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1.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e1378, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347451

ABSTRACT

La experiencia científica de los últimos meses contra la pandemia de la COVID-19 muestra una celeridad nunca vista, así mismo, es inédita la velocidad en la publicación de los resultados de tales investigaciones. El contexto revela la carrera sostenida que tiene la ciencia contra la expansión de este letal virus. En el presente estudio se documentan evidencias bibliográficas para reconocer a PubMed como uno de los principales recursos de información científica sobre medicina que existen en el mundo. Es una necesidad del gremio científico médico e investigativo en el contexto de la COVID-19 conocer las temáticas que abordan los principales artículos de la base de datos. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar el comportamiento temático de los artículos publicados por PubMed sobre coronavirus en el primer semestre del año 2020 utilizando como herramienta de análisis al Observatorio Métrico de Coronavirus de la Universidad de Pinar del Río. El interés científico del estudio se concentra en las variables materia, MeSH y palabras clave; las que son analizadas con diferentes técnicas métricas que facilitan la visualización e interpretación de los resultados. Se demostró que PubMed, entre los temas más recurrentes, ha socializado investigaciones en virología, microbiología, farmacéutica, medicina general integral y sus relaciones con la oncología, neurología, pediatría, psicología, psiquiatría, oftalmología, nutrición, telemedicina y dispositivos médicos(AU)


The scientific experience of recent months against the COVID-19 pandemic shows a speed never seen before, likewise, the speed in the publication of the results of such investigations is unprecedented. The context reveals the sustained race in science against the spread of this deadly virus. In this study, bibliographic evidence is documented to recognize PubMed as one of the main sources of scientific information on medicine that exist in the world. In the context of COVID-19, it is a necessity for the scientific, medical and research union to know the issues addressed by the main articles in the database. The objective of this research is to analyze the thematic behavior of the articles published by PubMed on coronavirus in the first half of 2020, using the Coronavirus Metric Observatory of the University of Pinar del Río as an analysis tool. The scientific interest of the study is concentrated in the variables subject, MeSH and keywords; those that are analyzed with different metric techniques that facilitate the visualization and interpretation of the results. It was shown that PubMed, among the most recurrent topics, has socialized research in virology, microbiology, pharmaceuticals, comprehensive general medicine and their relationships with oncology, neurology, pediatrics, psychology, psychiatry, ophthalmology, nutrition, telemedicine and medical devices(AU)


Subject(s)
Biopharmaceutics , Continental Population Groups , Nutritional Sciences , COVID-19 , Microbiology
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200170, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249201

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lectins were discovered first in plants and later in other living things, and nowadays it is known that they are present in almost all many life forms. These proteins can bind to specific carbohydrates, which make them perform a number of biological activities and can be used as tools in the study of glycoconjugate structures present on the cell surface, being effective in medical research. Plant lectins, leguminosae lectins particularly, are among the most studied plant proteins. They are very versatile molecules, which show several interesting biological properties. Thus, the present paper reviewed the advances about the leguminosae lectins biological properties studies in the last ten years, taking into account their possible applications in the fields of Clinical Microbiology, Pharmacy and Cancerology through a search in the electronic databases, providing opportunity to exchange information about the theme. Leguminosae lectins can neutralize pathogenic organisms, be they viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, in addition carcinogenic cells, besides decreasing oxidative stress, conditions which increases the possibility of alternative substances for the design of new drugs to be used in current therapeutic, expanding the possibilities of diseases cure.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Plant Lectins/pharmacology , Education, Pharmacy , Medical Oncology/education , Microbiology/education
3.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 22(4): 448-456, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342108

ABSTRACT

Background: Risk assessment is the means of identifying and evaluating potential errors or problems that may occur in testing process. The aim of this study was to perform risk assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) process in clinical microbiology laboratories of Niamey, Niger Republic. Methodology: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study from October 1 to December 31, 2019, to evaluate AST performance in seven clinical microbiology laboratories at Niamey, the capital city of Niger republic. The evaluation focused on the determination of the criticality index (CI) of each critical point (frequency of occurrence of anomalies, severity of the process anomaly, and detectability of the anomaly during the process) in the AST process and the performance of the AST through an observation sheet using two reference strains; Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. Results: The criticality index (CI) was greater than 6 for most of the critical points related to material, medium, equipment, method and labour for the AST process in all the laboratories. A range of 18-100% errors on the inhibition zone diameters of the reference strains were observed. Major and/or minor categorization (Sensitive S, Intermediate I and Resistance R) discrepancies were found at all the laboratories for either one or both reference strains. The antibiotics most affected by the S/I/R discrepancies were trimethoprim (100%), vancomycin (100%), amoxicillin (80%) and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (70%). Conclusion: This study showed a deficiency in the control of critical control points that impacts the performance of the AST reported by the laboratories in Niger. Corrective actions are needed to improve the performance of AST in clinical microbiology laboratories in Niger


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality Control , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Medical Laboratory Science , Microbiology , Critical Illness , Niger
4.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 12(2): e379, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144461

ABSTRACT

Introducción: como parte del proceso de formación de enfermeros, médicos y tecnólogos de la salud son habilitados temas relacionados con la microbiología. Sin embargo, a partir del conjunto de medidas de seguridad y la disponibilidad de recursos físicos, no es posible el estudio de diversos microorganismos. Objetivo: desarrollar un Sistema de Laboratorios Remoto para la práctica de Microbiología y Parasitología Médica. Materiales y métodos: el sistema de Laboratorios Remoto posee un microscopio electrónico controlado mediante una interface de comunicación con un ordenador conectado a la red. Resultados: se obtuvo como resultado un Sistema de Laboratorios Remoto que puede ser accedido mediante Internet o la red institucional. Facilita el estudio y la interpretación de diferentes muestras biológicas. Brinda un conjunto de reportes y estadísticas que permiten realizar análisis históricos de comportamiento. Conclusiones: a partir del desarrollo de las prácticas de laboratorios a distancia, es posible el estudio de diferentes microorganismos sin riesgos biológicos para el estudiante(AU)


Introduction: as part of the training process for nurses, physicians and health technologists, topics related to microbiology are enabled. However, based on the set of security measures and the availability of physical resources, the study of various microorganisms is not possible. Objective: to develop a Remote Laboratory System for the practice of the subject Medical Microbiology and Parasitology. Methods: the Remote Laboratory System has an electronic microscope controlled by a communication interface with a computer connected to the network. Results: a Remote Laboratory System that can be accessed through the Internet or the institutional network. The system facilitates the study and interpretation of different biological samples and also provides a set of reports and statistics that allow for historical behavior analysis. Conclusions: from the development of remote laboratory practices, it is possible to study different microorganisms without biological risks for the student(AU)


Subject(s)
Software , Clinical Laboratory Information Systems , Telemedicine , Microbiology
5.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(4): 328-336, 20201230. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223677

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Histórias em quadrinhos (HQs) são constituídas de narrativas ou descrições contadas por meio de uma linguagem específica em desenhos dentro de quadros com falas em balões, ou apenas com imagens, ou símbolos. Dentro do processo de ensino-aprendizagem, a imagem é extremamente importante, já que pode tornar visíveis fatos e detalhes muitas vezes invisíveis. Em biologia, para não especialistas, estruturas microbianas e reações químicas podem ser mais facilmente compreendidas visualmente que por meio de linguagem textual. Desta forma, apresentamos a história em quadrinhos "Microbiologia em quadrinhos: uma tarde com a Escherichia coli", através de uma narrativa simples de uma jovem em um laboratório, se comunicando com a representação lúdica da bactéria E. coli. Nesta história são apresentadas características desta bactéria e alguns equipamentos e processos laboratoriais relacionados à microbiologia, como as partes de um microscópio óptico e o método de coloração de Gram. Métodos: A HQ foi criada produzindo-se modelagem 3D dos personagens e dos cenários utilizando-se o software Blender, pintura digital pelo software Krita e o aplicativo Strip Design para a construção dos quadrinhos, onde inserimos cada figura e balões de falas nos respectivos quadros. Resultados: O resultado gerou uma HQ de fácil leitura e visualização agradável dentro do conteúdo da microbiologia. Conclusão: Esse tipo de ferramenta lúdica pode facilitar o entendimento de assuntos complexos relacionados à bactéria Escherichia coli de forma prazerosa pelos leitores.


Objective: Comics (comics) are made up of narratives or descriptions told through a specific language in drawings within frames with speech in balloons, or only with images, or symbols. Within the teachinglearning process, the image is extremely important, as it can make facts and details often invisible, visible. In biology, for non-specialists, microbial structures and chemical reactions can be more easily understood visually than through textual language. In this way, we present the comic book "Microbiology in comics: an afternoon with Escherichia coli", through a simple narrative of a young woman in a laboratory, communicating with the playful representation of the bacterium Escherichia coli. This history presents characteristics of this bacterium and some equipment and laboratory processes related to microbiology, such as the parts of an optical microscope and the Gram staining method. Methods: The HQ was created through the 3D modeling of the characters and the scenarios using the Blender software, digital painting by the Krita software and the Strip Design application for the construction of the comics, where we insert each figure and speech bubbles in the respective frames. Results: The result generated an easy-to-read and pleasant visualization within the microbiology content. Conclusion: This type of playful tool can facilitate the understanding of complex subjects related to the bacteria Escherichia coli by the readers.


Subject(s)
Health Education , Escherichia coli , Graphic Novel , Microbiology
7.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 41(2): 249-262, jun./dez. 2020. Tab, Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224452

ABSTRACT

O conhecimento sobre microbiologia e parasitologia é considerado abstrato, pois muitos agentes causadores de doenças não são vistos a olho nu, o que distancia os alunos da realidade. Assim, nossos objetivos foram promover ações educativas por meio de ferramentas didáticas lúdicas que possibilitassem a complementação do aprendizado dos alunos frente aos diferentes grupos de microorganismos e parasitos e das ações de profilaxia relacionadas aos mesmos, e avaliar se ao final eles tinham condições de discriminar os grupos e relacionar com as doenças e as formas de profilaxia. Para tanto, foram feitas entrevistas junto aos professores para levantamento das possíveis atividades a serem desenvolvidas. A ação foi definida e então dividida em três momentos (aula expositiva, jogo didático e mostra científica) realizados entre agosto e novembro de 2018, atingindo aproximadamente 350 alunos, de oitavos e nonos anos, de três escolas públicas da zona urbana e rural da cidade de Uberlândia-MG. Para avaliar o impacto da ação foi feita uma análise comparativa de questionários aplicados antes (pré-intervenção) e após a ação (pós-intervenção). O percentual das respostas corretas nos questionários pós-intervenção aumentou em duas escolas (p>0,005). Quanto à análise por questões, as menores porcentagens de acertos foram observadas em perguntas relacionadas à distinção entre doenças bacterianas e virais, o reconhecimento dos sintomas e a associação das formas de transmissão com a profilaxia. Assim, este estudo reforça a importância da educação em saúde para que os alunos se mobilizem frente ao combate das doenças.(AU)


The knowledge about microbiology and parasitology is considered abstract since causative agents of diseases cannot be seen with the naked eye, leading to students' detachment from reality. Therefore, this work aimed to promote educational actions through playful tools that could complement students' learning regarding the different groups of microorganisms and parasites and the prophylactic measures related to them. Furthermore, at the end of the actions it was evaluated if the students were able to discriminate the groups of microorganisms and relate them to the diseases they cause and the different forms of prophylaxis. To this end, interviews were conducted with teachers to survey the possible activities that could be used. The action was defined and then divided into three moments (expository class, didactic game and scientific show) held between August and November 2018, reaching approximately 350 students, from the eighth and ninth years, from three public schools in the urban and rural area of the city oftUberlândia-MG. To assess the impact of the action, a comparative analysis of questionnaires was applied before (pre-intervention) and after the action (post-intervention). The percentage of correct answers in the questionnaires post-intervention increased in two schools (p>0,005). Regarding the analysis by questions, the lowest percentages of correct answers were observed in questions related to the distinction between bacterial and viral diseases, the recognition of the symptoms and the association of transmission ways with prophylaxis. Thus, this study reinforces the importance of health education for students to mobilize in the fight against diseases.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Parasitology , Health Education , Disease , Disease Prevention , Microbiology , Learning
8.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 62(1): 52-56, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148211

ABSTRACT

Si partimos de que la microbiología es una ciencia fundante, podemos estar de acuerdo también en la necesidad de la continua actualización de sus contenidos y su vinculación con la odontología. Nuevas técnicas de diagnóstico permiten, no solo poder identificar características especiales de cada microorganismo y su reubicación en la taxonomía general, sino también habilitan a reconocer a aquellos ­hasta el momento­ desconocidos en la cotidianeidad de la práctica profesional y que revisten importancia por sus afecciones sistémicas ya que pueden transformar, en algunos casos, a que el paciente sea considerado de riesgo. En este trabajo, se abordan tres ejemplares bacterianos seleccionados por su complejidad en la identificación y por la magnitud de las lesiones que producen. Granulicatella spp., Kingela kingae y Bilophila wadsworthia afectan no solo adultos sino también pacientes pediátricos, siendo afectados por patologías severas. Se describen cuadros clínicos que afectan tejido óseo, corazón, cerebro, hígado, bazo, riñón y las manifestaciones orales a las cuales pueden asociarse grupos microbianos que agravan el pronóstico. Aplicar la tecnología adecuadamente, no solo a procedimientos odontológicos, sino también para diagnóstico (PCR ­ MALDI ­ TOF) facilita la detección e identificación con mayor celeridad de estos agentes microbianos, evitando la rotación farmacológica, la resistencia microbiana y la automedicación (AU)


Considering microbiology as a key science in the approach of infectious processes, we understand the need for a continuous update of its contents and its link with dentistry. The incorporation of new technological approaches, such as molecular methods or mass spectrometry, allow us not only to identify special characteristics of the microorganism and its relocation in taxonomy, but also to know those microorganisms until now unknown in professional´s life everyday practice and that are important for their systemic implications, modifying in some cases, the risk assessment of the patient. Three bacterial specimens are developed in this work, due to their complexity in the identification and the magnitude of the lesions they produce, Granulicatella spp., Kingela kingae and Bilophila wadsworthia. These affects both adult and paediatric patients, describing several clinical conditions that affect bone tissue, heart, brain, liver, spleen, kidney and oral manifestations to which these microbial groups can be associated, aggravating the prognosis. Applying new technology, not only to dental procedures but also to diagnosis, facilitates the detection and identification with greater speed of these microbial agents, avoiding pharmacological rotation, microbial resistance and self-medication (AU)


Subject(s)
Microbiology , Mouth Diseases/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Kingella kingae , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Bilophila
10.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 37(1): 101-113, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098377

ABSTRACT

Abstract Forensic microbiology is a scientific area that has emerged with the need to investigate biocrimes, as in the case of intentional transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The present exploratory work aimed to demonstrate how biomedical technology, such as phylogenetics and quantification of viral load and CD4+ T lymphocytes, can be used to produce technical evidence that brings more certainty in determining the authorship and materiality of these criminal behaviors.


Resumen La microbiología forense es un área científica que ha surgido con la necesidad de investigar los delitos biológicos, como en el caso de la transmisión intencional del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Este trabajo exploratorio tuvo como objetivo demostrar cómo la tecnología biomédica, como la filogenética y la cuantificación de la carga viral y los linfocitos T CD4+, puede usarse para producir evidencia técnica que brinde más certeza para determinar la autoría y la materialidad de estas conductas criminales.


Subject(s)
Sex Offenses , HIV , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Microbiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/etiology , Coroners and Medical Examiners , DNA Transformation Competence , Forensic Medicine
11.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(1): 25-31, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1124066

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: to describe the demographic, clinical, therapeutic and microbiological characteristics of patients with hematological malignancies undergoing chemotherapy who develop febrile neutropenia during treatment, as well as the mortality at discharge. Methods: a retrospective cohort study of patients with hematologic neoplasms who developed febrile neutropenia and were seen at the Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación in Medellín. Results: records of 110 episodes of febrile neutropenia were obtained. The mean age was 45 years. In 55.4%, a microbiological diagnosis was obtained; bacteremia was documented in 83.8% of these. The most common microorganisms wereK.pneumoniae(30%) andE. coli(18%). Antibiotic resistance due to ESBLs or carbapenemases ingram negativebacilli was 33%. Death occurred in 17% of patients. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were the most prevalent underlying diagnoses; the most prevalent clinical focus was bacteremia (24.5%). Conclusion: in our case series, there are significant differences in the percentage of patients with bacteremia, as well as in global mortality, compared to the rest of the cohorts in the region. A new research study needs to be carried out to clarify the source of these differences.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1386).


Resumen Objetivo: describir las características demográficas, clínicas, terapéuticas y microbiológicas de los pacientes con malignidad hematológica en quimioterapia que desarrollan neutropenia febril durante el tratamiento, así como la mortalidad al egreso. Métodos: estudio de cohorte retrospectivo en pacientes con neoplasia hematológica que desarrollaron neutropenia febril evaluados en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación de Medellín. Resultados: se obtuvo el registro de 110 episodios de neutropenia febril. Media de edad 45 años. En 55.4% se obtuvo diagnóstico microbiológico, la bacteriemia fue documentada en 83.8% de ellos. Los microorganismos más comunes fueronK.pneumoniae(30%) yE. coli(18%). La resistencia a antibióticos por presencia de BLEE o carbapenemasas en bacilosgram negativosfue de 33%. La mortalidad ocurrió en 17% de los pacientes. La leucemia linfoide aguda (LLA) y leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) fueron los diagnósticos de base más prevalentes, el foco clínico más prevalente fue bacteriemia (24.5%). Conclusión: en nuestra cohorte se encontró diferencias significativas en cuanto al porcentaje de pacientes con bacteriemia, así como en la mortalidad global respecto al resto de cohortes de la región, es necesario desarrollar un nuevo trabajo de investigación que permita aclarar el origen de estas diferencias.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1386).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Neutropenia , Research , Bacteremia , Drug Therapy , Microbiology
12.
Infectio ; 24(1): 7-7, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1090536

ABSTRACT

El Dr. Miguel Guzmán, pionero de la microbiología en Colombia falleció en el mes de Abril de 2019 y desde Infectio, de quien fue su fundador y primer editor, queremos rendirle un homenaje por su contribución al desarrollo de la investigación y la enseñanza de la microbiología médica, haciendo un resumen de su vida y obra.


Dr. Miguel Guzman, pioneer of microbiology in Colombia passed away in April 2019 and from Infectio, whose founder and first editor, we want to pay tribute to him for his contribution to the development of research and teaching of medical microbiology, making a summary of his life and work.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Research Personnel , Faculty , Microbiology/history , Tropical Medicine , Communicable Diseases
13.
Porto Alegre; s.n; 2020. 92 p. mapas, ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-1147142

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estimar o volume de esgoto gerado no RS em Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio (DBO kg/dia), e o volume de esgoto (DBO kg/dia) que chega até as estações de tratamento de esgoto ETEs; diagnosticar a eficiência das estações de tratamento de esgotoem relação ao percentual de remoção de (DBO kg/dia); correlacionando com a presença de cianobactérias próximas aos pontos de captação de água superficial para consumo humano; analisar se há inativação ou remoção de protozoários no lançamento do efluente ao retornar ao manancial. Como resultado obteve-se o volume total de matéria orgânica lançada nos corpos hídricos por dia estimado no Rio Grande do Sul é 511.769,00 DBO kg/dia no RS. As Estações de Tratamento de Esgoto captam 390.285,45 DBO kg/dia apresentaram resultados de remoção de 145.500,50 DBO kg/dia e de 22.963,21 DBO kg/dia residual; O volume ocioso das ETEs fica em torno de 5.049,89 L/s. O processo de eliminar ou inativar grande quantidade de protozoários presentes no afluente se dá através de etapas terciárias avançadas nas ETEs. Não encontramos no RS no ano 2019 ETEs com esses tipos avançados de tratamento. Sugere-se então que haja um melhor aproveitamento destas estações de tratamento no que se refere à quantidade e qualidade de volume de esgoto tratado e que sejam ampliados estudos para viabilidade de projetos de execução de novas ETEs para os demais municípios que despejam seus esgotos in natura nos mananciais impactando-os.


This work aims to estimate the volume of sewage generated in RS in Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD kg/day), and the volume of sewage (BOD kg/day) that reaches the sewage treatment stations (STS)s; diagnose the efficiency of sewage treatment station in relation to the percentage of removal (BOD kg/day); correlating with the presence of cyanobacteria close to the surface water intake points for human consumption; analyze if there is inactivation or removal of protozoa in the discharge of the effluent when returning to the source. As a result, the total volume of organic matter released into water bodies per day estimated in Rio Grande do Sul is 511,769.00 BOD kg/day in RS. The Sewage Treatment Plants capture 390,285.45 BOD kg/day showed removal results of 145,500.50 BOD kg/day and 22,963.21 BOD kg/day residual; The idle volume of ETEs is around 5,049.89 L/s. The process of eliminating or inactivating a large amount of protozoa present in the tributary takes place through advanced tertiary stages in the STSs. We did not find in RS in the year 2019 STSs with these advanced types of treatment. It is therefore suggested that there is a better use of these treatment plants with regard to the quantity and quality of the volume of treated sewage and that studies for the feasibility of projects for the execution of new STSs be expanded to the other municipalities that dump their raw sewage in water sources impacting them.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants/analysis , Water Purification/prevention & control , Cyanobacteria/pathogenicity , Environmental Hazards , Health Risk , Correlation of Data , Wastewater Treatment Plants , Investigative Techniques , Basic Sanitation , Environment , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control , Organic Matter/analysis , Health Promotion/methods , Microbiology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829019

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Our objective was to investigate the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens and characterize the bacterial community structures in the water system of a pulmonary hospital.@*Methods@#The water samples were collected from automatic and manual faucets in the consulting room, treatment room, dressing room, respiratory ward, and other non-medical rooms in three buildings of the hospital. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the load of several waterborne opportunistic pathogens and related microorganisms, including spp., spp., and . Illumina sequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes was performed to profile bacterial communities.@*Results@#The occurrence rates of spp., spp., and were 100%, 100%, and 76%, respectively in all samples. Higher occurrence rates of were observed in the outpatient service building (building 1, 91.7%) and respiration department and wards (building 2, 80%) than in the office building (building 3), where no was found. were more abundant in automatic faucets (average 2.21 × 10 gene copies/L) than in manual faucets (average 1.03 × 10 gene copies/mL) ( < 0.01). , , , , , and were the dominant bacterial phyla. Disinfectant residuals, nitrate, and temperature were found to be the key environmental factors driving microbial community structure shifts in water systems.@*Conclusion@#This study revealed a high level of colonization of water faucets by opportunistic pathogens and provided insight into the characteristics of microbial communities in a hospital water system and approaches to reduce risks of microbial contamination.


Subject(s)
China , Drinking Water , Microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Hospitals , Legionella , Microbiota , Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium avium , RNA, Bacterial , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Water Quality , Water Supply
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829001

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of isolates from clinical patients, tap water systems, and food.@*Methods@#Ninety isolates were obtained from Ma'anshan, Anhui province, China, and subjected to multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) with six housekeeping genes. Their taxonomy was investigated using concatenated sequences, while their resistance to 12 antibiotics was evaluated. Ten putative virulence factors and several resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing.@*Results@#The 90 isolates were divided into 84 sequence types, 80 of which were novel, indicating high genetic diversity. The isolates were classified into eight different species. PCR assays identified virulence genes in the isolates, with the enterotoxin and hemolysin genes , , , and found in 47 (52.2%), 13 (14.4%), 22 (24.4%), and 12 (13.3%) of the isolates, respectively. The majority of the isolates (≥ 90%) were susceptible to aztreonam, imipenem, cefepime, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. However, several resistance genes were detected in the isolates, as well as a new variant.@*Conclusions@#Sequence type, virulence properties, and antibiotic resistance vary in isolates from clinical patients, tap water systems, and food.


Subject(s)
Aeromonas , Genetics , Virulence , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , China , Drinking Water , Microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Food Microbiology , Genetic Variation , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Microbiology , Species Specificity , Virulence
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828966

ABSTRACT

The human microbiome functions as an intricate and coordinated microbial network, residing throughout the mucosal surfaces of the skin, oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and reproductive system. The oral microbiome encompasses a highly diverse microbiota, consisting of over 700 microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. As our understanding of the relationship between the oral microbiome and human health has evolved, we have identified a diverse array of oral and systemic diseases associated with this microbial community, including but not limited to caries, periodontal diseases, oral cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and inflammatory bowel syndrome. The potential predictive relationship between the oral microbiota and these human diseases suggests that the oral cavity is an ideal site for disease diagnosis and development of rapid point-of-care tests. The oral cavity is easily accessible with a non-invasive collection of biological samples. We can envision a future where early life salivary diagnostic tools will be used to predict and prevent future disease via analyzing and shaping the infant's oral microbiome. In this review, we present evidence for the establishment of the oral microbiome during early childhood, the capability of using childhood oral microbiome to predict future oral and systemic diseases, and the limitations of the current evidence.


Subject(s)
Child , Child Health , Humans , Infant , Microbiota , Mouth , Microbiology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828963

ABSTRACT

The oral microbial community is widely regarded as a latent reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. This study assessed the molecular epidemiology, susceptibility profile, and resistance mechanisms of 35 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains isolated from the dental plaque of a healthy human population. Broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) revealed that all the isolates were nonsusceptible to oxacillin and penicillin G. Most of them were also resistant to trimethoprim (65.7%) and erythromycin (54.3%). The resistance to multiple antibiotics was found to be largely due to the acquisition of plasmid-borne genes. The mecA and dfrA genes were found in all the isolates, mostly dfrG (80%), aacA-aphD (20%), aadD (28.6%), aphA3 (22.9%), msrA (5.7%), and the ermC gene (14.3%). Classical mutational mechanisms found in these isolates were mainly efflux pumps such as qacA (31.4%), qacC (25.7%), tetK (17.1%), and norA (8.6%). Multilocus sequence type analysis revealed that sequence type 59 (ST59) strains comprised 71.43% of the typed isolates, and the eBURST algorithm clustered STs into the clonal complex 2-II(CC2-II). The staphyloccoccal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type results showed that 25 (71.43%) were assigned to type IV. Moreover, 88.66% of the isolates were found to harbor six or more biofilm-associated genes. The aap, atlE, embp, sdrF, and IS256 genes were detected in all 35 isolates. This research demonstrates that biofilm-positive multiple-antibiotic-resistant ST59-SCCmec IV S. epidermidis strains exist in the dental plaque of healthy people and may be a potential risk for the transmission of antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Dental Plaque , Microbiology , Female , Humans , Methicillin , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Diagnosis , Staphylococcus epidermidis
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828525

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate changes in intestinal flora in patients with primary Sj?gren syndrome (pSS) and explore the relationship between pSS disease activity and intestinal flora structure.@*METHODS@#Fecal samples were collected from 18 female pSS patients, including 9 patients with active disease (group A) and 9 with disease inactivity or low activity (group B), with 10 healthy subjects as the control group. The total bacterial DNA was extracted from the fecal samples for PCR amplification, and Illumina Hiseq 2500 high-throughput sequencing was performed for the v3-v4 region of 16Sr DNA gene to obtain the biological information of the intestinal flora. The intergroup OTU analysis, structural diversity analysis, significant difference analysis and LEFSE analysis were performed with information mining of the literature think tanks.@*RESULTS@#The dilution curves generated based on the OTUshannon index for analysis of sample complexity showed that the measured data were relatively complete and could reflect the diversity of the microorganisms in the subjects. Analysis of the Alpha diversity index showed that the Shannon index differed significantly between group A and group B, and the Simpson index differed significantly between group A and group B and between group A and the control group ( < 0.05). Sequence analysis the 3 groups all consisted mainly of 4 phylum (, , , showed that the intestinal flora in and ) and 4 genera (, , , and ), all showing no significant differences among the 3 groups ( > 0.05) with the exception of genus, which differed significantly among the 3 groups ( < 0.05). The 16S v3-v4 region in the genus , , , , , , , , , , -, and differed significantly among the 3 groups ( < 0.05). The high-dimensional biometrics and genomic characteristics of the intestinal microorganisms differed significantly among the 3 groups ( < 0.05). According to the size of LDA SCORE (effect size), the core flora in group A included the genera , , -, , -, , , , and , as compared with the genera , , , , , -, , - and in the control group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Patients with pSS have significant changes in the diversity of intestinal flora, especially in some specific bacteria in genus and in 16S v3-v4 region of the bacteria. The differences in the core bacteria in the intestinal flora of pSS patients suggest the role of flora structure changes in the pathogenesis of pSS.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Classification , Genetics , Biodiversity , DNA, Bacterial , Genetics , Feces , Microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Genetics , Sjogren's Syndrome , Microbiology
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the characteristics of growth and metabolism and the toxicity of under different conditions.@*METHODS@#We observed the growth of and under routine culture conditions and in different pH and salt concentrations, and compared their activities of sugar fermentation using microbiochemical reaction tubes. Four-week-old nude mice were randomized into infection group (=5), infection group (=5) and control group (=5) for intragastric administration of 0.3 mL suspension the two (5×10 cfu/mL) or 0.3 mL normal saline. Samples of the liver, kidney, intestine, feces and blood were taken for analysis of the distribution and toxicity of by fungal culture and histopathological examination.@*RESULTS@# exhibited logarithmic growth at 8-24 h after inoculation and showed stable growth after 24 h. showed optimal growth within the pH value range of 5-7 with a growth pattern identical to that of . grew better than in media containing 5% and 10% NaCl, and could ferment glucose, sucrose, trehalose and sorbitol. could be isolated from the feces, blood, liver and kidney of infected nude mice, and the liver had the highest fungal load (5.7 log cfu/g). could cause pathological changes in the liver and intestine of the mice, but with a lesser severity as compared with .@*CONCLUSIONS@# exhibits optimal growth in mildly acidic or neutral conditions with a high salt tolerance, and can potentially penetrate the intestinal barrier into blood and lead to tissue injuries in hosts with immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Candida , Candida albicans , Candidiasis , Microbiology , Culture Media , Mice , Mice, Nude , Random Allocation
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827203

ABSTRACT

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is to transplant the functional bacteria in the feces of healthy people into the patients' intestines, rebuild the new balance of intestinal flora, and achieve the treatment goals of intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. In the past 10 years, FMT has made a breakthrough in the treatment of intestinal and extraintestinal diseases, which is highly expected to treat difficult diseases. However, due to the complexity of FMT methodology and the lack of a unified standard, there is a high heterogeneity in FMT efficacy among various researches, greatly affected its clinical application. Under the initiative of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Branch of Chinese Medical Association, Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Branch of China International Health Care Promotion Exchange Association, China Microecological Treatment Innovation Alliance, and Microecology Committee of Shanghai Preventive Medicine Association, the first expert consensus on standardized methodology and clinical application of FMT was established in China, with a view to improving the efficacy of FMT, reducing the incidence of adverse reactions and promoting the clinical application of FMT.


Subject(s)
China , Consensus , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Methods , Reference Standards , Feces , Microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Physiology , Humans , Treatment Outcome
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