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1.
Educ. med. super ; 36(2)jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1404554

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El aprendizaje móvil (m-learning) es la inclusión de dispositivos móviles en las actividades de aprendizaje. En la enseñanza de Microbiología y Parasitología médica estos ofrecen un alto poder de ilustración y contribuyen al aprendizaje de la asignatura de los estudiantes de la carrera de medicina; además, sirven de apoyo a otros perfiles como Tecnología de la Salud. Objetivo: Exponer la actualización del curso de Microbiología y Parasitología en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Camagüey mediante una aplicación androide. Métodos: Se realizó una aplicación optimizada para androide 4.4 o superior con el lenguaje de programación Java. Esta investigación se desarrolló en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Carlos J. Finlay y se aplicó a estudiantes de la carrera de medicina en los cursos 2018-2019 y 2019-2020. El universo del estudio fueron 1446 estudiantes de los cursos de 2016-2020. Se realizó una encuesta validada por expertos a una muestra probabilística de 88 estudiantes de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Camagüey, en el período comprendido entre noviembre y diciembre de 2020. Se calculó el coeficiente concordancia general W de Kendall en cuanto a las respuestas a las preguntas. Resultados: Mikros fue una herramienta de apoyo a la docencia, fruto de un proyecto de colaboración entre el Centro de Inmunología y Productos Biológicos de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas y la Facultad de Ingeniería Informática de la Universidad Ignacio Agramonte, de Camagüey, que permitió introducir al profesor en una modalidad de enseñanza muy a tono con estos tiempos. Conclusiones: La aplicación Mikros incluyó conceptos básicos y un alto nivel de actualización. También contribuyó a elevar el índice académico y a una mayor satisfacción del alumno en el aprendizaje, y resultó una herramienta de consulta práctica para estudiantes de años posteriores de la carrera en rotación por el área clínica y útil para el aprendizaje a distancia en tiempos de COVID-19(AU)


Introduction: Mobile learning (m-learning) consists in the inclusion of mobile devices into learning activities. In the teaching of medical parasitology and microbiology, such devices offer a high power of illustration and contribute to medical students' learning of the subject; in addition, they serve as support to other profiles such as health technology. Objective: To present the update, by means of an android application, of the Microbiology and Parasitology course at the University of Medical Sciences of Camagüey. Methods: An optimized application for android 4.4 or higher was created with the Java programming language. This research was carried out at Carlos J. Finlay University of Medical Sciences and applied to medical students in the 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 academic years. The study universe was made up of 1446 students from the academic years from 2016 to 2020. A survey validated by experts was carried out, in the period between November and December 2020, with a probabilistic sample of 88 students from the University of Medical Sciences of Camagüey. Kendall's coefficient of general concordance (W) was calculated for the answers to the questions. Results: Mikros was a teaching support tool, the result of a collaborative project between the Center of Immunology and Biological Products at the University of Medical Sciences and the School of Computer Engineering at Ignacio Agramonte University, in Camagüey, which allowed to present the professor in a teaching modality much in tune with the current times. Conclusions: The Mikros application included basic concepts and a high update level. It also contributed to raising the student's academic index and satisfaction with learning. It turned out to be a practical consultation tool for students of higher academic years of the major who are rotating through the clinical area, as well as a useful tool for distance learning in COVID-19 times(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Parasitology/education , Education, Distance/methods , Mobile Applications , Microbiology/education , Programming Languages , COVID-19/prevention & control
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): 73-77, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388335

ABSTRACT

Resumen Ya en la antigüedad existía la idea de que pequeñísimos animales o insectos podían causar enfermedades al ser ingeridos o respirados. En forma paralela, varios filósofos desarrollaron el concepto de semillas para explicar la composición del mundo. Ambos conceptos fueron amalgamados en la genial idea de semillas de enfermedad que fue difundida en el célebre poema del filósofo epicúreo Lucrecio denominado "De rerum natura" o "Sobre la naturaleza de las cosas". La idea fue refinada en el Renacimiento por el destacado médico renacentista Gerónimo Fracastorius con sus famosas semina morbi (semillas de enfermedad) que explicaban el contagio. La teoría germinal de los microbios del s. XIX no hizo más que adjudicarle a esta idea ya milenaria un substrato material.


Abstract Already in ancient times there was the idea that tiny animals or insects could cause diseases when ingested or breathed. In parallel, several philosophers developed the concept of seeds to explain the composition of the world. Both concepts were amalgamated in the brilliant idea of seeds of disease that was spread in the famous poem "De rerum natura" by the Epicurean philosopher Lucretius. The idea was refined in the Renaissance by the prominent physician Girolamo Fracastorius with his famous semina morbi (seeds of disease) that explained contagion. The germinal theory of microbes of the s. XIX did nothing more than assign to this already millenary idea a material substratum.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, Ancient , Physicians , Microbiology/history
3.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e57616, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366131

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the effect of contamination of composite resins (CRs) handled by undergraduate students during restorative procedures, varying the time (baseline, 30 days and 60 days) and experimental condition (before and after handling, contamination with saliva [positive control] and photoactivation). Eight CR tubes were randomly distributed at the dental clinic and the samples were organized into four groups: CR fragments collected before (GB) and after (GA) the restorative procedure; CR fragments contaminated with saliva (GS) and photoactivated (GP) both collected after the procedure. These 4 groups were evaluated in 3 different times: baseline (after sealing), 30 days and 60 days of use of the CR. Samples that had positive turbidity in Brain HeartInfusion (BHI) broth were sown in BHI and Sabouraud Dextrose (SB) agars for subsequent counting of Colony Forming Units (CFU mL-1). The results showed that the handling was responsible for increasing contamination (p < 0.05) at the baseline (GB [n = 0] and GA [n = 3]), as well as after 30 (GB [n = 1] and GA [n = 6]) and 60 (GB [n = 1] and GA [n = 5]) days of use. Photoactivation was responsible for the reduction for microorganisms in T0 and T60. Additionally, the time use and conservation did not influencethe contamination of CRs. Handling was responsible for the increase of contamination of CR, the photoactivation seems to reduce the number of viable microorganisms and the time of use seems not to potentiate the effect of tube contamination.


Subject(s)
Pollution Indicators , Composite Resins/analysis , Good Manipulation Practices , Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives/instrumentation , Students, Dental , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Environmental Restoration and Remediation , Food Preservatives/analysis , Microbiology/instrumentation
4.
Bull. W.H.O. (Online) ; 100(9): 534-543, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1397428

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess if water from improved sources are microbiologically safe in Niassa province, Mozambique, by examining the presence of total coliforms in different types of water sources. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional household survey in two rural districts of Niassa province during the dry season, from 21 August to 4 October 2019. We observed water sources and conducted microbiological water quality tests and structured household interviews. Findings We included 1313 households, of which 812 (61.8%) used water from an improved source. There was no significant difference in presence of total coliforms between water sampled at improved and unimproved water sources, 62.7% (509 samples) and 65.7% (329 samples), respectively (P-value=0.267). Households using improved water sources spent significantly longer time collecting water (59.1 minutes; standard deviation, SD: 55.2) than households using unimproved sources (49.8 minutes; SD: 58.0; P-value <0.001). A smaller proportion of households using improved sources had access to water sources available 24 hours per day than that of households using unimproved sources, 71.7% (582 households) versus 94.2% (472 households; P-value <0.001). Of the 240 households treating water collected from improved sources, 204 (85.4%) had total coliforms in their water, while treated water from 77 of 107 (72.0%) households collecting water from an unimproved source were contaminated. Conclusion Current access to an improved water source does not ensure microbiological safety of water and thereby using access as the proxy indicator for safe drinking and cooking water is questionable. Poor quality of water calls for the need for integration of water quality assessment into regular monitoring programmes.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Water Quality , Water Contamination Control , Microbiology
5.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(2): 288-296, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1380900

ABSTRACT

Los microorganismos son seres vivos, que han ido adaptándose y evolucionando permitiendo su supervivencia, evadiendo las respuesta innata de los hospedadores e incluso modificando sus estructuras biológicas antes moléculas farmacológicas, que se han, en los últimos años, empleado de manera inadecuadas, bien sea por abuso o por deficiencia en el cumplimiento del esquema del tratamiento, o desaciertos para tratar un germen en específico y, como consecuencia, la actual crisis mundial por la resistencia a los antimicrobianos; considerado un problema de salud pública, requiere de esfuerzos multisectoriales e integrales que aporten soluciones mediatas, a corto y mediano plazo, sostenibles en el tiempo. Para ellos, es clave la formación de los nuevos profesionales, en el área de microbiología, de las diferentes carreras biomédicas. Es por ello, el presente estudio identificó las competencias que deben desarrollar los estudiantes, de seis universidades ecuatorianas. Se aplicaron cuestionarios, inquiriendo la importancia atribuida y el grado de desarrollo percibido de cada competencia mediante escala tipo Likert, además de seis dimensiones distribuidas en 40 indicadores. Se identificó mayor desarrollo de competencias en la identificación del patógeno, diagnóstico y análisis e interpretación de los resultados; además las seis dimensiones educativas fueron clasificadas como relevantes. Sin embargo, los resultados sugieren falencia en el desarrollo de competencias en la temática de resistencia antimicrobiana, por lo que se sugiere la revisión de los contenidos programáticos y aplicar nuevas herramientas pedagógicas que permitan al estudiantado aprender a aprender, aplicando un modelo socio-critico, y como base la investigación y el conocimiento científico actualizado(AU)


Microorganisms are living beings, which have been adapting and evolving allowing their survival, evading the innate response of the hosts and even modifying their biological structures before pharmacological molecules, which have, in recent years, been used inappropriately, either by abuse or deficiency in compliance with the treatment scheme, or failure to treat a specific germ and, as a consequence, the current global crisis due to antimicrobial resistance; considered a public health problem, it requires multisectoral and comprehensive efforts that provide immediate, short- and medium-term solutions that are sustainable over time. For them, the training of new professionals in the area of microbiology, of the different biomedical careers, is key. For this reason, this study identified the skills that students from six Ecuadorian universities should develop. Questionnaires were applied, inquiring about the importance attributed and the perceived degree of development of each competency using a Likert-type scale, in addition to six dimensions distributed in 40 indicators. Greater development of skills in the identification of the pathogen, diagnosis and analysis and interpretation of the results was identified; In addition, the six educational dimensions were classified as relevant. However, the results suggest a lack in the development of skills in the subject of antimicrobial resistance, so it is suggested to review the program contents and apply new pedagogical tools that allow students to learn to learn, applying a socio-critical model, and as a basis research and updated scientific knowledge(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Schools, Medical , Competency-Based Education , Anti-Infective Agents , Noxae , Research , Models, Educational , Containment of Biohazards , Education, Professional , Microbiology
7.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(3): 219-223, 20210930.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368021

ABSTRACT

Os mecanismos de resistência bacteriana podem existir de maneira intrínseca ou adquirida, porém em ambos os casos podem dificultar a terapia antimicrobiana preconizada para tratamento de infecções. Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar estudos recentes sobre o assunto. Foi realizada uma revisão da literatura sobre resistência bacteriana aos antimi- crobianos, utilizando as bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, Scopus e Web of Science. A busca identificou o total de 16 artigos, que foram publicados entre os anos de 2017 a 2021. A maioria dos artigos sobre Gram-negativos tratou do grupo das enterobactérias, assim como os de Gram-positivos tratou dos gêneros Staphylococcus , Enterococcus e Streptococcus. A resistência bacteriana foi encontrada em cefalosporinas, carbapenêmicos, quinolonas, aminoglicosídeos, entre outros. Em relação aos mecanismos de resistência, as ß-Lactamases de espectro estendido (ESBL), enterobactérias resistentes aos carbape- nêmicos (ERC), Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à meticilina (MRSA) e Enterococcus resistentes à vancomicina (VRE) foram relatados e observa-se que a maioria dos trabalhos corrobora que seu rastreamento visa minimizar a transmissão em instituições de saúde.


Bacterial resistance mechanisms can exist intrinsically or acquired, but in both cases they can make the antimicrobial therapy recommended for the treatment of infections difficult. This article aims to present recent studies on the subject. A literature review on bacterial resistance to antimicrobials was carried out using the MEDLINE, LILACS, Scopus and Web of Science databases. The search identified a total of 16 articles, which were published between 2017 and 2021. Most articles on Gram-negatives dealt with the enterobacteria group, as well as Gram-positive articles from the Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Streptococcus genera. Bacterial resistance was found in cephalosporins, carbapenems, quinolones, aminoglycosides, among others. Regarding resistance mechanisms, Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL), Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteria (ERC), Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) have been reported and it is observed that most works corroborate that its tracking aims to minimize transmission in health institutions.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance , Bacterial Infections , Microbiology
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(4): 558-561, ago. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388272

ABSTRACT

Resumen Una de las obras, probablemente menos conocidas, de Antoine van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) es su Arcana naturae detecta (Secretos detectados de la naturaleza) publicada en su primera edición en 1695. Esta obra es una recopilación de 38 cartas sobre temas científicos y está bellamente ilustrada. Una sección notable de ella es la observación y descripción por primera vez de levaduras de la fermentación y sus experimentos sobre la generación espontánea de microorganismos.


Abstract One of the works, probably less known, of Antoine van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) is his Arcana naturae detecta (Detected secrets of nature) published in its first edition in 1695. This work is a compilation of 38 letters on scientific issues and it is beautifully illustrated. A notable section of the work is the observation and description for the first time of fermentation yeasts and his experiments on the spontaneous generation of microorganisms.


Subject(s)
History, 17th Century , Microbiology/history , Yeasts , Fermentation , Microscopy/history
9.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e1378, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347451

ABSTRACT

La experiencia científica de los últimos meses contra la pandemia de la COVID-19 muestra una celeridad nunca vista, así mismo, es inédita la velocidad en la publicación de los resultados de tales investigaciones. El contexto revela la carrera sostenida que tiene la ciencia contra la expansión de este letal virus. En el presente estudio se documentan evidencias bibliográficas para reconocer a PubMed como uno de los principales recursos de información científica sobre medicina que existen en el mundo. Es una necesidad del gremio científico médico e investigativo en el contexto de la COVID-19 conocer las temáticas que abordan los principales artículos de la base de datos. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar el comportamiento temático de los artículos publicados por PubMed sobre coronavirus en el primer semestre del año 2020 utilizando como herramienta de análisis al Observatorio Métrico de Coronavirus de la Universidad de Pinar del Río. El interés científico del estudio se concentra en las variables materia, MeSH y palabras clave; las que son analizadas con diferentes técnicas métricas que facilitan la visualización e interpretación de los resultados. Se demostró que PubMed, entre los temas más recurrentes, ha socializado investigaciones en virología, microbiología, farmacéutica, medicina general integral y sus relaciones con la oncología, neurología, pediatría, psicología, psiquiatría, oftalmología, nutrición, telemedicina y dispositivos médicos(AU)


The scientific experience of recent months against the COVID-19 pandemic shows a speed never seen before, likewise, the speed in the publication of the results of such investigations is unprecedented. The context reveals the sustained race in science against the spread of this deadly virus. In this study, bibliographic evidence is documented to recognize PubMed as one of the main sources of scientific information on medicine that exist in the world. In the context of COVID-19, it is a necessity for the scientific, medical and research union to know the issues addressed by the main articles in the database. The objective of this research is to analyze the thematic behavior of the articles published by PubMed on coronavirus in the first half of 2020, using the Coronavirus Metric Observatory of the University of Pinar del Río as an analysis tool. The scientific interest of the study is concentrated in the variables subject, MeSH and keywords; those that are analyzed with different metric techniques that facilitate the visualization and interpretation of the results. It was shown that PubMed, among the most recurrent topics, has socialized research in virology, microbiology, pharmaceuticals, comprehensive general medicine and their relationships with oncology, neurology, pediatrics, psychology, psychiatry, ophthalmology, nutrition, telemedicine and medical devices(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopharmaceutics , Racial Groups , Nutritional Sciences , COVID-19 , Microbiology
10.
Rev. Asoc. Colomb. Cien. Biol. (En línea) ; 2(33): 133-142, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1379318

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La sociedad actual demanda ciudadanos integrales, críticos, reflexivos y capaces de generar respuestas a los problemas de un mundo cambiante y globalizado. Mediante el uso de diversas estrategias de enseñanza, el maestro puede contribuir a que los estudiantes, desde edades tempranas, desarrollen las aptitudes necesarias para convertirse en seres humanos poseedores de la actitud investigativa que se requiere en la actualidad. Objetivo: desarrollar habilidades de pensamiento en jóvenes en edad escolar y educarles en valores relacionados con las ciencias. Metodología: a investigación se abordó desde la perspectiva del paradigma constructivista, utilizó un enfoque cualitativo y empleó el método Investigación-Acción. La práctica docente se cualificó a partir de la sistematización, análisis y reflexión de la implementación de estrategias de enseñanza como: buenas preguntas, red conceptual, experimentos de laboratorio y proyecto de investigación escolar con jóvenes. Resultados: ampliaron sus conocimientos sobre algunos temas de microbiología, mejoraron el manejo del lenguaje científico, desarrollaron habilidades analíticas y argumentativas, progresaron en la capacidad de señalar lo esencial para una investigación, mostraron una actitud responsable y crítica frente al ambiente y ejecutaron su proyecto de investigación escolar en el que emplearon un controlador biológico; todo lo anterior para desarrollar habilidades, actitudes y pensamiento científico que favorecieron la construcción de conocimiento. Conclusión: a la luz del método de Investigación-Acción, los estudiantes lograron desarrollar capacidades como el análisis, síntesis, argumentación, sentido crítico y actitud responsable con el ambiente.


Introduction: Today's society demands integral, critical, reflective citizens capable of generating answers to the problems of a changing and globalized world. Through the use of different teaching strategies, the teacher can contribute to help students, from an early age, to develop the necessary skills to become human beings with the investigative attitude that is required today. Objective: this research was carried out with the purpose of achieving two objectives: to develop thinking skills in school-age children and to educate them in values related to science. Methodology: The research was approached from the perspective of the constructivist paradigm, used a qualitative approach and employed the Action Research method. The teaching practice was qualified based on the systematization, analysis and reflection of the implementation of teaching strategies such as: good questions, conceptual network, laboratory experiments and school research project with young people. Results: they broadened their knowledge on some microbiology topics, improved their handling of scientific language, developed analytical and argumentative skills, progressed in the ability to point out what is essential for an investigation, showed a responsible and critical attitude towards the environment and executed their school research project in which they used a biological controller; all of the above to develop skills, attitudes and scientific thinking that favored the construction of knowledge. Conclusion: It is concluded that, in light of the Research-Action method, the students were able to develop skills such as analysis, synthesis, argumentation, critical sense and responsible attitude towards the environment.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Teaching , Faculty , Microbiology
11.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 22(4): 448-456, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342108

ABSTRACT

Background: Risk assessment is the means of identifying and evaluating potential errors or problems that may occur in testing process. The aim of this study was to perform risk assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) process in clinical microbiology laboratories of Niamey, Niger Republic. Methodology: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study from October 1 to December 31, 2019, to evaluate AST performance in seven clinical microbiology laboratories at Niamey, the capital city of Niger republic. The evaluation focused on the determination of the criticality index (CI) of each critical point (frequency of occurrence of anomalies, severity of the process anomaly, and detectability of the anomaly during the process) in the AST process and the performance of the AST through an observation sheet using two reference strains; Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. Results: The criticality index (CI) was greater than 6 for most of the critical points related to material, medium, equipment, method and labour for the AST process in all the laboratories. A range of 18-100% errors on the inhibition zone diameters of the reference strains were observed. Major and/or minor categorization (Sensitive S, Intermediate I and Resistance R) discrepancies were found at all the laboratories for either one or both reference strains. The antibiotics most affected by the S/I/R discrepancies were trimethoprim (100%), vancomycin (100%), amoxicillin (80%) and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (70%). Conclusion: This study showed a deficiency in the control of critical control points that impacts the performance of the AST reported by the laboratories in Niger. Corrective actions are needed to improve the performance of AST in clinical microbiology laboratories in Niger


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality Control , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Medical Laboratory Science , Microbiology , Critical Illness , Niger
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200170, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249201

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lectins were discovered first in plants and later in other living things, and nowadays it is known that they are present in almost all many life forms. These proteins can bind to specific carbohydrates, which make them perform a number of biological activities and can be used as tools in the study of glycoconjugate structures present on the cell surface, being effective in medical research. Plant lectins, leguminosae lectins particularly, are among the most studied plant proteins. They are very versatile molecules, which show several interesting biological properties. Thus, the present paper reviewed the advances about the leguminosae lectins biological properties studies in the last ten years, taking into account their possible applications in the fields of Clinical Microbiology, Pharmacy and Cancerology through a search in the electronic databases, providing opportunity to exchange information about the theme. Leguminosae lectins can neutralize pathogenic organisms, be they viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, in addition carcinogenic cells, besides decreasing oxidative stress, conditions which increases the possibility of alternative substances for the design of new drugs to be used in current therapeutic, expanding the possibilities of diseases cure.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Plant Lectins/pharmacology , Education, Pharmacy , Medical Oncology/education , Microbiology/education
13.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154996

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the level of clinical contamination in the clinic and laboratory of the prosthodontics department of Kerman Dental School. Material and Methods: Clinical surfaces of the dental units, the laboratory, and the professors' lounge of the prosthodontics department were randomly sampled. The sampled surfaces included the dental units' console, light switch, light handle, headrest, and air-water spray syringe in the clinic, plastering tables, buttons of the vibrator, polishing, and trimmer machines, acryl tables, handles of pressure pot and press machine, handpiece holders, work desks, and drawer handles in the laboratory, and desks, computer mouse and keyboard, telephone sets, and doorknob in the professor's lounge. The samples were examined for the type and growth of microorganisms. The data were entered into SPSS, where they were analyzed using the chi-square test at the 0.05 significance level. Results: Of all the samples taken, 89.9% showed microbial contamination. The most common type of contamination was fungus (34.8%) and the least common types were Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1.1%). The second and third most common types of bacteria in the samples were Staphylococcus aureus (18%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.4%), respectively. There was no significant difference between the frequencies of microbial contamination in the clinic, the laboratory, and the professors' lounge. Conclusion: Given the strong chance of cross-infection in the examined department and laboratory, it is necessary to enforce protocols for proper disinfection of surfaces before, between and after treatments.


Subject(s)
Schools, Dental , Disinfection/instrumentation , Enterococcus faecalis , Environmental Pollution , Microbiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Intervention Studies , Analysis of Variance , Guidelines as Topic/methods , Iran/epidemiology
14.
Cambios rev. méd ; 19(2): 38-43, 2020-12-29.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179341

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Las infecciones del tracto urinario por variedad de bacterias uropatógenas multiresistentes se deben al uso de tratamiento empírico o automedicación. OBJETIVO. Describir en las infecciones de tracto urinario los métodos diagnósticos, tratamiento empírico y la multirresistencia. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo. Población y muestra de 73 Historias Clínicas de pacientes atendidos en la Unidad de Adultos Área de Emergencias del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín en el período enero a diciembre 2018. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 18 años, de ambos sexos, con diagnóstico clínico y por laboratorio de infección del tracto urinario superior e inferior. La información se obtuvo mediante la base de datos AS400, y se procesó en Epi-info y Excel. RESULTADOS. El 71,23% (52; 73) de mujeres tuvieron infección del tracto urinario. Escherichia coli fue frecuente en un 48,39% (15; 31), con mayor resistencia al Clotrimoxazol. El tratamiento empírico con Ciprofloxacino fue utilizado en 27,40% (20; 73). DISCUSIÓN: Se observó controversia en los tipos de estudios de imagen solicitados para el diagnóstico acorde a la clase de infección de tracto urinario así como el tratamiento empírico por factores propios de cada localidad que evitaron resistencia. CONCLUSIÓN. Escherichia coli se aisló de manera frecuente y registró mayor resistencia al Clotrimoxazol; el principal antibiótico prescrito como tratamiento empírico fue la Ciprofloxacina; el examen más solicitado fue la Urotomografía.


INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infections due to a variety of multi-resistant uropathogenic bacteria are due to the use of empirical treatment or self-medication. OBJECTIVE. Describe diagnostic methods, empirical treatment and multidrug resistance in urinary tract infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Observational, descriptive, retrospective study. Population and sample of 73 Medical Records of patients treated in the Emergency Area Adult Unit of the Carlos Andrade Marín Specialty Hospital in the period january to december 2018. Patients older than 18 years of age, of both sexes, with clinical diagnosis and due to upper and lower urinary tract infection laboratory. The information was obtained through the AS400 database, and was processed in Epi-info and Excel. RESULTS. 71,23% (52; 73) of women had urinary tract infection. Escherichia coli was frequent in 48,39% (15; 31), with greater resistance to Clotrimoxazole. Empirical treatment with Ciprofloxacin was used in 27,40% (20; 73). DISCUSSION: Controversy was observed in the types of imaging studies requested for diagnosis according to the class of urinary tract infection as well as the empirical treatment due to factors specific to each locality that prevented resistance. CONCLUSION. Escherichia coli was frequently isolated and showed greater resistance to Clotrimoxazole; the main antibiotic prescribed as empirical treatment was Ciprofloxacin; the most requested examination was the Urotomography.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pyelonephritis , Urinary Tract , Cystitis , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Emergencies , Escherichia coli Infections , Urinary Tract Infections , Ciprofloxacin , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Diagnosis , Microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents
15.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 12(2): e379, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144461

ABSTRACT

Introducción: como parte del proceso de formación de enfermeros, médicos y tecnólogos de la salud son habilitados temas relacionados con la microbiología. Sin embargo, a partir del conjunto de medidas de seguridad y la disponibilidad de recursos físicos, no es posible el estudio de diversos microorganismos. Objetivo: desarrollar un Sistema de Laboratorios Remoto para la práctica de Microbiología y Parasitología Médica. Materiales y métodos: el sistema de Laboratorios Remoto posee un microscopio electrónico controlado mediante una interface de comunicación con un ordenador conectado a la red. Resultados: se obtuvo como resultado un Sistema de Laboratorios Remoto que puede ser accedido mediante Internet o la red institucional. Facilita el estudio y la interpretación de diferentes muestras biológicas. Brinda un conjunto de reportes y estadísticas que permiten realizar análisis históricos de comportamiento. Conclusiones: a partir del desarrollo de las prácticas de laboratorios a distancia, es posible el estudio de diferentes microorganismos sin riesgos biológicos para el estudiante(AU)


Introduction: as part of the training process for nurses, physicians and health technologists, topics related to microbiology are enabled. However, based on the set of security measures and the availability of physical resources, the study of various microorganisms is not possible. Objective: to develop a Remote Laboratory System for the practice of the subject Medical Microbiology and Parasitology. Methods: the Remote Laboratory System has an electronic microscope controlled by a communication interface with a computer connected to the network. Results: a Remote Laboratory System that can be accessed through the Internet or the institutional network. The system facilitates the study and interpretation of different biological samples and also provides a set of reports and statistics that allow for historical behavior analysis. Conclusions: from the development of remote laboratory practices, it is possible to study different microorganisms without biological risks for the student(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Software , Clinical Laboratory Information Systems , Telemedicine , Microbiology
16.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(4): 328-336, 20201230. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223677

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Histórias em quadrinhos (HQs) são constituídas de narrativas ou descrições contadas por meio de uma linguagem específica em desenhos dentro de quadros com falas em balões, ou apenas com imagens, ou símbolos. Dentro do processo de ensino-aprendizagem, a imagem é extremamente importante, já que pode tornar visíveis fatos e detalhes muitas vezes invisíveis. Em biologia, para não especialistas, estruturas microbianas e reações químicas podem ser mais facilmente compreendidas visualmente que por meio de linguagem textual. Desta forma, apresentamos a história em quadrinhos "Microbiologia em quadrinhos: uma tarde com a Escherichia coli", através de uma narrativa simples de uma jovem em um laboratório, se comunicando com a representação lúdica da bactéria E. coli. Nesta história são apresentadas características desta bactéria e alguns equipamentos e processos laboratoriais relacionados à microbiologia, como as partes de um microscópio óptico e o método de coloração de Gram. Métodos: A HQ foi criada produzindo-se modelagem 3D dos personagens e dos cenários utilizando-se o software Blender, pintura digital pelo software Krita e o aplicativo Strip Design para a construção dos quadrinhos, onde inserimos cada figura e balões de falas nos respectivos quadros. Resultados: O resultado gerou uma HQ de fácil leitura e visualização agradável dentro do conteúdo da microbiologia. Conclusão: Esse tipo de ferramenta lúdica pode facilitar o entendimento de assuntos complexos relacionados à bactéria Escherichia coli de forma prazerosa pelos leitores.


Objective: Comics (comics) are made up of narratives or descriptions told through a specific language in drawings within frames with speech in balloons, or only with images, or symbols. Within the teachinglearning process, the image is extremely important, as it can make facts and details often invisible, visible. In biology, for non-specialists, microbial structures and chemical reactions can be more easily understood visually than through textual language. In this way, we present the comic book "Microbiology in comics: an afternoon with Escherichia coli", through a simple narrative of a young woman in a laboratory, communicating with the playful representation of the bacterium Escherichia coli. This history presents characteristics of this bacterium and some equipment and laboratory processes related to microbiology, such as the parts of an optical microscope and the Gram staining method. Methods: The HQ was created through the 3D modeling of the characters and the scenarios using the Blender software, digital painting by the Krita software and the Strip Design application for the construction of the comics, where we insert each figure and speech bubbles in the respective frames. Results: The result generated an easy-to-read and pleasant visualization within the microbiology content. Conclusion: This type of playful tool can facilitate the understanding of complex subjects related to the bacteria Escherichia coli by the readers.


Subject(s)
Health Education , Escherichia coli , Graphic Novel , Microbiology
18.
Medicina (Ribeirao Preto) ; 53(2)jul. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358173

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Modelo do Estudo: estudo transversal da fase prospectiva de um ensaio clínico. Objetivo: identificar os microrganismos e a sensibilidade antimicrobiana no sítio de inserção do cateter venoso central coberto pelo curativo gel de clorexidina ou pelo filme transparente de poliuretano. Metodologia: estudo transversal, descritivo, realizado com adultos críticos no período de abril a dezembro de 2014 em um hospital universitário no interior do estado de São Paulo. Imediatamente após a retirada do curativo, foi coletada amostra de swab da pele do sítio de inserção do cateter, semeado em placas de Agar sangue e Agar MacConkey e incubadas em estufas bacteriológicas a 35 °C. Nas amostras que apresen-taram crescimento bacteriano após 24 horas de incubação, foram realizados testes de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos utilizando o equipamento automatizado Vitek II (Biomerieux®). Resultados: 45 pacientes fizeram uso do curativo gel de clorexidina e 47 utilizaram o filme transparente de poliuretano. No grupo com o curativo gel de clorexidina houve crescimento dos microrganismos Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis em 13 amostras de swabs. O Staphylococcus aureusapresentou resistência a oxacilina. No grupo do filme transparente de poliuretano seis amostras foram positivas com o crescimento de Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus e Klebsiella pneumoniae, esta resistente a amicacina (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase - KPC). Conclusão: os resultados demonstram maior crescimento bacteriano no sítio de inserção do cateter venoso central coberto pelo curativo gel de clorexidina quando comparado ao filme transparente de poliuretano. (AU)


ABSTRACT: Study design: a prospective, cross-sectional study. Objectives: identify microbiological growth at the insertion site of the central venous catheter covered by a chlorhexidine impregnated dressing or a transparent polyurethane dressing, and identify antimicrobial sensitivity. Methods: immediately after dressing removal, a skin swab was collected from the catheter insertion site and seeded in blood agar plates and MacConkey agar, then incubated in bacteriological incubators at 35 °C. After 24 hours, the plates were analyzed to verify the presence of microbial growth. In the samples that displayed microbial growth, the identification and the sensitivity test were performed using the automated equipment Vitek II (Biomerieux®). Results: A total of 45 patients were treated with chlorhexidine impregnated dressing and 47 with transparent polyurethane dressing. In the chlorhexidine dressing group, 13 swabs samples presented with microbial growth of the following bacterial populations: Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Staphylococcus aureus presented resistance to oxacillin. In the transparent polyurethane dressing group, six samples were positive for the growth of Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and amikacin resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (Klebsiella pneumoniaecarbapenemase - KPC). Conclusion: The results demonstrate higher bacterial growth in the chlorhexidine impregnated dressing compared to the transparent polyurethane dressing. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Bacterial Infections , Bandages , Bacterial Growth , Cross-Sectional Studies , Central Venous Catheters , Microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents , Occlusive Dressings
19.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 62(1): 52-56, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148211

ABSTRACT

Si partimos de que la microbiología es una ciencia fundante, podemos estar de acuerdo también en la necesidad de la continua actualización de sus contenidos y su vinculación con la odontología. Nuevas técnicas de diagnóstico permiten, no solo poder identificar características especiales de cada microorganismo y su reubicación en la taxonomía general, sino también habilitan a reconocer a aquellos ­hasta el momento­ desconocidos en la cotidianeidad de la práctica profesional y que revisten importancia por sus afecciones sistémicas ya que pueden transformar, en algunos casos, a que el paciente sea considerado de riesgo. En este trabajo, se abordan tres ejemplares bacterianos seleccionados por su complejidad en la identificación y por la magnitud de las lesiones que producen. Granulicatella spp., Kingela kingae y Bilophila wadsworthia afectan no solo adultos sino también pacientes pediátricos, siendo afectados por patologías severas. Se describen cuadros clínicos que afectan tejido óseo, corazón, cerebro, hígado, bazo, riñón y las manifestaciones orales a las cuales pueden asociarse grupos microbianos que agravan el pronóstico. Aplicar la tecnología adecuadamente, no solo a procedimientos odontológicos, sino también para diagnóstico (PCR ­ MALDI ­ TOF) facilita la detección e identificación con mayor celeridad de estos agentes microbianos, evitando la rotación farmacológica, la resistencia microbiana y la automedicación (AU)


Considering microbiology as a key science in the approach of infectious processes, we understand the need for a continuous update of its contents and its link with dentistry. The incorporation of new technological approaches, such as molecular methods or mass spectrometry, allow us not only to identify special characteristics of the microorganism and its relocation in taxonomy, but also to know those microorganisms until now unknown in professional´s life everyday practice and that are important for their systemic implications, modifying in some cases, the risk assessment of the patient. Three bacterial specimens are developed in this work, due to their complexity in the identification and the magnitude of the lesions they produce, Granulicatella spp., Kingela kingae and Bilophila wadsworthia. These affects both adult and paediatric patients, describing several clinical conditions that affect bone tissue, heart, brain, liver, spleen, kidney and oral manifestations to which these microbial groups can be associated, aggravating the prognosis. Applying new technology, not only to dental procedures but also to diagnosis, facilitates the detection and identification with greater speed of these microbial agents, avoiding pharmacological rotation, microbial resistance and self-medication (AU)


Subject(s)
Microbiology , Mouth Diseases/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Kingella kingae , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Bilophila
20.
NOVA publ. cient ; 18(33): 73-100, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149450

ABSTRACT

Resumen La utilización de los colorantes en los procesos de identificación en microbiología se fundamenta en las propiedades fisicoquímicas de estas sustancias. En el campo de la física, la óptica explica cómo todos los objetos son observables dependiendo de las longitudes de onda que se absorben y se transmiten dentro del denominado "espectro visible". Dichas transiciones se deben, a su vez, a los compuestos químicos y a los movimientos electrónicos dentro de los átomos. Así mismo, cuando interacciona un colorante con una célula o un tejido, ocurren reacciones que dependen de grupos químicos funcionales denominados cromóforos y auxocromos. Dependiendo de los compuestos químicos que los constituyen, los colorantes pueden ser ácidos, básicos o neutros y esta connotación se debe a la parte activa del colorante y a la reacción que ocasiona sobre las células microbianas. De otra parte, las tinciones en microbiología pueden ser simples o diferenciales, dependiendo si toda la muestra se tiñe de uno o más colorantes. En el primer caso se encuentra el ejemplo de la coloración con azul de lactofenol y en el segundo, la coloración de Gram. En el presente artículo se reseñan las principales coloraciones utilizadas en microbiología y se explican los fundamentos físicos y químicos de dichos procesos.


Abstract The use of dyes in the identification processes in microbiology is based on the physicochemical properties of these substances. In the field of physics, optics explains how all objects are observable depending on the wavelengths that are absorbed and transmitted within the so-called "visible spectrum". These transitions are, in turn, due to chemical compounds and the electronic movements within atoms. Likewise, when a dye interacts with a cell or tissue, reactions occur that depend on functional chemical groups called chromophores and auxochromes. Depending on the chemical compounds that constitute them, the dyes can be acidic, basic or neutral and this connotation is due to the active part of the dye and the reaction it causes on the microbial cells. On the other hand, stains in microbiology can be simple or differential, depending on whether the entire sample is stained with one or more dyes. In the first case is the example of the lactophenol blue staining and in the second, the Gram staining. This article describes the main colorations used in microbiology and explains the physical and chemical foundations of these processes.


Subject(s)
Microbiology , Staining and Labeling , Chemical Compounds , Coloring Agents
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