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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246038, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339397

ABSTRACT

Abstract Isla Arena is located in the coordinate 20° 70´ N - 90° 45´ W, from Campeche, Mexico. In these estuaries, the ocean mixes with fresh water, and ecosystems are concentrated where petenes and pink flamingos proliferate. Crustaceans and mollusks abound in the sea. Despite its enormous marine wealth, there are no studies carried out on which halophilic microorganisms are present in these waters. In this work, the diversity and structure of the microbial community was investigated through a metagenomics approach and corroborated for sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. It was found that the phylum Fimicutes predominates with more than 50%, in almost the same proportion of the class Bacilli and with almost 41% of relative abundance of the order Bacillales. The sequencing results showed that one of the samples presented a high percentage of similarity (99.75%) using the Nucleotide BLAST program with a peculiar microorganism: Bacillus subtilis. This microorganism is one of the best characterized bacteria among the gram-positive ones. Our results demonstrate that B. subtilis can be an efficient source of proteases, lipases and cellulases, from halophilic microbial communities located in poorly explored areas.


Resumo Isla Arena está localizada na coordenada 20°70'N - 90°45'W, de Campeche, México. Nesses estuários, o oceano se mistura com a água doce e os ecossistemas se concentram onde proliferam petenos e flamingos rosa. Crustáceos e moluscos abundam no mar. Apesar de sua enorme riqueza marinha, não há estudos realizados sobre a presença de microrganismos halofílicos nessas águas. Neste trabalho, a diversidade e estrutura da comunidade microbiana foram investigadas através de uma abordagem metagenômica e corroboradas para o sequenciamento de genes 16S rRNA. Verificou-se que o filo Fimicutes predomina com mais de 50%, quase na mesma proporção da classe Bacilli e com quase 41% de abundância relativa da ordem Bacillales. Os resultados do sequenciamento mostraram que uma das amostras apresentou alto percentual de similaridade (99,75%) pelo programa Nucleotide BLAST com um microrganismo peculiar: Bacillus subtilis. Nossos resultados demonstram que B. subtilis pode ser uma fonte eficiente de proteases, lipases e celulases, provenientes de comunidades microbianas halofílicas localizadas em áreas pouco exploradas.


Subject(s)
Archaea , Microbiota , Phylogeny , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Mexico
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210219, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1253954

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study evaluated the chemical composition of Lippia thymoides (Lt) essential oil and its antimicrobial activity against fungal strains of Candida albicans (Ca) and Gram-negative bacteria Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). Methods: Lt essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation apparatus with a modified Clevenger extension. The chemical analysis was analyzed by gas phase chromatography and mass spectrometry on Shimadzu QP 2010 plus. Sample sensitivity evaluation was performed by ABHb-inoculum and culture plates were developed with triphenyltetrazolium chloride, also Fn and Pi samples analysis were in anaerobic environment and Ca sample analysis was performed in aerobic environment. The minimum inhibitory concentration (CIM) was determinated by microdilution in eppendorfs tubes. Results: The chemical analysis showed that Thymol (59,91%) is the main compound found in Lt essential oil, also other antifungal and antimicrobial agents were present γ-terpinene (8.16%), p-cymene (7.29%) and ß-caryophyllene (4.49%), Thymol is a central ingredient of many medicinal plants and has a potent fungicidal, bactericidal and antioxidant activity, it has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory activity against Periodontal Disease (PD) cause can reduces prostanoids, interleukins, leukotrienes levels in periodontium. CIM result Pi was 6.5 µg/mL, Fn was 1.5 µg/mL and Ca was 0.19 µg/mL. Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity of L. thymoides, through the compound Thymol, has been shown promising potential against gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacteria and fungi whose therapeutic arsenal is still very restricted


Subject(s)
Periodontitis , Oils, Volatile , Plant Extracts , Lippia , Microbiota , Antifungal Agents
3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(10): 759-764, Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357066

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Breast surgery is considered a clean surgery; however, the rates of infection range between 3 and 15%. The objective of the present study was to intraoperatively investigate the presence of autochthonous microbiota in the breast. Methods: Pieces of breast tissue collected from 49 patients who underwent elective breast surgery (reconstructive, diagnostic, or oncologic) were cultured. The pieces of breast tissue were approximately 1 cm in diameter and were removed from the retroareolar area, medial quadrant, and lateral quadrant. Each piece of tissue was incubated in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth for 7 days at 37°C, and in cases in which the medium became turbid due to microorganism growth, the samples were placed in Petri dishes for culturing and isolating strains and for identifying species using an automated counter. Results: Microorganism growth was observed in the samples of 10 of the 49 patients (20.4%) and in 11 of the 218 pieces of tissue (5%). The detected species were Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas salmonicida. No patient with positive samples had clinical infection postoperatively. Conclusion: The presence of these bacteria in breast tissue in approximately 20% of the patients in this series suggests that breast surgery should be considered a potential source of contamination that may have implications for adverse reactions to breast implants and should be studied in the near future for their oncological implications in breast implant-associated large-cell lymphoma etiology.


Resumo Objetivo: A cirurgia de mama é considerada uma cirurgia limpa; entretanto, as taxas de infecção variam entre 3 e 15%. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar no intraoperatório a presença de microbiota autóctone na mama. Métodos: Pedaços de tecido mamário coletados de 49 pacientes submetidas à cirurgia eletiva da mama (reconstrutiva, diagnóstica ou oncológica) foram cultivados. Os pedaços de tecido mamário tinham aproximadamente 1 cm de diâmetro e foram removidos da área retroareolar e dos quadrantes medial e lateral. Cada pedaço de tecido foi incubado em caldo BHI (brain heart infusion) por 7 dias a 37 ° C, e nos casos em que o meio ficou turvo devido ao crescimento de microrganismos, as amostras foram colocadas em placas de Petri para cultivo e isolamento de cepas e para identificação de espécies usando um contador automatizado. Resultados: O crescimento do microrganismo foi observado nas amostras de 10 das 49 pacientes (20,4%) e em 11 dos 218 pedaços de tecido (5%). As espécies detectadas foram Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Sphingomonas paucimobilis e Aeromonas salmonicida. Nenhum paciente com amostras positivas apresentou infecção clínica no pós-operatório. Conclusão: A presença dessas bactérias no tecido mamário em aproximadamente 20% das pacientes desta série sugere que a cirurgia mamária deve ser considerada uma fonte potencial de contaminação que pode ter implicações nas reações adversas aos implantes mamários e deve ser estudada em um futuro próximo por suas implicações oncológicas na etiologia do linfoma de células grandes associado ao implante de mama.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Implants , Microbiota , Bacteria , Breast/surgery
4.
Femina ; 49(8): 501-504, 20210831.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342421

ABSTRACT

A bexiga hiperativa caracteriza-se pela urgência miccional, geralmente acompa- nhada de noctúria e aumento da frequência urinária. Trata-se de afecção preva- lente, com enorme comprometimento da qualidade de vida, em todos os seus as- pectos. Diversos biomarcadores vêm sendo estudados para melhor caracterização dos diferentes fenótipos da afecção, entre eles as neurotrofinas urinárias, o ATP, a genômica e a microbiota urinária. Acredita-se que tal caracterização poderá ter implicações para prevenção, fisiopatologia e individualização do tratamento.(AU)


The overactive bladder is characterized by urinary urgency, usually accompanied by nocturia and increased urinary frequency. It is a prevalent condition, with enormous impairment of quality of life, in all its aspects. Several biomarkers have been studied to better characterize the different phenotypes of the condition, including urinary neurotrophins, ATP, genomics and urinary microbiota. It is believed that such charac- terization may have implications for prevention, pathophysiology and individualiza- tion of treatment.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Urinary Bladder, Overactive , Urinary Incontinence, Urge , Biomarkers , Adenosine Triphosphate , Genomics , Microbiota , Nerve Growth Factors
5.
Revagog (Impresa) ; 3(2): 40-53, Abr-Jun. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1344613

ABSTRACT

Following healthy eating patterns is important for pregnant and lactating women for a number of reasons. Increasing calories and nutrient intake is necessary to support the growth and development of the baby and maintain the health of the mother. Having access to a healthy dietary pattern before and during pregnancy will improve pregnancy outcomes. In addition, following a healthy diet plan before and during pregnancy as well as while breastfeeding has the potential to influence the health of mother and child in successive stages of life. Pregnancy and breastfeeding are special stages in a woman's life and nutrition plays a vital role before, during and after these stages in maintaining the health of the mother and her child. Consideration should be given to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight before pregnancy, gaining weight during pregnancy as recommended, and returning to a healthy weight after the postpartum period. Events that occur in the early stages of life play an important role in the development of chronic diseases. It is recognized that diet and lifestyle during pregnancy are crucial determinants for modulating the microbiota of the offspring, through a vertical transfer from the dysbiotic maternal environment. In addition, intestinal colonization is maximized in the first two years of life through the type and timing of feeding of the newborn


Seguir patrones de alimentación saludables es importante para las mujeres embarazadas y mujeres lactantes por varias razones. Aumento de calorías y la ingesta de nutrientes es necesaria para apoyar el crecimiento y desarrollo del bebé y mantener la salud de la madre. Tener acceso a un patrón dietético saludable antes y durante el embarazo mejorará. resultados del embarazo. Además, seguir un plan de dieta saludable antes y durante el embarazo, así como durante la lactancia, tiene el potencial influir en la salud de la madre y el niño en las sucesivas etapas de la vida. El embarazo y la lactancia son etapas especiales en la vida de una mujer y la nutrición juega un papel vital antes, durante y después de estas etapas en el mantenimiento de la salud de la madre y su hijo. Consideración debe darse para lograr y mantener un peso saludable antes embarazo, aumento de peso durante el embarazo según lo recomendado, y volver a un peso saludable después del período posparto. Los eventos que ocurren en las primeras etapas de la vida juegan un papel importante en el desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas. Se reconoce que la dieta y El estilo de vida durante el embarazo son determinantes cruciales para modular la microbiota de la descendencia, a través de una transferencia vertical desde el ambiente materno disbiótico. Además, la colonización intestinal se maximiza en los primeros dos años de vida a través del tipo y el momento de alimentación del recién nacido


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Breast Feeding , Pregnant Women , Eating , Microbiota/immunology , Postnatal Care/methods , Growth and Development/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Diet, Healthy
6.
Univ. salud ; 23(2): 151-161, mayo-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1252319

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En producción avícola el uso de antibióticos promotores del crecimiento es limitado, debido al incremento de resistencia bacteriana. Una alternativa evalúa los probióticos microencapsulados y su efecto en la salud intestinal. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de Lactobacillus plantarum microencapsulado sobre parámetros intestinales e inmunológicos en pollos de engorde. Materiales y métodos: A 240 pollos Ross-308-AP de un día de nacidos se suministró alimento con o sin adición de probiótico bajo el siguiente modelo: sin probiótico-(T0), con probiótico comercial-(T1), con L. plantarum microencapsulado-(T2) y sin microencapsular-(T3). L. plantarum ATCC-8014 se microencapsuló mediante secado por aspersión, determinando su viabilidad en (%). Se evaluaron parámetros intestinales, morfo-histopatológicos e inmunológicos por Azul de Alcian, microscopia de barrido e inmunohistoquímica y la abundancia microbial por UFC/mL. Resultados: El microencapsulado confirió una viabilidad in vivo de L. plantarum del 88,1%. El tratamiento T2 mejoró los parámetros inmunológicos y confirió beneficios intestinales con una abundancia de bacterias benéficas (Lactobacillus) de (9,13x105-UFC/mL), significativamente mayor a la encontrada en los tratamientos T1 (8,91x105) y T3 (8,23x105) y el control T0 (9,18x104), (p<0,05). Conclusiones: La adición de L. plantarum microencapsulado en alimento para pollos mejora parámetros inmunológicos y confiere mayor abundancia de bacterias benéficas presentes en la microbiota intestinal.


Introduction: Usage of growth-promoting antibiotics in poultry production is limited due to the increase in bacterial resistance. An alternative to assess microencapsulated probiotics and their effect on gut health is presented in this study. Objective: To determine the effect of microencapsulated L. plantarum on intestinal and immunological parameters in broilers. Materials and methods: 240 Ross-308-AP chickens (one day old) were fed with or without the addition of a probiotic, under the following model: without probiotic (T0); with commercial probiotic (T1); with probiotic containing either microencapsulated (T2) or non-microencapsulated (T3) L. plantarum. ATCC-8014 was microencapsulated by spray drying, assessing its viability in (%). Alcian blue, scanning microscopy, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate intestinal, morpho-histopathological, and immunological parameters. Microbial abundance was quantified by UFC/ml. Results: Microencapsulation of L. plantarum induced an 88.1% in vivo viability. T2 treatment improved both immunological parameters and the intestinal population of beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillus) (9.13x105 UFC/ml), which was significantly higher than that found in T1 (8.91x105), T3 (8.23x105), and control T0 (9.18x104), (p<0.05). Conclusion: Adding microencapsulated L. plantarum to chicken feed improves immunological parameters and increases the population of beneficial bacteria in the intestinal microbiota.


Subject(s)
Functional Food , Lactobacillus , Bacteria , Probiotics , Microbiota
7.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 67-78, May. 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endometritis is the most common disease of dairy cows and traditionally treated with antibiotics. Lactic acid bacteria can inhibit the growth of pathogens and also have potential for treatment of endometritis. Using PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing technology, we sequenced the fulllength l6S rRNA of the microbiota in uterine mucus samples from 31 cows with endometritis, treated with lactic acid bacteria (experimental [E] group) and antibiotics (control [C] group) separately. Microbiota profiles taken before and after treatment were compared. RESULTS: After both treatments, bacterial species richness was significantly higher than before, but there was no significant difference in bacterial diversity. Abundance of some bacteria increased after both lactic acid bacteria and antibiotic treatment: Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus raffinolactis, Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas veronii. The bacterial species that significantly decreased in abundance varied depending on whether the cows had been treated with lactic acid bacteria or antibiotics. Abundance of Staphylococcus equorum and Treponema brennaborense increased after lactic acid bacteria treatment but decreased after antibiotic treatment. According to COG-based functional metagenomic predictions, 384 functional proteins were significantly differently expressed after treatment. E and C group protein expression pathways were significantly higher than before treatment (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that lactic acid bacteria could cure endometritis and restore a normal physiological state, while avoiding the disadvantages of antibiotic treatment, such as the reductions in abundance of beneficial microbiota. This suggests that lactic acid bacteria treatment has potential as an alternative to antibiotics in the treatment of endometritis in cattle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Endometritis/drug therapy , Lactobacillales/metabolism , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/growth & development , Bacteria/drug effects , Uterus/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Lactic Acid , Lactobacillales/genetics , Microbiota
8.
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 6(1): 12-18, abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354387

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Os probióticos são micro-organismos vivos que geram benefícios à saúde do hospedeiro. Seus mecanismos de ação consistem, principalmente, em efeitos anti-inflamatórios e antimicrobianos que os tornam importantes no processo de saúde-doença. Na endodontia, a permanência de infecção no interior do sistema de canais radiculares é a principal causa do insucesso do tratamento endodôntico. A partir do sucesso obtido por outras especialidades odontológicas, a utilização de probióticos como nova abordagem no tratamento endodôntico vem sendo alvo de pesquisas com a expectativa de ajudar a combater as infecções endodônticas e manter o equilíbrio da microbiota oral. Objetivo: O objetivo desta revisão de literatura foi apresentar os principais resultados disponíveis até o presente momento na literatura científica acerca do uso dos probióticos na endodontia. Fonte dos dados: As bases de dados utilizadas foram Pubmed, Web of Science e Embase e a pesquisa foi realizada até junho de 2021. Síntese dos dados: Foi encontrado um total de oito artigos sobre o tema, avaliando diversos aspectos relacionados ao tratamento endodôntico, como o uso de probióticos contra patógenos endodônticos, como irrigantes, como medicação intracanal e no tratamento da periodontite apical. Conclusão: Embora grande parte dos artigos tenham apresentado resultados positivos acerca do uso dos probióticos, os mesmos apresentam baixo nível de evidência, isso porque foram utilizados modelos in vitro e em animais. Portanto, para embasar a introdução dos probióticos em Endodontia, existe a necessidade da realização de pesquisas clínicas.


Introduction: Probiotics are live microorganisms that produce health benefits for the host. Their mechanisms of action consist mainly of antimicrobial effects and make them important in the health-disease process. In endodontics, the permanence of infection within the root canal system is the main cause of endodontic treatment failure. Based on the success obtained by other dental specialties, the use of probiotics as a new approach in endodontic treatment has been the subject of research with the prevention of oral microbiota. Purpose: The purpose of this review of literature was to present the main results available so far in the scientific literature on the use of probiotics in endodontics. Data source: The databases used were Pubmed, Web of Science and Embase and the search was carried out until June 2021. Data synthesis: A A total of eight articles on the subject, evaluating various aspects of endodontic treatment, such as the use of probiotics against endodontic pathogens, as irrigants, as intracanal treatment and in the treatment of apical periodontitis. Conclusion: Although many of the foods presented positive results close to the same use presented in the low level of articles, this is because animal models were used. Therefore, to support the introduction of probiotics in Endodontics, there is a need for clinical research.


Subject(s)
Endodontics , Probiotics , Dental Pulp Cavity , Microbiota , Infections
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): 56-61, feb. 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147089

ABSTRACT

La leche materna provee microorganismos que colonizan el intestino y programan el sistema inmunológico para desarrollar tolerancia oral. Entre los 6 meses de lactancia materna exclusiva y los 2 años de lactancia prolongada recomendada, la alimentación complementaria conlleva una reducción progresiva en el ingreso de microorganismos vivos al ecosistema intestinal. Esto se debe a que los alimentos en general -a diferencia de la leche materna- o se encuentran desprovistos de microorganismos o, si los poseen, suelen inactivarse durante la cocción. Los alimentos fermentados y los probióticos podrían constituir una estrategia nutricional valiosa, dado que garantizarían la provisión de microorganismos vivos ante la reducción o interrupción anticipada de la lactancia. Los términos "alimentos fermentados" y "probióticos" no son sinónimos. La identidad microbiológica, la inocuidad y la existencia de estudios clínicos de eficacia para unos y otros son claves para entender sus diferencias y decidir una eventual recomendación alimentaria


Breast milk provides microorganisms that colonize the gut and program the immune system to develop oral tolerance. Between the 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding and the recommended 2 years of prolonged breastfeeding, complementary feeding leads to a progressive reduction in the entry of live microorganisms into the gut ecosystem. This is because foods in general -unlike breast milk- are devoid of microorganisms or, if present, they are often inactivated during cooking. Fermented foods and probiotics could be a valuable nutritional strategy, as they would ensure the supply of live microorganisms in the face of a reduction or early cessation of breastfeeding. The terms "fermented foods" and "probiotics" are not synonymous. Microbiological identity, safety, and the existence of clinical efficacy studies supporting both are key to understand their differences and decide on an eventual dietary recommendation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Fermented Foods and Beverages , Yogurt , Probiotics , Microbiota , Immunity , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
10.
Repert. med. cir ; 30(2): 109-117, 2021. ilus.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1361827

ABSTRACT

La microbiota intestinal es el conjunto de millones de microrganismos vivos ubicados en el tracto gastrointestinal. Es indispensable en múltiples funciones del organismo, regulación de la inmunidad, en aspectos nutricionales y procesos de inflamación sistémica entre otros. La disbiosis es la alteración del equilibrio de la microbiota normal, debido a cambios en la composición, funcionamiento, orden o su distribución; esto puede predisponer al individuo a la adquisición de enfermedades gastrointestinales, alérgicas y metabólicas, entre otras. El objetivo del presente artículo es realizar una revisión narrativa de la literatura sobre los conceptos claves de la microbiota intestinal, sus asociaciones fisiopatológicas con desórdenes gastrointestinales, alérgicos y metabólicos en pediatría.


ntestinal microbiota are the millions of living microbial communities that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. It is essential for multiple functions of the human organism, such as, immune-regulation, in nutritional aspects, and systemic inflammatory processes, among others. Dysbiosis refers to the alteration of the equilibrium of normal microbiota due to shifts in its composition, functioning, order or distribution; this can predispose the individual to develop gastrointestinal, allergic and metabolic diseases among others. The aim of this article was to conduct a narrative review of the literature on the key concepts of intestinal microbiota, and its pathophysiological associations with gastrointestinal, allergic and metabolic disorders in pediatrics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Gastrointestinal Tract , Dysbiosis , Microbiota , Allergy and Immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Diseases
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200193, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249203

ABSTRACT

Abstract wastewater treatment (WT) is of major importance on modern cities, removing wastewater pollutants resultant from anthropogenic activities. The unique abilities of microbes to degrade organic matter, remove nutrients and transform toxic compounds into harmless products make them essential players in waste treatment. The microbial diversity determines the metabolic pathways that may occur in WT and quality of treated wastewater. Therefore, understanding WT microbial community structure, distribution, and metabolic functioning is essential for development and optimization of efficient microbial engineering systems. Since cultivation methods can only detect a small fraction of the microbial diversity, the use of culture-independent molecular methods has circumvented this issue, allowing unprecedented access to genes and genomes used for microbial composition and function evaluation. Traditional approaches like RAPD, DGGE, ARDRA, RISA, SSCP, T-RFLP, and FISH and modern approaches like microarray, qPCR, and metagenomics are essential techniques for identifying and depicting the total microbial community structure and their interaction with environmental and biotic factors. Thus, this review describes traditional and state of the art molecular techniques which provide insights into phylogenetic and functional activities of microbial assemblages in a WT system.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Water Microbiology , Microbiota , Dermatoglyphics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
12.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3446, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1289770

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze scientific evidence regarding the relationship between the type of birth and the microbiota acquired by newborns. Method: this integrative review addresses the role of the type of delivery on newborns' microbial colonization. A search was conducted in the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/PubMed and Virtual Health Library databases using the descriptors provided by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Health Science Descriptors (DeCS). Results: infants born vaginally presented a greater concentration of Bacteroides, Bifidobacteria, and Lactobacillus in the first days of life and more significant microbial variability in the following weeks. The microbiome of infants born via C-section is similar to the maternal skin and the hospital setting and less diverse, mainly composed of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Clostridium. Conclusion: the maternal vaginal microbiota provides newborns with a greater variety of colonizing microorganisms responsible for boosting and preparing the immune system. Vaginal birth is the ideal birth route, and C-sections should only be performed when there are medical indications.


Objective: analisar as evidências científicas existentes na literatura sobre a relação da via de nascimento com a microbiota adquirida pelo recém-nascido. Método: trata-se de uma revisão integrativa sobre a influência da via de nascimento na colonização microbiótica no recém-nascido. Foi realizada uma busca na literatura por meio das bases de dados Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/ PubMed e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, tendo como estratégia de busca a seleção de artigos baseados nos descritores desenvolvidos com Medical Subject Headings (termos MeSH) ou Descritores em Ciência da Saúde (DeCS). Resultados: os recém-nascidos por via vaginal apresentam nos primeiros dias de vida maior concentração de Bacteroides, Bifidobacterias e Lactobacillus e, com o passar das semanas, mostram maior variabilidade microbiótica. Os recém-nascidos por cesárea apresentam microbioma semelhante ao da pele materna e do ambiente hospitalar e possuem menor diversidade, sendo, principalmente, constituído de Staphylococcus, Streptococcus e Clostridium. Conclusão: a microbiota vaginal materna dispõe de uma maior variedade de microrganismos colonizadores, os quais são responsáveis por auxiliar na capacitação e melhor adequação ao sistema imunológico do recém-nato. Evidencia-se que o parto vaginal é a via ideal, ou seja, a cesariana deve ser realizada apenas quando existem indicações reais.


Objetivo: analizar las evidencias científicas existentes en la literatura sobre la relación de la vía de nacimiento con la microbiota adquirida por el recién nacido. Método: se trata de una revisión integradora sobre la influencia de la vía de nacimiento en la colonización de la microbiota en el recién nacido. Fue realizada una búsqueda en la literatura en las bases de datos Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/PubMed y Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, teniendo como estrategia de búsqueda la selección de artículos basados en los descriptores desarrollados en el Medical Subject Headings (términos MeSH) o Descriptores en Ciencia de la Salud (DeCS). Resultados: los recién nacidos por vía vaginal presentan, en los primeros días de vida, mayor concentración de Bacteroides, Bifidobacterias y Lactobacillus; y, con el pasar de las semanas muestran mayor variabilidad de la microbiota. Los recién nacidos por cesárea presentan microbioma semejante a la piel materna y al ambiente hospitalario, poseyendo menor diversidad y siendo principalmente constituida de Staphylococcus, Streptococcus y Clostridium. Conclusión: la microbiota vaginal materna proporciona al neonato una mayor variedad de microorganismos colonizadores que son responsables por auxiliar en la capacitación y mejor adecuación de su sistema inmunológico. Se evidencia que el parto vaginal es la vía ideal y que la cesárea debe ser realizada apenas cuando existen indicaciones reales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bacteroides , Cesarean Section , Delivery, Obstetric , Parturition , Microbiota , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
13.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 9(1): 1-5, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362813

ABSTRACT

Objective: Verify whether there was a relationship between the occurrence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and the length of stay in the preoperative period. Methods: Clinical samples of the oral surfaces of the teeth and/or cheek mucosa were collected in the oral cavity of 37 patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery in the preoperative period from May to July 2019. The clinical samples collected were subjected to identification of colonies and antimicrobial sensitivity tests. Results: We observed that the patients who stayed for more than 60 days in that hospital had 17 times more likely to develop multi-resistant strains (Multi-Rs) than those that have not remained. Conclusions: We realized that the longer the patient stays in the hospital, the greater the chances of bacterial strains Multi-Rs. Therefore, it is important to try to reduce the length of hospital stay so that there is no increase in the occurrence of multiresistant strains in these patients


Objetivo: Verificar se houve relação entre a ocorrência de cepas bacterianas multirresistentes e o tempo de internação no pré-operatório. Métodos: Amostras clínicas das superfícies orais dos dentes e / ou mucosa jugal foram coletadas na cavidade oral de 37 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca eletiva no período pré-operatório de maio a julho de 2019. As amostras clínicas coletadas foram submetidas à identificação de colônias e testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana. Resultados: Observamos que os pacientes que permaneceram por mais de 60 dias naquele hospital tiveram 17 vezes mais chance de desenvolver cepas multirresistentes (Multi-Rs) do que os que não permaneceram. Conclusões: Percebemos que quanto mais tempo o paciente permanece internado, maiores são as chances de cepas bacterianas Multi-Rs. Portanto, é importante tentar reduzir o tempo de internação hospitalar para que não haja aumento na ocorrência de cepas multirresistentes nesses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Microbial , Patients , Residence Time , Microbiota , Hospitals , Anti-Infective Agents , Mouth , Mucous Membrane
14.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180862

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify etiologic microbiota associated periodontal diseases among diabetes patients and the factors related to the most commonly identified bacteria species. Material and Methods: Periodontal plaque samples from 11 diabetic participants and 13 non-diabetic controls were collected to assess their aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth. Different distinct colonies were identified by microscopic and 16srDNA sequencing. Pearson's chi-square tests were conducted to examine any association between categorical variables. Results: The diabetic subjects revealed a more intense plaque formation with a mean plaque index of 2.4 compared to 1.8 in non-diabetics. A total of 86 bacteria were isolated from 24 plaque samples, 44 were aerobic, and 42 were anaerobic. Only aerobic isolates, 22 from diabetic patients and 22 from non-diabetic patients, were evaluated in these analyses. Bacillus spp. (B. cereus mainly) and Klebsiella spp. (K. pneumoniae, K. aerogenes, K. oxytoca) were detected markedly higher in non-diabetic individuals than in diabetic subjects (p=0.026 and p=0.021, respectively). Some bacteria were only identified in the dental plaque of diabetic individuals, namely, Bacillus mojavensis, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus pasteuri, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus pasteurianus. The presence of acid reflux and jaundice were significantly associated with the most common bacterial isolate, namely Bacillus spp., with the p-values of 0.007 and 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Type-2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a higher amount of dental plaques. Periodontal plaque samples from diabetic and non-diabetic subjects possess differential microbial communities. Diabetic plaques contain more versatile microbes predominated by gram-positive streptococci and staphylococci.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Periodontal Diseases/etiology , Periodontitis/pathology , Oral Health/education , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/microbiology , Microbiota/immunology , Streptococcus mutans/immunology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Chi-Square Distribution , Dental Care , Dental Plaque , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology
15.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(1): 1-7, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1145548

ABSTRACT

Though aloe vera extract, green tea extract and coriander oil are proven antimicrobial agents, very little information is available regarding its effects on oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, which is responsible for initiating caries and Enterococcus faecalis, responsible for failure of root canal treatment. Objective: To find the antimicrobial activity of aloe vera extract, black tea extract and coriander oil against S. mutans and E. faecalis. Materials and Methods: The agar well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of Aloe vera extract, black tea extract and coriander oil. Different concentration of prepared plant extracts and coriander seed oil (50 & 100 µl) was incorporated into the wells and the plates containing S. mutans and E. faecalis were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. The antibiotic (amoxicillin 30 µl) was used as positive control. Zone Of Inhibition (ZOI) was recorded in each plate. Results: For S. mutans, the maximum ZOI was created by coriander oil with a diameter of 25.00±0.58 mm at 50 µl and for E. faecalis, maximum ZOI was created by aloe vera extract 16.00±0.58 mm at 100 µl concentration which were far better than the control: amoxicillin 30 µl concentration. Conclusion: The extracts of Aloe vera, black tea and coriander oil, showed significant activity against the investigated microbial strains, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis which further helps in the development of new topical agents that help in reducing the numbers of these organisms present in the oral cavity. (AU)


Embora o extrato de aloe vera, extrato de chá verde e óleo de coentro sejam agentes antimicrobianos comprovados, há pouca informação disponível sobre seus efeitos nas bactérias orais, Streptococcus mutans, que é responsável por iniciar cáries e Enterococcus faecalis, responsável pela falha do tratamento de canal radicular. Objetivo: Avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de aloe vera, extrato de chá preto e óleo de coentro contra S. mutans e E. faecalis. Materiais e Métodos: O método de difusão em agar foi usado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de Aloe vera, extrato de chá preto e óleo de coentro. Diferentes concentrações dos extratos de plantas e óleo de semente de coentro (50 e 100 µl) foram preparados e colocados nos poços e nas placas contendo S. mutans e E. faecalis e foram incubadas a 37°C por 24 h. O antibiótico (amoxicilina 30 µl) foi utilizado como controle positivo. A zona de inibição (ZOI) foi registrada em cada placa. Resultados: Para S. mutans, a ZOI máxima foi obtida com o óleo de coentro com um diâmetro de 25,00 ± 0,58 mm a 50 µl e para E. faecalis, a ZOI máxima foi obtiada pelo extrato de aloe vera 16,00 ± 0,58 mm na concentração de 100 µl, as quais foram melhores do que o controle: concentração de 30 µl de amoxicilina. Conclusão: Os extratos de Aloe vera, chá preto e óleo de coentro apresentaram atividade significativa contra as cepas microbianas investigadas, Streptococcus mutans e Enterococcus faecalis auxiliando no desenvolvimento de novos agentes tópicos visando a redução do número desses organismos presentes no cavidade oral. (AU)


Subject(s)
Streptococcus mutans , Tea , Enterococcus faecalis , Aloe , Microbiota
17.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1510-1522, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922641

ABSTRACT

Many recent studies have shown that the gut microbiome plays important roles in human physiology and pathology. Also, microbiome-based therapies have been used to improve health status and treat diseases. In addition, aging and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, have become topics of intense interest in biomedical research. Several researchers have explored the links between these topics to study the potential pathogenic or therapeutic effects of intestinal microbiota in disease. But the exact relationship between neurodegenerative diseases and gut microbiota remains unclear. As technology advances, new techniques for studying the microbiome will be developed and refined, and the relationship between diseases and gut microbiota will be revealed. This article summarizes the known interactions between the gut microbiome and neurodegenerative diseases, highlighting assay techniques for the gut microbiome, and we also discuss the potential therapeutic role of microbiome-based therapies in diseases.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Microbiota , Neurodegenerative Diseases/therapy , Parkinson Disease/therapy
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3820-3827, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921468

ABSTRACT

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a disease caused by vaginal microbiota dysbiosis. The conventional antibiotic treatment can aggravate microbial dysbiosis, alter the acid environment of the vagina and lead to drug resistance, thus shows low cure rate and high recurrence rate. This poses significant physiological and psychological burden to the BV patients. Vaginal microbiota transplantation (VMT) is a novel live biotherapeutic approach. It directly engrafts the whole vaginal microbiota from healthy women to the vaginal tract of patients to rapidly reconstruct the vaginal microbiota environment and restore the vaginal health. This article summarizes the development, present challenges, and future directions of using VMT, with the aim to explore new strategies for treatment of BV and promote the clinical use of VMT.


Subject(s)
Dysbiosis/therapy , Female , Humans , Microbiota , Vagina , Vaginosis, Bacterial/therapy
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3801-3811, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921466

ABSTRACT

The application of high-throughput sequencing technologies has greatly enhanced our understanding to the human microbiome. The causal relations between human microbiome and diseases have become a critical issue to elucidate disease development and develop precision medicine. Recently, the study about vaginal microbiome (the microbial flora that inhabits the female vagina) has received wide interests. It has been shown that dysbiosis of vaginal microbiome was closely related to the development of genital tract diseases. This article summarizes the interaction between vaginal microbiome and disease and the treatment for the dysbiosis of vaginal microbiome. The culturomics of virginal microbiome, engineered probiotics and synthetic microbiome were also proposed.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Microbiota , Probiotics , Vagina
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3757-3780, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921463

ABSTRACT

The human intestinal flora is a highly diverse ecosystem composed of trillions of bacteria. The imbalance of the flora is related to a variety of diseases. The intestinal flora interacts with the nervous system bidirectionally in many ways through the gut-brain axis. It causes neuroimmune inflammatory response, dysfunction of gut mucosa and blood-brain barrier, direct stimulation of the vagus nerve, spinal nerve of the enteric nervous system, and the neuroendocrine hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, causing neurological disorders. The metabolites of the intestinal microbial community also play a role. This article summarizes the characteristics of the altered intestinal flora and intervention measures in autism spectrum disorder, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, neuromyelitis optica, hepatic encephalopathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, schizophrenia, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, Huntington's disease and stroke. The current research on intestinal flora is still in its infancy, and very few studies were carried out on causality and the underlying mechanisms, which prevents the development of precise flora-based clinical intervention measures. It is expected the research on intestinal flora would lead to novel approaches for treatment of some neurological disorders.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Brain , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Microbiota , Nervous System Diseases
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