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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1213-1220, July-Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131481

ABSTRACT

Surgical site infections (SSIs) and antimicrobial resistance among pathogens causing SSI are a growing concern in veterinary hospitals. One major reason, the widespread use of antimicrobials, has led to increased incidence of SSIs. This study identified bacteria and resistance profiles to antimicrobials in the SSI cases diagnosed at the Surgical Clinic of Small Animals in the Veterinary Hospital, Federal University of Viçosa, Brazil. The main genus identified was Staphylococcus, followed by Escherichia, Enterococcus, Bacillus, Shigella, Citrobacter, Proteus, Morganella, Serratia, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella were also found, but in small number. The results indicated the predominance of Gram-negative bacteria among the collected samples. Most of isolates identified were resistant to more than one of the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, tetracycline, enrofloxacin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cephalotin. Of the 17 Staphylococcus sp. isolates, two (11.8%) were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 11 (64.7%) of them were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). There were bacterial genera identified with resistance to all tested antimicrobials in different proportions. This should alert veterinary hospitals to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and to the requirement for the revision of surgical protocols with regard to antimicrobial prophylaxis and therapy.(AU)


As infecções em sítio cirúrgico (ISCs) e a resistência bacteriana entre os patógenos relacionados constituem uma preocupação crescente nos hospitais veterinários. O aumento na incidência de ISCs possui forte relação com o uso amplo e disseminado de antibióticos. O presente estudo identificou bactérias e perfis de resistência a antibióticos nos casos de ISCs diagnosticados na Clínica Cirúrgica de Pequenos Animais do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brasil. O principal gênero identificado foi Staphylococcus, seguido pelos gêneros Escherichia, Enterococcus, Bacillus, Shigella, Citrobacter, Proteus, Morganella, Serratia, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas e Klebsiella, porém, em menor quantidade. Os resultados demonstraram a predominância de bactérias Gram-negativas entre as amostras coletadas. A maioria dos isolados identificados eram resistentes a um ou a mais de um dos seguintes antibióticos: ampicilina, tetraciclina, enrofloxacina, amoxicilina/ácido clavulânico e cefalotina. Entre os 17 isolados de Staphylococcus sp., dois (11,8%) eram Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à meticilina (SARM) e 11 (64,7%) eram Staphylococcus pseudintermedius resistentes à meticilina (SPRM). Houve identificação de gêneros bacterianos com diferentes proporções de resistência para todos os antibióticos avaliados. Esses achados devem alertar os hospitais veterinários para a emergência de bactérias multirresistentes e para a necessidade de revisar a profilaxia e a terapia antimicrobiana referente aos protocolos cirúrgicos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Cross Infection/veterinary , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(9): 757-763, Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040744

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated from the eyes of dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). We evaluated 65 dogs diagnosed with KCS and 30 healthy dogs (Control Group). Conjunctival swab samples were collected after KCS was diagnosed. Microbiological examinations were performed, including aerobic culture, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination for chloramphenicol, tobramycin, ofloxacin and moxifloxacin. MICs of the fifteen most resistant strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (Staphylococcus intermedius Group, SIG) and the fifteen most resistant strains of gram-negative bacteria were determined. By percentage, the microorganisms exhibited the highest susceptibility to polymyxin B, tobramycin and chloramphenicol and the lowest to tetracycline. Three multi-drug-resistant strains of SIG were detected: one displayed isolated susceptibility to cefazolin, another to vancomycin, and another to polymyxin B and amikacin. The species of bacteria isolated from the eyes of dogs with KCS presented variable susceptibility to the antibiotics tested. We found evidence of the emergence of quinolone-resistant strains of SIG and further evidence of increased ocular prevalence. These findings reinforce the need to identify the bacteria involved and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile, as secondary infections can serve as exacerbating and perpetuating factors in KCS.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas de olhos de cães com ceratoconjuntivite seca (CCS). Foram avaliados 65 cães com diagnóstico de CCS e 30 cães saudáveis ​​(Grupo Controle). Depois do diagnosticado de CCS, suabes conjuntivais foram coletados. Exames microbiológicos foram realizados, incluindo cultura aeróbia, teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) para cloranfenicol, tobramicina, ofloxacina e moxifloxacina. Para determinar a CIM, foram selecionadas as quinze cepas mais resistentes de Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (Staphylococcus intermedius Group-SIG) e as quinze cepas mais resistentes de bactérias gram-negativas. Os microrganismos apresentaram maior suscetibilidade percentual à polimixina B, tobramicina e cloranfenicol e menor suscetibilidade à tetraciclina. Três cepas de SIG resistentes a múltiplos medicamentos foram detectadas, do quais um demonstrou suscetibilidade isolada à cefazolina, outro à vancomicina e outro à polimixina B e à amicacina. As espécies de bactérias isoladas dos olhos de cães com CCS apresentaram suscetibilidade variável aos antibióticos testados. Encontramos evidências do surgimento de cepas resistentes à quinolona de S. pseudintermedius e outras evidências de aumento da prevalência ocular. Esses achados reforçam a necessidade de identificar as bactérias envolvidas e seu perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos, pois as infecções secundárias podem servir como fatores exacerbantes e perpetuantes na CCS.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca/veterinary , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Quinolones
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(9): 728-733, Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040740

ABSTRACT

Fowls are the main reservoirs of the highly important food-originating pathogen called Campylobacter spp. and broilers' meat and byproducts are the main vehicles of this microorganism. Increasing of Campylobacter spp. resistant strains to fluorquinolones, an antimicrobial class often employed in poultry farming and in human medicine has become a great concern to poultry breeders. In fact, several studies evaluated increasing bacterial resistance against these antimicrobial agents. The role of CmeABC efflux system has been underscored among the resistance mechanisms in Campylobacter spp. to fluorquinolones. This study investigated the occurrence of CmeABC efflux pump in 81 and 78 enrofloxacin resistant strains of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli respectively, isolated from broilers collected from six abattoirs situated at São José do Vale do Rio Preto/RJ poultry center and from two commercial abattoirs situated at Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, from 2013 to 2016. The resistance to enrofloxacin was assessed by agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The CmeABC efflux system was investigated through the detection of genes genes cmeA, cmeB and cmeC by PCR. The activity of CmeABC efflux pump was investigated in 20 strains by using the efflux pump inhibitor Phenylalanine-Arginine ß-Naphthylamide (PAßN). The three genes cmeA, cmeB and cmeC were detected in 94.3% of the strains (C. jejuni = 80 and C. coli = 70), whereas the system was absent or incomplete in 5.7% of strains (C. jejuni = 1 and C. coli = 8). MIC varied between 0.5µg/ml and 64µg/ml, and 88.7% of strains were enrofloxacin resistant and 11.3% featuring intermediate resistance. The inhibition of the efflux pump by PAßN reduced the MIC to enrofloxacin up to eight times in fifteen strains (75%). These results indicate that this system is frequent and active in Campylobacter spp. Resistant strains in the presence of enrofloxacin.(AU)


As aves são os principais reservatórios de Campylobacter spp., importante patógeno de origem alimentar e a carne de frango e produtos derivados são os principais veículos desse microrganismo. O aumento de cepas de Campylobacter spp. resistentes às fluorquinolonas, uma classe antimicrobiana frequentemente empregada na avicultura e na medicina humana, tornou-se uma grande preocupação para os produtores de aves e vários estudos avaliaram o aumento da resistência bacteriana a esses antimicrobianos. O papel do sistema de efluxo CmeABC tem sido enfatizado entre os mecanismos de resistência em Campylobacter spp. à fluorquinolonas. O presente estudo investigou a ocorrência da bomba de efluxo CmeABC em 81 cepas de Campylobacter jejuni e 78 cepas de Campylobacter coli resistentes à enrofloxacina, isoladas de frangos de corte coletados em seis abatedouros situados no polo avícola de São José do Rio Preto/RJ e de dois abatedouros comerciais situados na Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, de 2013 a 2016. A resistência à enrofloxacina foi avaliada pelo método de diluição em ágar para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM). O sistema de efluxo CmeABC foi investigado através da detecção dos genes cmeA, cmeB e cmeC por PCR. A atividade da bomba de efluxo CmeABC foi investigada em 20 cepas utilizando o inibidor da bomba de efluxo Phenylalanine-Arginine ß-Naftilamida (PAßN). Os três genes cmeA, cmeB e cmeC foram detectados em 94,3% das cepas (C. jejuni = 80 e C. coli = 70), enquanto o sistema estava ausente ou incompleto em 5,7% das cepas (C. jejuni = 1 e C coli = 8). A CIM variou entre 0,5µg/ml e 64µg/ml e 88,7% das cepas foram resistentes à enrofloxacina, enquanto 11,3% apresentaram resistência intermediária. A inibição da bomba de efluxo pelo PAßN reduziu a CIM da enrofloxacina até oito vezes em quinze cepas (75%). Estes resultados indicam que este sistema é frequente e ativo em cepas resistentes de Campylobacter spp. na presença de enrofloxacina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Campylobacter/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Chickens/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/physiology , /analysis , Brazil
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(2): 107-111, Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-990246

ABSTRACT

Pasteurella (P.) multocida is the causative agent of pneumonic pasteurellosis in swine, which is commonly associated with the final stages of enzootic pneumonia or porcine respiratory disease complex. Although this syndrome is one of the most common and important diseases of pigs, data on antimicrobial susceptibility of P. multocida isolates are uncommon in Brazil. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine and to compare antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Brazilian P. multocida isolated from pigs with lesions of pneumonia or pleuritis during two-time periods. Historical isolates (period of 1981 to 1997; n=44) and recent isolates (period of 2011 to 2012; n=50) were used to determine the MIC of amoxicillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol and tetracycline by microbroth dilution. Florfenicol had the lowest level of resistance for both historical and recent isolates (0% and 6%, respectively), while tetracycline had the highest (20.5% and 34%, respectively). Multi-drug resistance (MDR) to amoxicillin/florfenicol/tetracycline was observed in 6% of recent isolates. There was a significant increase (p˂0.05) in resistance for amoxicillin and enrofloxacin in recent isolates compared with historic isolates (3.8% and 18%, respectively), most likely due to the selective pressure of antimicrobial usage to treat and prevent P. multocida infections. The results of this study showed an increase of isolates resistant to important drugs used in treatment of P. multocida infections in pigs, demonstrating the need for the implementation of rational use of antimicrobials in Brazilian swine industry.(AU)


Pasteurella (P.) multocida é o agente da pasteurelose pneumônica em suínos, a qual é comumente associada com o estágio final da pneumonia enzoótica suína ou complexo das doenças respiratórias dos suínos. Apesar de ser uma das doenças mais comuns e importantes na suinocultura, dados sobre suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de isolados de P. multocida são raros no Brasil. Dessa forma, o presente estudo foi realizado para determinar e comparar o perfil de suscetibilidade de isolados de P. multocida de suínos com lesões de pneumonia ou pleurite no Brasil durante dois períodos. Isolados históricos (período de 1981 a 1997; n=44) e contemporâneos (período de 2011 a 2012; n=50) foram usados para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de amoxicilina, enrofloxacina, florfenicol e tetraciclina através do teste de microdiluição em caldo. Florfenicol apresentou o menor nível de resistência para ambos os isolados históricos e contemporâneos (0% e 6%, respectivamente), enquanto que tetraciclina apresentou o maior nível de resistência (20.5% e 34%, respectivamente). Resistência a múltiplos antimicrobianos (amoxicilina, florfenicol e tetraciclina) foi observada em 6% dos isolados recentes. Foi observado aumento significativo (p˂0.05) na resistência a amoxicilina e enrofloxacina em isolados recentes comparado com isolados históricos (3.8% e 18%, respectivamente), provavelmente devido à pressão de seleção de antimicrobianos usados no tratamento e prevenção de infecções causadas por P. multocida. Os resultados deste trabalho demostraram o aumento de isolados resistentes a importantes drogas utilizadas no tratamento de infecções causadas por P. multocida em suínos, evidenciando a necessidade da implementação do uso racional de antimicrobianos na suinocultura brasileira.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/microbiology , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic , Pasteurella multocida/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents , Swine Diseases/microbiology , Tetracycline , Amoxicillin
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(2): 244-249, fev. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895570

ABSTRACT

O uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos tem proporcionado a algumas bactérias patogênicas a seleção de cepas multirresistentes, situação que pode ser agravada pela formação do biofilme. Desta forma, as nanopartículas de prata (AgNPs) vêm se destacando como uma alternativa inovadora, de baixo custo e eficiente contra doenças causadas por bactérias. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a atividade antimicrobiana das AgNPs e a interferência na formação do biofilme de Aeromonas spp. obtidas de organismos aquáticos. As AgNPs foram sintetizadas quimicamente utilizando como agente redutor o citrato trissódico e caracterizadas por espectrofotometria ultravioleta-visível (UV-Vis). A atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada contra três isolados pelo método de microdiluição em caldo para determinar a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) e um cultivo com CCCP, um inibidor da bomba de efluxo, foi realizado para complementar o efeito das AgNPs. A interferência no biofilme foi realizada segundo o protocolo de formação e consolidado, além da caracterização desta estrutura de resistência por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. No teste da CBM, as AgNPs não foram capazes de inativar o crescimento dos isolados, ao passo que o nitrato de prata obteve eficiência em diferentes concentrações. Na presença do inibidor de bomba de efluxo, dos isolados analisados, um passou de resistente a sensível na presença das nanopartículas. As AgNPs foram eficazes em diminuir a formação de biofilme, como também atuaram sobre o biofilme consolidado em todos os isolados testados. Estes resultados indicam o potencial das nanopartículas de prata em interferir com o biofilme de Aeromonas spp. de organismos aquáticos e seres humanos.(AU)


The indiscriminate use of antibiotics has selected some pathogenic bacteria being multidrug-resistant, a situation that can be exacerbated by biofilms formation. Thus, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been highlighted as an innovative alternative, low-cost and effective against bacterial diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of AgNPs and the interference in Aeromonas spp. biofilm formation. The strains were obtained from aquatic organisms. The AgNPs were chemically synthesized using as reducing agent trisodium citrate and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The antimicrobial activity was carried out against three isolates by the microdilution broth method for determining minimum bactericidal concentration (CBM) and cultivation of CCCP, an inhibitor of the efflux pump, was carried out to complement the effect of AgNPs. Interference in the biofilm formation was performed according to the protocol and consolidated, within the resistance structure characterization by scanning electron microscopy. In the test of the CBM, the AgNPs were unable to inactivate the growth of the isolates, while the silver nitrate obtained efficiency in different concentrations. In the efflux pump inhibitor presence the isolates were analyzed, one went from resistant to nanoparticles to sensitive. The AgNPs were effective in reducing of biofilm formation and acted on the consolidated biofilm in all tested isolates. These results indicate the silver nanoparticles to interfere with Aeromonas spp. biofilm from aquatic organisms and human bodies.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Aeromonas , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Aquatic Organisms/microbiology , Biofilms , Metal Nanoparticles/analysis , Silver , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(5): 447-452, maio 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895431

ABSTRACT

Microorganisms causing subclinical mastitis in water buffalo were isolated from 20 buffalo milk samples at four dairy farms located in central region of São Paulo State, Brazil, through testing of somatic cell count (SCC), standard plate count (SPC), biochemical, PCR assays and antimicrobial profile. The SCC showed average of 721,000 cells/mL in the milk, indicating the presence of subclinical mastitis. The overall average for SPC was 1.8 x 104 CFU/mL. The microorganism most frequently isolation according to biochemical tests were: Staphylococcus epidermidis (17%), Staphylococcus aureus (15%), Bacillus spp. (14%), Acinetobacter spp. (12.5%); with intermediate frequency: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.5%); Shigella flexneri (7.0%), Streptococcus spp. (5.5%), Corynebacterium spp. (5.0%), Escherichia coli (4.5%), Serratia marcescens (4.0%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (4.0%), and low incidence: Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis (0.5%), Klebsiella ozaenae (0.5%), Tatumella ptyseos (0.5%), Enterobacter cloacae (0.5%). The molecular analysis indicated that samples positive by culture method of the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and E. coli were positive by PCR. Para S. aureus and S. epidermidis the highest percentages of observed sensitivity were gentamicin (100%) and vancomycin (100%); for the genus Streptococcus to gentamicin and oxacillin and E. coli to Ampicilin. These findings may help in the control and treatment of subclinical mastitis in buffaloes and contribute to improving the efficiency and quality of the milk produced.(AU)


Microrganismos causadores de mastites subclínicas em búfalas foram isolados desde 20 amostras de leite de búfalos de quatro granjas leiteiras localizadas na região central do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, através dos testes contagem de células somáticas (CCS), contagem padrão em placas (CPP), provas bioquímicas, reações de PCR e perfil antimicrobiano. A CCS apresentou uma mediana de 721.000 cel/mL no leite, indicando presença de mastite subclínica. A média geral de CPP foi de 1,8x104 UFC/mL. Os microrganismos com maior frequência de isolamento segundo os testes bioquímicos foram: Staphylococcus epidermidis (17%), Staphylococcus aureus (15%), Bacillus spp. (14%), Acinetobacter spp. (12,5%); frequência intermediaria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9,5%); Shigella flexneri (7,0%), Streptococcus spp. (5,5%), Corynebacterium spp. (5,0%), Escherichia coli (4,5%), Serratia marcescens (4,0%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (4,0%), e baixa incidência: Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis (0,5%), Klebsiella ozaenae (0,5%), Tatumella ptyseos (0,5%), Enterobacter cloacae (0,5%). A análise molecular indicou que as amostras positivas pelo método de cultura dos gêneros Staphylococcus, Streptococcus e Escherichia coli foram positivas por PCR. Para S. aureus e S. epidermidis os maiores percentuais de sensibilidade observados foram gentamicina (100%) e vancomicina (100%); para o gênero Streptococcus à gentamicina e oxacilina e para E. coli à ampicilina. Este resultados podem ajudar no controle e tratamento da mastite subclínica em búfalos e contribuir para melhorar a eficiência e qualidade do leite produzido.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Bacteria/classification , Buffaloes/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(4): 331-338, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895411

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to characterize Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of strains obtained from pigs in Brazil based on the minimal inhibitory concentration test (MIC). The MIC was performed for 22 B. hyodysenteriae isolates obtained from 2011 to 2013 using the following antimicrobial drugs: tylosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin and tylvalosin. Outbreaks of swine dysentery were diagnosed based on clinical presentation, bacterial isolation, gross and microscopic lesions, duplex PCR for B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli and nox gene sequencing. All obtained MIC values were consistently higher or equal to the microbiological cut-off described in the literature. The MIC 90 values for the tested drugs were 8µg/ml for doxycycline, >4µg/ml for valnemulin, 8µg/ml for tiamulin, 32µg/ml for tylvalosin, >64µg/ml for lincomycin and >128µg/ml for tylosin. These results largely corroborate those reported in the literature. Tiamulin, doxycycline and tylvalosin showed the lowest MIC results. All of the samples subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on the nox gene sequence exhibited similar results, showing 100% identity to B. hyodysenteriae. This is the first study describing the MIC pattern of B. hyodysenteriae isolated in Brazil.(AU)


Os objetivos deste trabalho foram a caracterização de isolados de Brachyspira hyodysenteriae e avaliar os padrões de sensibilidade antimicrobiana de isolados obtidos a partir de suínos no Brasil com base no teste de concentração inibitória mínima (MIC). A MIC foi realizada em 22 isolados de B. hyodysenteriae obtidos entre 2011 a 2013 usando os seguintes antimicrobianos: tilosina, tiamulina, valnemulina, doxiciclina, lincomicina e tilvalosina. Surtos de disenteria suína foram diagnosticados com base na apresentação clínica, isolamento bacteriano, lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas, PCR duplex para B. hyodysenteriae e B. pilosicoli e sequenciamento do gene nox. Todos os valores de MIC obtidos foram consistentemente mais elevados ou igual ao ponto de corte microbiológica descrito na literatura. Os valores de MIC 90 para os fármacos testados foram de 8 µg / mL para a doxiciclina, > 4 µg/ml de valnemulina, 8 µg / mL para a tiamulina, 32 µg / ml para tilvalosina, > 64 µg / ml para a lincomicina e > 128 µg / ml de tilosina. Estes resultados corroboram em grande parte com os relatados na literatura. Tiamulina, doxiciclina e tilvalosina apresentaram os menores resultados de MIC. Todas as amostras submetidas à análise filogenética com base na sequência do gene nox exibiram resultados semelhantes, indicando 100% de identidade com B. hyodysenteriae. Este é o primeiro estudo que descreve o padrão MIC de B. hyodysenteriae isoladas no Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Brachyspira hyodysenteriae/isolation & purification , NADPH Oxidases , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Dysentery/veterinary
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(3): 261-268, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-842068

ABSTRACT

Este estudo isolou e determinou o perfil de sensibilidade e de resistência a antimicrobianos de cepas bacterianas isoladas da cloaca de Trachemys scripta elegans (T. s. elegans) criadas em cativeiro. Após 120 dias de adaptação, amostras de swab cloacal obtidas de 20 animais adultos foram cultivadas e, após a identificação dos patógenos através de testes bioquímicos, submetidas ao teste de suscetibilidade a nove antimicrobianos. Enterobacter aerogenes (85%); Shigella spp. (10%) e Edwadsiella spp. (5%) foram isolados e identificados. Os isolados de E. aerogenes foram sensíveis à gentamicina (86%), enrofloxacina (79%), estreptomicina (50%), sulfazotrim (36%) e ampicilina (29%) e resistentes a penicilina (100%), eritromicina (93%), cefalexina (86%) ampicilina (71%) e sulfazotrim (64%). Isolados de Shigella spp. apresentaram sensibilidade à gentamicina (100%), enrofloxacina (50%), doxicilina (50%), estreptomicina (50%), ampicilina (50%), penicilina (50%) e sulfazotrim (50%) e resistência a doxicilina (50%), estreptomicina (50%), ampicilina (50%), penicilina (100%), cefalexina (50%) e sulfazotrim (50%), enquanto que os de Edwardsiella spp. foram sensíveis apenas à gentamicina (100%) e altamente resistentes (100%) aos demais antimicrobianos. Os resultados sugerem a participação de T. s. elegans na cadeia epidemiológica, como reservatório de patógenos importantes, como E. aerogenes, Shigella spp. e Edwardisiella spp., tornando importante a adoção de medidas preventivas pelo risco zoonótico que apresentam e corretas de tratamento e de controle em cativeiros e domicílios, assim como de estudos que enfoquem as características de sensibilidade e de resistência antimicrobiana dos isolados cloacais, pois a multirresistência a drogas pode ser transmitida aos humanos e comprometer o tratamento de indivíduos com doenças graves.(AU)


This study isolated and determined the profile of susceptibility and antimicrobials resistance of bacterial strains isolated from the cloaca Trachemys scripta elegans (T. s. elegans) raised in captivity. After 120 days of adaptation, cloacal swab samples obtained from 20 adults animals were grown and, after the pathogens identification through biochemical tests, submitted to the test of susceptibility to nine antimicrobials. Enterobacter aerogenes (85%); Shigella spp. (10%) and Edwadsiella spp. (5%) were isolated and identified. Isolates from E. aerogenes were sensitive to gentamicin (86%), enrofloxacin (79%), streptomycin (50%), sulfazotrim (36%) and ampicillin (29%) and resistant to penicillin (100%), erythromycin (93%), cephalexin (86%), ampicillin (71%) and sulfazotrim (64%). Isolates from Shigella spp. showed sensitivity to gentamicin (100%), enrofloxacin (50%), doxycycline (50%), streptomycin (50%), ampicillin (50%), penicillin (50%) and sulfazotrim (50%) and resistance to doxycycline (50 %), streptomycin (50%), ampicillin (50%), penicillin (100%), cephalexin (50%) and sulfazotrim (50%), while the Edwardsiella spp. were sensitive only to gentamicin (100%) and were highly resistant (100%) to other antibiotics. The results suggest the participation of T. s. elegans in the epidemiological chain, as reservoir of important pathogens, such as E. aerogenes, Shigella spp. and Edwardisiella spp., making it important to adopt preventive measures for zoonotic risk that present and correct treatment and control in captivity and households, as well as studies that address the sensitivity characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of isolates from cloaca, as it multidrug resistance to drugs can be transmitted to humans and compromise the treatment of patients with serious diseases.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Turtles/microbiology , Edwardsiella , Enterobacter aerogenes , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Shigella
9.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): 54-65, 2017. tab., graf.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-846511

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility pattern of 45 Campylobacter spp.isolates ­ 16 C. jejuni, eight C. coli, and 21 C. fetus isolated from different animal species in Brazil ­ to twelve antimicrobial agents was determined. All Campylobacter spp. isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, sulfadiazine, and sulfamethoxazole. C. jejuni and C. coli were also sensitive to chloramphenicol, whereas all C. fetus strains were susceptible to kanamycin. Cefoperazone showed the highest percentage of resistance among C. jejuni (68.75%), followed by nalidixic acid (31.25%), ampicillin (37.50%), tetracycline (37.50%), erythromycin (12.50%), and kanamycin (6.25%). Likewise, cefoperazone exhibited the highest percentage of resistance among C. coli (75.00%), followed by nalidixic acid (50.00%), tetracycline (50.00%), erythromycin (37.50%), ampicillin (12.50%), and kanamycin (12.50%). Among C. fetus strains, nalidixic acid showed the highest resistance rate (85.71%), followed by cefoperazone (71.43%), tetracycline (42.86%), ampicillin (19.05%), chloramphenicol (9.52%), and erythromycin (4.76%). Therefore, it was found that the majority of Campylobacter spp. isolated from animals was sensitive to gentamycin, chloramphenicol, kanamacyn, and sulfonamides; however, a high proportion of the strains showed reduced susceptibility to nalidixic acid, ampicillin, cefoperazone, and tetracycline. Moreover, C. coli and C. fetus isolates showed a high percentage of multidrug resistant strains.(AU)


O padrão de sensibilidade de 45 amostras de Campylobacter spp, incluindo 16 amostras de C. jejuni, 8 de C. coli e 21 C. fetus, isoladas de diferentes espécies de animais do Brasil, foi determinado para doze antimicrobianos. Todas as amostras de Campylobacter spp foram sensíveis à gentamicina, sulfadiazina e sulfametoxazol. C. jejuni e C. coli foram também sensíveis ao cloranfenicol, enquanto todas as amostras de C. fetus foram sensíveis à canamicina. Cefoperazona mostrou o maior percentual de resistência entre C. jejuni (68,75%), seguido pelo ácido nalidíxico (31,25%), ampicilina (37,50%), tetraciclina (37,50%), eritromicina (12,50%) e canamicina (6,25%). Similarmente, cefoperazona também exibiu o maior percentual de resistência entre as amostras de C. coli (75,00%), seguido pelo ácido nalidíxico (50,00%), tetraciclina (50,00%), eritromicina (37,50%), ampicilina (12,50%) e canamicina (12,50%). Entre os isolados de C. fetus, ácido nalidíxico apresentou maior taxa de resistência (85,71%), seguido de cefoperazona (71,43%), tetraciclina (42,86%), ampicilina (19,05%), cloranfenicol (9,52%) e eritromicina (4,76%). Assim, os nossos resultados mostraram que a maioria das amostras de Campylobacter spp isolados de animais foram sensíveis à gentamicina, cloranfenicol, canamicina e sulfonamidas. No entanto, uma proporção elevada das amostras apresentou susceptibilidade reduzida ao ácido nalidíxico, ampicilina, cefoperazona e tetraciclina. Além disso, C. coli e C. fetus mostraram uma alta porcentagem de amostras resistentes a múltiplas drogas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Dogs , Campylobacter , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Callitrichinae , Chickens , Gentamicins , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Swine
10.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(2): 117-128, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-875078

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common microorganisms responsible for high morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus are responsible for several outbreaks worldwide and therapeutic arsenal has become scarce. The present investigation verified the epidemiological profile of S. aureus strains isolated from the veterinary hospital staff, from dairy cattle workers and also from milk samples of dairy cattle presenting mastitis. Samples were characterized phenotypically by antibiogram, catalase, and coagulase tests, and also by Voges-Proskauer test. The isolated strains were characterized genotypically by specific Polymerase Chain Reaction and Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA). From the 218 isolated strains, 27 were identified as S. aureus (12%), four of them were resistant to oxacillin and two of them were classified as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant S. aureus). The prevalence of isolated strains among animal personnel care was low (2%) but all MRSA isolates were found among the clinical staff. Results of ARDRA pointed out that S. aureus strains isolated from different animal care personnel were grouped in the same cluster when HindIII and HinfII restriction enzymes were used. When ARDRA was performed with HaeIII enzyme, the formation of two clusters was observed, but the isolated strains were not correlated. The prevalence of S. aureus strains isolated was higher in clinical staff and the biochemical and molecular assays of them presented 100% of correlation.(AU)


Staphylococcus aureus está entre os microrganismos que apresentam as maiores taxas de morbidade e mortalidade em seres humanos e animais. Linhagens de S. aureus resistentes a meticilina podem causar surtos de infecção em todo o mundo, o que contribui para a escassez de arsenal terapêutico. Este trabalho analisou o perfil epidemiológico de estirpes de S. aureus isoladas de pessoas que trabalham em contato com animais em um hospital veterinário com gado leiteiro e também em amostras de leite de vacas acometidas por mastite. As estirpes de S. aureus isoladas foram caracterizadas fenotipicamente por meio de antibiograma, testes de catalase e coagulase, e pelo teste de Voges-Proskauer. As amostras também foram caracterizadas genotipicamente pela técnica de Análise de Restrição de DNA Ribossômico Amplificado (ARDRA-PCR). Das 218 estirpes isoladas, 27 foram identificadas como S. aureus (12%). Entre essas, quatro estirpes foram resistentes à oxacilina e duas classificadas como SARM (S. aureus resistente à meticilina). A ocorrência de estirpes de S.aureus isoladas entre o pessoal que trabalha em contato com os animais foi baixa (2%), mas estirpes identificadas como SARM foram encontradas na equipe clínica. As análises de ARDRA realizadas com as enzimas de restrição HindIII e HinfII demonstraram que S. aureus isolados de diferentes indivíduos que trabalhavam com animais foram agrupados no mesmo cluster. Quando a ARDRA foi realizada com HaeIII foi observada formação de dois grupos, mas os isolados não se correlacionaram. Conclusão: a ocorrência de estirpes de S. aureus isoladas foi maior na equipe clínica, apresentando também correlação de 100% nos ensaios bioquímicos e moleculares.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Animal Technicians , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Milk/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Mastitis, Bovine , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
11.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 84: e0382017, 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-981813

ABSTRACT

Bovine dermatophilosis is a dermatitis characterized by typical focal or localized lesions with "paintbrush" aspect and occasionally as disseminated cutaneous disease. We report the case of a one-year-old Nelore female with history of chronic cutaneous disseminated lesions that appeared immediately after a rainfall period. Serous to purulent exudates, hair with tufted appearance, hyperkeratotic, non-pruritic, hardened, yellowish to brown, and coalescent crusty lesions were observed distributed all over its body. Removal of the crusts revealed ulcerated or hemorrhagic areas, with irregular elevated crusts like "paintbrush". Microbiological diagnosis enabled the identification of a microorganism, the Dermatophilus congolensis. Despite disseminated and chronic lesions, we obtained a successful therapy with parenteral therapy using long-acting tetracycline based on modified in vitro disk diffusion test. The present report highlights success therapy in uncommon generalized bovine dermatophilosis with selection of first-choice drugs based on modified in vitro susceptibility test, and need of responsible use of antimicrobials in livestock.(AU)


A dermatofilose bovina é uma dermatite caracterizada por lesões focais ou localizadas com aspecto de "pincel" e, ocasionalmente, como lesão cutânea disseminada. Relata-se o caso de uma fêmea bovina de um ano de idade, que foi atendida apresentando história de lesões cutâneas crônicas imediatamente após um período de alta pluviosidade. Ao exame clínico, lesões serosas a purulentas, com hiperqueratose, coalescentes, não pruriginosas, ressecadas, de coloração amarelada à acinzentada foram observadas distribuídas de modo generalizado pelo animal. A remoção das crostas revelou áreas ulceradas ou hemorrágicas, com crostas irregulares e elevadas semelhantes a "pincel". O diagnóstico microbiológico possibilitou a identificação do micro-organismo Dermatophilus congolensis. Apesar das lesões disseminadas e crônicas, a cura do animal foi obtida com tratamento parenteral usando oxitetraciclina de longa duração, baseado em teste in vitro de sensibilidade microbiana modificado. O presente relato ressalta o sucesso no tratamento de caso incomum de lesões generalizadas de dermatofilose bovina com respaldo de teste in vitro de sensibilidade modificado, bem como a necessidade do uso responsável de antimicrobianos em animais de produção.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Oxytetracycline , Therapeutics , Digital Dermatitis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Anti-Infective Agents
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(10): 957-964, out. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-842003

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar a detecção de cepas de Listeria monocytogenes de cortes cárneos bovinos bem como no ambiente de abatedouros frigoríficos localizados no Distrito Federal, promover a sorotipificação pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), realizar antibiograma e submeter às cepas à eletroforese de campo pulsado (Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis - PFGE). Foram analisados um total de 125 cortes cárneos bovinos, 45 amostras de swabs de carcaças e 43 amostras de swabs em que foram detectados 13 cepas de Listeria monocytogenes, sendo 11 em cortes cárneos bovinos e 2 swabs de ambiente em um abatedouro frigorifico. Não foram isoladas cepas de swabs de carcaça. Dentre as 13 cepas de Listeria monocytogenes foram encontradas seis cepas do sorotipo 4b, cinco do sorotipo 1/2c e duas cepas do sorotipo 1/2a. Dentre as 11 cepas de L. monocytogenes encontradas em cortes cárneos bovino, uma (9,1%) cepa apresentou resistência a eritromicina, outra (9,1%) cepa a gentamicina e outra a ciprofloxacina (9,1%) e todas as cepas (100%) apresentaram resistência ao Ác. Nalidíxico. Das duas (2) cepas oriundas de ralos de abatedouro frigorífico, todas (100%) apresentaram resistência ao Ác. Nalidíxico e a sulfonamidas. A análise por eletroforese de campo pulsante (PFGE) demonstrou 13 diferentes pulsotipos, em que foram agrupados em 3 diferentes grupos clonais, que coincidentemente se correlacionavam com os 3 diferentes sorotipos encontrados sugerindo uma ampla disseminação desses perfis no Distrito Federal.(AU)


The aim of the study was the analysis of Listeria monocytogenes strains in beef samples as well as slaughterhouse environment, located in the Federal District, promote serotyping by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), perform antibiotic susceptibility and submit the strains to Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A total of 125 beef samples were analyzed, 45 samples of carcasses swabs and 43 swab samples. It detected 13 strains of Listeria monocytogenes, 11 in beef samples. and 2 in slaughterhouse environment. No carcass swabs strains were isolated. Among the 13 strains of L. monocytogenes six strains of serotype 4b were found, five serotype 1/2c and two strains of serotype 1/2a. Among the 11 strains of L. monocytogenes found in beef, one (9.1%) strain showed resistance to erythromycin, one (9.1%) strain to gentamicin, one to ciprofloxacin (9.1%) and all strains (100%) were resistant to nalidixic acid. The two strains coming from the slaughterhouse drains, all (100%) were resistant to nalidixic acid and Sulfonamides. The analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed 13 different pulsotypes; they were grouped into three different clonal groups, coincidentally correlated with the three different serotypes found, what suggests a widespread dissemination of these profiles in the Federal District, Brazil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Abattoirs , Listeria monocytogenes/physiology , Listeriosis/veterinary , Red Meat/analysis , Red Meat/microbiology , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field/veterinary , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(2): 336-344, mar.-abr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779779

ABSTRACT

Subclinical mastitis in goats causes economic losses and risks to public health. Given the need for research that shows the most isolated staphylococci species and sensibility tests comparing the resistance between coagulase-negative (CNS) and positive Staphylococcus (CPS) goats with subclinical mastitis, the aim of this study was to identify the microorganisms isolated from milk samples of goats with subclinical mastitis, as well as define the staphylococci species and determine the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to antimicrobials. To collect samples, tests were performed for mug of black background and California mastitis test (CMT), collecting milk from CMT positive animals. A total of 226 samples from seven herds of dairy goats was collected and forwarded to the laboratory, where they were seeded for the isolation of the microorganism and implementing the antibiotic sensibility test. Of these, 122 samples had bacterial growth and the most isolated staphylococci species were: S. epidermidis (24.55%), S. lugdunensis (15.40%) and S. intermedius (13.64%). Samples showed increased resistance to antimicrobials: penicillin (81.8%), oxacillin (60.0%) and ampicillin (55.5%). Greater sensitivity to: enrofloxacin (99.1%), erythromycin (98.2%), gentamicin (98.2%) and vancomycin (98.2%) were observed. The S. epidermidis showed higher antimicrobial resistance to amoxicillin and penicillin than S. lugdunensis and S. intermedius. Similar resistance in vitro between CNS and CPS was observed to most antimicrobials. It is important to control the overuse of antibiotics to prevent the emergence of resistant strains.


A mastite subclínica em caprinos acarreta prejuízos econômicos e riscos à saúde pública. Tendo em vista a necessidade de pesquisas que demonstrem as espécies de estafilococos mais isoladas e os testes de sensibilidade que comparem a resistência entre Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN) e positiva (SCP) de cabras com mastite subclínica, os objetivos do presente estudo foram identificar os microrganismos isolados de amostras de leite de cabras com mastite subclínica, bem como definir as espécies de estafilococos e determinar o perfil de sensibilidade de Staphylococcus spp. aos antimicrobianos. Para realizar a coleta das amostras, foram executados os testes da caneca de fundo preto e California mastitis test (CMT) com o leite dos animais reagentes ao CMT. Coletaram-se 226 amostras provenientes de sete rebanhos de caprinos leiteiros, as quais foram encaminhadas para o laboratório, onde foram semeadas para o isolamento do microrganismo e a realização do teste de antibiograma. Dessas amostras, 122 tiveram crescimento bacteriano e as espécies mais isoladas de estafilococos foram: S. epidermidis (24,55%), S. lugdunensis (15,40%) e S. intermedius (13,64%). As amostras apresentaram maior resistência aos antimicrobianos penicilina (81,8%), oxacilina (60,0%) e ampicilina (55,5%). Observou-se maior sensibilidade para enrofloxacina (99,1%), eritromicina (98,2%), gentamicina (98,2%) e vancomicina (98,2%). O S. epidermidis apresentou maior resistência antimicrobiana para a amoxicilina e a penicilina do que o S. lugdunensis e o S. intermedius. Foi verificada uma resistência in vitro semelhante entre os estafilococos coagulase negativa e positiva para a maioria dos antimicrobianos testados. É importante o controle do uso abusivo de antimicrobianos para evitar o surgimento de cepas resistentes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mastitis/diagnosis , Mastitis/veterinary , Ruminants , Staphylococcus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Milk
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(8): 725-733, Aug. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-767730

ABSTRACT

Para avaliação dos aspectos patológicos e microbiológicos de casos clínicos de doenças respiratórias em suínos de terminação foram analisados 75 suínos doentes oriundos de 36 lotes. Suínos que apresentavam sinais clínicos respiratórios evidentes foram necropsiados para avaliação macroscópica e colheita de amostras para análise histopatológica e microbiológica. Foram realizados testes de isolamento bacteriano para as principais bactérias do sistema respiratório dos suínos, PCR para Mycoplasma hyorhinis, imuno-histoquímica para Influenza A, Circovirus suíno tipo 2 e Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. A sensibilidade antimicrobiana de 24 amostras de Pasteurella multocida tipo A foi avaliada por testes de concentração inibitória mínima para os principais antimicrobianos utilizados em suinocultura. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae e Pasteurella multocida tipo A foram os agentes infecciosos mais prevalentes. Broncopneumonia supurativa e pleurite foram as principais lesões respiratórias encontradas. Pasteurella multocida tipo A, quando presente, aumentou a extensão das lesões pulmonares. Todas as amostras de Pasteurella multocida testadas foram sensíveis aos antimicrobianos Doxiciclina, Enrofloxacina e Tilmicosina. Em 58% das amostras foi identificado mais de um agente infeccioso, evidenciando a alta prevalência da associação de agentes nas doenças respiratórias de suínos em terminação...


For pathological and microbiological evaluation of porcine respiratory disease in fattening pigs, seventy five animals showing respiratory distress, fever and/or cough were analyzed. These pigs were necropsied and samples were collected for histological and microbiological analysis. Bacterial isolation procedures were performed aiming to detect major swine bacterial respiratory pathogens. Also, PCR for Mycoplasma hyorhinis, and immunohistochemistry for Influenza A, porcine circovirus type 2, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae were carried out. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida type A were the most prevalent infectious agents. The antimicrobial sensitivity of 24 samples of P. multocida type A was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration tests and all these samples were sensitive to doxycycline, tilmicosin and enrofloxacin. Suppurative bronchopneumonia and pleuritis were main respiratory lesions found. When P. multocida type A was present, the extension of lung lesions was increased. In 58% of the samples more than one infectious agent was identified, suggesting a high prevalence of infectious agents associations in porcine respiratory disease in Brazil...


Subject(s)
Animals , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Swine/microbiology , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/isolation & purification , Pasteurella multocida/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(5): 1435-1438, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-729781

ABSTRACT

The present study reports the isolation of Salmonella enterica in organs of free-living domestic pigeons. In the clinic examination, the presence of feces in the peri-cloacal and abdominal regions were observed, as well as symptoms such as cachexy, incoordination and opisthotonos. Before any therapeutic protocol was applied the bird died and a necropsy was then performed for the removal of spleen, liver, kidney and intestine for bacteriological examination and antibiotic sensitivity test. Salmonella enterica subsp.enterica (O:4,5:i-) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium were isolated from the liver and intestine and the sensitivity test demonstrated that these strains are sensitive to several antibiotics...


O presente trabalho relata o isolamento de Salmonella enterica em órgãos de um pombo doméstico de vida livre. No exame clínico foi observada a presença de fezes pericloacal na região ventral, caquexia, incoordenação motora e opistótono. Antes de iniciar um protocolo terapêutico, a ave foi a óbito, e, em seguida, foi realizada uma necropsia para remoção do baço, fígado, rim e intestino para exame bacteriológico e teste de sensibilidade a antibióticos. Foi isolado Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (O:4,5:i-) e Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica sorovar Typhimurium do fígado e intestino, e o teste de sensibilidade demonstrou que essas cepas são sensíveis a vários antimicrobianos...


Subject(s)
Animals , Columbidae , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Ataxia/veterinary , Autopsy/veterinary , Cachexia/veterinary , Feces
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(9): 891-895, set. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-728828

ABSTRACT

A pneumonia é uma doença respiratória comum na clínica de répteis. Agentes infecciosos são capazes de causar pneumonia primária em répteis mantidos em cativeiro, porém na maioria dos casos, são secundárias a problemas de manejo, higiene e nutricionais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência de pneumonia bacteriana em jabuti-piranga (Chelonoidis carbonaria), e descrever o diagnóstico clínico, microbiológico, radiográfico e a conduta terapêutica. O animal apresentava sinais de distúrbios respiratórios e foi descrito durante a anamnese que houve um diagnostico anterior de pneumonia. Os achados radiográficos foram sugestivos de pneumonia/edema pulmonar. Baseado nos exames radiográficos e sinais clínicos apresentados iniciou-se o tratamento com administração de Cloranfenicol (40mg/kg/SID/IM) por 10 dias. Foram isoladas Klebsiella spp. e Citrobacter spp. da cultura bacteriana realizada da coleta de lavado endotraqueal. Ambas com perfil de resistência múltipla aos antibióticos testados. Instituiu-se protocolo terapêutico utilizando Gentamicina (5mg/kg/IM), em sete aplicações com intervalos de 72h. Após o segundo protocolo terapêutico notou-se melhora dos sinais clínicos do animal, porém foi observada a persistência de secreção nasal. Foi realizado novo exame radiográfico, demonstrando discreta diminuição na opacidade do campo pulmonar direito e nenhuma alteração significativa no campo pulmonar esquerdo na projeção craniocaudal. Devido à permanência do sinal clínico apresentado, nova coleta de material endotraqueal foi realizada, e houve isolamento de Citrobacter spp. e Enterobacter spp. A partir dos resultados obtidos no antibiograma, instituiu-se novo protocolo com uso de amicacina (2,5mg/kg/IM), em sete aplicações com intervalos de 72h. Após antibioticoterapia, outro exame radiológico foi realizado, e demonstrou redução satisfatória do quadro pulmonar, e sinais clínicos...


Pneumonia is a common respiratory disease in clinical of reptiles. Infectious agents are capable of causing primary pneumonia in reptiles maintained in captivity, but in most cases are secondary to problems of management, hygiene and nutrition. The aim of this study was to report the occurrence of bacterial pneumonia in red-footed tortoise (Chelonoidis carbonaria), and describe the clinical, microbiologic, radiographic and therapeutic management. The animal showed signs of respiratory disorders and has been described in the clinical history before diagnosis of pneumonia. The radiographic findings were suggestive of pneumonia/pulmonary edema. Based on the displayed radiographic examination and clinical signs began treatment with administration of chloramphenicol (40mg/kg/SID/IM) for ten days. Were isolated Klebsiella spp. and Citrobacter spp. bacterial culture done collecting endotracheal lavage. Both with multiple antibiotic resistance profile tested. Treatment protocol was instituted using gentamicin (5mg/kg/IM) applications into seven intervals of 72h. There was improvement in clinical signs of the animal, but the presence of nasal secretion was still observed. New radiographic examination, demonstrating slight decrease in the opacity of the right lung field and no significant change in the left lung field in craniocaudal projection was performed. Because of the persistence of clinical signs presented new collection endotracheal material was performed, and there was isolation of Citrobacter spp. and Enterobacter spp. From the results obtained in the antibiogram, was instituted new protocol with the use of amikacin (2.5mg/kg/IM) applications into seven intervals of 72h. After antibiotic therapy, other radiological examination was performed, and showed satisfactory reduction in pulmonary function and clinical signs...


Subject(s)
Animals , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Pneumonia, Bacterial/therapy , Pneumonia, Bacterial/veterinary , Reptiles/microbiology , Vitamin A Deficiency/veterinary , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(4): 355-361, abr. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-712725

ABSTRACT

Foram obtidas 154 amostras de lesões cutâneas de cães com pioderma superficial atendidos no Serviço de Dermatologia Veterinária do Hospital Veterinário Universitário (HVU) da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), com o objetivo de determinar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de isolados de Staphylococcus spp. e avaliar a presença de multirresistência. Após isolamento e identificação, as cepas foram submetidas ao teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos, cujos resultados evidenciaram menores percentuais de resistência à associação amoxicilina e ácido clavulânico (1,9 por cento), cefadroxil (1,9 por cento), cefalexina (1,9 por cento) e vancomicina (0,6 por cento). Os maiores percentuais de resistência foram frente à amoxicilina (60,4 por cento) e penicilina G (60,4 por cento). A multirresistência foi detectada em 23,4 por cento e a resistência à meticilina em 5,8 por cento das amostras. Pode-se concluir que os isolados de Staphylococcus spp. apresentam elevada suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados no tratamento dos piodermas superficiais em cães atendidos no HVU-UFSM, como a cefalexina e a amoxicilina associada ao ácido clavulânico, confirmando a eleição desses fármacos para o tratamento de cães com esta afecção. A suscetibilidade diminuída das cepas frente às fluoroquinolonas, também recomendadas pela literatura para o tratamento de pioderma, permite sugerir que estes fármacos não devem mais ser considerados na seleção empírica. A identificação de Staphylococcus spp. multirresistentes na população canina estudada justifica análises bacteriológicas periódicas e regionais de lesões cutâneas de cães com pioderma superficial, a fim de minimizar a seleção de bactérias resistentes, possíveis falhas terapêuticas e também motiva a antimicrobianoterapia prudente.


A total of 154 samples of skin lesions were obtained from dogs with superficial pyoderma that were assisted by the Veterinary Dermatology Service at the University Veterinary Hospital (HVU), Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), aiming to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. isolates and evaluate the presence of multidrug resistance profile. After bacterial isolation and identification, the strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and the results showed lower percentages of resistance to the amoxicillin and clavulanic acid association (1.9 percent), cefadroxil (1.9 percent), cephalexin (1.9 percent) and vancomycin (0.6 percent). The highest percentages were towards amoxicillin (60.4 percent) and penicillin G (60.4 percent). The multidrug resistance was detected in 23.4 percent and the methicillin resistance in 5.8 percent of the samples. It may be concluded that the Staphylococcus spp. isolates present high susceptibility to key antimicrobials used in the treatment of superficial pyodermas in dogs at the HVU-UFSM, such as cephalexin and the amoxicillin and clavulanic acid association, confirming the preference for these drugs when treating dogs with this disorder. The susceptibility of the strains to fluoroquinolones, also recommended in the literature for the treatment of pyodermas, allows suggesting that such drugs should not be considered in the empirical selection. The identification of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus spp. in the studied canine population justifies periodic and regional bacteriological tests of skin lesions in dogs with superficial pyoderma, possible therapeutic failures and also motivates wise use of antimicrobial therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dogs/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/veterinary , Pyoderma/veterinary , Staphylococcus , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Cefadroxil , Cephalexin , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination , Penicillin G , Vancomycin
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194861

ABSTRACT

A total of 156 Shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were isolated from fecal samples of Korean native (100/568, 18%) and Holstein dairy cattle (56/524, 11%) in Korea between September 2010 and July 2011. Fifty-two STEC isolates (33%) harbored both of shiga toxin1 (stx1) and shiga toxin2 (stx2) genes encoding enterohemolysin (EhxA) and autoagglutinating adhesion (Saa) were detected by PCR in 83 (53%) and 65 (42%) isolates, respectively. By serotyping, six STEC from native cattle and four STEC from dairy cattle were identified as O-serotypes (O26, O111, O104, and O157) that can cause human disease. Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns highlighted the genetic diversity of the STEC strains and difference between strains collected during different years. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that the multidrug resistance rate increased from 12% in 2010 to 42% in 2011. Differences between isolates collected in 2010 and 2011 may have resulted from seasonal variations or large-scale slaughtering in Korea performed to control a foot and mouth disease outbreak that occurred in early 2011. However, continuous epidemiologic studies will be needed to understand mechanisms. More public health efforts are required to minimize STEC infection transmitted via dairy products and the prevalence of these bacteria in dairy cattle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cattle/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field/veterinary , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Female , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Latex Fixation Tests/veterinary , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Multilocus Sequence Typing/veterinary , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Shiga Toxin 1/genetics , Shiga Toxin 2/genetics , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/drug effects
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194857

ABSTRACT

The prevalence, virulence potential, and antibiotic resistance of ophthalmic Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) isolated from dogs were examined. Sixty-seven Staphylococcus species were isolated from ophthalmic samples and surveyed for species-specific sequences in the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) nuclease gene (SInuc), exfoliative toxin gene for SIG (siet), and antibiotic resistance genes (blaZ and mecA). PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the pta gene was also performed. Fifty isolates were identified as SIG strains, all of which were found to be SP. The blaZ gene was detected in 42 of the 50 SP strains and mecA gene was observed in 18 of the 50 SP strains. The 50 SP strains were most susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (94%) and chlorampenicol (70%), and highly resistant to tetracycline (94%) and penicillin (92%). It was also found that 16 (88.9%) mecA-positive SP strains were resistant to oxacillin, tetracycline and penicillin. All mecA-positive SP were resistant to more than four of the eight tested antibiotics and therefore considered SP with multi-drug resistance (MDR). Our results indicate a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in ophthalmic SP along with a close relationship between MDR SP strains and the mecA gene. Based on our findings, judicious administration of antibiotics to companion dogs is necessary.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Dogs , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus/drug effects
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24547

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in pigs, farm workers, and the environment in northern Thailand, and to assess LA-MRSA isolate phenotypic characteristics. One hundred and four pig farms were randomly selected from the 21,152 in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces in 2012. Nasal and skin swab samples were collected from pigs and farm workers. Environmental swabs (pig stable floor, faucet, and feeder) were also collected. MRSA was identified by conventional bacterial culture technique, with results confirmed by multiplex PCR and multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Herd prevalence of MRSA was 9.61% (10 of 104 farms). Among pigs, workers, and farm environments, prevalence was 0.68% (two of 292 samples), 2.53% (seven of 276 samples), and 1.28% (four of 312 samples), respectively. Thirteen MRSA isolates (seven from workers, four from environmental samples, and two from pigs) were identified as Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec IV sequences type 9. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests found 100% of the MRSA isolates resistant to clindamycin, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline, while 100% were susceptible to cloxacillin and vancomycin. All possessed a multidrug-resistant phenotype. This is the first evidence of an LA-MRSA interrelationship among pigs, workers, and the farm environment in Thailand.


Subject(s)
Animal Husbandry , Animals , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genotype , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Molecular Sequence Data , Multilocus Sequence Typing/veterinary , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA/veterinary , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology
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