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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 181-189, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Liver cancer is largely resistant to chemotherapy. This study aimed to identify the effective chemotherapeutics for β-catenin-activated liver cancer which is caused by gain-of-function mutation of catenin beta 1 ( CTNNB1 ), the most frequently altered proto-oncogene in hepatic neoplasms.@*METHODS@#Constitutive β-catenin-activated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were established by deleting exon 3 ( β-catenin Δ(ex3)/+ ), the most common mutation site in CTNNB1 gene. A screening of 12 widely used chemotherapy drugs was conducted for the ones that selectively inhibited β-catenin Δ(ex3)/+ but not for wild-type MEFs. Untargeted metabolomics was carried out to examine the alterations of metabolites in nucleotide synthesis. The efficacy and selectivity of methotrexate (MTX) on β-catenin-activated human liver cancer cells were determined in vitro . Immuno-deficient nude mice subcutaneously inoculated with β-catenin wild-type or mutant liver cancer cells and hepatitis B virus ( HBV ); β-catenin lox(ex3)/+ mice were used, respectively, to evaluate the efficacy of MTX in the treatment of β-catenin mutant liver cancer.@*RESULTS@#MTX was identified and validated as a preferential agent against the proliferation and tumor formation of β-catenin-activated cells. Boosted nucleotide synthesis was the major metabolic aberration in β-catenin-active cells, and this alteration was also the target of MTX. Moreover, MTX abrogated hepatocarcinogenesis of HBV ; β-catenin lox(ex3)/+ mice, which stimulated concurrent Ctnnb1- activated mutation and HBV infection in liver cancer.@*CONCLUSION@#MTX is a promising chemotherapeutic agent for β-catenin hyperactive liver cancer. Since repurposing MTX has the advantages of lower risk, shorter timelines, and less investment in drug discovery and development, a clinical trial is warranted to test its efficacy in the treatment of β-catenin mutant liver cancer.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Humans , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Mice, Nude , beta Catenin/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Hepatitis B virus , Nucleotides
2.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 975-984, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression of four-jointed box kinase 1 (FJX1) in gastric cancer (GC), its correlation with survival outcomes of the patients, and its role in GC progression.@*METHODS@#The expression level of FJX1 in GC tissues and normal gastric mucosal tissues and its correlation with the survival outcomes of GC patients were analyzed using TCGA and GEO database GC cohort. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect FJX1 expression level in clinical specimens of GC tissue, and its correlations with the patients' clinicopathological parameters and prognosis were analyzed. Bioinformatic analysis was performed to identify the potential pathways of FJX1 in GC. The effects of FJX1 overexpression or FJX1 silencing on GC cell proliferation and expressions of proliferation-related proteins, PI3K, AKT, p-PI3K, and p-AKT were evaluated using CCK-8 assay and Western blotting. The effect of FJX1 overexpression on GC cell tumorigenicity was evaluated in nude mice.@*RESULTS@#GC tissues showed significantly higher expressions of FJX1 mRNA and protein compared with normal gastric mucosa tissues (P < 0.05). The high expression of FJX1 was associated with poor prognosis of GC patients (P < 0.05) and served as an independent risk factor for poor survival outcomes in GC (P < 0.05). FJX1 was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of GC cells in positive correlation with Ki67 expression (R=0.34, P < 0.05), and was correlated with CA199 levels, depth of tumor infiltration and lymph node metastasis of GC (P < 0.05). In the cell experiment, FJX1 level was shown to regulate the expressions of Ki67 and PCNA and GC cell proliferation (P < 0.05). Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that the PI3K/AKT pathway potentially mediated the effect of FJX1, which regulated the expressions of PI3K and AKT and their phosphorylated proteins. In nude mice, FJX1 overexpression in GC cells significantly promoted the growth of the transplanted tumors (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#FJX1 is highly expressed in GC tissues and is correlated with poor prognosis of GC patients. FJX1 overexpression promotes GC cell proliferation through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for GC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Cell Proliferation , Ki-67 Antigen , Mice, Nude , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Signal Transduction , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics
3.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 733-740, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986983

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of expression levels of S100 calcium-binding protein A10 (S100A10) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) on patient prognosis and the regulatory role of S100A10 in lung cancer cell proliferation and metastasis.@*METHODS@#Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression levels of S100A10 in LUAD and adjacent tissues, and the relationship between S100A10 expression and clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of the patients was statistically analyzed. The lung adenocarcinoma expression dataset in TCGA database was analyzed using gene enrichment analysis (GSEA) to predict the possible regulatory pathways of S100A10 in the development of lung adenocarcinoma. Lactate production and glucose consumption of lung cancer cells with S100A10 knockdown or overexpression were analyzed to assess the level of glycolysis. Western blotting, CCK-8 assay, EdU-594 assay, and Transwell assays were performed to determine the expression level of S100A10 protein, proliferation and invasion ability of lung cancer cells. A549 cells with S100A10 knockdown and H1299 cells with S100A10 overexpression were injected subcutaneously in nude mice, and tumor growth was observed.@*RESULTS@#The expression level of S100A10 was significantly upregulated in LUAD tissues as compared with the adjacent tissues, and an elevated S100A10 expression level was associated with lymph node metastasis, advanced tumor stage and distant organ metastasis (P < 0.05), but not with tumor differentiation or the patients' age or gender (P > 0.05). Survival analysis showed that elevated S100A10 expressions in the tumor tissue was associated with a poor outcome of the patients (P < 0.001). In the lung cancer cells, S100A10 overexpression significantly promoted cell proliferation and invasion in vitro (P < 0.001). GSEA showed that the gene sets of glucose metabolism, glycolysis and mTOR signaling pathway were significantly enriched in high expressions of S100A10. In the tumor-bearing nude mice, S100A10 overexpression significantly promoted tumor growth, while S100A10 knockdown obviously suppressed tumor cell proliferation (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#S100A10 overexpression promotes glycolysis by activating the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway to promote proliferation and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mice, Nude , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , S100 Proteins/genetics
4.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 527-536, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986958

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role of myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) in regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cisplatin sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).@*METHODS@#Six NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1299, H1975, SPCA1, H322, and H460) and a normal bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE) were examined for MYH9 expression using Western blotting. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect MYH9 expression in a tissue microarray containing 49 NSCLC and 43 adjacent tissue specimens. MYH9 knockout cell models were established in H1299 and H1975 cells using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and the changes in cell proliferation cell were assessed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) and clone formation assays; Western blotting and flow cytometry were used to detect apoptosis of the cell models, and cisplatin sensitivity of the cells was evaluated using IC50 assay. The growth of tumor xenografts derived from NSCLC with or without MYH9 knockout was observed in nude mice.@*RESULTS@#MYH9 expression was significantly upregulated in NSCLC (P < 0.001), and the patients with high MYH9 expression had a significantly shorter survival time (P=0.023). In cultured NSCLC cells, MYH9 knockout obviously inhibited cell proliferation (P < 0.001), promoted cell apoptosis (P < 0.05), and increased their chemosensitivity of cisplatin. In the tumor-bearing mouse models, the NSCLC cells with MYH9 knockout showed a significantly lower growth rate (P < 0.05). Western blotting showed that MYH9 knockout inactivated the AKT/c- Myc axis (P < 0.05) to inhibit the expression of BCL2- like protein 1 (P < 0.05), promoted the expression of BH3- interacting domain death agonist and the apoptosis regulator BAX (P < 0.05), and activated apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3 and caspase-9 (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#High expression of MYH9 contributes to NSCLC progression by inhibiting cell apoptosis via activating the AKT/c-Myc axis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cisplatin/pharmacology , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Myosin Heavy Chains/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction
5.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 518-523, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986162

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the key deubiquitinating enzymes that maintain the stemness of liver cancer stem cells and provide new ideas for targeted liver cancer therapy. Methods: The high-throughput CRISPR screening technology was used to screen the deubiquitinating enzymes that maintain the stemness of liver cancer stem cells. RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to analyze gene expression levels. Stemness of liver cancer cells was detected by spheroid-formation and soft agar colony formation assays. Tumor growth in nude mice was detected by subcutaneous tumor-bearing experiments. Bioinformatics and clinical samples were examined for the clinical significance of target genes. Results: MINDY1 was highly expressed in liver cancer stem cells. The expression of stem markers, the self-renewal ability of cells, and the growth of transplanted tumors were significantly reduced and inhibited after knocking out MINDY1, and its mechanism of action may be related to the regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway. The expression level of MINDY1 was higher in liver cancer tissues than that in adjacent tumors, which was closely related to tumor progression, and its high expression was an independent risk factor for a poor prognosis of liver cancer. Conclusion: The deubiquitinating enzyme MINDY1 promotes stemness in liver cancer cells and is one of the independent predictors of poor prognosis in liver cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cell Line, Tumor , Mice, Nude , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Deubiquitinating Enzymes/metabolism , Neoplastic Stem Cells/pathology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 408-414, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986144

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferaseδ (APGAT4) on the growth and lenvatinib resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and provide novel targets for HCC treatment. Methods: Using the bioinformatics methods to screen out upregulated genes in lenvatinib resistant cell lines from GEO dataset and survival related genes from TCGA dataset. Immumohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression AGPAT4 in HCC tissues, and its correlation with patients' survival. CCK8, EdU, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis assays were used to investigate the impact of role AGPAT4 on the proliferation and lenvatinib reistance of HCC cells. AGPAT4 stable knockdown cell line and subcutaneous nude mouse model were established to test the therapeutic effects of Lenvatinib. Analysis of variance was used to compare the differences between data sets. Results: APGAT4 was the common factor that predicted poor survival and Lenvatinib resistance. The mRNA and protein levels of APGAT4 were significantly upregulated in HCC tissues compared to the para-tumor tissues (P < 0.05). Using siRNA could significantly knocked down the mRNA and protein expression of APGAT4 in HCC cell lines Hep3B and HCCLM3. Compared with the control group, the proliferation ability of HCC cell lines (Hep3B and HCCLM3) in APGAT4 knockdown group was significantly inhibited, and the cell cycle was arrested in G2/M phase (P < 0.05). In addition, compared to the control group, HCC cell lines (Hep3B and HCCLM3) in APGAT4 knockdown group showed significant decrease in the Lenvatinib half maximal inhibitory concentration, and were more sensitive to lenvatinib-induced apoptosis (P < 0.05). In HCC subcutaneous nude mouse model, compared to the control group, the growth of tumor in APGAT4 knockdown group was significantly suppressed, and more apoptosis cells were induced (P < 0.05). Conclusion: APGAT4 promotes the growth and Lenvatinib resistance of HCC, which is a potential target for HCC treatment. Targeting APGAT4 treatment is conducive to inhibit the growth and Lenvatinib resistance of HCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Mice, Nude , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , RNA, Messenger , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
7.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 401-407, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986143

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect and possible mechanism of Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) on sorafenib resistance in hepatoma cells. Methods: Lentiviral vectors with YB-1 overexpression and knockdown were constructed, respectively, to stimulate human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 and Huh7) alone or in combination with sorafenib.The overexpression part of the experiment was divided into four groups: overexpression control group (Lv-NC), YB-1 overexpression group (Lv-YB-1), overexpression control combined with sorafenib resistance group (Lv-NC+sorafenib), YB-1 overexpression combined with sorafenib resistance group (Lv-YB-1 + sorafenib). The knockdown part of the experiment was also divided into four groups: knockdown control group (Lv-shNC), YB-1 knockdown group (Lv-shYB-1), knockdown control combined with sorafenib resistance group (Lv-shNC + sorafenib), YB-1 knockdown combined with sorafenib resistance group (Lv-shYB-1 + sorafenib). The occurrence of cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL. The protein expression levels of phosphorylated (p)-ERK and ERK, key proteins in the extracellular regulatory protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, were detected by Western blot and quantified by ImageJ software. Subcutaneous tumorigenesis experiments were performed in nude mice. The effect of YB-1 on the efficacy of sorafenib was verified in vivo. The comparison between the two sets of data was carried out by an independent sample t-test. One-way ANOVA was used for comparisons between the three groups of data above. Results: Sorafenib had accelerated the occurrence of apoptosis in hepatoma cells, while YB-1 overexpression had inhibited cell apoptosis, and at the same time also inhibited the apoptosis-accelerating impact of sorafenib. On the contrary, YB-1 knockdown accelerated cell apoptosis and amplified the induction effect of sorafenib on apoptosis. Furthermore, sorafenib resistance had down-regulated p-ERK levels (HepG2: Lv-NC 0.685 ± 0.143, Lv-NC + sorafenib 0.315 ± 0.168, P < 0.05; Huh7: Lv-NC 0.576 ± 0.078, Lv-NC + sorafenib 0.150 ± 0.131, P < 0.01), whereas YB-1 overexpression had inhibited sorafenib resistance p-ERK reduction (HepG2: Lv-NC + sorafenib 0.315 ± 0.168, Lv-YB-1 + sorafenib 0.688 ± 0.042, P < 0.05; Huh7: Lv-NC + sorafenib 0.150 ± 0.131, Lv-YB-1 + sorafenib 0.553 ± 0.041, P < 0.05). YB-1 knockdown further increased sorafenib-induced p-ERK downregulation (HepG2: Lv-shNC + sorafenib 0.911 ± 0.252, Lv-shYB-1 + sorafenib 0.500 ± 0.201, P < 0.05; Huh7: Lv-shNC + sorafenib 0.577 ± 0.082, Lv-shYB-1 + sorafenib 0.350 ± 0.143, P < 0.05), which was further verified in naked mice (Lv-shNC + sorafenib 0.812 ± 0.279, Lv-shYB-1 + sorafenib 0.352 ± 0.109, P < 0.05). Conclusion: YB-1 mediates the occurrence of sorafenib resistance via the ERK signaling pathway in hepatoma cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Cell Line, Tumor , Sorafenib/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Y-Box-Binding Protein 1/metabolism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice, Nude
8.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1081-1092, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987025

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the regulatory effects of miR-30e-5p on biological behaviors of colorectal cancer cells and the role of PTEN/CXCL12 axis in mediating these effects.@*METHODS@#Bioinformatic analysis was performed to explore the differential expression of miR-30e-5p between colorectal cancer tissues and normal tissues. RT-qPCR was used to detect the differential expression of miR-30e-5p in intestinal epithelial cells and colorectal cancer cells. Bioinformatics and dual luciferase assay were used to predict and validate the targeting relationship between miR-30e-5p and PTEN. Human and murine colorectal cancer cell lines were transfected with miR-30e-5p mimics, miR-30e-5p inhibitor, miR-30e-5p mimics+LV-PTEN, or miR-30e-5p inhibitor + si-PTEN. The changes in biological behaviors of the cells were detected using plate clone formation assay, CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, scratch healing and Transwell assays. PTEN and CXCL12 expressions in the cancer cells were detected by Western blotting. The effects of miR-30e-5p inhibitor on colorectal carcinogenesis and development were observed in nude mice.@*RESULTS@#Bioinformatic analysis showed that miR-30e-5p expression was significantly elevated in colorectal cancer tissues compared with the adjacent tissue (P < 0.01). Higher miR-30e-5p expression was detected in colorectal cancer cell lines than in intestinal epithelial cells (P < 0.01). Dual luciferase assay confirmed the targeting relationship between miR-30e-5p and PTEN (P < 0.05). Transfection with miR-30e-5p mimics significantly enhanced proliferation and metastasis and inhibited apoptosis of the colorectal cancer cells (P < 0.05), and co-transfection with LV-PTEN obviously reversed these changes (P < 0.05). MiR-30e-5p mimics significantly inhibited PTEN expression and enhanced CXCL12 expression in the cancer cells (P < 0.01), and miR-30e-5p inhibitor produced the opposite effect. Transfection with miR-30e-5p inhibitor caused cell cycle arrest in the cancer cells, which was reversed by co-transfection with si-PTEN (P < 0.05). In the in vivo experiments, the colorectal cancer cells transfected with miR-30e-5p inhibitor showed significantly lowered tumorigenesis.@*CONCLUSION@#Overexpression of miR-30e-5p promotes the malignant behaviors of colorectal cancer cells by downregulating PTEN to activate the CXCL12 axis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Mice, Nude , Cell Movement/physiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Luciferases/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/metabolism , Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism
9.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1071-1080, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987024

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of lactic acid-induced upregulation of PLEKHA4 expression on biological behaviors of glioma cells and the possible molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#GEO database and GEPIA2 website were used to analyze the relationship between PLEKHA4 expression level and the pathological grade of glioma. A specific PLEKHA4 siRNA was transfected in glioma U251 and T98G cells, and the changes in cell proliferation ability were assessed by real-time cell analysis technology and Edu experiment. The colony-forming ability of the cells was evaluated using plate cloning assay, and cell cycle changes and cell apoptosis were analyzed with flow cytometry. The mRNA expression of PLEKHA4 was detected by PCR in glioma samples and controls and in glioma cells treated with lactic acid and glucose. Xenograft mice in vivo was used to detect tumor formation in nude mice; Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of cyclinD1, CDK2, Bcl2, β-catenin and phosphorylation of the key proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway.@*RESULTS@#The results of GEO database and online website analysis showed that PLEKHA4 was highly expressed in glioma tissues and was associated with poor prognosis; PLEKHA4 knockdown obviously inhibited the proliferation and attenuated the clone-forming ability of the glioma cells (P < 0.05). Flow cytometry showed that PLEKHA4 knockdown caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and promoted apoptosis of the cells (P < 0.01). PLEKHA4 gene mRNA expression was increased in glioma samples and glioma cells after lactate and glucose treatment (P < 0.01). PLEKHA4 knockdown, tumor formation ability of nude mice decreased; PLEKHA4 knockdown obviously lowered the expression of cyclinD1, CDK2, Bcl2 and other functional proteins, inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 and reduced the expression of β-catenin protein (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#PLEKHA4 knockdown inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells and promoted apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and expression of β-catenin. Lactic acid produced by glycolysis upregulates the expression of PLEKHA4 in glioma cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Up-Regulation , beta Catenin/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Lactic Acid , Cell Line, Tumor , Glioma/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Apoptosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
10.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 275-289, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982567

ABSTRACT

The abnormal activation of HER family kinase activity is closely related to the development of human malignancies. In this study, we used HER kinases as targets for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and explored the anti-tumor effects of the novel pan-HER inhibitor HM781-36B, alone or in combination with cisplatin. We found that HER family proteins were positively expressed in tumor tissues of some NPC patients, and the high levels of those proteins were significantly related to poor prognosis. HM781-36B inhibited NPC in vitro and in vivo. HM781-36B exerted synergistic effects with cisplatin on inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis of NPC cells. In NPC xenograft models in nude mice, HM781-36B and cisplatin synergistically inhibited tumor growth. Downregulating the activity of HER family proteins and their downstream signaling pathways and regulating tumor microenvironment may explain the synergistic anti-tumor effects of HM781-36B and cisplatin. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for HER family proteins as prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for NPC. The pan-HER inhibitor HM781-36B alone or in combination with cisplatin represents promising therapeutic effects for the treatment of NPC patients, which provides a new idea for the comprehensive treatment of NPC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/drug therapy , Mice, Nude , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
11.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 873-878, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982409

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the inhibitory effect of cordycepin on oral cancer xenograft in nude mice and explore the underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Sixteen BALB/c mice bearing subcutaneous human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) TCA-8113 cell xenografts were randomized into model group and cordycepin treatment group for daily treatment with saline and cordycepin for 4 weeks. After the treatment, the tumor xenografts were dissected and weighed to assess the tumor inhibition rate. Histological changes in the heart, spleen, liver, kidney, and lung of the mice were evaluated with HE staining, and tumor cell apoptosis was examined using TUNEL staining; The expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, GRP78, CHOP, and caspase-12 in the xenografts were detected using RT-qPCR and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Cordycepin treatment resulted in a tumor inhibition rate of 56.09% in the nude mouse models, induced obvious changes in tumor cell morphology and significantly enhanced apoptotic death of the tumor cells without causing pathological changes in the vital organs. Cordycepin treatment also significantly reduced Bcl-2 expression (P < 0.05) and increased Bax, GRP78, CHOP, and caspase-12 expressions at both the RNA and protein levels in the tumor tissues.@*CONCLUSION@#Cordycepin treatment can induce apoptotic death of TCA-8113 cell xenografts in nude mice via the endogenous mitochondrial pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Heterografts , Mice, Nude , Tongue Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cordyceps , Caspase 12 , Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Tongue
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4147-4155, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008611

ABSTRACT

Based on the androgen receptor(AR)/mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR)signaling pathway, the effects of Xihuang Pills-medicated serum on the proliferation and apoptosis of prostate cancer LNCaP cells were investigated. The drug-containing serum of SD rats was prepared by intragastric administration of Xihuang Pills suspension. The effects of low-, medium-, and high-dose Xihuang Pills-containing serum on the in vitro proliferation of LNCaP cells were detected by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8). Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis level of LNCaP cells after intervention with different concentrations of Xihuang Pills. Protein expression of cleaved cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase caspase-3(cleaved caspase-3), B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), and AR as well as the phosphorylation level of mTOR protein were detected by Western blot. The results showed that compared with the blank serum, the drug-medicated serum could blunt the activity of LNCaP cells. Low-, medium-, and high-dose Xihuang Pills-containing serum could significantly increase the cell apoptosis rate, increase the expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein, decrease the expression of Bcl-2 protein, reduce the expression of AR protein, and down-regulate the level of phosphorylated mTOR(p-mTOR). To study the effect of Xihuang Pills on the growth of LNCaP cells in vivo, different doses of Xihuang Pills were used to intervene in the subcutaneous graft model in nude mice inoculated with LNCaP cells. The expression levels of AR, mTOR, p-mTOR, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3 were detected by Western blot. The results showed that the volumes of subcutaneous graft tumor in the low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose Xihuang Pills groups significantly decreased compared with that in the model group. The weight of subcutaneous transplanted tumor in each group with drug intervention was significantly lower than that in the model group. Compared with the model group, the low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose Xihuang Pills groups showed increased cleaved caspase-3 protein expression, decreased Bcl-2 and AR protein expression, and reduced p-mTOR protein expression. Further experiments showed that AR agonist R1881 could block the anti-proliferation and pro-apoptotic effects of Xihuang Pills. The mechanism of Xihuang Pills against prostate cancer is related to the inhibition of the AR/mTOR signaling pathway, inhibition of LNCaP cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Mice , Rats , Animals , Caspase 3/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Cell Line, Tumor , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Apoptosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
13.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 1186-1203, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010815

ABSTRACT

Through bioinformatics predictions, we identified that GTF2I and FAT1 were downregulated in thyroid carcinoma (TC). Further, Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed a positive correlation between GTF2I expression and FAT1 expression. Therefore, we selected them for this present study, where the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived EVs (BMSDs-EVs) enriched with GTF2I were evaluated on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness maintenance in TC. The under-expression of GTF2I and FAT1 was validated in TC cell lines. Ectopically expressed GTF2I and FAT1 were found to augment malignant phenotypes of TC cells, EMT, and stemness maintenance. Mechanistic studies revealed that GTF2I bound to the promoter region of FAT1 and consequently upregulated its expression. MSC-EVs could shuttle GTF2I into TPC-1 cells, where GTF2I inhibited TC malignant phenotypes, EMT, and stemness maintenance by increasing the expression of FAT1 and facilitating the FAT1-mediated CDK4/FOXM1 downregulation. In vivo experiments confirmed that silencing of GTF2I accelerated tumor growth in nude mice. Taken together, our work suggests that GTF2I transferred by MSC-EVs confer antioncogenic effects through the FAT1/CDK4/FOXM1 axis and may be used as a promising biomarker for TC treatment.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Mice, Nude , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Extracellular Vesicles/pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Transcription Factors, TFIII/metabolism , Neoplastic Stem Cells/pathology
14.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 184-193, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971653

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Physical exercise, a common non-drug intervention, is an important strategy in cancer treatment, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanism remains largely unknown. Due to the importance of hypoxia and cancer stemness in the development of HCC, the present study investigated whether the anti-HCC effect of physical exercise is related to its suppression on hypoxia and cancer stemness.@*METHODS@#A physical exercise intervention of swimming (30 min/d, 5 d/week, for 4 weeks) was administered to BALB/c nude mice bearing subcutaneous human HCC tumor. The anti-HCC effect of swimming was assessed in vivo by tumor weight monitoring, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki67. The expression of stemness transcription factors, including Nanog homeobox (NANOG), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT-4), v-Myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (C-MYC) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), was detected using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A hypoxia probe was used to explore the intratumoral hypoxia status. Western blot was used to detect the expression of HIF-1α and proteins related to protein kinase B (Akt)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/β-catenin signaling pathway. The IHC analysis of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31), and the immunofluorescence co-location of CD31 and desmin were used to analyze tumor blood perfusion. SMMC-7721 cells were treated with nude mice serum. The inhibition effect on cancer stemness in vitro was detected using suspension sphere experiments and the expression of stemness transcription factors. The hypoxia status was inferred by measuring the protein and mRNA levels of HIF-1α. Further, the expression of proteins related to Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway was detected.@*RESULTS@#Swimming significantly reduced the body weight and tumor weight in nude mice bearing HCC tumor. HE staining and IHC results showed a lower necrotic area ratio as well as fewer PCNA or Ki67 positive cells in mice receiving the swimming intervention. Swimming potently alleviated the intratumoral hypoxia, attenuated the cancer stemness, and inhibited the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. Additionally, the desmin+/CD31+ ratio, rather than the number of CD31+ vessels, was significantly increased in swimming-treated mice. In vitro experiments showed that treating cells with the serum from the swimming intervention mice significantly reduced the formation of SMMC-7721 cell suspension sphere, as well as the mRNA expression level of stemness transcription factors. Consistent with the in vivo results, HIF-1α and Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway were also inhibited in cells treated with serum from swimming group.@*CONCLUSION@#Swimming alleviated hypoxia and attenuated cancer stemness in HCC, through suppression of the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. The alleviation of intratumoral hypoxia was related to the increase in blood perfusion in the tumor. Please cite this article as: Xiao CL, Zhong ZP, Lü C, Guo BJ, Chen JJ, Zhao T, Yin ZF, Li B. Physical exercise suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma progression by alleviating hypoxia and attenuating cancer stemness through the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(2): 184-193.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/therapeutic use , Mice, Nude , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/genetics , beta Catenin/therapeutic use , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Desmin/therapeutic use , Ki-67 Antigen , Cell Line, Tumor , Hypoxia , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , Cell Proliferation
15.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 106-115, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Melittin, a cell-penetrating peptide, improves the efficiency of many non-viral gene delivery vectors, yet its application in viral vectors has not been well studied. The non-pathogenic recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector is an ideal in vivo gene delivery vector. However, its full potential will only be achieved after improvement of its transduction efficiency. To improve the transduction efficiency of rAAV2 vectors, we attempted to develop a melittin-based rAAV2 vector delivery strategy.@*METHODS@#The melittin peptide was inserted into the rAAV2 capsid either in the loop VIII of all viral proteins (VPs) or at the N terminus of VP2. Various rAAV2-gfp or -fluc vectors were subjected to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assays to determine their titers and integrity of capsid proteins, respectively. Alternatively, the vectors based on wild-type capsid were pre-incubated with melittin, followed by transduction of cultured cells or tail vein administration of the mixture to C57BL/6 and BALB/c nude mice. In vivo bioluminescence imaging was performed to evaluate the transgene expression.@*RESULTS@#rAAV2 vectors with melittin peptide inserted in the loop VIII of VPs had low transduction efficiency, probably due to dramatically reduced ability to bind to the target cells. Fusing the melittin peptide at the N-terminus of VP2 produced vectors without the VP2 subunit. Interestingly, among the commonly used rAAV vectors, pre-incubation of rAAV2 and rAAV6 vectors with melittin significantly enhanced their transduction efficiency in HEK293 and Huh7 cells in vitro. Melittin also had the ability to increase the rAAV2-mediated transgene expression in mouse liver in vivo. Mechanistically, melittin did not change the vector-receptor interaction. Moreover, cell counting kit-8 assays of cultured cells and serum transaminase levels indicated melittin had little cytotoxicity.@*CONCLUSION@#Pre-incubation with melittin, but not insertion of melittin into the rAAV2 capsid, significantly enhanced rAAV2-mediated transgene expression. Although further in vivo evaluations are required, this research not only expands the pharmacological potential of melittin, but also provides a new strategy to improve gene therapy mediated by rAAV vectors.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Humans , Melitten/genetics , Dependovirus/genetics , Serogroup , HEK293 Cells , Mice, Nude , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Transgenes , Genetic Vectors/genetics
16.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 166-174, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971511

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of LASS2/TMSG1 gene overexpression on proliferation and apoptosis of human lung cancer A549 cells and explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#We examined LASS2/TMSG1 expression level in a previously constructed A549 cell line overexpressing LASS2/TMSG1 using Western blotting. The proliferation and apoptosis of the cells were detected using colony-forming assay, CCK-8 assay, Hoechst/PI double staining and flow cytometry. Fourteen nude mice were randomized into 2 groups (n=7) to receive subcutaneous injection of A549 cells with or without LASS2/TMSG1 overexpression on the back of the neck, and the cell proliferation in vivo was observed. The expression levels of p38 MAPK protein and p-p38 MAPK protein in the xenografts were detected with Western blotting. ELISA was used to detect the levels of ceramide and p38 MAPK protein in cultured A549 cell supernatants and the xenografts in nude mice.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the negative control cells, A549 cells with LASS2/TMSG1 overexpression had significantly lowered proliferation ability in vitro with increased early apoptosis rate (P < 0.05), and showed obvious growth inhibition after inoculation in nude mice(P < 0.05). Western blotting showed that in both cultured A549 cells and the xenografts in nude mice, LASS2/TMSG1 gene overexpression significantly increased the expression levels of p38 MAPK protein and p-p38 MAPK protein (P < 0.05); the results of ELISA also revealed significantly increased levels of ceramide and p38 MAPK protein in the cell supernatant andxenografts as well (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Overexpression of LASS2/TMSG1 gene can significantly inhibit the proliferation and promote early apoptosis of human lung cancer A549 cells both in vitro and in vivo possibly by upregulating the expressions of ceramide and p38 MAPK protein to activate a signal transduction cascade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , A549 Cells , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Lung Neoplasms , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice, Nude , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism
17.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 157-164, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971381

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Gastric cancer is a common cancer of the digestive system. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays an important role in the formation and development of gastric cancer. This study aims to investigate the effect of long non-coding lncRNA 114227 on biologic behaviors in gastric cancer cells.@*METHODS@#The experiment was divided into 4 groups: a negative control (NC) group, a lncRNA 114227 small interference (si-lncRNA 114227) group, an empty vector (Vector) group, and an overexpression vector (OE-lncRNA 114227) group. The expressions of lncRNA 114227 in gastric mucosa and gastric cancer tissues, gastric mucosal epithelial cells and different gastric cancer strains were determined by real-time reverse transcription PCR (real-time RT-PCR).The proliferation were detected by CCK-8 assay in gastric cancer cells. The epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) was utilized by Transwell assay, scratch healing assay, and Western blotting in gastric cancer cells. The effect of lncRNA 114227 on proliferation of gastric cancer cells was detected by tumor bearing experiment in nude mice in vivo.@*RESULTS@#The expression level of lncRNA 114227 in the gastric cancer tissues was significantly lower than that in the gastric mucosa tissues, and in 4 kinds of gastric cancer strains was all significantly lower than that in gastric mucosal epithelial cells (all P<0.01). In vitro, the proliferation and migration abilities of gastric cells were significantly reduced after overexpressing lncRNA 114227, and cell proliferation and migration were enhanced after silencing lncRNA 114227 (all P<0.05). The results of in vivo subcutaneous tumorigenesis in nude mice showed that the tumorigenic volume of the tumor-bearing mice in the OE-lncRNA 114227 group was significantly smaller than that of the Vector group, and the tumorigenic quality was lower than that of the Vector group (P<0.05), indicating that lncRNA 114227 inhibited tumorigenesis.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The expression of lncRNA 114227 is downregulated in gastric cancer gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. LncRNA 114227 may inhibit the proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cells through EMT process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Mice, Nude , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Carcinogenesis/genetics , Cell Movement/genetics , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Apoptosis/genetics
18.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 127-136, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971337

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of Guizhi Fuling Capsule (GZFLC) on myeloma cells and explore the mechanisms.@*METHODS@#MM1S and RPMI 8226 cells were co-cultured with different concentrations of serum and the cell experiments were divided into negative (10%, 20% and 40%) groups, GZFLC (10%, 20%, and 40%) groups and a control group. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assays and flow cytometry were used to detect the viability and apoptosis levels of myeloma cells. The effects on mitochondria were examined by reactive oxygen specie (ROS) and tetrechloro-tetraethylbenzimidazol carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) assays. Western blot was used to detect the expression of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X (Bax), cleaved caspase-3, -9, cytochrome C (Cytc) and apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1). RPMI 8226 cells (2 × 107) were subcutaneously inoculated into 48 nude mice to study the in vivo antitumor effects of GZFLC. The mice were randomly divided into four groups using a completely randomized design, the high-, medium-, or low-dose GZFLC (840, 420, or 210 mg/kg per day, respectively) or an equal volume of distilled water, administered daily for 15 days. The tumor volume changes in and survival times of the mice in the GZFLC-administered groups and a control group were observed. Cytc and Apaf-1 expression levels were detected by immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#GZFLC drug serum decreased the viability and increased the apoptosis of myeloam cells (P<0.05). In addition, this drug increased the ROS levels and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (P<0.01). Western blot showed that the Bcl-2/Bax ratios were decreased in the GZFLC drug serum-treated groups, whereas the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, -9, Cytc and Apaf-1 were increased (all P<0.01). Over time, the myeloma tumor volumes of the mice in the GZFLC-administered groups decreased, and survival time of the mice in the GZFLC-administered groups were longer than that of the mice in the control group. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues from the mice in the GZFLC-administered groups revealed that the Cytc and Apaf-1 expression levels were increased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#GZFLC promoted apoptosis of myeloma cells through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and significantly reduced the tumor volumes in mice with myeloma, which prolonged the survival times of the mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Caspase 3/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Wolfiporia , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Apoptosis , Mitochondria/metabolism
19.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 213-223, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the apoptosis and cycle arrest effects of Oldenlandia diffusa flavonoids on human gastric cancer cells, determine the action mechanisms in association with the mitochondrial dependent signal transduction pathway that controls production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and evaluate the pharmacodynamics of a mouse xenotransplantation model to provide a reference for the use of flavonoids in prevention and treatment of gastric cancer.@*METHODS@#Flavonoids were extracted by an enzymatic-ultrasonic assisted method and purified with D-101 resin. Bioactive components were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell lines MKN-45, AGS, and GES-1 were treated with different concentrations of flavonoids (64, 96, 128, 160 µg/mL). The effect of flavonoids on cell viability was evaluated by MTT method, and cell nuclear morphology was observed by Hoechst staining. The apoptosis rate and cell cycle phases were measured by flow cytometry, the production of ROS was detected by laser confocal microscope, the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were observed by fluorescence microscope, and the expression of apoptotic proteins related to activation of mitochondrial pathway were measured by immunoblotting. MKN-45 cells were transplanted into BALB/c nude mice to establish a xenograft tumor model. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to reveal the subcutaneous tumor tissue. The tumor volume and tumor weight were measured, the expression levels of proliferation markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 were detected by immunohistochemistry, and the expression levels of CA72-4 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.@*RESULTS@#Oldenlandia diffusa flavonoids inhibited proliferation of MKN-45 and AGS human gastric cancer cells, arrested the cell cycle in G1/S phase, induced accumulation of ROS in the process of apoptosis, and altered MMP. In addition, flavonoids increased Apaf-1, Cleaved-Caspase-3, and Bax, and decreased Cyclin A, Cdk2, Bcl-2, Pro-Caspase-9, and Mitochondrial Cytochrome C (P<0.05). The MKN-45 cell mouse xenotransplantation model further clarified the growth inhibitory effect of flavonoids towards tumors. The expression levels of PCNA and Ki-67 decreased in each flavonoid dose group, the expression level of CA72-4 decreased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Flavonoids derived from Oldenlandia diffusa can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by activating the mitochondrial controlled signal transduction pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Oldenlandia/metabolism , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Stomach Neoplasms , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Ki-67 Antigen , Cell Line, Tumor , Apoptosis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Caspases , Cell Proliferation
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2210-2220, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common malignant tumor of biliary tract. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a natural compound with chalcone structure extracted from the roots of licorice and other plants. Relevant studies have shown that ISL has a strong anti-tumor ability in various types of tumors. However, the research of ISL against GBC has not been reported, which needs to be further investigated.@*METHODS@#The effects of ISL against GBC cells in vitro and in vivo were characterized by cytotoxicity test, RNA-sequencing, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, lipid peroxidation detection, ferrous ion detection, glutathione disulphide/glutathione (GSSG/GSH) detection, lentivirus transfection, nude mice tumorigenesis experiment and immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#ISL significantly inhibited the proliferation of GBC cells in vitro . The results of transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis showed that ferroptosis was the main pathway of ISL inhibiting the proliferation of GBC, and HMOX1 and GPX4 were the key molecules of ISL-induced ferroptosis. Knockdown of HMOX1 or overexpression of GPX4 can reduce the sensitivity of GBC cells to ISL-induced ferroptosis and significantly restore the viability of GBC cells. Moreover, ISL significantly reversed the iron content, ROS level, lipid peroxidation level and GSSG/GSH ratio of GBC cells. Finally, ISL significantly inhibited the growth of GBC in vivo and regulated the ferroptosis of GBC by mediating HMOX1 and GPX4 .@*CONCLUSION@#ISL induced ferroptosis in GBC mainly by activating p62-Keap1-Nrf2-HMOX1 signaling pathway and down-regulating GPX4 in vitro and in vivo . This evidence may provide a new direction for the treatment of GBC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Carcinoma in Situ , Chalcones/pharmacology , Ferroptosis , Gallbladder Neoplasms/genetics , Glutathione Disulfide , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1 , Mice, Nude , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Reactive Oxygen Species
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