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Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 303-309, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889222


Abstract Soymilk was produced from vegetable soybean and fermented by probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12) in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus. The composition of the fermented beverage and oligosaccharides content were determined. The effect of fructooligosaccharides and inulin on the fermentation time and viability of probiotic microorganisms throughout 28 days of storage at 5 °C were evaluated. The soymilk from vegetable soybeans was fermented in just 3.2 h, when pH reached 4.8. Fermentation reduced the contents of stachyose and raffinose in soymilk. Prebiotics had no effect on acidification rate and on viability of B. animalis and S. thermophilus in the fermented beverage. The viable counts of B. animalis Bb-12 remained above 108 CFU mL-1 in the fermented soymilk during 28 days of storage at 5 °C while L. acidophilus La-5 was decreased by 1 log CFU mL-1. The fermented soymilk from vegetable soybeans showed to be a good food matrix to deliver probiotic bacteria, as well as a soy product with a lower content of non-digestible oligosaccharides.

Beverages/analysis , Soy Milk/metabolism , Streptococcus thermophilus/metabolism , Synbiotics , Bifidobacterium animalis/metabolism , Lactobacillus acidophilus/metabolism , Oligosaccharides/analysis , Temperature , Colony Count, Microbial , Soy Milk/isolation & purification , Streptococcus thermophilus/growth & development , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Microbial Viability/radiation effects , Fermentation , Bifidobacterium animalis/growth & development , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Inulin/analysis , Lactobacillus acidophilus/growth & development
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 370-377, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889219


Abstract Agaricus subrufescens is a basidiomycete which is studied because of its medicinal and gastronomic importance; however, less attention has been paid to its preservation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sucrose addition to substrate and cryotube on the viability of Agaricus subrufescens cryopreserved at -20 °C and at -75 °C for one and two years. Zero, 10% or 20% sucrose was added to potato dextrose agar or wheat grain. The mycelia were cryopreserved in the absence of cryoprotectant or with sucrose solutions at 15%, 30% or 45%. After one or two years at -75 °C or at -20 °C, mycelia were thawed and evaluated about viability, initial time of growth, colony diameter and genomic stability. Cryopreservation at -20 °C is not effective to keep mycelial viability of this fungus. Cryopreservation at -75 °C is effective when sucrose is used in substrates and/or cryotubes. Without sucrose, cryopreservation at -75 °C is effective only when wheat grains are used. Physiological characteristic as mycelial colony diameter is negatively affected when potato dextrose agar is used and unaffected when wheat grain is used after two-year cryopreservation at -75 °C. The fungus genome does not show alteration after two-year cryopreservation at -75 °C.

Agaricus/growth & development , Cryopreservation/methods , Cryoprotective Agents/metabolism , Freezing , Seeds/microbiology , Sucrose/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology , Agaricus/radiation effects , Genomic Instability/radiation effects , Microbial Viability/radiation effects , Mycelium/growth & development , Mycelium/radiation effects , Time Factors
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 220-231, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889224


Abstract Basidiomycetes have several biotechnological and industrial applications such as enzyme production, bioremediation, pharmaceutical and functional food production. Due to climatic features, the preservation of several basidiomycetes is threatened, and to guarantee the preservation of this genetic resource, the development of long-term preservation techniques is necessary once there is no universal protocol for the cryopreservation of basidiomycetes. Cryopreservation is a technique in which microorganisms are submitted to ultralow temperatures. Therefore, this study aimed to collect information on the main conditions for long-term cryopreservation of basidiomycetes in the last 20 years. Scientific articles on cryopreservation of basidiomycetes published from 1997 to 2016, were researched, and only the studies on two intervals of cryopreservation were considered: from 1 to 2 years and for longer than 2 years. The analyzed conditions of basidiomycete cryopreservation were: most studied genera, cryopreservation temperature, substrate, cryoprotectant (and preservation substrate), cryopreservation period, thawing temperature and cultivation medium after thawing, physiological and genetic stability of basidiomycetes after thawing in cryopreservation. In this review, the viability of the main cryopreservation conditions of basidiomycetes studied in the last 20 years are presented and discussed.

Basidiomycota/physiology , Cryopreservation/methods , Microbial Viability/radiation effects , Basidiomycota/radiation effects , Cryoprotective Agents/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Time Factors
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1193-1199, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769649


Abstract The viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in freeze-drying is of significant commercial interest to dairy industries. In the study, L.bulgaricus demonstrated a significantly improved (p < 0.05) survival rate during freeze-drying when subjected to a pre-stressed period under the conditions of 2% (w/v) NaCl for 2 h in the late growth phase. The main energy source for the life activity of lactic acid bacteria is related to the glycolytic pathway. To investigate the phenomenon of this stress-related viability improvement in L. bulgaricus, the activities and corresponding genes of key enzymes in glycolysis during 2% NaCl stress were studied. NaCl stress significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) glucose utilization. The activities of glycolytic enzymes (phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) decreased during freeze-drying, and NaCl stress were found to improve activities of these enzymes before and after freeze-drying. However, a transcriptional analysis of the corresponding genes suggested that the effect of NaCl stress on the expression of the pfk2 gene was not obvious. The increased survival of freeze-dried cells of L. bulgaricus under NaCl stress might be due to changes in only the activity or translation level of these enzymes in different environmental conditions but have no relation to their mRNA transcription level.

Enzymes/metabolism , Freeze Drying , Lactobacillus/drug effects , Lactobacillus/radiation effects , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Glycolysis/drug effects , Glycolysis/radiation effects , Lactobacillus/enzymology , Lactobacillus/physiology , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Microbial Viability/radiation effects
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 601-611, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749726


Deinococcus radiodurans (DR) is an extremophile that is well known for its resistance to radiation, oxidants and desiccation. The gene dr1790 of D. radiodurans was predicted to encode a yellow-related protein. The primary objective of the present study was to characterize the biological function of the DR1790 protein, which is a member of the ancient yellow/major royal jelly (MRJ) protein family, in prokaryotes. Fluorescence labeling demonstrated that the yellow-related protein encoded by dr1790 is a membrane protein. The deletion of the dr1790 gene decreased the cell growth rate and sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and radiation and increased the membrane permeability of D. radiodurans. Transcript profiling by microarray and RT-PCR analyses of the dr1790 deletion mutant suggested that some genes that are involved in protein secretion and transport were strongly suppressed, while other genes that are involved in protein quality control, such as chaperones and proteases, were induced. In addition, the expression of genes with predicted functions that are involved in antioxidant systems, electron transport, and energy metabolism was significantly altered through the disruption of dr1790. Moreover, the results of proteomic analyses using 2-DE and MS also demonstrated that DR1790 contributed to D. radiodurans survival. Taken together, these results indicate that the DR1790 protein from the ancient yellow protein family plays a pleiotropic role in the survival of prokaryotic cells and contributes to the extraordinary resistance of D. radiodurans against oxidative and radiation stresses.

Deinococcus/genetics , Genes, Bacterial , Genetic Pleiotropy , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Cell Membrane/physiology , Deinococcus/drug effects , Deinococcus/growth & development , Deinococcus/radiation effects , Gene Deletion , Gene Expression Profiling , Genetic Complementation Test , Hydrogen Peroxide/toxicity , Microarray Analysis , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Microbial Viability/radiation effects , Permeability , Radiation, Ionizing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 777-783, July-Sept. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699810


In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10³ CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.

Bifidobacterium/physiology , Biotechnology/methods , Drug Compounding/methods , Lactobacillus acidophilus/physiology , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Microbial Viability/radiation effects , Probiotics/pharmacology , Aerosols , Drug Stability , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Temperature , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
Braz. dent. j ; 22(6): 502-510, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622725


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of specific parameters of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on biofilms formed by Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans or an association of both species. Single and dual-species biofilms - SSB and DSB - were exposed to laser doses of 5, 10 or 20 J/cm2 from a near infrared InGaAsP diode laser prototype (LASERTable; 780 ± 3 nm, 0.04 W). After irradiation, the analysis of biobilm viability (MTT assay), biofilm growth (cfu/mL) and cell morphology (SEM) showed that LLLT reduced cell viability as well as the growth of biofilms. The response of S. mutans (SSB) to irradiation was similar for all laser doses and the biofilm growth was dose dependent. However, when associated with C. albicans (DSB), S. mutans was resistant to LLLT. For C. albicans, the association with S. mutans (DSB) caused a significant decrease in biofilm growth in a dose-dependent fashion. The morphology of the microorganisms in the SSB was not altered by LLLT, while the association of microbial species (DSB) promoted a reduction in the formation of C. albicans hyphae. LLLT had an inhibitory effect on the microorganisms, and this capacity can be altered according to the interactions between different microbial species.

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de parâmetros específicos de irradiação com laser de baixa intensidade sobre biofilmes formados por Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Candida albicans (C. albicans) ou associação de ambas as espécies. Biofilmes isolados ou associados destes microrganismos foram irradiados com um dispositivo laser infra-vermelho próximo de diodos InGaAsP (LaserTABLE 780 ±3 nm, 0,04W), utilizando-se para isto o dispositivo LASERTable. Quinze horas após a irradiação, foi demonstrado, por meio da avaliação da viabilidade celular (Teste de MTT), da morfologia das células (MEV) e do crescimento do biofilme (UFC/mL), que esta terapia foi capaz de reduzir o metabolismo celular, número de microrganismos presentes no biofilme, bem como seu crescimento no local. Quanto à viabilidade celular, a resposta à irradiação do biofilme de S. mutans (SSB) foi semelhante para todas as doses de energia, sendo que o crescimento do biofilme foi dose dependente. Porém, quando associado à C. albicans, este microrganismo apresentou resistência à fototerapia. Já a C. albicans associada ao S. mutans apresentou redução de crescimento significativa, sendo este resultado também foi dose dependente. A morfologia dos microrganismos não foi alterada pelas irradiações realizadas quando em biofilmes isolados. A associação entre os microrganismos promoveu redução na formação de hifas pela C. albicans. A laserterapia de baixa intensidade apresentou efeito inibitório sobre microrganismos, sendo que esta capacidade pode ser alterada de acordo com a interação entre diferentes microrganismos.

Humans , Biofilms/radiation effects , Candida albicans/radiation effects , Lasers, Semiconductor , Low-Level Light Therapy/instrumentation , Mouth/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/radiation effects , Bacteriological Techniques , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida albicans/growth & development , Candida albicans/ultrastructure , Coloring Agents , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Hyphae/radiation effects , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microbial Interactions/radiation effects , Microbial Viability/radiation effects , Mycology/methods , Radiation Dosage , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Streptococcus mutans/ultrastructure , Succinate Dehydrogenase/analysis , Temperature , Time Factors , Tetrazolium Salts , Thiazoles