice, which then leads to altered function and behavior


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Olfactory Mucosa/abnormalities , Receptors, Odorant/agonists , Olfactory Receptor Neurons , Mice, Knockout , Feeding Behavior/classification , Neurons/chemistry , Absenteeism
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect CD36 deficiency on muscle insulin signaling in mice fed a normal-fat diet and explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#Wild-type (WT) mice and systemic CD36 knockout (CD36-/-) mice with normal feeding for 14 weeks (n=12) were subjected to insulin tolerance test (ITT) after intraperitoneal injection with insulin (1 U/kg). Real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expressions of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1/2 (IRS1/2) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), and Western blotting was performed to detect the protein expressions of AKT, IR, IRS1/2 and PTP1B in the muscle tissues of the mice. Tyrosine phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 and histone acetylation of PTP1B promoter in muscle tissues were detected using co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), respectively.@*RESULTS@#CD36-/- mice showed significantly lowered insulin sensitivity with obviously decreased area under the insulin tolerance curve in comparison with the WT mice (P < 0.05). CD36-/- mice also had significantly higher serum insulin concentration and HOMA-IR than WT mice (P < 0.05). Western blotting showed that the p-AKT/AKT ratio in the muscle tissues was significantly decreased in CD36-/- mice as compared with the WT mice (P < 0.01). No significant differences were found in mRNA and protein levels of IR, IRS1 and IRS2 in the muscle tissues between WT and CD36-/- mice (P>0.05). In the muscle tissue of CD36-/- mice, tyrosine phosphorylation levels of IR and IRS1 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the mRNA and protein levels of PTP1B (P < 0.05) and histone acetylation level of PTP1B promoters (P < 0.01) were significantly increased as compared with those in the WT mice. Intraperitoneal injection of claramine, a PTP1B inhibitor, effectively improved the impairment of insulin sensitivity in CD36-/- mice.@*CONCLUSION@#CD36 is essential for maintaining muscle insulin sensitivity under physiological conditions, and CD36 gene deletion in mice causes impaired insulin sensitivity by up-regulating muscle PTP1B expression, which results in detyrosine phosphorylation of IR and IRS1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gene Deletion , Histones/genetics , Insulin , Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins/metabolism , Insulin Resistance/genetics , Membrane Cofactor Protein/genetics , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Muscles/metabolism , Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases/metabolism , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptor, Insulin/metabolism , Tyrosine/genetics , Up-Regulation
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Bax inhibitor 1 (BI- 1) and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1) on vascular calcification (VC).@*METHODS@#Mouse models of VC were established in ApoE-deficient (ApoE-/-) diabetic mice by high-fat diet feeding for 12 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injections with Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine for 16 weeks. ApoE-/- mice (control group), ApoE-/- diabetic mice (VC group), ApoE-/- diabetic mice with BI-1 overexpression (VC + BI-1TG group), and ApoE-/- diabetic mice with BI-1 overexpression and OPA1 knockout (VC+BI-1TG+OPA1-/- group) were obtained for examination of the degree of aortic calcification using von Kossa staining. The changes in calcium content in the aorta were analyzed using ELISA. The expressions of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were detected using immunohistochemistry, and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 was determined using Western blotting. Cultured mouse aortic smooth muscle cells were treated with 10 mmol/L β-glycerophosphate for 14 days to induce calcification, and the changes in BI-1 and OPA1 protein expressions were examined using Western blotting and cell apoptosis was detected using TUNEL staining.@*RESULTS@#ApoE-/- mice with VC showed significantly decreased expressions of BI-1 and OPA1 proteins in the aorta (P=0.0044) with obviously increased calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 (P= 0.0041). Overexpression of BI-1 significantly promoted OPA1 protein expression and reduced calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 (P=0.0006). OPA1 knockdown significantly increased calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 in the aorta (P=0.0007).@*CONCLUSION@#BI-1 inhibits VC possibly by promoting the expression of OPA1, reducing calcium deposition and inhibiting osteogenic differentiation and apoptosis of the vascular smooth muscle cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/pathology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/pathology , Optic Atrophy, Autosomal Dominant/pathology , Osteogenesis , Vascular Calcification/pathology , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 29-46, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922666

ABSTRACT

A large number of putative risk genes for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. The functions of most of these susceptibility genes in developing brains remain unknown, and causal relationships between their variation and autism traits have not been established. The aim of this study was to predict putative risk genes at the whole-genome level based on the analysis of gene co-expression with a group of high-confidence ASD risk genes (hcASDs). The results showed that three gene features - gene size, mRNA abundance, and guanine-cytosine content - affect the genome-wide co-expression profiles of hcASDs. To circumvent the interference of these features in gene co-expression analysis, we developed a method to determine whether a gene is significantly co-expressed with hcASDs by statistically comparing the co-expression profile of this gene with hcASDs to that of this gene with permuted gene sets of feature-matched genes. This method is referred to as "matched-gene co-expression analysis" (MGCA). With MGCA, we demonstrated the convergence in developmental expression profiles of hcASDs and improved the efficacy of risk gene prediction. The results of analysis of two recently-reported ASD candidate genes, CDH11 and CDH9, suggested the involvement of CDH11, but not CDH9, in ASD. Consistent with this prediction, behavioral studies showed that Cdh11-null mice, but not Cdh9-null mice, have multiple autism-like behavioral alterations. This study highlights the power of MGCA in revealing ASD-associated genes and the potential role of CDH11 in ASD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Brain , Cadherins/genetics , Gene Expression , Mice , Mice, Knockout
5.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 203-219, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929177

ABSTRACT

Many people affected by fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism spectrum disorders have sensory processing deficits, such as hypersensitivity to auditory, tactile, and visual stimuli. Like FXS in humans, loss of Fmr1 in rodents also cause sensory, behavioral, and cognitive deficits. However, the neural mechanisms underlying sensory impairment, especially vision impairment, remain unclear. It remains elusive whether the visual processing deficits originate from corrupted inputs, impaired perception in the primary sensory cortex, or altered integration in the higher cortex, and there is no effective treatment. In this study, we used a genetic knockout mouse model (Fmr1KO), in vivo imaging, and behavioral measurements to show that the loss of Fmr1 impaired signal processing in the primary visual cortex (V1). Specifically, Fmr1KO mice showed enhanced responses to low-intensity stimuli but normal responses to high-intensity stimuli. This abnormality was accompanied by enhancements in local network connectivity in V1 microcircuits and increased dendritic complexity of V1 neurons. These effects were ameliorated by the acute application of GABAA receptor activators, which enhanced the activity of inhibitory neurons, or by reintroducing Fmr1 gene expression in knockout V1 neurons in both juvenile and young-adult mice. Overall, V1 plays an important role in the visual abnormalities of Fmr1KO mice and it could be possible to rescue the sensory disturbances in developed FXS and autism patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/metabolism , Fragile X Syndrome/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Neurons/metabolism
6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 81-94, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929082

ABSTRACT

Congenital hydrocephalus is a major neurological disorder with high rates of morbidity and mortality; however, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Reproducible animal models mirroring both embryonic and postnatal hydrocephalus are also limited. Here, we describe a new mouse model of congenital hydrocephalus through knockout of β-catenin in Nkx2.1-expressing regional neural progenitors. Progressive ventriculomegaly and an enlarged brain were consistently observed in knockout mice from embryonic day 12.5 through to adulthood. Transcriptome profiling revealed severe dysfunctions in progenitor maintenance in the ventricular zone and therefore in cilium biogenesis after β-catenin knockout. Histological analyses also revealed an aberrant neuronal layout in both the ventral and dorsal telencephalon in hydrocephalic mice at both embryonic and postnatal stages. Thus, knockout of β-catenin in regional neural progenitors leads to congenital hydrocephalus and provides a reproducible animal model for studying pathological changes and developing therapeutic interventions for this devastating disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Hydrocephalus/genetics , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Neurons , beta Catenin/genetics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand activated transcription factors and belongs to bile acid receptor. Studies have shown that the expression of FXR in renal tissue can reduce renal injury via regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, inhibition of inflammatory response, reduction of oxidative stress and renal fibrosis. However, it is unclear whether FXR is involved in autophagy in renal diseases. This study aims to investigate the role of FXR in cisplatin-induced acute renal injury and whether its mechanism is related to autophagy regulation.@*METHODS@#Twelve male WT or FXR-KO mice at 12 weeks were randomly divided into a WT group, a WT+cisplatin group, a FXR-KO group, and a FXR-KO+cisplatin group, with 6 mice in each group. The WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin (20 mg/kg), and the WT group and the FXR-KO group were intraperitoneally injected with equal volume of cisplatin solvent. Seventy-two hours later, the mice were killed and blood and renal tissue samples were collected. The levels of SCr and BUN were detected by immunoturbidimetry. After the staining, the pathological changes of renal tissue were observed under optical microscope. The protein levels of LC3 and p62 were detected by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The clearance of damaged mitochondria and the accumulation of lysosomal substrate were observed under electron microscope. The apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells was detected by TUNEL.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the WT group or the FXR-KO group, both SCr and BUN levels in the WT+cisplatin group or the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were significantly increased (P<0.01 or P<0.001), and SCr and BUN levels in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were significantly higher than those in the WT+cisplatin group (both P<0.05). Under the light microscope, there were no obvious pathological changes in the renal tissue of mice in the WT group and the FXR-KO group. Both the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group had vacuolar or granular degeneration of renal tubular epithelial cells, flat cells, lumen expansion, brush edge falling off, and even exposed basement membrane and tubular formation. The scores of renal tubular injury in the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were significantly higher than those in the WT group and the FXR-KO group, respectively (both P<0.001), and the score in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group was significantly higher than that in the WT+cisplatin group (P<0.05). Under the transmission electron microscope, the mitochondria of mouse tubular epithelial cell in the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group was swollen, round, vacuolated, cristae broken or disappeared; the lysosome was uneven and high-density clumps, and the change was more obvious in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group. Western blotting showed that the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I was decreased and the expression of p62 was increased in the WT+cisplatin group compared with the WT group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group compared with FXR-KO group (P<0.05 or P<0.01); compared with the FXR-KO group, the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I was decreased and the expression of p62 was increased significantly in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group (both P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry results showed that the expression of total LC3 and p62 in renal cortex of the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group was increased significantly, especially in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group. TUNEL results showed that the mice in the WT group and the FXR-KO group had negative staining or only a few apoptotic tubular epithelial cells, and the number of apoptotic cells in the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were increased. The apoptosis rates of renal tubular epithelial cells in the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were significantly higher than those in the WT group and the FXR-KO group, respectively (both P<0.001), and the apoptosis rate in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group was significantly higher than that in the WT+cisplatin group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Knockout of FXR gene aggravates cisplatin induced acute renal injury, and its mechanism may be related to inhibiting autophagy and promoting apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Animals , Apoptosis/physiology , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the roles of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in ozone-induced pulmonary inflammation and airway remodeling in mice.@*METHODS@#Sixteen wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice and 16 ACE2 knock-out (KO) mice were exposed to either filtered air or ozone (0.8 ppm) for 3 h per day for 5 consecutive days. Masson's staining and HE staining were used to observe lung pathologies. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and the total cell count was determined. The total proteins and cytokines in BALF were determined by BCA and ELISA method. The transcription levels of airway remodeling-related indicators in the lung tissues were detected using real-time quantitative PCR. The airway resistance of the mice was measured using a small animal ventilator with methacholine stimulation.@*RESULTS@#Following ozoneexposure ACE2 KO mice had significantly higher lung pathological scores than WT mice (P < 0.05). Masson staining results showed that compared with ozone-exposed WT mice, ozone-exposed ACE2 KO mice presented with significantly larger area of collagen deposition in the bronchi [(19.62±3.16)% vs (6.49±1.34)%, P < 0.05] and alveoli [(21.63±3.78)% vs (4.44±0.99)%, P < 0.05]. The total cell count and total protein contents in the BALF were both higher in ozone-exposed ACE2 KO mice than in WT mice, but these differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The concentrations of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, CXCL1/KC and MCP-1 in the BALF were all higher in ozone-exposed ACE2 KO mice than in ozone-exposed WT mice, but only the difference in IL-1β was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The transcription levels of MMP-9, MMP-13, TIMP 4, COL1A1, and TGF-β in the lung tissues were all significantly higher in ozone-exposed ACE2 KO mice (P < 0.01). No significant difference was found in airway resistance between ozone-exposed ACE KO mice and WT mice after challenge with 0, 10, 25, or 100 mg/mL of methacholine.@*CONCLUSION@#ACE2 participates in ozone-induced lung inflammation and airway remodeling in mice.


Subject(s)
Airway Remodeling , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Methacholine Chloride , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Ozone/adverse effects , Pneumonia
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941006

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism by which inositol-requiring enzyme-1α (IRE1α) regulates autophagy function of chondrocytes through calcium homeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP).@*METHODS@#Cultured human chondrocytes (C28/I2 cells) were treated with tunicamycin, 4μ8c, rapamycin, or both 4μ8c and rapamycin, and the expressions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress- and autophagy-related proteins were detected with Western blotting. Primary chondrocytes from ERN1 knockout (ERN1 CKO) mice and wild-type mice were examined for ATG5 and ATG7 mRNA expressions, IRE1α and p-IRE1α protein expressions, and intracellular calcium ion content using qPCR, Western blotting and flow cytometry. The effect of bafilomycin A1 treatment on LC3 Ⅱ/LC3 Ⅰ ratio in the isolated chondrocytes was assessed with Western blotting. Changes in autophagic flux of the chondrocytes in response to rapamycin treatment were detected using autophagy dual fluorescent virus. The changes in autophagy level in C28/I2 cells overexpressing CHERP and IRE1α were detected using immunofluorescence assay.@*RESULTS@#Tunicamycin treatment significantly up-regulated ER stress-related proteins and LC3 Ⅱ/LC3 Ⅰ ratio and down-regulated the expression of p62 in C28/I2 cells (P < 0.05). Rapamycin obviously up-regulated LC3 Ⅱ/LC3 Ⅰ ratio (P < 0.001) in C28/I2 cells, but this effect was significantly attenuated by co-treatment with 4μ8c (P < 0.05). Compared with the cells from the wild-type mice, the primary chondrocytes from ERN1 knockout mice showed significantly down-regulated mRNA levels of ERN1 (P < 0.01), ATG5 (P < 0.001) and ATG7 (P < 0.001), lowered or even lost expressions of IRE1α and p-IRE1α proteins (PP < 0.01), and increased expression of CHERP (P < 0.05) and intracellular calcium ion content (P < 0.001). Bafilomycin A1 treatment obviously increased LC3 Ⅱ/ LC3 Ⅰ ratio in the chondrocytes from both wild-type and ERN1 knockout mice (P < 0.01 or 0.05), but the increment was more obvious in the wild-type chondrocytes (P < 0.05). Treatment with autophagy dual-fluorescence virus resulted in a significantly greater fluorescence intensity of LC3-GFP in rapamycin-treated ERN1 CKO chondrocytes than in wild-type chondrocytes (P < 0.05). In C28/I2 cells, overexpression of CHERP obviously decreased the fluorescence intensity of LC3, and overexpression of IRE1α enhanced the fluorescence intensity and partially rescued the fluorescence reduction of LC3 caused by CHERP.@*CONCLUSION@#IRE1α deficiency impairs autophagy in chondrocytes by upregulating CHERP and increasing intracellular calcium ion content.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Calcium/metabolism , Chondrocytes , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoribonucleases/pharmacology , Homeostasis , Inositol , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Tunicamycin/pharmacology
10.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 769-784, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939838

ABSTRACT

In mammals, the piezoelectric protein, Prestin, endows the outer hair cells (OHCs) with electromotility (eM), which confers the capacity to change cellular length in response to alterations in membrane potential. Together with basilar membrane resonance and possible stereociliary motility, Prestin-based OHC eM lays the foundation for enhancing cochlear sensitivity and frequency selectivity. However, it remains debatable whether Prestin contributes to ultrahigh-frequency hearing due to the intrinsic nature of the cell's low-pass features. The low-pass property of mouse OHC eM is based on the finding that eM magnitude dissipates within the frequency bandwidth of human speech. In this study, we examined the role of Prestin in sensing broad-range frequencies (4-80 kHz) in mice that use ultrasonic hearing and vocalization (to >100 kHz) for social communication. The audiometric measurements in mice showed that ablation of Prestin did not abolish hearing at frequencies >40 kHz. Acoustic associative behavior tests confirmed that Prestin-knockout mice can learn ultrahigh-frequency sound-coupled tasks, similar to control mice. Ex vivo cochlear Ca2+ imaging experiments demonstrated that without Prestin, the OHCs still exhibit ultrahigh-frequency transduction, which in contrast, can be abolished by a universal cation channel blocker, Gadolinium. In vivo salicylate treatment disrupts hearing at frequencies <40 kHz but not ultrahigh-frequency hearing. By pharmacogenetic manipulation, we showed that specific ablation of the OHCs largely abolished hearing at frequencies >40 kHz. These findings demonstrate that cochlear OHCs are the target cells that support ultrahigh-frequency transduction, which does not require Prestin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cochlea/metabolism , Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer/metabolism , Hearing , Humans , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Molecular Motor Proteins/metabolism
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936136

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of CACNA1H gene knockout (KO) on autistic-like behaviors and the morphology of hippocampal neurons in mice.@*METHODS@#In the study, 25 CACNA1H KO mice of 3-4 weeks old and C57BL/6 background were recruited as the experimental group, and 26 wild type (WT) mice of the same age and background were recruited as the control group. Three-chamber test and open field test were used to observe the social interaction, anxiety, and repetitive behaviors in mice. After that, their brain weight and size were measured, and the number of hippocampal neurons were observed by Nissl staining. Furthermore, the CACNA1H heterozygote mice were interbred with Thy1-GFP-O mice to generate CACNA1H-/--Thy1+(KO-GFP) and CACNA1H+/+-Thy1+ (WT-GFP) mice. The density and maturity of dendritic spines of hippocampal neurons were observed.@*RESULTS@#In the sociability test session of the three-chamber test, the KO mice spent more time in the chamber of the stranger mice than in the object one (F1, 14=95.086, P < 0.05; Post-Hoc: P < 0.05), without any significant difference for the explored preference index between the two groups (t=1.044, P>0.05). However, in the social novelty recognition test session, no difference was observed between the time of the KO mice spend in the chamber of new stranger mice and the stranger one (F1, 14=18.062, P < 0.05; Post-Hoc: P>0.05), and the explored preference index of the KO mice was less than that of the control group (t=2.390, P < 0.05). In the open field test, the KO mice spent less time in the center of the open field apparatus than the control group (t=2.503, P < 0.05), but the self-grooming time was significantly increased compared with the control group (t=-2.299, P < 0.05). Morphological results showed that the brain weight/body weight ratio (t=0.356, P>0.05) and brain size (t=-0.660, P>0.05) of the KO mice were not significantly different from those of the control group, but the number of neurons were significantly reduced in hippocampal dentate gyrus compared with the control group (t=2.323, P < 0.05). Moreover, the density of dendritic spine of dentate gyrus neurons in the KO-GFP mice was significantly increased compared with the control group (t=-2.374, P < 0.05), without any significant difference in spine maturity (t=-1.935, P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#CACNA1H KO mice represent autistic-like behavior, which may be related to the decrease in the number of neurons and the increase in the density of dendritic spine in the dentate gyrus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autistic Disorder/genetics , Calcium Channels, T-Type/genetics , Gene Knockout Techniques , Hippocampus , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Neurons
12.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 266-272, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928525

ABSTRACT

Gene expression analyses suggest that more than 1000-2000 genes are expressed predominantly in mouse and human testes. Although functional analyses of hundreds of these genes have been performed, there are still many testis-enriched genes whose functions remain unexplored. Analyzing gene function using knockout (KO) mice is a powerful tool to discern if the gene of interest is essential for sperm formation, function, and male fertility in vivo. In this study, we generated KO mice for 12 testis-enriched genes, 1700057G04Rik, 4921539E11Rik, 4930558C23Rik, Cby2, Ldhal6b, Rasef, Slc25a2, Slc25a41, Smim8, Smim9, Tmem210, and Tomm20l, using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats /CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system. We designed two gRNAs for each gene to excise almost all the protein-coding regions to ensure that the deletions in these genes result in a null mutation. Mating tests of KO mice reveal that these 12 genes are not essential for male fertility, at least when individually ablated, and not together with other potentially compensatory paralogous genes. Our results could prevent other laboratories from expending duplicative effort generating KO mice, for which no apparent phenotype exists.


Subject(s)
Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Fertility/genetics , Gene Editing , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Testis/metabolism
13.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 246-254, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927600

ABSTRACT

Steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) significantly increase the transcriptional activity of various steroid hormone receptors, and play an important regulatory role in a variety of physiological functions such as food intake, sleep, stress response and reproduction. Previous studies have found that pregnant mice carrying fetuses with SRC1/2 double-knockout (dKO) manifested delayed labor, partly due to the hypoplasia of fetal lungs and the decreased secretion of pulmonary surfactant protein-A (SP-A) and platelet activating factor (PAF). However, there is still a lack of systematic analysis of the changes in gene expression at the whole transcriptome level in the fetal lungs of SRC1/2 dKO mice. In this study, the SRC1KO, SRC2KO, SRC1/2 dKO and wild-type (WT) mouse fetal lung samples were collected at 18.5 days post coitus. The Illumina platform was employed for transcriptome mRNA sequencing, and then the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were annotated and analyzed by GO and KEGG analysis. The results showed that the proportion of quality score of the sequencing data above Q30 in all samples was more than 92% and passed the quality control. Compared with WT fetal lungs, SRC1KO and SRC2KO fetal lungs had 61 and 32 DEGs, respectively; SRC1/2 dKO fetal lungs had 480, 11 and 901 DEGs compared with WT, SRC1KO and SRC2KO fetal lungs, respectively. Among these genes, Aspg, Crispld2, Eln, Ntsr2, Slc10a6 and Vgll3 were the unique DEGs of SRC1/2 dKO fetal lungs compared with other genotype mice. Real-time PCR and Western blotting verified the reliability of transcriptome sequencing results. The GO analysis of the DEGs between SRC1/2 dKO and WT mouse fetal lungs showed that the DEGs were significantly enriched in the extracellular space, extracellular region, and extracellular matrix in terms of cellular component. In the biological process, they were significantly enriched in the term of development of multiple organs. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the DEGs were mainly enriched in signaling pathways such as the complement system, extracellular matrix-receptor interactions, and protein digestion and absorption. In summary, this study comprehensively revealed the changes of gene expression in the fetal lungs of SRC1/2 dKO mice at the transcriptome level, which provides a new theoretical basis for the study of the developmental regulatory mechanism of the fetal lung during pregnancy, and the fetus-derived signals that affect the initiation of labor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Lung/physiology , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Pregnancy , Reproducibility of Results , Transcriptome
14.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 52 p. graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1382009

ABSTRACT

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are susceptible to enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation, leading to the production of secondary compounds that present different physiological effects. Among the PUFA, the products formed from Omega 6 (n-6 FA) and Omega 3 (n-3 FA) fatty acids oxidation can modulate inflammation, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress preventing or reducing the atherosclerosis progression. In fact, the effect of chronic intake of edible oils containing products of polyunsaturated fatty acids oxidation (POPs) on atherosclerosis is still controversial. In general POPs from n-6 FA have a more pro-inflammatory profile than POPs from n-3 FA. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the chronic intake of partially oxidized n-6 FA and n-3 FA rich oils on atherosclerosis biomarkers. Initially, six edible oils containing a higher amount of n-6 and n-3 FA were submitted to oxidative conditions, simulating the steps of transport, storage and consume. It was observed that oxidative reaction started in all oils since the first step and at the moment of consumption, some oxidative chemical markers were out the legal range suggested by the Official Agencies. In addition, it was possible to identify the type of secondary product formed from each precursor oil, providing a better information for oils quality control. After this step, fish and soybean oils were chosen as n-3 FA and n-6 FA rich oils, respectively. Using LDLr(-/-) mice, the effect of three oxidative levels of soybean oil was evaluated after 24 weeks of supplementation. Animals fed with the oil with the highest level of oxidation (fried and reused oil) showed no body weight gain, suggesting that POPs from soybean oil at this level could promote a browning effect on white adipose tissue by increasing UCP-1 expression. This group also showed the highest concentration of lipoproteins in plasma. However, these metabolic differences did not accelerate atherosclerosis in the animals. Finally, the effect of POPs from n-3 FA and n-6 FA oxidation were compared also using LDLr(-/-) mice as model for experimental atherosclerosis. Some alterations observed after n-3 FA supplementation, such as the increase of liver weight, IL-6, SONPC, 8-HETE and 15-F2-Isop and the decrease of BAT and glucose, were reversed by their POPs. In addition, POPs from n-6 FA caused increased of LDL and 5-HETE. As observed in the previous study, these metabolic alterations were not enough to prevent or accelerate atherosclerosis, as measured by histological analysis of the lesion size in the aorta. These results suggest that although a significant amount of POPs are being consumed by diet, their metabolic effects did not influence atherosclerotic plaques in the animal model. However, besides lesion area in the aortas, new studies should also evaluate the plaques stability


Os ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (PUFA) são suscetíveis à oxidação enzimática e não enzimática, levando à produção de compostos secundários que apresentam diferentes efeitos fisiológicos. Entre os PUFA, os produtos formados a partir da oxidação dos ácidos graxos ômega 6 (n-6 FA) e ômega 3 (n-3 FA) podem modular a inflamação, dislipidemia e estresse oxidativo, impedindo ou reduzindo a progressão da aterosclerose. De fato, o efeito da ingestão crônica de óleos contendo produtos da oxidação de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (POPs) na aterosclerose ainda é controverso. Em geral, os POPs dos n-6 FA têm um perfil mais pró-inflamatório do que os POPs dos n-3 FA. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a ingestão crônica de POPs provenientes de óleos ricos em n-6 FA e n-3 FA em biomarcadores de aterosclerose. Inicialmente, seis óleos ricos em n-6 FA e n-3 FA foram submetidos a condições oxidativas, simulando as etapas de transporte, armazenamento e consumo. Observou-se que a reação oxidativa iniciou-se em todos os óleos desde a primeira etapa e, no momento do consumo, alguns marcadores oxidativos estavam fora da faixa legal sugerida pelas agências reguladoras. Além disso, foi possível identificar o tipo de produto secundário formado a partir de cada óleo precursor, fornecendo melhores informações para o controle de qualidade dos óleos. Após esta etapa, os óleos de peixe e soja foram escolhidos como óleos ricos em n-3 FA e n-6 FA, respectivamente. Utilizando camundongos LDLr(-/-), o efeito de três níveis oxidativos de óleo de soja foi avaliado após 24 semanas de suplementação. Os animais alimentados com o óleo com maior nível de oxidação (óleo frito e de reuso) não apresentaram ganho de peso corporal, sugerindo que os POPs do óleo de soja nesse nível de oxidação pudessem promover um efeito de Browning no tecido adiposo branco, aumentando a expressão de UCP-1. Este grupo também mostrou a maior concentração de lipoproteínas no plasma. No entanto, essas diferenças metabólicas não aceleraram a aterosclerose nos animais. Finalmente, o efeito de POPs da oxidação de óleos ricos em n-3 FA e n-6 FA foi comparado também usando camundongos LDLr(-/-), como modelo para aterosclerose experimental. Algumas alterações observadas após a suplementação com óleo de peixe fresco, como aumento do peso hepático, IL-6, SONPC, 8-HETE e 15-F2-IsoP e diminuição da BAT e glicose, foram revertidas por seus POPs. Além disso, os POPs do óleo de soja causaram aumento de LDL e 5-HETE. Como observado no estudo anterior, essas alterações metabólicas não foram suficientes para prevenir ou acelerar a aterosclerose, medida pela análise histológica do tamanho da lesão na aorta. Esses resultados sugerem que, embora uma quantidade significativa de POPs esteja sendo consumida pela dieta, seus efeitos metabólicos não influenciaram as placas ateroscleróticas no modelo animal. Porém, além da área de lesão nas aortas, novos estudos também devem avaliar a estabilidade das placas


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Fish Oils , Mice, Knockout , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Oxidation , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis , Quality Control , Soybean Oil , Oils , Biomarkers/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Eating , Dyslipidemias/complications , Liver/abnormalities
15.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1671-1682, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922661

ABSTRACT

Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is widely perceived as a contributor to numerous neurological diseases and mental disorders including depression. Discs large homolog 1 (Dlg1), an adaptor protein, regulates cell polarization and the function of K


Subject(s)
Animals , Depression/chemically induced , Inflammation , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Microglia , NF-kappa B , Neuroinflammatory Diseases
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878443

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The effect of Vps4b gene mutation on the expressions of cytokeratin 14 (CK14) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) is investigated.@*METHODS@#The bilateral mandibular tissues of mouse on postnatal days 5, 9, 11, 15, and 19 were removed. The mandibular first molar tissue sections were obtained after paraffin embedding. The CK14 and PCNA expressions in the epithelial root sheath of the normal mouse and Vps4b knockout mouse were compared through immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#On postnatal day 5, the normal mouse began to form HERS and had a strong positive PCNA expression in the HERS cells; on postnatal day 9, the HERS structure was continuous, and PCNA was positive in the HERS cells; on postnatal day 11, a small portion of HERS began to break, and PCNA was weakly positive in the HERS cells; on postnatal day 15, HERS continued to fracture; PCNA was weakly and positively expressed in the HERS cells on the root surface; on postnatal day 19, the tooth root reached normal physiological length, and PCNA was positively expressed in the HERS cells of the terminal part. Similar to the normal mouse, the gene knockout mouse also formed a HERS structure on postnatal day 5. However, HERS began to break on postnatal day 9. On postnatal day 19, only a few fragments of HERS were found on the root surface, and the root development was immature. Moreover, the expression intensity of PCNA in the gene knockout mouse was decreased.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The Vps4b gene mutation may change the CK14 and PCNA expressions, leading to abnormal root development.


Subject(s)
ATPases Associated with Diverse Cellular Activities , Animals , Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport , Epithelial Cells , Keratin-14 , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Tooth Root
17.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 42-50, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878234

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to evaluate the role of short-chain fatty acid butyrate acid on intestinal morphology and function, and atherosclerotic plaque formation in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE


Subject(s)
Animals , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Butyrates/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Plaque, Atherosclerotic
18.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1303-1313, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922625

ABSTRACT

Food deprivation can rescue obesity and overweight-induced mood disorders, and promote mood performance in normal subjects. Animal studies and clinical research have revealed the antidepressant-like effect of calorie restriction, but little is known about the mechanism of calorie restriction-induced mood modification. Previous studies have found that astrocytes modulate depressive-like behaviors. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 (IP3R2) is the predominant isoform in mediating astrocyte Ca


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Caloric Restriction , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Prefrontal Cortex
19.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 858-876, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922480

ABSTRACT

There remains a significant gap in our quantitative understanding of crosstalk between apoptosis and necroptosis pathways. By employing the SWATH-MS technique, we quantified absolute amounts of up to thousands of proteins in dynamic assembling/de-assembling of TNF signaling complexes. Combining SWATH-MS-based network modeling and experimental validation, we found that when RIP1 level is below ~1000 molecules/cell (mpc), the cell solely undergoes TRADD-dependent apoptosis. When RIP1 is above ~1000 mpc, pro-caspase-8 and RIP3 are recruited to necrosome respectively with linear and nonlinear dependence on RIP1 amount, which well explains the co-occurrence of apoptosis and necroptosis and the paradoxical observations that RIP1 is required for necroptosis but its increase down-regulates necroptosis. Higher amount of RIP1 (>~46,000 mpc) suppresses apoptosis, leading to necroptosis alone. The relation between RIP1 level and occurrence of necroptosis or total cell death is biphasic. Our study provides a resource for encoding the complexity of TNF signaling and a quantitative picture how distinct dynamic interplay among proteins function as basis sets in signaling complexes, enabling RIP1 to play diverse roles in governing cell fate decisions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 8/metabolism , GTPase-Activating Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Necroptosis , Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
20.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 795-804, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921282

ABSTRACT

Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been identified as an inhibitor of platelet function and an inducer of fibrinogen protein complex. However, the regulatory mechanism of FXR in hemostatic system remains incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functions of FXR in regulating antithrombin III (AT III). C57BL/6 mice and FXR knockout (FXR KO) mice were treated with or without GW4064 (30 mg/kg per day). FXR activation significantly prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), lowered activity of activated factor X (FXa) and concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) and activated factor II (FIIa), and increased level of AT III, whereas all of these effects were markedly reversed in FXR KO mice. In vivo, hepatic AT III mRNA and protein expression levels were up-regulated in wild-type mice after FXR activation, but down-regulated in FXR KO mice. In vitro study showed that FXR activation induced, while FXR knockdown inhibited, AT III expression in mouse primary hepatocytes. The luciferase assay and ChIP assay revealed that FXR can bind to the promoter region of AT III gene where FXR activation increased AT III transcription. These results suggest FXR activation inhibits coagulation process via inducing hepatic AT III expression in mice. The present study reveals a new role of FXR in hemostatic homeostasis and indicates that FXR might act as a potential therapeutic target for diseases related to hypercoagulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antithrombin III , Blood Coagulation , Hepatocytes , Liver , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/genetics
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