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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249664, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345558

ABSTRACT

Abstract The impact of antibiotics on growth, cocoon production was assessed in addition to isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with silkworm gut of infected larvae. Larval rearing was maintained at recommended conditions of temperature and humidity. Silkworm larvae showing abnormal symptoms were collected from the control group and dissected for gut collection. Bacteria were isolated from the gut content by spreading on agar plates and incubated at 37 °C for 48 hrs. Bacterial identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test (disc diffusion methods) by using Penicillin (10 µg/mL), Tetracycline (30 µg/mL), Amoxicillin (25 µg/mL), Ampicillin (10 µg/mL), and Erythromycin (15 µg/mL). All isolated strains showed positive results for the catalase test. We isolated and identified bacterial strains (n = 06) from the gut of healthy and diseased silkworm larvae. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, isolated bacteria showed close relation with Serratia, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas spp. Notably, 83.3% of strains were resistant to Penicillin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Erythromycin but 16.6% showed antibiotic susceptibility to the above-mentioned commonly used antibiotics. Silkworm larvae fed on penicillin-treated leaves showed significant improvement in larval weight, larval length, and cocoon production. Significantly higher larval weight (6.88g), larval length (5.84cm), and cocoon weight (1.33g) were recorded for larvae fed on leaves treated with penicillin as compared to other antibiotics. Isolated bacterial strains showed close relation with Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.


Resumo O impacto dos antibióticos no crescimento e na produção do casulo foi avaliado, além do isolamento e caracterização das bactérias associadas ao intestino de larvas infectadas do bicho-da-seda. A criação das larvas foi mantida nas condições recomendadas de temperatura e umidade. As larvas do bicho-da-seda com sintomas anormais foram coletadas do grupo controle e dissecadas para coleta do intestino. As bactérias foram isoladas do conteúdo intestinal por espalhamento em placas de ágar e incubadas a 37° C durante 48 horas. A identificação bacteriana e a análise filogenética foram realizadas pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. As bactérias isoladas foram submetidas a teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana (métodos de difusão em disco) com penicilina (10 µg / mL), tetraciclina (30 µg / mL), amoxicilina (25 µg / mL), ampicilina (10 µg / mL) e eritromicina (15 µg / mL). Todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resultados positivos para o teste da catalase. Isolamos e identificamos cepas bacterianas (n = 06) do intestino de larvas de bicho-da-seda saudáveis e doentes. Com base na sequência do gene 16S rRNA, as bactérias isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia, Bacillus e Pseudomonas spp. Notavelmente, 83,3% das cepas eram resistentes a penicilina, tetraciclina, amoxicilina, ampicilina e eritromicina, mas 16,6% mostraram suscetibilidade aos antibióticos comumente usados mencionados acima. As larvas do bicho-da-seda alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina apresentaram melhora significativa no peso larval, comprimento larval e produção de casulo. Peso larval significativamente maior (6,88g), comprimento larval (5,84cm) e peso do casulo (1,33g) foram registrados para larvas alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina, em comparação com outros antibióticos. Cepas bacterianas isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. e Pseudomonas spp.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Larva
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243332, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345537

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was aimed to manifest the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Salix alba L. against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and three fungal isolates from the air such as Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Two different serotypes of S. aureus and E. coli were used. The agar well-diffusion method results showed the dose-dependent response of plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains while some organisms were found resistant e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus and R. stolonifer. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded at 17.000±1.732 mm from 100 mg/mL of leaves methanolic extracts against S. pyogenes while the activity of most of the pathogens decreased after 24 h of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was reported at 11.833±1.0 mm against A. ornatus at 50 mg/mL after 48 h of the incubation period. These experimental findings endorse the use of S. alba in ethnopharmacological formulations and suggest the use of methanolic extracts of the said plant to develop drugs to control the proliferation of resistant disease causing pathogenic microbes.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo manifestar a atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos metanólicos de Salix alba L. contra sete patógenos bacterianos Gram-positivos e Gram-negativos. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) e Neisseria gonorrhoeae e três isolados de fungos do ar, como Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, e Rhizopus stolonifer. Dois sorotipos diferentes de S. aureus e E. coli foram usados. Os resultados do método de difusão em ágar mostraram a resposta dependente da dose de extratos de plantas contra cepas de bactérias e fungos, enquanto alguns organismos foram considerados resistentes, e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus e R. stolonifer. A maior atividade antibacteriana foi registrada em 17.000 ± 1.732 de 100 mg/mL de extratos metanólicos de folhas contra S. pyogenes, enquanto a atividade da maioria dos patógenos diminuiu após 24 h de incubação. A maior atividade antifúngica foi relatada em 11,833 ± 1,0 contra A. ornatus a 50 mg/mL após 48 h do período de incubação. Esses achados experimentais endossam o uso de S. alba em formulações etnofarmacológicas e sugerem o uso de extratos metanólicos da referida planta para o desenvolvimento de fármacos que controlem a proliferação de doenças resistentes que causam micróbios patogênicos.


Subject(s)
Salix , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus , Rhizopus , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methanol , Escherichia coli , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247016, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339416

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), a native earthworm of Pakistan and Southeast Asia, has wide utilization in vermicomposting and bioremediation process. In this study, P. posthuma coelomic fluid (PCF) and body paste (PBP) was evaluated as antibacterial agent against ampicillin (AMP) resistant five Gram positive and four Gram negative clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect of different doses (i.e. 25-100 µg/ml) of PCF and PBP along with AMP and azithromycin (AZM) (negative and positive controls, respectively) were observed through disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods. All nine clinical isolates were noticed as AMP resistant and AZM sensitive. Antibacterial effects of PCF and PBP were dose dependent and zone of inhibitions (ZI) against all clinical isolates were between 23.4 ± 0.92 to 0 ± 00 mm. The sensitivity profile of PCF and PBP against clinical isolates was noticed as 44.44 and 55.56%, respectively. Both PCF and PBP showed bacteriostatic (BTS) action against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the cumulative BTS potential of PCF and PBP against all isolates was 66.67 and 55.56%, respectively. The MICs of PCF and PBP were ranged from 50-200 µg/ml against selected isolates. The bacterial growth curves indicated that PCF and PBP inhibited the growth of all isolates at their specific MIC concentrations. However, PBP has better antibacterial potential compared to PCF against selected isolates. Therefore, it is concluded that both PCF and PBP of P. posthuma possess antibacterial and BTS potential against ampicillin resistant clinical isolates. This organism might be considered as a second choice of antibacterial agents and can further be utilized in pharmaceutical industries for novel drug manufacturing by prospecting bioactive potential agents.


Resumo Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), uma minhoca nativa do Paquistão e sudeste da Ásia, tem ampla utilização em processos de vermicompostagem e biorremediação. Neste estudo, o fluido celômico de P. posthuma (PCF) e a pasta corporal (PBP) foram avaliados como agente antibacteriano contra cinco isolados clínicos Gram-positivos e quatro Gram-negativos resistentes à ampicilina (AMP). O efeito antibacteriano de diferentes doses (ou seja, 25-100 µg / ml) de PCF e PBP juntamente com AMP e azitromicina (AZM) (controles negativo e positivo, respectivamente) foi observado por meio de métodos de difusão em disco e microdiluição. Todos os nove isolados clínicos foram notados como resistentes a AMP e sensíveis a AZM. Os efeitos antibacterianos de PCF e PBP foram dependentes da dose e a zona de inibição (ZI) contra todos os isolados clínicos foi entre 23,4 ± 0,92 a 0 ± 00 mm. O perfil de sensibilidade do PCF e PBP contra isolados clínicos foi observado como 44,44% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Tanto o PCF quanto o PBP mostraram ação bacteriostática (BTS) contra S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Além disso, o potencial BTS cumulativo de PCF e PBP contra todos os isolados foi de 66,67% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Os MICs de PCF e PBP variaram de 50-200 µg / ml contra isolados selecionados. As curvas de crescimento bacteriano indicaram que o PCF e o PBP inibiram o crescimento de todos os isolados em suas concentrações específicas de MIC. No entanto, PBP tem melhor potencial antibacteriano em comparação com PCF contra isolados selecionados. Portanto, conclui-se que tanto o PCF quanto o PBP de P. posthuma possuem potencial antibacteriano e BTS contra isolados clínicos resistentes à ampicilina. Esse organismo pode ser considerado como uma segunda escolha de agentes antibacterianos e pode ainda ser utilizado nas indústrias farmacêuticas para a fabricação de novos medicamentos por meio da prospecção de agentes com potencial bioativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligochaeta , Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Ampicillin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245585, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339413

ABSTRACT

Abstract Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados ​​para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados ​​para controlar o crescimento microbiano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus aureus , Industrial Waste , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Plant Extracts , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239323, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339341

ABSTRACT

Abstract The β-lactam/lactamase inhibitors (BLBLIs) combination drugs are considered an effective alternative to carbapenems. However, there is a growing concern that the increased use of BLBLIs may lead to increased resistance. This study determined the temporal association between the consumption of BLBLI and the antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. In this retrospective study, electronic data on the Gram-negative bacterial isolates, including A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae from in-patients and susceptibility testing results were retrieved from the medical records of the clinical laboratory. A linear regression and cross-correlation analysis were performed on the acquired data. Increasing trends (p<0.05) in the consumption of BIBLI and carbapenem with a median use of 27.68 and 34.46 DDD/1000 PD per quarter were observed, respectively. A decreased trend (p=0.023) in the consumption of fluoroquinolones with a median use of 29.13 DDD/1000 PD per quarter was observed. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae was synchronized with the BIBLI and carbapenem consumptions with a correlation coefficient of 0.893 (p=0.012) and 0.951 (p=0.016), respectively. The cross-correlation analysis against the consumption of BIBLI and meropenem resistant K. pneumoniae was peaked at 0-quarter lag (r=951, p=0.016). There was an increasing trend in the consumption of BLBLI and carbapenems. The increasing trend in the rates of resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam, in line with the increasing consumption of BLBLI, suggests that BLBLI has to be used with caution and cannot be directly considered as a long-term alternative to carbapenems.


Resumo Os medicamentos combinados de β-lactâmicos / inibidores da lactamase (BLBLIs) são considerados uma alternativa eficaz aos carbapenêmicos. No entanto, existe uma preocupação crescente de que o aumento do uso de BLBLIs pode levar ao aumento da resistência. Este estudo determinou a associação temporal entre o consumo de BLBLI e a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias gram-negativas. Neste estudo retrospectivo, os dados eletrônicos sobre as bactérias gram-negativas isoladas, incluindo A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli e K. pneumoniae de pacientes internados e os resultados dos testes de suscetibilidade foram recuperados dos registros médicos do laboratório clínico. Uma regressão linear e análise de correlação cruzada foram realizadas nos dados adquiridos. Foram observadas tendências crescentes (p < 0,05) no consumo de BIBLI e carbapenem com uma mediana de uso de 27,68 e 34,46 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre, respectivamente. Foi observada uma tendência de diminuição (p = 0,023) no consumo de fluoroquinolonas com uma mediana de uso de 29,13 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre. A taxa de resistência de K. pneumoniae foi sincronizada com os consumos de BIBLI e carbapenem com coeficiente de correlação de 0,893 (p = 0,012) e 0,951 (p = 0,016), respectivamente. A análise de correlação cruzada contra o consumo de BIBLI e K. pneumoniae resistente ao meropenem atingiu o pico no intervalo de 0 quarto (r = 951, p = 0,016). Houve uma tendência de aumento no consumo de BLBLI e carbapenêmicos. A tendência crescente nas taxas de resistência a piperacilina/tazobactam, em linha com o consumo crescente de BLBLI, sugere que BLBLI deve ser usado com cautela e não pode ser considerado diretamente como alternativa de longo prazo aos carbapenêmicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242703, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285636

ABSTRACT

Abstract Oral diseases caused by various microorganisms are common around the world. Scientific research has now been focusing on novel medicines to overcome bacterial resistance and antibiotics side effects; therefore, the current study was designed to assess the efficacy of certain antibiotics, toothpaste, and medicinal plant extracts (Ajuga bracteosa and Curcuma longa) versus the bacterial pathogens isolated from the human oral cavity. A total of 130 samples were collected from Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan, among those 27 species isolated, and eight bacterial species were identified from the samples. Among all the bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus (29.62%) and Proteus mirabilis (22.2%) were found to be more prevalent oral pathogens. In comparison, the least pervasive microbes were Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. The study also suggested that dental problems were more prevalent in males (41-50 years of age) than females. Among the eight antibiotics used in the study, the most promising results were shown by Foxicillin against A. hydrophila. The survey of TP1 revealed that it showed more potent antagonist activity against Proteus vulgaris as compared TP2 and TP3 that might be due to the high content of fluoride. The Curcuma longa showed more significant activity than Ajuga bracteosa (Stem, leaves and root) extracts. The data obtained through this study revealed that antibiotics were more effective for oral bacterial pathogens than toothpaste and plant extracts which showed moderate and low activity, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that the active compounds in individual medicinal plants like Curcuma longa and Ajuga bracteosa could replace the antibiotics when used in daily routine as tooth cleansers or mouth rinses.


Resumo As doenças bucais causadas por vários microrganismos são comuns em todo o mundo. A pesquisa científica agora tem se concentrado em novos medicamentos para superar a resistência bacteriana e os efeitos colaterais dos antibióticos; portanto, o presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar a eficácia de certos antibióticos, pasta de dente e extratos de plantas medicinais (Ajuga bracteosa e Curcuma longa) contra os patógenos bacterianos isolados da cavidade oral humana. No total, 130 amostras foram coletadas do Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Paquistão, entre essas, 27 espécies foram isoladas e oito espécies bacterianas foram identificadas a partir das amostras. Entre todas as espécies bacterianas, Staphylococcus aureus (29.62%) e Proteus mirabilis (22.2%) foram os patógenos orais mais prevalentes. Em comparação, os micróbios menos difundidos foram Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli e Aeromonas hydrophila. O estudo também sugeriu que os problemas dentários eram mais prevalentes em homens (41-50 anos de idade) do que em mulheres. Entre os oito antibióticos usados ​​no estudo, os resultados mais promissores foram mostrados pelo Foxicillin contra A. hydrophila. A pesquisa de TP1 revelou que ele mostrou atividade antagonista mais potente contra Proteus vulgaris em comparação a TP2 e TP3, o que pode ser devido ao alto teor de flúor. A Curcuma longa apresentou atividade mais significativa em relação aos extratos de Ajuga bracteosa (caule, folhas e raiz). Os dados obtidos neste estudo revelaram que os antibióticos foram mais eficazes para os patógenos bacterianos orais do que os dentifrícios e os extratos vegetais que apresentaram atividade moderada e baixa, respectivamente. Portanto, sugere-se que os compostos ativos em plantas medicinais individuais como Curcuma longa e Ajuga bracteosa possam substituir os antibióticos quando usados ​​na rotina diária como limpadores de dentes ou enxaguatórios bucais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Toothpastes , Fluorides , Pakistan , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245807, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285613

ABSTRACT

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Resumo Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Flax , Diabetes Mellitus , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms , Methanol
8.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(2): 1-11, 2022-05-19. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393021

ABSTRACT

Background: Methicillin resistance and biofilm-producing Staphylococci are emerging as multidrug-resistant strains narrowing the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy. Although vancomycin is used as the drug of choice to treat such isolates, different studies worldwide have documented the emergence of strains that are intermediately susceptible or resistant to this antibiotic. Objective: The study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin to methicillin-resistant and biofilm-producing staphylococci isolated from different clinical specimens. Methods: 375 staphylococci isolated from different clinical specimens over one year were included in the study. Biofilm formation was determined by the Tissue culture plate method (TCP), and ica genes were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Antibiotic susceptibility and methicillin resistance were done following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin in all isolates was determined by the agar dilution method. Results:Among 375 Staphylococci studied, 43% and 57% represented S. aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CNS), respectively. The rate of Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) were 81.4% and 66.8% respectively and determined by the disc diffusion method. The most potential antibiotics were tetracycline and chloramphenicol showing sensitivity to more than 90% isolates. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value of oxacillin for staphylococci ranged from 0.125-32 µg/ml. Oxacillin agar diffusion method showed 51.6% and 79.9% isolates as MRSA and MRCNS, respectively, revealing a very high percentage of S. aureus and CNS isolates as methicillin-resistant. All isolates had susceptible vancomycin MICs that ranged from 0.125-2 µg/ml. Two S. aureus isolated from Central Venous Catheter (CVC) and catheter specimens were detected with intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin. Similarly, three CNS isolated from blood, CVC, and wound/pus (w/p) were intermediately susceptible to vancomycin. Strong biofilm formation was observed in 22.1% of clinical isolates, and the ica gene was detected among 22.9% of isolates. Only one S. aureus detected as a biofilm producer by the TCP method was found to have intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin. Conclusions: The increment in vancomycin MIC among methicillin-resistant and biofilm-producing staphylococci is alarming. Strict control measures to prevent methicillin-resistant isolates spread and routine surveillance for vancomycin-resistant isolates must be incorporated in hospitals to prevent antimicrobial treatment failure


Antecedentes: Los estafilococos resistentes a la meticilina y productores de biopelículas están surgiendo como cepas multirresistentes que reducen la eficacia del tratamiento antimicrobiano. Aunque la vancomicina se utiliza como fármaco de elección para tratar dichos aislados, diferentes estudios realizados en todo el mundo han documentado la aparición de cepas intermedias susceptibles o resistentes a este antibiótico. Objetivo: El estudio tenía como objetivo determinar la concentración mínima inhibitoria de la vancomicina para los estafilococos resistentes a la meticilina y productores de biofilm aislados de diferentes muestras clínicas. Métodos: Se incluyeron en el estudio 375 estafilococos aislados de diferentes muestras clínicas durante un año. La formación de biopelículas se determinó mediante el método de la placa de cultivo de tejidos (TCP), y los genes ica se identificaron mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). La susceptibilidad a los antibióticos y la resistencia a la meticilina se realizaron siguiendo las directrices del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). La concentración inhibitoria mínima (MIC) de vancomicina en todos los aislados se determinó por el método de dilución en agar. Resultados:Entre los 375 estafilococos estudiados, el 43% y el 57% representaban S. aureus y estafilococos coagulasa-negativos (ECN), respectivamente. La tasa de S. aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM) y de estafilococos coagulasa negativos resistentes a la meticilina (ECNM) fue del 81,4% y el 66,8%, respectivamente, y se determinó por el método de difusión de discos. Los antibióticos más potenciales fueron la tetraciclina y el cloranfenicol, que mostraron una sensibilidad superior al 90% de los aislados. El valor de la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) de la oxacilina para los estafilococos osciló entre 0,125-32 µg/ml. El método de difusión en agar de la oxacilina mostró que el 51,6% y el 79,9% de los aislados eran SARM y MRCNS, respectivamente, lo que revela que un porcentaje muy elevado de los aislados de S. aureus y CNS son resistentes a la meticilina. Todos los aislados tenían MIC de vancomicina susceptibles que oscilaban entre 0,125-2 µg/ml. Se detectaron dos S. aureus aislados de muestras de catéteres venosos centrales (CVC) y catéteres con una susceptibilidad intermedia a la vancomicina. Del mismo modo, tres S. aureus aislados de sangre, CVC y herida/pus (w/p) fueron intermedianamente susceptibles a la vancomicina. Se observó una fuerte formación de biopelículas en el 22,1% de los aislados clínicos, y se detectó el gen ica en el 22,9% de los aislados. Sólo un S. aureus detectado como productor de biopelículas por el método TCP resultó tener una susceptibilidad intermedia a la vancomicina. Conclusiones: El incremento de la MIC de vancomicina entre los estafilococos resistentes a la meticilina y productores de biofilm es alarmante. Para evitar el fracaso del tratamiento antimicrobiano, deben incorporarse en los hospitales medidas de control estrictas para prevenir la propagación de los aislados resistentes a la meticilina y una vigilancia rutinaria de los aislados resistentes a la vancomicina


Subject(s)
Humans , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Vancomycin Resistance
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 309-322, mayo 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396871

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the evaluation of the antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from seeds and epicarps of Garcinia madruno; as well garcinol, morelloflavone and volkensiflavone isolated from the same species. In the preliminary test of bacterial susceptibility, hexane extracts from seeds and epicarps and the three compounds tested only displayed inhibitory growth effect against Gram-positive bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of extract and compounds ranging from 86.6 to 1253.4 µg/mL. The hemolytic activity was assessed; however, except for the methanol extract from seeds, none of the samples studied induced hemolysis. Thus, our results suggest that extracts and compounds from G. madruno have the potential to be used in the control of pathologies associated to Gram-positive bacteria. This is the first report of the antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of extracts of different polarity obtained from seeds and epicarps of this edible species.


El presente artículo describe la evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana y hemolítica de los extractos de hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etilo y metanol, obtenidos de la semilla y el epicarpio de Garcinia madruno; así como de garcinol, morelloflavona y volkensiflavona; aislados de la misma especie. En el ensayo de susceptibilidad bacteriana, tanto el extracto de hexano obtenido a partir de la semilla y el epicarpio, y los tres compuestos aislados, únicamente mostraron actividad inhibitoria del crecimiento contra bacterias Gram-positivas. La concentración mínima inhibitoria presentó valores entre 86.6 y 1253.4 µg/mL. También se estableció la actividad hemolítica; sin embargo, con excepción del extracto metanólico obtenido a partir de las semillas, ninguna de las muestras evaluadas indujo hemólisis. Por lo tanto, los resultados sugieren que los extractos y compuestos de G. madruno tienen el potencial de ser usados en el control de bacterias Gram-positivas asociadas a diversas patologías. Este es el primer reporte de actividad antimicrobiana y hemolítica de extractos de diferente polaridad obtenidos de las semillas y epicarpios de esta especie comestible.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Garcinia/chemistry , Hemolytic Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Bacteria/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biflavonoids/analysis
10.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(2): 1-9, 2022-05-19. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Propolis has been considered a highly valuable material due to its therapeutic properties. However, in Colombia, the commercialization of propolis is limited not only by low production but also by the little knowledge about its efficient extraction. Therefore, finding an optimal and economical extraction method to obtain propolis is a necessity for beekeepers that would open new possibilities for industrial use and, therefore, for the market. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study was to evaluate a conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction method, seeking to obtain the highest yield and a high amount of content of bioactive compounds in propolis extracts. METHODS: The extraction was carried out for three crude propolis from different types of bees: Tetragoniscaangustula or Angelita (ANG), Meliponaeburnea or Melipona(MEL), and Scaptotrigonaspp (SCT). The extracts were characterized by color, pH, visual appearance, solid content, antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol content, and bacterial inhibition capacity. RESULTS: The highest extraction performance was obtained when the ultrasound-assisted method was used, especially for the ANG extract, which in addition to presenting inhibition for gram-negative (E. coli) and gram-positive (S. Aureus) bacteria, had the best antioxidant activity with a value of 545 mg GAE / 100 g of sample and total polyphenol content of 1,884 mg GAE / 100 g of sample. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-assisted extraction can be considered a low-cost alternative to increase the extraction performance of crude propolis, together with its total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, without altering its physical properties


ANTECEDENTES: El propóleos ha sido considerado un material de alto valor por sus propiedades terapéuticas. Sin embargo, en Colombia la comercialización de propóleos está limitada no solo por la baja producción sino también por el incipiente conocimiento sobre la extracción eficiente de este. Por ello, encontrar un método de extracción óptimo y económico para la obtención de propóleos es una necesidad para los apicultores que abriría nuevas posibilidades para el uso industrial y por tanto para el mercado. OBJETIVOS: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar un método de extracción convencional y asistido por ultrasonido (US) buscando el mayor rendimiento y alto contenido de compuestos bioactivos en extractos de propóleos. MÉTODOS: La extracción se realizó para tres propóleos crudos de diferentes tipos de abejas Tetragonisca angustula o Angelita(ANG), Melipona eburnea o Melipona (MEL) y Scaptotrigona spp (SCT). Todos los extractos se caracterizaron por su color, pH, apariencia visual, contenido de sólidos, capacidad antioxidante, contenido total de polifenoles y capacidad de inhibición bacteriana. RESULTADOS: El mayor rendimiento de extracción se obtuvo cuando se usó el método asistido por ultrasonido y específicamente para el extracto ANG, que además de presentar inhibición para bacterias gram negativas (E. coli) y gram positivas (S. Aureus), tuvo la mejor actividad antioxidante con un valor de 545 mg GAE / 100 g de muestra y contenido total de polifenoles de 1884 mg GAE / 100 g de muestra. CONCLUSIONES: La extracción asistida por ultrasonido puede considerarse una alternativa de bajo costo para aumentar el rendimiento de extracción del propóleos crudo, así como su contenido total de polifenoles y capacidad antioxidante sin alterar sus propiedades físicas


Subject(s)
Humans , Propolis/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ultrasonics , Bees , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 109-116, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388342

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Existe un incremento de las infecciones por Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a carbapenémicos (KPRC) en la población pediátrica y los datos epidemiológicos son limitados. OBJETIVOS: Conocer la frecuencia de KPRC en pacientes pediátricos, determinar la actividad in vitro de colistina y detectar el gen mcr-1 en dichos aislados. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 220 aislados de K. pneumoniae en un hospital pediátrico durante los años 2018 y 2019. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se determinó por microdilución en caldo según CLSI y EUCAST. Los genes blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48 y mcr-1 se analizaron mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC). RESULTADOS: El 9,5% (n: 21) de los aislados fueron caracterizados como KPRC, donde se observó una resistencia a colistina de 47,6% (10/21) con valores de CIM50 de 2 μg/mL y CIM90 de > 4 μg/mL. En todos los aislados de KPRC se caracterizó el gen blaKPC y no se detectó el gen mcr-1. El perfil de resistencia observado en otros antimicrobianos fue el siguiente: gentamicina 100% (n: 21), ciprofloxacina 100% (n: 21), cotrimoxazol 100% (n: 21) y amikacina 19% (n: 4). Se observó 100% de sensibilidad a tigeciclina y ceftazidima/avibactam. CONCLUSIÓN: Este estudio demuestra un valor significativo de la resistencia a colistina en comparación a ceftazidima/avibactam y tigeciclina.


BACKGROUND: There is an increase of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infections in the pediatric population and epidemiological data are limited. Aim: To calculate the frequency of CRKP in pediatric patients, to determine the in vitro activity of colistin and to detect the presence of mcr-1 gene in said isolates. METHODS: 220 isolates of K. pneumoniae were studied in a pediatric hospital between January 2018 and December 2019. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by microdilution in broth according to guidelines of CLSI and EUCAST. The genes blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48 and mcr-1 were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: 9.5% (n: 21) of the isolates were characterized as CRKP, where was observed a resistance to colistin of 47.6% (10/21) with values of MIC50 of 2 μg/mL and MIC90 of ≥ 4 μg/mL. In 100% of CRKP strains the blaKPC gene was detected and the mcr-1 gene was not found. The resistance profile to other antimicrobials was as follow: gentamicin 100% (n: 21), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 100% (n: 21), ciprofloxacin 100% (n: 21), amikacin 19% (n: 4). All of the isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime/avibactam and tigecycline. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a significant value of resistance to colistin in pediatric patients compared to other last line antimicrobial such as ceftazidime/avibactam and tigecycline.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Argentina , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Ceftazidime , Colistin/pharmacology , Tigecycline , Hospitals, Pediatric , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): 7-13, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388326

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El uso de antimicrobianos es el principal factor de resistencia bacteriana. OBJETIVO: Determinar el consumo de antimicrobianos en instituciones de salud de Santiago de Cali entre 2013 y 2020. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se empleó la Dosis Diaria Definida por 100 camas-día. Se definieron como criterios de inclusión las instituciones que tuvieran como mínimo 9 reportes anuales y que el reporte fuese superior a 95%. En este caso quedaron incluidas 10 instituciones. RESULTADOS: El consumo en Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) fue mayor que en servicios diferentes a UCI. Se consumió más ceftriaxona e imipenem en servicios diferentes a UCI, mientras que meropenem, piperacilina/tazobactam y vancomicina lo fueron en UCI. En servicios diferentes a UCI, dos instituciones aumentaron el consumo para ceftriaxona, ciprofloxacina y piperacilina/tazobactam y una para vancomicina, mientras que en UCI en una institución el consumo aumentó para piperacilina/tazobactam. CONCLUSIÓN: El sistema brindó herramientas de vigilancia prospectiva que mostraron necesidades de intervención en instituciones.


BACKGROUND: The use of antibiotics is the main factor of microbial resistance. Aim: To determine the consumption of antibiotics in health care institutions in Santiago de Cali between 2013 and 2020. METHODS: The methodology of the Defined Daily Dose per 100 beddays was employed. Institutions that had at least 9 annual reports and that the report is greater than 95% were defined as inclusion criteria. In this case, 10 institutions were included. RESULTS: Consumption in Intensive Care Units (ICU) was higher than in other units. Ceftriaxone and imipenem were more consumed in units other than ICU, whereas meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin were more consumed in the ICU. In units other than ICU, two institutions increased the consumption of ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/tazobactam and one the consumption of vancomycin, whereas in the ICU, one institution increased the consumption of piperacillin/tazobactam. The endemic range identified that vancomycin located itself in the epidemic zone in one institution. CONCLUSION: The system provided tools for prospective surveillance that showed the need for intervention in institutions.


Subject(s)
Vancomycin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Colombia , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination , Intensive Care Units
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 142-146, Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365338

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The vast majority of patients who hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are given empirical antibiotic therapy. However, information on the frequency, microorganism species, and resistance rates of secondary bacterial infections in coronavirus disease 2019 patients are insufficient. We aimed to show the frequency of secondary infections and resistance conditions in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalized in the intensive care unit. METHODS: The results of tracheal aspirate culture, blood culture, and urine culture obtained from coronavirus disease 2019 patients - at least 2 days after their admission to the intensive care unit - were examined microbiologically. RESULTS: A total of 514 patients hospitalized in intensive care unit were included in our study. Tracheal aspirate, blood, or urine cultures were collected from 369 patients (71.8%). Bacterial reproduction was detected in at least one sample in 171 (33.3%) of all patients. The rate of respiratory tract infection and/or bloodstream infection was found to be 21%. Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in tracheal aspirate culture; Coagulase-negative staphylococci, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii in blood culture; and Escherichia coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis in urine culture were the most common microorganisms. A. baumannii was resistant to most antibiotics except colistin and P. aeruginosa strains were resistant to most antibiotics except amikacin, colistin, cefepime, and imipenem. In K. pneumoniae, the highest meropenem sensitivity (73%) was observed; there was a strong resistance to most of the remaining antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: We think that our study can be useful in choosing empirical antibiotic therapy in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and reducing the mortality that may occur with secondary infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter baumannii , Coinfection , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 81-93, ene. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372383

ABSTRACT

Escherichia coli is a pathogen associated with infections in piglets in the post-weaning phase, its pathogenicity is related to the animal's susceptibility to bacterial enterotoxins. The objective of the present study was to determine the EOs activity against E. colistrain, in the form planktonic and sessile. Although the Disc-Diffusion tests to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, do not fully corroborate with the other analyzes of this study, it was noticed bacteria inhibition. The EOs were prepared at 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.0% for tests. The tested EOs were effective against E. coliplanktonic cells (p<0.05). As for the sessile cells, the most significant result was inhibition and 100% sessile cells at the concentration of 1.0% of Cymbopogon citratusEO. Although there was resistance in some treatments, the tested EOs demonstrated inhibition capacity, constituting promising alternatives for the control of E. coli, especially of planktonic cells.


Escherichia coli es un patógeno asociado con infecciones en lechones en la fase posterior al destete, su patogenicidad está relacionada con la susceptibilidad del animal a las enterotoxinas bacterianas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la actividad de contra E. coli, en la forma planctónico y sésil. Aunque las pruebas de difusión de disco para determinar la concentración inhibitoria mínima, no corroboran completamente con los otros análisis de este estudio, se observó inhibición de la bacteria. Las soluciones basadas en AE se prepararon al 0.4%, 0.8% y 1.0% para pruebas. Los AEs probados fueron efectivos contra las células planctónicas (p<0.05). En cuanto a las células sésiles, el resultado más significativo fue la inhibición y el 100% de las células sésiles a la concentración de 1,0% de Cymbopogon citratus. Aunque hubo resistencia en algunos tratamientos, los AEs probados demostraron capacidad de inhibición, constituyendo alternativas prometedoras para el control de E. coli, especialmente de células planctónicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Swine , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms/drug effects , Ocimum basilicum , Cymbopogon , Diarrhea/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/cytology , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
15.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 123-130, ene. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372547

ABSTRACT

The genus Fuchsia is generally used in herbal preparations to treat conditions caused by microorganisms. Based on the popular use of this type of plants, the objective of this study was to obtain sequential extracts of increasing polarity from the branches of Fuchsia lycioides by maceration at room temperature and by the Soxhlet method at 60ºC, to later evaluate the antifungal capacity of the extracts against different clinical isolates of the Candida genus. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited strong anti-fungal activity, selectively inhibiting C. albicans strains with MIC and CMF values of 10 and 15 µg/mL, respectively; comparable with the drug itraconazole®. The analysis of the extract by GC-MS showed a high concentration of terpenoids (mainly phytol) and phenylpropanoids (mainly cinnamic acid), possibly responsible for the antifungal activity of the ethyl acetate extract of F. lycioides.


El género Fuchsia se usa generalmente en preparaciones de hierbas para tratar afecciones provocadas por microorganismos. En base al uso popular de este tipo de plantas, el objetivo de este estudio fue obtener los extractos secuenciales de polaridad creciente de las ramas de Fuchsia lycioides por maceración a temperatura ambiente y por el método Soxhlet a 60ºC, para luego evaluar la capacidad antifúngica de los extractos frente a diferentes aislados clínicos del genero Candida. El extracto de acetato de etilo exhibió una fuerte actividad antifúngica inhibiendo en forma selectiva las cepas de C. albicans con valores de CMI y de CMF de 10 y 15 µg/mL, respectivamente; comparables con el fármaco itraconazol®. El análisis del extracto por CG-EM mostró una alta concentración de terpenoides (principalmente fitol) y fenilpropanoides (principalmente ácido cinámico), posibles responsables de la actividad antifúngica del extracto de acetato de etilo de F. lycioides.


Subject(s)
Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Onagraceae/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Phenylpropionates/analysis , Temperature , Terpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
16.
Ghana Medical Journal ; 56(3): 176-184, )2022. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398774

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To estimate patient treatment cost of oral diseases in Ghana Design: A cross-sectional study design using cost-of-illness analysis was employed Setting: The study was conducted at the dental unit of the University of Ghana Hospital, Legon Participants: About185 patients attending the dental unit of the hospital were selected Interventions: None Main outcome measures: Direct medical and non-medical costs, indirect costs, and intangible costs of treatment of oral conditions Results: The estimated average cost of treatment for oral diseases was US$ 35.75. The total cost was US$ 6,614.11, with the direct and indirect costs constituting 94.5% and 5.5%, respectively of the total cost. Direct medical costs constituted 86.9%, while direct non-medical costs constituted 13.1% of the total direct cost. The richer socio-economic group had the highest cost per quintile, with a mean of US$ 46.69. The intangible cost described was highest for pain (47.1%), followed by difficulty in eating (40.8%) and sleeping (34.6%) for both men and women. Conclusion: The costs of oral diseases are huge and cannot be overlooked. Oral diseases also pose significant productivity losses to patients


Subject(s)
Direct Service Costs , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Disease , Analysis of Situation , Substance Abuse, Oral , Health Services Accessibility , Statistics as Topic , Ghana
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e256409, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350298

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this research, some plant seeds powder was evaluated to find their potential effect to rule diseases of food poisoning. Antimicrobial effect of five plant seeds was examined contra Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella. pneumonia and Candida albicans by using well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity studies revealed high potential activity of plant seeds powder of Nigella sativa L., cucurbita pepo, Sesamum radiatum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Linum usitatissimum with variable efficiency contra tested microbial strains with concentration of 100 mg/ml, except Sesamum radiatum scored no effect. The T. foenum and N. sativa seed powder showed the largest inhibition zone (24-20 mm) contra K. pneumonia, followed by S. aureus (20-18 mm) and C. albicans (15mm) respectively. The five plant seeds powder exhibited bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects with MIC's 20 and MBC 40 mg/ml against K. pneumonia, and MIC's 40 and MBC 60 mg/ml against S. aureus. The results of this study indicated that plants seeds powder have promising antimicrobial activities and their potential applications in food process. It could be utilized as a natural medicinal alternative instead of chemical substance.


Resumo Nesta pesquisa, o pó de sementes de plantas foi avaliado para encontrar seu efeito potencial no controle de doenças de intoxicação alimentar. O efeito antimicrobiano de cinco sementes de plantas foi examinado contra Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia e Candida albicans usando o método de difusão bem. Estudos de atividade antimicrobiana revelaram alto potencial de atividade de sementes de plantas em pó de Nigella sativa L., Cucurbita pepo, Sesamum radiatum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Linum usitatissimum com eficiência variável contra cepas microbianas testadas com concentração de 100 mg / ml, exceto Sesamum radiatum com pontuação não efeito. O pó de sementes de T. foenum e N. sativa apresentou a maior zona de inibição (24-20 mm) contra K. pneumonia, seguido por S. aureus (20-18 mm) e C. albicans (15 mm), respectivamente. O pó de cinco sementes de plantas exibiu efeitos bacteriostáticos e bactericidas com MIC's 20 e MBC 40 mg / ml contra K. pneumonia, enquanto MIC's 40 e MBC 60 mg / ml contra S. aureus. Os resultados deste estudo indicaram que os pós de sementes de plantas apresentam promissoras atividades antimicrobianas e suas potenciais aplicações em processos alimentícios. Ele poderia ser utilizado como alternativa medicinal natural em vez de substância química.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus , Foodborne Diseases , Seeds , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242301, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285599

ABSTRACT

Abstract Green synthesis of ‏silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is an ecofriendly, cost-effective and promising approach for discovery of novel therapeutics. The aim of the current work was to biogenic synthesize, characterize AgNPs using seed extracts of three economically important varieties of date palm (Iklas, Irziz and Shishi), and assess their anti-pathogenic bacterial activities. AgNPs were synthesised then characterised using electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analyses. The bactericidal activities of AgNPs against five different bacterial pathogens, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, were determined in vitro. In particular, changes in membrane integrity of virulent bacterial strains in response to AgNPs were investigated. Results of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase activity assays, and measurement of membrane potential revealed that the cytotoxic effects of the AgNPs were mainly centred on the plasma membrane of bacterial cells, leading to loss of its integrity and eventually cell death. In conclusion, green synthesis of AgNPs is an efficient, cost-effective and promising strategy to combat virulent antibiotic-resistant strains.


Resumo A síntese verde de nanopartículas de prata (AgNPs) é uma abordagem ecologicamente correta, econômica e promissora para a descoberta de novas terapêuticas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi sintetizar biogênica, caracterizar AgNPs usando extratos de sementes de três variedades economicamente importantes de tamareira (Iklas, Irziz e Shishi) e avaliar suas atividades bacterianas antipatogênicas. AgNPs foram sintetizados e caracterizados usando microscopia eletrônica e análise de infravermelho por transformada de Fourier. As atividades bactericidas de AgNPs contra cinco diferentes patógenos bacterianos, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina e Streptococcus pneumoniae, foram determinadas in vitro. Em particular, foram investigadas alterações na integridade da membrana de cepas bacterianas virulentas em resposta a AgNPs. Os resultados da lactato desidrogenase, dos ensaios da atividade da fosfatase alcalina e da medição do potencial de membrana revelaram que os efeitos citotóxicos dos AgNPs estavam principalmente centrados na membrana plasmática das células bacterianas, levando à perda de sua integridade e, eventualmente, à morte celular. A síntese verde de AgNPs é uma estratégia eficiente, econômica e promissora para combater cepas virulentas resistentes a antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Metal Nanoparticles , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Phoeniceae , Silver , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239991, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278503

ABSTRACT

Abstract High resistance to antimicrobials is associated with biofilm formation responsible for infectious microbes to withstand severe conditions. Therefore, new alternatives are necessary as biofilm inhibitors to control infections. In this study, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of Fagonia indica extracts were evaluated against MDR clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica has antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-1 against multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica had antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-1 against MDR isolates. The maximum inhibitory effects of Fagonia indica chloroform extract on biofilm formation was observed on Staphylococcus aureus (71.84%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (70.83%) after 48 hrs showing that inhibition is also time dependent. Our results about bacterial cell protein leakage indicated that MDR isolates treated with chloroform extract of Fagonia indica showed maximum protein leakage of K. pneumoniae (59.14 µg mL-1) followed by S. aureus (56.7 µg mL-1). Cell attachment assays indicated that chloroform extract resulted in a 43.5-53.5% inhibition of cell adherence to a polystyrene surface. Our results revealed that extracts of Fagonia indica significantly inhibited biofilm formation among MDR clinical isolates, therefore, could be applied as antimicrobial agents and cost effective biofilm inhibitor against these MDR isolates.


Resumo A alta resistência aos antimicrobianos está associada à formação de biofilme responsável por micróbios infecciosos para suportar condições severas. Portanto, novas alternativas são necessárias como inibidores de biofilme para controlar infecções. Neste estudo, as atividades antimicrobiana e antibiofilme dos extratos de Fagonia indica foram avaliadas contra isolados clínicos MDR. O extrato exibiu seu efeito antibiofilme ao alterar a aderência e a desintegração da parede celular bacteriana. Fagonia indica tem efeito antibacteriano com valores de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) variando de 125 a 500 µg mL-1, e valor de concentração bactericida mínima (MBC) de 500-3000 µg mL-1 contra isolados clínicos multirresistentes (MDR). O extrato exibiu seu efeito antibiofilme ao alterar a aderência e a desintegração da parede celular bacteriana. Fagonia indica teve efeito antibacteriano com valores de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) variando de 125 a 500 µg mL-1, e concentração bactericida mínima (MBC) de 500-3000 µg mL-1 contra isolados MDR. Os efeitos inibitórios máximos do extrato de clorofórmio Fagonia indica na formação de biofilme foi observada em Staphylococcus aureus (71,84%), seguido por Klebsiella pneumoniae (70,83%) após 48 horas, mostrando que a inibição também é dependente do tempo. Nossos resultados sobre extravasamento de proteínas de células bacterianas indicaram que isolados MDR tratados com extrato clorofórmico de Fagonia indica apresentaram vazamento máximo de proteínas de K. pneumoniae (59,14 µg mL-1), seguido por S. aureus (56,7 µg mL-1). Ensaios de fixação de células indicaram que o extrato de clorofórmio resultou em uma inibição de 43,5-53,5% da aderência das células a uma superfície de poliestireno. Nossos resultados revelaram que extratos de Fagonia indica inibiram significativamente a formação de biofilme entre isolados clínicos MDR, portanto, poderiam ser aplicados como agentes antimicrobianos e inibidores de biofilme de baixo custo contra esses isolados MDR.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Bacteria , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239868, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278494

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fluoroquinolones are important antimicrobial agents for the treatment of Pseudomonas infections. A total of 11 isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from different clinical samples from different medical centers in the North West Bank-Palestine during 2017. In this study, resistance to fluoroquinolones and secretions of β-lactamases were detected by phenotypic methods, while presence of β-lactamase gene sequences and other virulence factors were detected by PCR technique. PCR product for gyrA, parC and parE genes were sequenced for further analyses. The phylogenetic analyses, population diversity indices and haplotypes determination were conducted using computer programs MEGA version 6, DnaSP 5.1001 and median-joining algorithm in the program Network 5, respectively. Results of this study showed that the MIC for ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin had a range of 32-256 µg/ml. In addition, all isolates carried either exoT or exoT and exoY genes, different β-lactamase genes and 82% of these isolates harbored class 1 integrons. Analyses of the gyrA, parC and parE sequences were found to be polymorphic, had high haplotype diversity (0.945-0.982), low nucleotide diversity (0.01225-0.02001) and number of haplotypes were 9 for each gyrA and parE genes and 10 haplotypes for parC gene. The founder haplotypes being Hap-1 (18%), Hap-2 (27.3%) and Hap-6 (9.1%) for gyrA, parC and parE genes, respectively. Two of ParE haplotypes were detected as indel haplotypes. The Median-joining- (MJ) networks constructed from haplotypes of these genes showed a star-like expansion. The neutrality tests (Tajima's D test and Fu's Fs test) for these genes showed negative values. Palestinian fluoroquinolone resistant P. aeruginosa strains showed high MIC level for fluoroquinolones, β-lactamase producers, carried type III secretion exotoxin-encoding genes, most of them had integrase I gene and had high level of mutations in QRDR regions in gyrA, parC and parE genes. All these factors may play an important role in the invasiveness of these strains and make them difficult to treat. Isolation of these strains from different medical centers, indicate the need for a strict application of infection control measures in Medical centers in the North West Bank-Palestine that aim to reduce expense and damage caused by P. aeruginosa infections. Molecular analyses showed that Palestinian fluoroquinolone resistant P. aeruginosa haplotypes are not genetically differentiated; however, more mutations may exist in these strains.


Resumo Fluoroquinolonas são agentes antimicrobianos importantes para o tratamento de infecções por Pseudomonas. Um total de 11 bacilos isolados de P. aeruginosa foram coletados de diferentes amostras clínicas provenientes de diferentes centros médicos na Cisjordânia-Palestina durante o ano de 2017. Neste estudo, resistência a fluoroquinolonas e secreções de β-lactamases foram detectadas por métodos fenotípicos, enquanto a presença de sequências do gene β-lactamase e outros fatores de virulência foram detectados pela técnica de PCR (Proteína C-reativa). O produto de PCR para os genes gyrA, parC e parE foram sequenciados para análises posteriores. As análises filogenéticas, os índices de diversidade populacional e a determinação de haplótipos foram realizados utilizando os softwares MEGA versão 6, DnaSP 5.1001 e o algoritmo de junção de mediana do programa Network 5, respectivamente. Os resultados deste estudo mostraram que a MIC para ciprofloxacina e norfloxacina tinha um intervalo de 32-256 µg/ml. Além disso, todos os bacilos isolados carregavam genes exoT ou exoT e exoY, genes de β-lactamase diferentes e 82% desses isolados continham integrons de classe 1. As análises das sequências gyrA, parC e parE foram consideradas polimórficas, com alta diversidade de haplótipos (0,945-0,982), baixa diversidade de nucleotídeos (0,01225-0,02001) e o número de haplótipos foi de 9 para cada gene de gyrA e parE e 10 haplótipos para o gene parC. Os haplótipos fundadores são Hap-1 (18%), Hap-2 (27,3%) e Hap-6 (9,1%) para os genes gyrA, parC e parE, respectivamente. Dois dos haplótipos parE foram detectados como haplótipos InDel. As redes Median-joining (MJ) construídas a partir de haplótipos desses genes mostraram uma expansão semelhante à de uma estrela. Os testes de neutralidade (teste D de Tajima e teste Fs de Fu) para esses genes apresentaram valores negativos. As cepas palestinas de P. aeruginosa resistentes a fluoroquinolonas mostraram alto nível de MIC para fluoroquinolonas, produtores de β-lactamase, genes codificadores de exotoxina de secreção tipo III, a maioria deles tinha o gene integrase I e tinha alto nível de mutações nas regiões QRDR nos genes gyrA, parC e parE. Todos esses fatores podem desempenhar um papel importante na invasão dessas cepas e torná-las difíceis de tratar. O isolamento dessas cepas em diferentes centros médicos, indica a necessidade de uma aplicação estrita de medidas de controle de infecção em centros médicos da Cisjordânia-Palestina que visam reduzir despesas e danos causados ​​por infecções por P. aeruginosa. As análises moleculares mostraram que os haplótipos de P. aeruginosa resistentes à fluoroquinolona palestina não são geneticamente diferenciados; no entanto, mais mutações podem existir nessas cepas.


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , DNA Topoisomerase IV/genetics , Mutation
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