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1.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(3): 175-170, jul. 29, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1283003

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Salmonella enterica serotipo Typhi se han modificado globalmente durante las últimas tres décadas. Objetivo. Describir los patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de las cepas de Salmonella enterica Typhi, aisladas en El Salvador de enero 2017 a junio 2020. Metodología. Evaluación secundaria de las bases de datos del Laboratorio Nacional de Salud Pública, de los aislamientos de Salmonella enterica Typhi con sus respectivos antibiogramas, de muestras de pacientes que adolecieron de fiebre tifoidea en El Salvador, de enero 2017 a junio 2020. Resultados. 1406 aislamientos de Salmonella enterica Typhi fueron reportados. El 100 % de los aislamientos analizados presentó susceptibilidad a la ceftriaxona y a la azitromicina. El 99,9 % de los aislamientos analizados presentó susceptibilidad a la ampicilina, al cloranfenicol, a la tetraciclina y al trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol. Para ciprofloxacina, se detectó susceptibilidad en el 8,5% de las cepas analizadas, susceptibilidad intermedia en el 91,5% y resistencia en el 0,08 %. Conclusión. Los hallazgos son compatibles con lo reportado a nivel mundial: el desarrollo rápido de susceptibilidad intermedia o resistencia a la ciprofloxacina, una vez esta es adoptada como el tratamiento de elección para la fiebre tifoidea. En El Salvador, los antibióticos antes considerados como de primera línea contra Salmonella enterica Typhi, deben ser reciclados


Introduction. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi have been modified globally for the past three decades. Target. Describe the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella enterica Typhi strains, isolated in El Salvador from January 2017 to June 2020. Methodology. Secondary assessment from the databases of the National Public Health Laboratory, of the isolates of Salmonella enterica Typhi with their respective antibiograms, of samples of patients who suffered from typhoid fever in El Salvador, from January 2017 to June 2020. Results. 1406 isolates of Salmonella enterica Typhi were reported. 100% of the isolations analyzed showed susceptibility to ceftriaxone and azithromycin. 99.9% of the isolates analyzed presented susceptibility to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. For ciprofloxacin, detected susceptibility in 8.5% of the strains analyzed, intermediate susceptibility in 91.5% and resistance in the 0.08%. Conclution. The findings are consistent with what has been reported worldwide: the rapid development of susceptibility intermediate or resistance to ciprofloxacin, once it is adopted as the treatment of choice for typhoid fever. In El Salvador, antibiotics previously considered first-line against Salmonella enterica Typhi, must be recycled


Subject(s)
Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Salmonella enterica , Laboratories , Public Health , Disease Susceptibility
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 260-269, may. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342820

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to undertake a screening experiment on essential oils (EO) of Myrcia lundiana, Ocimum basilicum and Lippia alba against six food-spoiling pathogenic bacteria. Seventy-two (72) samples were initially analyzed fo antimicrobial activity based on the agar diffusion test. The minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations were determined for the 12 samples which showed greatest antimicrobial potential in this stage. Two samples of L. alba, three samples of M. lundiana and seven samples of O. basilicum showed a MIC of 0.12-125 µL/mL for the six tested bacteria. Of these, the EO of O. basilicum cultivar Maria Bonita stood out with the lowest MIC and MBC. Thus, a mixture simulating this essential oil was prepared from commercial standards of the compounds (±)-linalool, geraniol and 1,8-cineole. Significantly higher MIC and MBC were detected in the simulation compared to the respective EO, suggesting a synergistic effect between compounds.


El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un experimento de detección en aceites esenciales (AE) de Myrcia lundiana, Ocimum basilicum y Lippia alba contra seis bacterias patógenas que estropean los alimentos. Setenta y dos (72) muestras fueron analizadas inicialmente para la actividad antimicrobiana basada en la prueba de difusión en agar. Se determinaron las concentraciones mínimas inhibitoria (CMI) y bactericida (CMB) para las 12 muestras que mostraron el mayor potencial antimicrobiano en esta etapa. Dos muestras de L. alba, tres muestras de M. lundiana y siete muestras de O. basilicum mostraron un CMI de 0.12-125 µL/mL para las seis bacterias analizadas. De estos, el AE de O. basilicum cultivar Maria Bonita se destacó con el CMI y CMB más bajos. Por lo tanto, se preparó una mezcla que simula este aceite esencial a partir de los estándares comerciales de los compuestos de (±)-linalol, geraniol y 1,8-cineol. Se detectaron CMI y CMB significativamente más altos en la simulación en comparación con el AE respectivo, lo que sugiere un efecto sinérgico entre los compuestos.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ocimum basilicum/chemistry , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Food , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 16-22, Mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cecropin P1, acting as an antimicrobial, has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity with some antiviral and antifungal properties. It is a promising natural alternative to antibiotics which is originally isolated from the pig intestinal parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Many studies have shown that Cecropin P1 is helpful for the prevention or treatment of clinical diseases. Therefore, it is very necessary to establish a safe, nontoxic, and efficient expression method of Cecropin P1. RESULTS: The results indicated that the recombinant protein was about 5.5 kDa showed by Tricine­SDS­ PAGE and Western blot. And Cecropin P1 was efficiently secreted and expressed after 12 h of induction, with an increasing yield over the course of the induction. Its maximum concentration was 7.83 mg/L after concentration and purification. In addition, in vitro experiments demonstrated that Cecropin P1 not only exerted a strong inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., and Pasteurella sp., but also displayed an antiviral activity against PRRSV NADC30-Like strain. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the strategy of expressing Cecropin P1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is harmless, efficient, and safe for cells. In addition, the expressed Cecropin P1 has antiviral and antibacterial properties concurrently.


Subject(s)
Peptides/pharmacology , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptides/chemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Recombinant Proteins , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Blotting, Western
4.
Med. infant ; 28(1): 38-42, Marzo 2021. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1283476

ABSTRACT

Últimamente, se están detectando mutaciones en las proteínas ligadoras de penicilina (PBP) de los estreptococos beta-hemolíticos que corresponden a sitios que en Streptococcus pneumoniae han determinado sensibilidad disminuida a los antibióticos beta-lactámicos. Primero, se describieron cepas con sensibilidad intermedia a penicilina en Streptococcus agalactiae (estreptococos del grupo B), luego en Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (mayormente grupos C y G) y, más recientemente, cepas con sensibilidad disminuida a aminopenicilinas y cefalosporinas de tercera generación en Streptococcus pyogenes (grupo A). El costo biológico de estas modificaciones nos permite pensar que los niveles de resistencia no han de ser tan elevados como para comprometer por ahora la efectividad clínica de los beta-lactámicos (AU)


Recently, mutations in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of beta-hemolytic streptococci have been detected corresponding to sites that in Streptococcus pneumoniae have been determined to have decreased sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics. First, strains with intermediate sensitivity to penicillin were described in Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci), subsequently in Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (mainly groups C and G) and, more recently, strains with decreased sensitivity to third-generation aminopenicillins and cephalosporins were found in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A). The biological cost of these modifications suggests that, for now, resistance levels are not high enough to compromise the clinical effectiveness of beta-lactams (AU)


Subject(s)
Streptococcus agalactiae/drug effects , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects , Penicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , beta-Lactam Resistance , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021203, 09 fev. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147180

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The resistance of fungal species to drugs usually used in clinics is of great interest in the medical field. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate susceptibility and in vitro response of species of Trichophyton spp. to antifungal drugs of interest in clinical medicine. METHODS: 12 samples of clinical isolates from humans were used, nine of T. mentagrophytes and three of T. tonsurans. Susceptibility tests were performed according to the agar diffusion (AD) and broth microdilution (BM) methods. RESULTS: In the AD method, the species T. tonsurans presented a percentage of sensitivity of 33% in relation to amphotericin B and 66% to itraconazole, with 100% resistance to ketoconazole and fluconazole. T. mentagrophytes also showed 100% resistance to ketoconazole in this technique, with 11% sensitivity to ketoconazole, 22% to itraconazole and 22% of samples classified as sensitive dose dependent. In the MC method, the species T. tonsurans presented a sensitivity percentage of 66%, 55% and 33% in relation to ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole, respectively. The T. mentagrophytes species presented sensitivity percentages of 11%, 11%, 33% and 55% for amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole and fluconazole, respectively. CONCLUSION: There was resistance in vitro of the species of T. mentagrophytes and T. tonsurans against the antifungal fluconazole and relative resistance against ketoconazole in the AD method. In BM, however, important percentages of sensitivity were observed for the two species analyzed in relation to the antifungals fluconazole and ketoconazole when compared to itraconazole and amphotericin B.


INTRODUÇÃO: A resistência de espécies fúngicas às drogas usualmente empregadas no meio clínico é motivo de grande interesse na área médica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar susceptibilidade e resposta in vitro de espécies de Trichophyton spp. a drogas antifúngicas de interesse em clínica médica. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 12 amostras de isolados clínicos de humanos, sendo nove de T. mentagrophytes e três de T. tonsurans. Foram realizados testes de susceptibilidade segundo os métodos de difusão em ágar (DA) e microdiluição em caldo (MC). RESULTADOS: No método de DA, a espécie T. tonsurans apresentou percentual de sensibilidade de 33% em relação à anfotericina B e de 66% ao itraconazol, com 100% de resistência frente ao cetoconazol e ao fluconazol. A espécie T. mentagrophytes também apresentou 100% de resistência frente ao cetoconazol nesta técnica, com 11% de sensibilidade ao cetoconazol, 22% ao itraconazol e 22% das amostras classificadas como sensível dose dependente. No método de MC, a espécie T. tonsurans apresentou percentual de sensibilidade de 66%, 55% e 33% em relação ao cetoconazol, fluconazol e itraconazol, respectivamente. A espécie T. mentagrophytes apresentou percentuais de sensibilidade de 11%, 11%, 33% e 55% para anfotericina B, itraconazol, cetoconazol e fluconazol, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Houve resistência in vitro das espécies do T. mentagrophytes e T. tonsurans frente ao antifúngico fluconazol e resistência relativa frente ao cetoconazol no método de DA. Na MC, no entanto, foram observados importantes percentuais de sensibilidade das duas espécies analisadas frente aos antifúngicos fluconazol e cetoconazol quando comparadas ao itraconazol e à anfotericina B.


Subject(s)
Trichophyton/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Disease Susceptibility/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Tinea/microbiology , Tinea/drug therapy , Colony Count, Microbial , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): 11-17, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147054

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina adquirido de la comunidad (SARM-AC) se han incrementado en los últimos años. Neumonías necrotizantes y empiemas por SARM-AC son cada vez más frecuentes en niños.Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de neumonías por SARM-AC y sus características clínico-epidemiológicas, en comparación con las neumonías por Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) en la misma población.Material y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, observacional, transversal, de pacientes internados con neumonía por SARM-AC en el Hospital de Niños Víctor J. Vilela (período: 1/2008-12/2017).Resultados. De 54 neumonías por Staphylococcus aureus, 46 (el 85 %) fueron SARM-AC. El índice de neumonías por SARM-AC varió de 4,9/10 000 (2008) a 10/10 000 egresos (2017). Presentaron sepsis/shock séptico el 41 %; empiema, el 96 %; neumotórax, el 35 %; requirieron drenaje pleural el 90 % y toilette quirúrgica el 55 %. Ingresaron a Terapia Intensiva el 65 %; la mitad necesitó asistencia respiratoria mecánica. Hubo dos muertes. Resistencia de las cepas: el 17 % a gentamicina, el 13 % a eritromicina, el 11 % a clindamicina. En las neumonías por SARM-AC vs. las neumonías por SP, se observó mayor riesgo de sepsis (IC 95 %; RR 7,38; 3,32-16,38) e ingreso a Terapia Intensiva (RR 4,29; 2,70-6,83). No hubo muertes por SP.Conclusiones. La prevalencia de neumonías por SARM-AC se duplicó durante la última década. Comparadas con las neumonías por SP, las neumonías por SARM-AC se acompañaron, más frecuentemente, de cuadros de sepsis y shockséptico, ingreso a Terapia Intensiva y asistencia respiratoria.


Introduction. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections have increased in recent years. CA-MRSA necrotizing pneumonia and empyema are now more common in children.Objectives. To determine the prevalence of CA-MRSA pneumonia and its clinical and epidemiological characteristics compared to Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) pneumonia in the same population.Material and methods. Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study of patients hospitalized due to CA-MRSA pneumonia at Hospital de Niños Víctor J. Vilela (period: January 2008-December 2017).Results. Out of 54 Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia cases, 46 (85 %) corresponded to CA-MRSA. The rate of CA-MRSA pneumonia ranged from 4.9/10 000 (2008) to 10/10 000 hospital discharges (2017). Sepsis/septic shock was observed in 41 %; empyema, in 96 %; pneumothorax, in 35 %; 90 % of cases required pleural drainage and 55 %, surgical debridement. Also, 65 % of patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU); half of them required assisted mechanical ventilation. Two patients died. Strain resistance: 17 %, gentamicin; 13 %, erythromycin; and 11 %, clindamycin. Compared to SP pneumonia, CA-MRSA pneumonia showed a higher risk for sepsis (95 % confidence interval; relative risk: 7.38; 3.32-16.38) and admission to the ICU (RR: 4.29; 2.70-6.83). No patient died due to SP pneumonia.Conclusions. The prevalence of CA-MRSA pneumonia doubled in the past decade. Compared to SP pneumonia, CA-MRSA pneumonia was more commonly accompanied by sepsis and septic shock, admission to the ICU, and ventilatory support requirement


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Argentina/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric
7.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 22(4): 448-456, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342108

ABSTRACT

Background: Risk assessment is the means of identifying and evaluating potential errors or problems that may occur in testing process. The aim of this study was to perform risk assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) process in clinical microbiology laboratories of Niamey, Niger Republic. Methodology: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study from October 1 to December 31, 2019, to evaluate AST performance in seven clinical microbiology laboratories at Niamey, the capital city of Niger republic. The evaluation focused on the determination of the criticality index (CI) of each critical point (frequency of occurrence of anomalies, severity of the process anomaly, and detectability of the anomaly during the process) in the AST process and the performance of the AST through an observation sheet using two reference strains; Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. Results: The criticality index (CI) was greater than 6 for most of the critical points related to material, medium, equipment, method and labour for the AST process in all the laboratories. A range of 18-100% errors on the inhibition zone diameters of the reference strains were observed. Major and/or minor categorization (Sensitive S, Intermediate I and Resistance R) discrepancies were found at all the laboratories for either one or both reference strains. The antibiotics most affected by the S/I/R discrepancies were trimethoprim (100%), vancomycin (100%), amoxicillin (80%) and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (70%). Conclusion: This study showed a deficiency in the control of critical control points that impacts the performance of the AST reported by the laboratories in Niger. Corrective actions are needed to improve the performance of AST in clinical microbiology laboratories in Niger


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality Control , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Medical Laboratory Science , Microbiology , Critical Illness , Niger
8.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 22(4): 480-488, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342263

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorder characterized by relative or absolute lack of insulin. When this condition is not properly managed, it can lead to complications that make diabetic patients vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI). The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of microbiologically confirmed UTI and the spectrum of uropathogens in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with clinical features of UTI attending the two tertiary hospitals in Enugu State, Nigeria. Methodology: Clean catch specimen of single mid-stream urine sample was collected from each of 60 (22 males, 38 females) diabetic and 60 (22 males, 38 females) non-diabetic patients enrolled using stratified random sampling method. The samples were cultured on standard microbiological culture media (MacConkey and Blood agar plates) and incubated aerobically at 37◦C for 24 hours. Plates with significant bacteria growth (>105 CFU/ml) were processed further for bacterial identification using conventional biochemical test scheme. Antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) of each isolate to 17 selected antibiotics was performed by the modified disc diffusion method. Results: Of the total 120 patients enrolled, 101 had bacterial pathogens isolated from their voided urine samples; 51 of 60 (85.0%) diabetics and 50 of 60 (83.3%) non-diabetics (p=0.802). Bacteria were isolated in 59.1% (13/22) of diabetic and 54.5% (12/22) of non-diabetic male patients compared to 100% (38/38) isolation rate in diabetic and non-diabetic female patients. The most frequently isolated bacteria in the diabetic patients were Proteus spp (18.6%), Klebsiella spp (16.9%) and Escherichia coli (15.5%) while the most frequently isolated bacteria among the non-diabetic patients were E. coli (30.0%), Proteus spp (26.3%) and Enterobacter spp (14.0%). Apart from Klebsiella spp which was more frequently isolated from the diabetic (16.9%) than non-diabetic patients (6%) (p=0.039), the frequency other bacterial pathogen isolation such as Proteus spp, E. coli, Enterobacter spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp was not significantly different between the two population groups (p>0.05). The Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were highly sensitive to imipenem in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients, but the isolates from both study groups exhibited low susceptibility to amoxicillin, nitrofuran- toin, cefixime and cefuroxime. Conclusion: Although the overall frequency of bacterial pathogen isolation in the diabetic and non-diabetic patients was not significantly different, females had a higher pathogen isolation rate than the males, and diabetic females had a higher frequency of polymicrobial infections compared to non-diabetic females and the male population. The high antimicrobial resistance of the isolated bacteria pathogens underscores the need for clinical microbiology laboratory testings to optimize the management of UTI in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract Infections , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Diabetes Mellitus , Nigeria
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878924

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the cell wall integrity of Candida albicans hypha. The minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) of berberine hydrochloride against clinical and standard C. albicans strains was detected by micro liquid-based dilution method; the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the colony formation of C. albicans SC5314 was investigated by spot assay; the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the metabolism of C. albicans SC5314 hypha was checked by XTT reduction assay, and the viability of C. albicans SC5314 hypha was tested by fluorescent staining assay. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on the morphology of C. albicans SC5314 hypha was examined by scanning electron microscope. The changes in the cell wall of C. albicans SC5314 hypha after berberine hydrochloride treatment were detected by transmission electron microscopy. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on β-glucan from C. albicans SC5314 was detected by flow cytometry. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on hypha-specific gene ECE1 and β-glucan synthase genes FKS1 and FKS2 in C. albicans was examined by qRT-PCR. The results showed that berberine hydrochloride showed a strong inhibitory effect on both clinical and standard strains of C. albicans, and the MIC was 64-128 μg·mL~(-1). Spot assay, XTT redunction assay and fluorescent staining assay showed that with the increase of berberine hydrochloride concentration, the viability of C. albicans SC5314 gradually decreased. The transmission electron microscopy scanning assay showed that this compound could cause cell wall damage of C. albicans. The flow cytometry analysis showed the exposure degree of C. albicans β-glucan. The qRT-PCR further showed that berberine hydrochloride could significantly down-regulate hypha-specific gene ECE1 and β-glucan synthase-related gene FKS1 and FKS2. In conclusion, this compound can down-regulate C. albicans and β-glucan synthase-related gene expressions, so as to destroy the cell wall structure of C. albicans, expose β-glucan and damage the integrity of the wall.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Berberine/pharmacology , Candida albicans/genetics , Cell Wall , Hyphae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e02622020, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143877

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Carbapenemase-resistant enterobacteria that produce the bla NDM gene are found worldwide. However, this is the first report of blaNDM in Klebsiella aerogenes in Brazil. METHODS: The identification of bacterial species was performed using anautomated system and confirmed by biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and detection of resistance genes. RESULTS: The clinical isolate showed minimum inhibitory concentration resistance to meropenem and polymyxin B at 8mg/L and 4mg/L, respectively. Only the blaNDM gene was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The current report of the blaNDM gene in isolated MDR enterobacteria indicates that this gene can spread silently in a hospital setting.


Subject(s)
Enterobacter aerogenes/genetics , Bacterial Proteins , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20190524, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136925

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aac(6')-Ib-cr and bla KPC genes are spreading among Enterobacteriaceae species, including Providencia stuartii, in some countries of world. METHODS: These genes were investigated in 28 P. stuartii isolates from a public hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, by PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: The aac(6')-Ib-cr gene was detected in 16 resistant isolates, and the bla KPC gene was seen in 14. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of these genes in P. stuartii multi- and extensively drug-resistant isolates indicates that the resistance arsenal of this species is increasing, thus limiting the therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Plasmids , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Providencia , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200087, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136920

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In this study, we report a clonal dissemination of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates due to the acquisition of blaOXA-23 in a regional hospital located in Brazilian Amazon Region. METHODS: The isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF and the carbapenemase-encoding genes were detected by multiplex-PCR. The genetic similarity was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: Only 10 (55.6%) isolates harbored the gene bla OXA-23. PFGE analysis revealed that these isolates belong to a single clone. CONCLUSIONS: This dissemination strategy indicates the need for surveillance, adoption of control procedures defined in guidelines, and the careful administration of antimicrobials should be reinforced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Drug Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Molecular Epidemiology , Hospitals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10099, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142582

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to analyze the infection rate and drug resistance of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Mycoplasma hominis (MH) in the genitourinary tract of Chinese patients. From December 2018 to June 2019, vaginal secretion or urinary secretion of outpatients in our hospital were selected for culture and drug sensitivity analysis of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis. In 4082 Chinese samples, 1567 Mycoplasma were detected, a detection rate of 38.39%, among which 1366 cases were UU single positive, accounting for 33.47%, 15 cases were MH single positive, accounting for 0.36%, 186 cases were UU and MH mixed positive, accounting for 4.56%. The most affected age groups were 21-30 years and 31-40 years, accounting for 19.09 and 15.05%, respectively. The results of drug sensitivity showed that doxycycline, minocycline, josamycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin were more sensitive to mycoplasma infection. The distribution of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in the human genitourinary system and their sensitivity to antibiotics is different for sex and age groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Ureaplasma urealyticum/drug effects , Ureaplasma Infections/microbiology , Mycoplasma hominis/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , China , Ureaplasma urealyticum/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma hominis/isolation & purification , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens sampled from the patients with bloodstream infection in the department of hematology of PLA General Hospital, so as to provide evidences for clinical prevention and control infection.@*METHODS@#From January 2014 to December 2017, A total of 286 cases-time positive blood culture samples from 212 patients in the department of hematology of the General Hospital of Chinese PLA were collected. The clinical characteristics of patients and the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens were analyzed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#182(63.64%) bacterial strains were Gram-negative, and the other 104(36.36%) were Gram-positive. There were 88 strains of Escherichia coli(30.77%), 34 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa(11.89%), 26 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae(9.09%), 25 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis(8.74%), 20 strains of Gram-positive rods(6.99%), 16 strains of Staphylococcus hominis(5.59%), 11 strains of Etaphylococcus haemolyticus(3.85%), 10 strains of Staphylococcus aureus(3.50%), 6 strains of Staphylococcus capitis(2.10%), 5 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii(1.75%) and so on. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae as Gram-negative bacteria were sensitive to amikacin. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus as Gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to vancomycin and nitrofurantoin.@*CONCLUSION@#The blood culture patients with bloodstream infection in department of hematology of our hospital confirmed that more infections are Gram-negative. The clinicians should choose suitable antibiotics according to the results of bacterial culture and drug sensitive test.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Hematologic Diseases , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880065

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the characteristics, prognosis and risk factors of bloodstream infection in patients with hematological malignancies in the tropics, so as to provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of bloodstream infection.@*METHODS@#The clinical features, blood culture results and prognosis of patients with bloodstream infection in patients with hematological malignancies admitted to Hainan Hospital of PLA General Hospital were retrospectively studied.@*RESULTS@#The most common primary infection site of the 81 patients with hematological malignancies was lung (46.91%), followed by PICC (11.11%). The detection rate of Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria in the blood culture was 60.98% and 30.02%, respectively. Coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most common Gram-positive bacteria resulting in bloodstream infection in our study. Of the Gram-negatives, Klebsiella pneumoniae (34.38%) was predominant, followed by Escherichia coli (18.75%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.75%). Gram-positive bacteria was highly sensitive (100%) to vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline. Study showed that Gram-negative bacteria had low sensitive to quinolones, in particular, the resistance rate of Escherichia coli to quinolones was as high as 83.33%. In terms of overall survival (OS), the 30-days OS of patients with Gram-negative and Gram-positive septicemia was 77.42% and 92.00%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that septic shock (P=0.001, RR=269.27) was an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality, and remission status (P=0.027, RR=0.114) was an independent predictor of a favourable outcome of bloodstream infection in patients with hematological malignancies.@*CONCLUSION@#Gram-positive bacteria are the main pathogens causing bloodstream infections in patients with hematological malignancies in the tropics. Improving the care of PICC is an important measure to reduce the incidence of bloodstream infection in patients with hematological malignancies in the tropics. A correct treatment relieving disease and effective prevention and treatment of septic shock can reduce mortality of patients with bloodstream infection in patients with hematological malignancies in the tropics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880046

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the risk factors, distribution of pathogenic strains and tolerance of pulmonary infection in patients with multiple myeloma(MM) during bortezomib chemotherapy.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 85 patients with multiple myeloma treated by bortezomib in our hospital from January 2015 to January 2019 was analyzed. The patients were divided into infection group and control group according to whether they were infected. The tolerance, pathogen distribution, and related risk factors were retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Pulmonary infection rate was 55.29% in 85 MM patients. The proportions of the patients with anemia, neutropenia, and ECOG score ≥2 points in the infection group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). In this study, 30 strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected, with gram-negative bacteria accounting for 60%, gram-positive bacteria for 33.33%, fungi for 3.3% and tuberculosis bacteria for 3.3%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumoniae, streptococcus pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus accounted showed the highest proportion. Most of MM patients with pulmonary infection showed a heterprognosis after two weeks antibiotic treatment, while 3 patients died. About 30 percent of early deaths were due to pulmonary infections.@*CONCLUSION@#Anemia, neutropenia, ECOG score ≥2 points are the major clinical characteristics of the multiple myeloma patients with pulmonary infections. Pulmonary infection is an important cause of early death in patients with multiple myeloma. Pathogenic bacteria are mainly composed of gram-negative bacteria. Beta-lacta/ beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations or Carbapenems are effective empiric treatment for controlling the progression of pulmonary infection.


Subject(s)
Bortezomib , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e10928, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278587

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of cryptic Candida species from candidemia cases in 22 public hospitals in São Paulo State, Brazil, and their antifungal susceptibility profiles. During 2017 and 2018, 144 isolates were molecularly identified as 14 species; C. parapsilosis (32.6%), C. albicans (27.7%), C. tropicalis (14.6%), C. glabrata (9.7%), C. krusei (2.8%), C. orthopsilosis (2.8%), C. haemulonii var. vulnera (2.1%), C. haemulonii (1.4%), C. metapsilosis (1.4%), C. dubliniensis (1.4%), C. guilliermondii (1.4%), C. duobushaemulonii (0.7%), C. kefyr (0.7%), and C. pelliculosa (0.7%). Poor susceptibility to fluconazole was identified in 6.4% of C. parapsilosis isolates (0.12 to >64 µg/mL), 50% of C. guilliermondii (64 µg/mL), 66.6% of C. haemulonii var. vulnera (16-32 µg/mL), and C. duobushaemulonii strain (MIC 64 µg/mL). Our results corroborated the emergence of C. glabrata in Brazilian cases of candidemia as previously reported. Importantly, we observed a large proportion of non-wild type C. glabrata isolates to voriconazole (28.6%; <0.015 to 4 µg/mL) all of which were also resistant to fluconazole (28.6%). Of note, C. haemulonii, a multidrug resistant species, has emerged in the Southeast region of Brazil. Our findings suggested a possible epidemiologic change in the region with an increase in fluconazole-resistant species causing candidemia. We stress the relevance of routine accurate identification to properly manage therapy and monitor epidemiologic trends.


Subject(s)
Candida , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Hospitals
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(7): e10889, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249311

ABSTRACT

Utilization of plant resources for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections is one of the appealing approaches as rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains is occurring throughout the world. Ethanol extract and its fractions from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis red flower were assessed for antibacterial and urease inhibitory activities towards forty-three clinical strains and two reference strains of H. pylori. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the most potent bacteriostatic activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.2-0.25 mg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of 1.25-1.5 mg/mL against all test strains, including forty-three strains resistant to one to four antibiotics, azithromycin (MICs, 8-256 µg/mL), erythromycin (MICs, 8-128 µg/mL), levofloxacin (MICs, 8-256 µg/mL), and/or metronidazole (MICs, 8-256 µg/mL). The fraction had similar antibacterial activities toward these test strains suggesting the preparation and the antibiotics do not have a common mechanism of anti-H. pylori activity. The fraction also had stronger effects on biofilm formation, morphological conversion, and urease activity of H. pylori than the other fractions and the ethanol extract. These flower preparations were non-toxic to three human cell lines, and nine compounds were also isolated and identified from the ethyl acetate fraction. In vivo research needs to be conducted to confirm the potential usefulness of H. rosa-sinensis flower and its constituents for effective prevention and treatment of H. pylori disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Rosa , Hibiscus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Flowers , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e05992020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155526

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the role of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) and 16S rRNA methylase (ArmA) in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. METHODS: We collected 100 clinical isolates of A. baumannii and identified and confirmed them using microbiological tests and assessment of the OXA-51 gene. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out using disk agar diffusion and micro-broth dilution methods. The presence of AME genes and ArmA was detected by PCR and multiplex PCR. RESULTS: The most and least effective antibiotics in this study were netilmicin and ciprofloxacin with 68% and 100% resistance rates, respectively. According to the minimum inhibitory concentration test, 94% of the isolates were resistant to gentamicin, tobramycin, and streptomycin, while the highest susceptibility (20%) was observed against netilmicin. The proportion of strains harboring the aminoglycoside resistance genes was as follows: APH(3′)-VIa (aphA6) (77%), ANT(2")-Ia (aadB) (73%), ANT(3")-Ia (aadA1) (33%), AAC(6′)-Ib (aacA4) (33%), ArmA (22%), and AAC(3)-IIa (aacC2) (19%). Among the 22 gene profiles detected in this study, the most prevalent profiles included APH(3′)-VIa + ANT(2")-Ia (39 isolates, 100% of which were kanamycin-resistant), and AAC(3)-IIa + AAC(6′)-Ib + ANT(3")-Ia + APH(3′)-VIa + ANT(2")-Ia (14 isolates, all of which were resistant to gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin). CONCLUSIONS: High minimum inhibitory concentration of aminoglycosides in isolates with the simultaneous presence of AME- and ArmA-encoding genes indicated the importance of these genes in resistance to aminoglycosides. However, control of their spread could be effective in the treatment of infections caused by A. baumannii.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Bacterial Proteins , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Methyltransferases , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0728-2020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155535

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) that causes death worldwide. METHODS: MTB was subjected to phenotypic drug-susceptibility tests (DST), and drug-resistant genes were sequenced. RESULTS: Previously treated patients were more likely to have positive smear results and exhibit drug resistance. New patients were more likely to be mono SM-resistant and less likely to be INH- and RIF-resistant. The most common mutations were katG (S315T), rpoB (S450L), rpsL (K43R), and embB (M306V). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of mono-SM-resistant TB among new patients was higher.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , China , Mutation , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology
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