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1.
Prensa méd. argent ; 109(5): 182-192, 20230000.
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1523555

ABSTRACT

Las biopsias en el campo de la ortopedia se utilizan para guiar las opciones de diagnóstico y tratamiento para el proceso de la enfermedad que puede estar ocurriendo. La preparación de la piel de estas biopsias sigue la preparación estándar para un procedimiento quirúrgico, con el objetivo de disminuir la cantidad de microbiota que podría conducir a la contaminación del tejido de la biopsia e incluso a una posible infección. El tejido obtenido de la biopsia a menudo se somete a un studio histopatológico y cultivo. La tasa de contaminación bacteriana informada es aproximadamente inferior al 4%. Esta revisión cuestiona si las muestras de las biopsias se contaminan con la microbiota que permanece en la piel y cómo puede afectar el manejo. Además, qué técnicas o pasos pueden disminuir la tasa de contaminación al realizar una biopsia. Nuestra revisión bibliográfica identificó pocos estudios sobre la contaminación bacteriana de las biopsias. Identificamos diferentes factores implicados en el conocimiento de la microbiota de la piel: técnicas y soluciones de preparación de la piel, variación de la microbiota típica que coloniza la piel según la región anatómica, retención preoperatoria versus administración profiláctica de antibióticos y uso de diferentes hojas de bisturí para la piel superficial y para tejidos profundos, entre otros. Aunque no pudimos identificar ningún dato que proporcionara respuestas a nuestra pregunta original y cuantificar cada factor individualmente, la mayoría de los estudios en diferentes campos ortopédicos proporcionaron hallazgos significativos hasta cierto punto. Describimos algunas recomendaciones prácticas basadas en el consenso y la efectividad teórica para disminuir la tasa de contaminación. Se necesitan más investigaciones en el campo de la ortopedia que impliquen la contaminación por microbiota de la piel de una biopsia


Biopsies in the field of orthopaedics are used to guide diagnostics and treatment options for the disease process that may be occurring such as a tumor or infection. Skin preparation of these biopsies follows the standard skin preparation for a surgical procedure, with the aim to decrease the amount of microbiota that could lead to contamination of the tissue biopsy and even possible infection. The tissue obtained from the biopsy often undergoes pathology and culture. The reported bacterial contamination rate is roughly below 4%. This review questions how samples from the biopsies are getting contaminated by microbiota that remains on the skin and how it affects infection management. In addition, which techniques or steps can decrease the rate of contamination when performing a biopsy. Our review identified little to no data on investigating bacterial contamination of biopsies. In doing this, the review identified different factors implicated in skin microbiota awareness: skin preparation techniques and solutions, variation of typical microbiota that colonize the skin based on the anatomical region, preoperative withholding versus administrating antibiotics prophylactically and using different scalpel blades for superficial and deep incisions, among others. Although we failed to identify any data that provided answers to our original question and quantify each factor individually, most studies in different orthopaedic fields provided significant findings to some extent. We outline some practical recommendations based on consensus and theoretical effectiveness in decreasing the contamination rate. Further research entailing skin microbiota contamination of a biopsy is needed in the field of orthopaedics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Orthopedics , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Antisepsis/methods , Microbiota/immunology , Biopsy
2.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514483

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el estado de salud de los tejidos periimplantarios es de vital importancia en el éxito de la rehabilitación implantosoportada, por esta razón, es necesario observar todos aquellos factores que contribuyen a mantener este estado y dentro de ellos, principalmente: la higiene bucal. Objetivo: determinar la influencia de la higiene bucal en el estado de salud de los tejidos periimplantarios. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal en el servicio de Prótesis de la Facultad de Estomatología de Villa Clara, en el período comprendido entre los años 2017 y 2019. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por 45 pacientes portadores de rehabilitaciones implantosoportadas; las unidades de análisis fueron los implantes y los tejidos que rodean a las 85 prótesis fijas realizadas a dichos pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Se emplearon la observación clínica y radiográfica, y se elaboró un formulario como instrumento. Se evaluó la higiene bucal y el estado de los tejidos periimplantarios como principales variables. La información obtenida se recopiló en una base de datos, se procesó y se sometió a pruebas de independencia (el estadígrafo Ji cuadrado y su posibilidad asociada) para mostrar la relación entre las variables. Resultados: las variables analizadas evidenciaron una relación significativa de la higiene bucal con el estado de salud de los tejidos periimplantarios a favor de la buena higiene y los tejidos sanos. Conclusiones: la buena higiene bucal evidenciada contribuyó a que los tejidos periimplantarios se mantuvieran sanos.


Introduction: peri-implant tissue health state is of vital importance in the success of implant-supported rehabilitation; for this reason, it is necessary to observe all those factors that contribute to maintaining this state, mainly oral hygiene. Objective: to determine the influence of oral hygiene on peri-implant tissue health status. Methods: a descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Prosthesis service at the Dental Faculty of Villa Clara between 2017 and 2019. The universe of study consisted of 45 patients with implant-supported rehabilitations; the units of analysis were the implants and the tissues surrounding the 85 fixed prostheses performed on those patients who met the inclusion criteria. Clinical and radiographic observations were used, and a form was developed as an instrument. Oral hygiene and peri-implant tissue state were evaluated as the main variables. The information obtained was compiled in a database as well as processed and subjected to independence tests (the Chi-square statistic and its associated possibility) to show the relationship among the variables. Results: the analyzed variables showed a significant relationship between oral hygiene and the peri-implant tissue health status in favour of good hygiene and healthy tissues. Conclusions: the evidenced good oral hygiene contributed to the maintenance of healthy peri-implant tissues.


Subject(s)
Rehabilitation , Dental Implants , Biofilms , Microbiota
3.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 44(2): 38-45, maio-ago. 2023. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1428055

ABSTRACT

É sabido que a cavidade oral é a porta de entrada para muitos microrganismos e que possui alguns gêneros de bactérias que quando se associam ou proliferam em excesso, com a falta de higienização correta, fatores ambientais e imunológicos podem causar danos em algumas partes dos dentes como no tecido pulpar e canais radiculares. Neste sentido, a endodontia tem sido capaz de tratar pessoas com problemas dentários em fases muito precoces como as medidas profiláticas até casos infeciosos que afetam a polpa dos dentes causando as lesões perirradiculares que são infecções causadas por microrganismos, Para tanto, é necessário que a odontologia ofereça transformações positivas por meio de técnicas que sejam mais previsíveis para os tratamentos. A literatura tem indicado o uso da laserterapia como técnica auxiliar para o tratamento endodôntico pelo seu potencial mínimo invasivo, preciso e eficaz em menor tempo de cura de patologias orais como as lesões perirradiculares. Este estudo pretendeu abordar a importância da laserterapia sobre as variáveis patológicas de pacientes com lesão perirradiculares. Para realiza-lo foi necessário buscar na literatura estudos que associem este tipo de tratamento e sua eficiência no tratamento desta patologia. Para realizar esta pesquisa foi necessário buscar dados na literatura que tratam sobre o tema para investigar o tempo indicado ao tratamento com a laserterapia bem como o estágio em que as lesões podem ser tratadas com auxílio deste método. Corroborando com o estudo apresentamos um caso clínico(AU)


It is known that the oral cavity is the gateway to many microorganisms and that it has some genera of bacteria that when they associate or proliferate in excess, with the lack of correct hygiene, environmental and immunological factors can cause damage in some parts of the teeth such as in pulp tissue and root canals. In this sense, endodontics has been able to treat people with dental problems at very early stages such as prophylactic measures to infectious cases that affect the pulp of teeth causing perirradicular lesions that are infections caused by microorganisms, therefore, it is necessary that dentistry offer positive transformations through techniques that are more predictable for treatments. The literature has indicated the use of laser therapy as an auxiliary technique for endodontic treatment for its minimal invasive, precise and effective potential in shorter time of cure of oral pathologies such as perirradicular lesions. This study aimed to address the importance of laser therapy on the pathological variables of patients with perirradicular lesions. To accomplish this, it was necessary to seek studies in the literature that associate this type of treatment and its efficiency in the treatment of this pathology. To carry out this research it was necessary to seek data in the literature that deal with the subject to investigate the time indicated for treatment with laser therapy as well as the stage at which lesions can be treated with the aid of this method. Corroborating the study, we present a clinical case(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Root Canal Therapy , Laser Therapy , Root Canal Filling Materials , Root Canal Preparation , Dental Pulp Cavity/injuries , Dental Pulp Diseases , Microbiota , Mouth/microbiology
4.
Med. U.P.B ; 42(1): 49-56, ene.-jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1416179

ABSTRACT

Los alimentos de origen animal como la carne de pollo, res, pescado y cerdo poseen una amplia demanda en todo el mundo debido, entre otros aspectos, a su valor nutricional, asociado al alto contenido proteico. No obstante, este tipo de proteínas son susceptibles de sufrir reacciones de oxidación, las cuales pueden mediar procesos de fragmentación, agregación, pérdida de solubilidad, funcionalidad y digestibilidad proteica; eventos implicados en la pérdida de su valor nutricional. En este sentido, las proteínas agrega­das tienden a no ser digeridas en el tracto gastrointestinal y acumularse en el intestino (colon), donde la microbiota colónica las degrada a productos mutagénicos como fenol y p-cresol, lo que incrementa el riesgo de cáncer colorrectal. Por otra parte, los ami­noácidos o péptidos oxidados liberados en la digestión podrían incorporarse en las vías de señalización celular intestinal y favorecer o exacerbar procesos intestinales crónicos como colon irritable o enfermedad de Crohn. Debido al gran interés de esta temática en los últimos años, el objetivo de esta revisión es realizar una descripción general del impacto de proteínas oxidadas de origen animal sobre la salud intestinal.


Animal foods such as chicken, beef, fish and pork are in wide demand throughout the world due, among other things, to their nutritional value, associated with their high protein content. However, this type of protein is susceptible to oxidation reactions, which can mediate processes of fragmentation, aggregation, loss of solubility, functionality, and protein digestibility, which are events involved in the loss of their nutritional value. In this sense, aggregated proteins tend not to be digested in the gastrointestinal tract and accumulate in the intestine (colon), where the colonic microbiota degrades them into mutagenic products such as phenol and p-cresol, which increases the risk of colorectal cancer. On the other hand, the oxidized amino acids or peptides released in digestion could be incorporated into intestinal cell signaling pathways and favor or exacerbate chronic intestinal processes such as irritable bowel syndrome or Crohn's disease. Due to the great interest in this topic in recent years, the objective of this review is to provide a general overview of the impact of oxidized proteins of animal origin on intestinal health.


Alimentos de origem animal como frango, carne bovina, peixe e carne suína são muito procurados em todo o mundo devido, entre outros fatores, ao seu valor nutricional, associado ao seu alto teor de proteínas. No entanto, esse tipo de proteína é suscetível a reações de oxidação, que podem mediar processos de fragmentação, agregação, perda de solubilidade, funcionalidade e digestibilidade da proteína; eventos envolvidos na perda de seu valor nutritivo. Nesse sentido, as proteínas agregadas tendem a não ser digeridas no trato gastrointestinal e se acumulam no intestino (cólon), onde a microbiota colônica as degrada em produtos mutagênicos como fenol e p - cresol, aumentando o risco de câncer colorretal. Por outro lado, os aminoácidos ou peptídeos oxidados liberados na digestão poderiam ser incorporados às vias de sinalização das células intestinais e favorecer ou exacerbar processos intestinais crônicos, como a síndrome do intestino irritável ou a doença de Crohn. Devido ao grande interesse neste tema nos últimos anos, o objetivo desta revisão é fornecer uma descrição geral do impacto das proteínas oxidadas de origem animal na saúde intestinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Food , Colorectal Neoplasms , Proteins , Colon , Phenol , Digestion , Foods of Animal Origin , Microbiota , Red Meat
5.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 4-4, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971592

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis is the most widespread oral disease and is closely related to the oral microbiota. The oral microbiota is adversely affected by some pharmacologic treatments. Systemic antibiotics are widely used for infectious diseases but can lead to gut dysbiosis, causing negative effects on the human body. Whether systemic antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis can affect the oral microbiota or even periodontitis has not yet been addressed. In this research, mice were exposed to drinking water containing a cocktail of four antibiotics to explore how systemic antibiotics affect microbiota pathogenicity and oral bone loss. The results demonstrated, for the first time, that gut dysbiosis caused by long-term use of antibiotics can disturb the oral microbiota and aggravate periodontitis. Moreover, the expression of cytokines related to Th17 was increased while transcription factors and cytokines related to Treg were decreased in the periodontal tissue. Fecal microbiota transplantation with normal mice feces restored the gut microbiota and barrier, decreased the pathogenicity of the oral microbiota, reversed the Th17/Treg imbalance in periodontal tissue, and alleviated alveolar bone loss. This study highlights the potential adverse effects of long-term systemic antibiotics-induced gut dysbiosis on the oral microbiota and periodontitis. A Th17/Treg imbalance might be related to this relationship. Importantly, these results reveal that the periodontal condition of patients should be assessed regularly when using systemic antibiotics in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Animals , Dysbiosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Virulence , Microbiota , Periodontitis/chemically induced , Cytokines
6.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 131-142, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970766

ABSTRACT

Objective: To detect and analyze the characteristics of oral microbiota in species composition, function and metabolism among caries, periodontitis and oral healthy individuals, hunting for the microbiome-derived biomarkers with specificity and sensitivity to estimate the occurrence of these two diseases. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with high caries risk [decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT)≥6, HC group] in Department of Endodontics, 10 patients with periodontitis of grade Ⅱ A-Ⅲ C (PG group) in Department of Periodontology and 10 oral healthy individuals (HH group) from School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University during from March 2022 to June 2022. A baseline examination was conducted on all participants, including their oral conditions of caries and periodontal health. Metagenomic sequencing (Illumina PE150 platform) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and their metabolites in the samples respectively. The sequencing data were analyzed to obtain the information of microbial taxonomic composition, functional genes and metabolites in each group of samples. The basic oral conditions and saliva samples of subjects in each group were evaluated and collected by the same professional endodontist. Results: There were no significant difference in baseline characteristics such as age and sex among the subjects in each group (P>0.05). DMFT in HC group (9.0±1.7) was significantly higher than that in HH group (0) and PG group (0) (F=243.00, P<0.001). Sequencing data analysis showed that the taxonomic compositions of salivary microbiota in each group were mainly Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria at the phylum level, and Streptococcus, Neisseria, Rothia, Prevotella at the genus level. Differential analysis showed that, compared with the HH group, HC group and PG group had significant differences in taxonomic composition (P<0.05), and the most significant among them was Prevotella. At the species level, Prevotella pallens was the most significant change in HC group, and Porphyromonas gingivalis in PG group. Metabolite analysis showed that there were significant differences in metabolites between HC group and PG group. The results showed that, compared with the HH group, the most significant metabolite change was 3-hydroxy-1, 5-diphenylpentan-1-one in HC group (P=0.001) and N1 acetylspermine in PG group (P=0.002) respectively. Compared with the PG group, the metabolite of HC group with the most significant difference is D-glucosamine 6-phosphate (P=0.006). The metabolism gene function analysis showed that, the enrichment of carbohydrate metabolism related genes was highest in HC group, followed with HH group, and it was lowest in PG group. In addition, compared with the HH group, the abundance of functional genes related to glucose metabolism, such as ABC transporter and phosphotransferase system, were significantly decreased in PG group (P<0.05), but significantly increased in HC group (P<0.05). Conclusions: There is a significant correlation between the alternation of carbohydrate metabolism of salivary microbiota with the occurrence of caries and periodontitis. In the future, Prevotella pallens and 3-hydroxy-1, 5-diphenylpentan-1-one may be the potential biomarkers of caries; while Porphyromonas gingivalis and N1 acetylspermine work in the predictions of periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Saliva/microbiology , Dental Caries Susceptibility , Periodontitis/microbiology , Microbiota/genetics , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
7.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 253-268, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970314

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) are two of the most common elements contaminating groundwater resources. A growing number of studies have found that As and F can cause neurotoxicity in infants and children, leading to cognitive, learning, and memory impairments. However, early biomarkers of learning and memory impairment induced by As and/or F remain unclear. In the present study, the mechanisms by which As and/or F cause learning memory impairment are explored at the multi-omics level (microbiome and metabolome).@*METHODS@#We stablished an SD rats model exposed to arsenic and/or fluoride from intrauterine to adult period.@*RESULTS@#Arsenic and/fluoride exposed groups showed reduced neurobehavioral performance and lesions in the hippocampal CA1 region. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that As and/or F exposure significantly altered the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome,featuring the Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, Ruminococcus_1, Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, [Eubacterium]_xylanophilum_group. Metabolome analysis showed that As and/or F-induced learning and memory impairment may be related to tryptophan, lipoic acid, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) synapse, and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. The gut microbiota, metabolites, and learning memory indicators were significantly correlated.@*CONCLUSION@#Learning memory impairment triggered by As and/or F exposure may be mediated by different gut microbes and their associated metabolites.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Arsenic/toxicity , Fluorides , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Metabolome , Microbiota
8.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 49-55, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970235

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of duodenal bulbar microbiota in children with duodenal ulcer and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection. Methods: This prospective cohort study enrolled 23 children with duodenal ulcers diagnosed by gastroscopy who were admitted to the Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine due to abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and vomiting from January 2018 to August 2018. They were divided into Hp-positive and Hp-negative groups according to the presence or absence of Hp infection. Duodenal bulbar mucosa was sampled to detect the bacterial DNA by high-throughput sequencing. The statistical difference in α diversity and β diversity, and the relative abundance in taxonomic level between the two groups were compared. Microbial functions were predicted using the software PICRUSt. T-test, Rank sum test or χ2 test were used for comparison between the two groups. Results: A total of 23 children diagnosed with duodenal ulcer were enrolled in this study, including 15 cases with Hp infection ((11.2±3.3) years of age, 11 males and 4 females) and 8 cases without Hp infection ((10.1±4.4) years of age, 6 males and 2 females). Compared with Hp-negative group, the Hp-positive group had higher Helicobacter abundance (0.551% (0.258%, 5.368%) vs. 0.143% (0.039%, 0.762%), Z=2.00, P=0.045) and lower abundance of Fusobacterium, Streptococcus and unclassified- Comamonadaceae (0.010% (0.001%, 0.031%) vs. 0.049% (0.011%, 0.310%), Z=-2.24, P=0.025; 0.031% (0.015%, 0.092%) vs. 0.118% (0.046%, 0.410%), Z=-2.10, P=0.036; 0.046% (0.036%, 0.062%) vs. 0.110% (0.045%, 0.176%), Z=-2.01, P=0.045). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect sized showed that at the genus level, only Helicobacter was significantly enriched in Hp-positive group (LDA=4.89, P=0.045), while Streptococcus and Fusobacterium significantly enriched in Hp-negative group (LDA=3.28, 3.11;P=0.036,0.025, respectively). PICRUSt microbial function prediction showed that the expression of oxidative phosphorylation and disease-related pathways (pathways in cancer, renal cell carcinoma, amoebiasis, type 1 diabetes mellitus) in Hp-positive group were significantly higher than that in Hp-negative group (all P<0.05), while the expression of pathways such as energy metabolism and phosphotransferase system pathways were significantly lower than that in Hp-negative group (all P<0.05). Conclusion: In children with Hp-infected duodenal ulcers, the mucosal microbiota of the duodenal bulb is altered, characterized by an increased abundance of Helicobacter and a decreased abundance of Clostridium and Streptococcus, and possibly alters the biological function of the commensal microbiota through specific metabolic pathways.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Duodenal Ulcer/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Helicobacter pylori/genetics , Prospective Studies , Microbiota
9.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 172-178, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969863

ABSTRACT

In recent years, many studies have found that vaginal microbiota is closely related to female reproductive tract diseases. However, traditional microbial culture technology has the defects of long culture cycle and most microorganisms cannot be cultured. The development of metagenomics technique has broken the limitations of culture technology, and has been gradually applied to the study of vaginal microorganisms with the characteristics of high throughput, short time, identification of microbial population structure and gene function. It also provides technical support for elucidating the relationship between vaginal microbiota and female reproductive tract diseases. This article mainly introduces the metagenomics techniques and their applications in prevention, screening and diagnosis of common female reproductive tract diseases, and discusses their promising development and limitations to be overcome.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Vagina , Metagenomics/methods
10.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 572-578, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986929

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of salivary microbiota in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Methods: A case-control study was applied to enroll 60 patients and healthy subjects who were outpatients of the Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery of the Eighth Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital from December 2020 to March 2021, including 35 males and 25 females, aged from 21 to 80 (33.75±11.10) years. Thirty patients with suspected laryngopharyngeal reflux were selected as study group and thirty healthy volunteers without pharyngeal symptoms were selected as control group. Their salivary samples were collected, and the salivary microbiota was detected and analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing. SPSS 18.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no significant difference in the diversity of salivary microbiota between the two groups. At the phylum classification level, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in the study group was higher than that in the control group[37.86(31.15, 41.54)% vs 30.24(25.51, 34.18)%,Z=-3.46,P<0.01]. And the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in the study group was lower than that in the control group [15.76(11.81, 20.17)% vs 20.63(13.98, 28.82)%, Z=-1.98,P<0.05]. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Prevotella, Lactobacillus, Parascardovia and Sphingobium in the study group was higher than that in the control group(Z values were-2.92, -2.69, -2.05, -2.31, respectively, P<0.05).And the relative abundance of Streptococcus, Cardiobacterium, Klebsiella and Uruburuella of study group was lower than that of control group(Z values were -2.43, -2.32, -2.17, -2.32, respectively, P<0.05). LEfSe difference analysis showed that there were 39 bacteria with significant differences between the two groups, including Bacteroidetes, Prevotellaceae and Prevotella, which were enriched in the study group, and Streptococcaceae, Streptococcus and other taxa, which were enriched in the control group(P<0.05). Conclusion: The changes of the microflora in the saliva between LPR patients and healthy people suggest that the dysbacteriosis might exist in LPR patients, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of LPR.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Microbiota , Outpatients , Saliva/microbiology
11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 974-981, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985622

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the changes in bacterial community structure, antibiotic resistance genome, and pathogen virulence genome in river water before and after the river flowing through Haikou City and their transmission and dispersal patterns and to reveal anthropogenic disturbance's effects on microorganisms and resistance genes in the aquatic environment. Methods: The Nandu River was divided into three study areas: the front, middle and rear sections from the upstream before it flowed through Haikou City to the estuary. Three sampling sites were selected in each area, and six copies of the sample were collected in parallel at each site and mixed for 3 L per sample. Microbial community structure, antibiotic resistance, virulence factors, and mobile genetic elements were analyzed through bioinformatic data obtained by metagenomic sequencing and full-length sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Variations in the distribution of bacterial communities between samples and correlation of transmission patterns were analyzed by principal co-ordinates analysis, procrustes analysis, and Mantel test. Results: As the river flowed through Haikou City, microbes' alpha diversity gradually decreased. Among them, Proteobacteria dominates in the bacterial community in the front, middle, and rear sections, and the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in the middle and rear sections was higher than that in the front segment. The diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors, and mobile genetic elements were all at low levels in the front section and all increased significantly after flow through Haikou City. At the same time, horizontal transmission mediated by mobile genetic elements played a more significant role in the spread of antibiotic-resistance genes and virulence factors. Conclusions: Urbanization significantly impacts river bacteria and the resistance genes, virulence factors, and mobile genetic elements they carry. The Nandu River in Haikou flows through the city, receiving antibiotic-resistant and pathogen-associated bacteria excreted by the population. In contrast, antibiotic-resistant genes and virulence factors are enriched in bacteria, which indicates a threat to environmental health and public health. Comparison of river microbiomes and antibiotic resistance genomes before and after flow through cities is a valuable early warning indicator for monitoring the spread of antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rivers , Virulence Factors/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Microbiota/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics
12.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 498-502, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982776

ABSTRACT

Microorganisms are one of the important factors which maintain the homeostasis of human health. Despite recent advances, the relationship between microorganisms and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is still unclear, and the impact of microorganisms on the incidence and prognosis of HNSCC cannot be neglected. Therefore, this article provides a systematic and comprehensive review summarizing the epidemiological evidence of microbial dysbiosis related to HNSCC and discusses the associations between them.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Epithelial Cells , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Microbiota , Prognosis , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
13.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 336-344, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982372

ABSTRACT

Recently, returning straw to the fields has been proved as a direct and effective method to tackle soil nutrient loss and agricultural pollution. Meanwhile, the slow decomposition of straw may harm the growth of the next crop. This study aimed to determine the effects of rumen microorganisms (RMs) on straw decomposition, bacterial microbial community structure, soil properties, and soil enzyme activity. The results showed that RMs significantly enhanced the degradation rate of straw in the soil, reaching 39.52%, which was 41.37% higher than that of the control on the 30th day after straw return. After 30 d, straw degradation showed a significant slower trend in both the control and the experimental groups. According to the soil physicochemical parameters, the application of rumen fluid expedited soil matter transformation and nutrient buildup, and increased the urease, sucrase, and cellulase activity by 10%‒20%. The qualitative analysis of straw showed that the hydroxyl functional group structure of cellulose in straw was greatly damaged after the application of rumen fluid. The analysis of soil microbial community structure revealed that the addition of rumen fluid led to the proliferation of Actinobacteria with strong cellulose degradation ability, which was the main reason for the accelerated straw decomposition. Our study highlights that returning rice straw to the fields with rumen fluid inoculation can be used as an effective measure to enhance the biological value of recycled rice straw, proposing a viable solution to the problem of sluggish straw decomposition.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rumen/metabolism , Agriculture/methods , Soil/chemistry , Microbiota , Bacteria/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Cellulose
14.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 207-213, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982036

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the correlation of intestinal dominant flora with hyperuricemia, and to explore influencing factors of hyperuricemia.@*METHODS@#Data of gut dominant microbiota were collected from subjects who underwent health check-up in Shulan (Hangzhou) Hospital from January 2018 to April 2020. Subjects with high uric acid and normal uric acid were matched by propensity score matching method according to age, gender and body mass index (BMI). This resulted in 178 pairs as hyperuricemia group and control group. The gut dominant microbiota between hyperuricemia and normal control group were compared. Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficient method was used to analyze the correlation between blood uric acid and intestinal dominant flora. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the influencing factors of hyperuricemia.@*RESULTS@#The abundance of Atopobium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Enterococcus, Clostridium leptum, Fusobacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium butyricum and the ratio of Bifidobacterium to Enterobacter (B/E) in the hyperuricemia group were significantly lower than those in the control group (all P<0.01). The correlation analysis showed that serum uric acid were negatively correlated with the abundance of Atopobium (r=-0.224, P<0.01), Bacteroides (r=-0.116, P<0.05), Clostridium leptum (r=-0.196, P<0.01), Fusobacterium prausnitzii (r=-0.244, P<0.01), Bifidobacterium (r=-0.237, P<0.01), Eubacterium rectale (r=-0.125, P<0.05), Clostridium butyricum (r=-0.176, P<0.01) and B/E value (r=-0.127, P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that glutamyl transpeptidase was an independent risk factor for hyperuricemia (OR=1.007, 95%CI: 1.002-1.012, P<0.05), and the Atopobium was an independent protective factor for hyperuricemia (OR=0.714, 95%CI: 0.605-0.842, P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are alterations in abundance of gut dominant microbiota in patients with hyperuricemia, and Atopobium abundance appears as a protective factor for hyperuricemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Uric Acid , Hyperuricemia , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Microbiota
15.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 508-515, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981986

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the distribution characteristics and correlation of intestinal and pharyngeal microbiota in early neonates.@*METHODS@#Full-term healthy neonates who were born in Shanghai Pudong New Area Maternal and Child Health Hospital from September 2021 to January 2022 and were given mixed feeding were enrolled. The 16S rRNA sequencing technique was used to analyze the stool and pharyngeal swab samples collected on the day of birth and days 5-7 after birth, and the composition and function of intestinal and pharyngeal microbiota were analyzed and compared.@*RESULTS@#The diversity analysis showed that the diversity of pharyngeal microbiota was higher than that of intestinal microbiota in early neonates, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). On the day of birth, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in the intestine was significantly higher than that in the pharynx (P<0.05). On days 5-7 after birth, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in the intestine was significantly higher than that in the pharynx (P<0.05), and the relative abundance of Firmicutes in the intestine was significantly lower than that in the pharynx (P<0.05). At the genus level, there was no significant difference in the composition of dominant bacteria between the intestine and the pharynx on the day of birth (P>0.05), while on days 5-7 after birth, there were significant differences in the symbiotic bacteria of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Rothia, Bifidobacterium, and Escherichia-Shigella between the intestine and the pharynx (P<0.05). The analysis based on the database of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins showed that pharyngeal microbiota was more concentrated on chromatin structure and dynamics and cytoskeleton, while intestinal microbiota was more abundant in RNA processing and modification, energy production and conversion, amino acid transport and metabolism, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, coenzyme transport and metabolism, and others (P<0.05). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis showed that compared with pharyngeal microbiota, intestinal microbiota was more predictive of cell motility, cellular processes and signal transduction, endocrine system, excretory system, immune system, metabolic diseases, nervous system, and transcription parameters (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The composition and diversity of intestinal and pharyngeal microbiota of neonates are not significantly different at birth. The microbiota of these two ecological niches begin to differentiate and gradually exhibit distinct functions over time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Bacteria , China , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Intestines , Microbiota , Pharynx/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3125-3131, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981447

ABSTRACT

Dao-di medicinal materials produced in a specific environment always present excellent appearance and high quality. Because of the unique appearance, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma is regarded as a paradigm in the research on excellent appearance. This paper systematically summarized the research progress in the genetic and environmental factors influencing the formation of the excellent appearance of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, aiming to provide reference for the quality improvement of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and the scientific connotation of Dao-di Chinese medicinal materials. The Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma with high quality generally has a robust and long rhizome, a large angle between branch roots, and the simultaneous presence of a robust basal part of rhizome, adventitious roots, rhizome bark with circular wrinkles, and fibrous roots with pearl points. The cultivated and wild Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma have significant differences in the appearance and no significant difference in the population genetic diversity. The differences in the appearance are associated with cell wall modification, transcriptional regulation of genes involved in plant hormone transduction, DNA methylation, and miRNA regulation. The rhizosphere soil microorganisms including Fusarium and Alternaria, as well as the endophytes Trichoderma hamatum and Nectria haematococca, may be the key microorganisms affecting the growth and development of Panax ginseng. Cultivation mode, variety, and root exudates may be the main factors influencing the stability of rhizosphere microbial community. Ginsenosides may be involved in the formation of the excellent appearance. However, most of the available studies focus on the partial or single factors in the formation of Dao-di medicinal materials, ignoring the relationship within the complex ecosystems, which limits the research on the formation mechanism of Dao-di medicinal materials. In the future, the experimental models for the research involving genetic and environmental factors should be established and mutant materials should be developed to clarify the internal relationship between factors and provide scientific support for the research on Dao-di medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Alternaria , Microbiota , Panax/genetics , Rhizome
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2719-2729, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981228

ABSTRACT

To investigate the bioelectrochemical enhanced anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) nitrogen removal process, a bioelectrochemical system with coupled anammox cathode was constructed using a dual-chamber microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Specifically, a dark incubation batch experiment was conducted at 30 ℃ with different influent total nitrogen concentrations under an applied voltage of 0.2 V, and the enhanced denitrification mechanism was investigated by combining various characterization methods such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and high-throughput sequencing methods. The results showed that the total nitrogen removal rates of 96.9%±0.3%, 97.3%±0.4% and 99.0%±0.3% were obtained when the initial total nitrogen concentration was 200, 300 and 400 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the cathode electrode biofilm showed good electrochemical activity. High-throughput sequencing results showed that the applied voltage enriched other denitrifying functional groups, including Denitratisoma, Limnobacter, and ammonia oxidizing bacteria SM1A02 and Anaerolineaceae, Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrospira, besides the anammox bacteria. These electrochemically active microorganisms comprised of ammonium oxidizing exoelectrogens (AOE) and denitrifying electrotrophs (DNE). Together with anammox bacteria Candidatus Brocadia, they constituted the microbial community structure of denitrification system. Enhanced direct interspecies electron transfer between AOE and DNE was the fundamental reason for the further improvement of the total nitrogen removal rate of the system.


Subject(s)
Denitrification , Wastewater , Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation , Nitrogen , Oxidation-Reduction , Bioreactors/microbiology , Ammonium Compounds , Bacteria/genetics , Microbiota , Sewage
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2517-2545, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981215

ABSTRACT

There are a large number of natural microbial communities in nature. Different populations inside the consortia expand the performance boundary of a single microbial population through communication and division of labor, reducing the overall metabolic burden and increasing the environmental adaptability. Based on engineering principles, synthetic biology designs or modifies basic functional components, gene circuits, and chassis cells to purposefully reprogram the operational processes of the living cells, achieving rich and controllable biological functions. Introducing this engineering design principle to obtain structurally well-defined synthetic microbial communities can provide ideas for theoretical studies and shed light on versatile applications. This review discussed recent progresses on synthetic microbial consortia with regard to design principles, construction methods and applications, and prospected future perspectives.


Subject(s)
Microbial Consortia/genetics , Synthetic Biology , Microbiota , Models, Theoretical
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1759-1772, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981168

ABSTRACT

Bacillus cereus is a common foodborne pathogen. Accidently eating food contaminated by B. cereus will cause vomiting or diarrhea, and even death in severe cases. In the present study, a B. cereus strain was isolated from spoiled rice by streak culture. The pathogenicity and drug resistance of the isolated strain were analyzed by drug sensitivity test and PCR amplification of virulence-associated gene respectively. Cultures of the purified strain were injected intraperitoneally into mice to examine their effects on intestinal immunity-associated factors and gut microbial communities, to provide references for the pathogenic mechanism and medication guidance of these spoilage microorganisms. The results showed that the isolated B. cereus strain was sensitive to norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, minocycline, ciprofloxacin, spectinomycin, clindamycin, erythrocin, clarithromycin, chloramphenicol, levofloxacin, and vancomycin, but resistant to bactrim, oxacillin and penicillin G. The strain carries seven virulence-associated genes including hblA, hblC, hblD, nheA, nheB, nheC and entFM, which are involved in diarrhea-causing toxins production. After infecting mice, the isolated B. cereus strain was found to cause diarrhea in mice, and the expression levels of immunoglobulins and inflammatory factors in the intestinal mucosae of the challenged mice were significantly up-regulated. Gut microbiome analysis showed that the composition of gut microbial community in mice changed after infection with B. cereus. The abundance of the uncultured_bacterium_f_Muribaculaceae in Bacteroidetes, which is a marker of body health, was significantly decreased. On the other hand, the abundance of uncultured_bacterium_f_Enterobacteriaceae, which is an opportunistic pathogen in Proteobacteria and a marker of dysbacteriosis, was significantly increased and was significantly positively correlated with the concentrations of IgM and IgG. These results showed that the pathogenic B. cereus carrying diarrhea type virulence-associated gene can activate the immune system by altering the composition of gut microbiota upon infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bacillus cereus/metabolism , Food Microbiology , Immunity, Mucosal , Diarrhea , Microbiota , Enterotoxins/genetics
20.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 208-217, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to analyze the bacteria in dental caries and establish an optimized dental-ca-ries diagnosis model based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) data of oral flora.@*METHODS@#We searched the public databa-ses of microbiomes including NCBI, MG-RAST, EMBL-EBI, and QIITA and collected data involved in the relevant research on human oral microbiomes worldwide. The samples in the caries dataset (1 703) were compared with healthy ones (20 540) by using the microbial search engine (MSE) to obtain the microbiome novelty score (MNS) and construct a caries diagnosis model based on this index. Nonparametric multivariate ANOVA was used to analyze and compare the impact of different host factors on the oral flora MNS, and the model was optimized by controlling related factors. Finally, the effect of the model was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.@*RESULTS@#1) The oral microbiota distribution obviously differed among people with various oral-health statuses, and the species richness and species diversity index decreased. 2) ROC curve was used to evaluate the caries data set, and the area under ROC curve was AUC=0.67. 3) Among the five hosts' factors including caries status, country, age, decayed missing filled tooth (DMFT) indices, and sampling site displayed the strongest effect on MNS of samples (P=0.001). 4) The AUC of the model was 0.87, 0.74, 0.74, and 0.75 in high caries, medium caries, low caries samples in Chinese children, and mixed dental plaque samples after controlling host factors, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The model based on the analysis of 16S rRNA data of oral flora had good diagnostic efficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Bacteria/genetics , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Caries Susceptibility , Microbiota/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
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