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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246040, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285610

ABSTRACT

Abstract Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a congenitally reduced head circumference (-3 to -5 SD) and non-progressive intellectual disability. The objective of the study was to evaluate pathogenic mutations in the ASPM gene to understand etiology and molecular mechanism of primary microcephaly. Blood samples were collected from various families across different remote areas of Pakistan from February 2017 to May 2019 who were identified to be affected with primary microcephaly. DNA extraction was performed using the salting-out method; the quality and quantity of DNA were evaluated using spectrophotometry and 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, respectively in University of the Punjab. Mutation analysis was performed by whole exome sequencing from the Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne. Sanger sequencing was done in University of the Punjab to confirm the pathogenic nature of mutation. A novel 4-bp deletion mutation c.3877_3880delGAGA was detected in exon 17 of the ASPM gene in two primary microcephaly affected families (A and B), which resulted in a frame shift mutation in the gene followed by truncated protein synthesis (p.Glu1293Lysfs*10), as well as the loss of the calmodulin-binding IQ domain and the Armadillo-like domain in the ASPM protein. Using the in-silico tools Mutation Taster, PROVEAN, and PolyPhen, the pathogenic effect of this novel mutation was tested; it was predicted to be "disease causing," with high pathogenicity scores. One previously reported mutation in exon 24 (c.9730C>T) of the ASPM gene resulting in protein truncation (p.Arg3244*) was also observed in family C. Mutations in the ASPM gene are the most common cause of MCPH in most cases. Therefore, enrolling additional affected families from remote areas of Pakistan would help in identifying or mapping novel mutations in the ASPM gene of primary microcephaly.


Resumo Microcefalia primária autossômica recessiva (MCPH) é um distúrbio do neurodesenvolvimento caracterizado por uma redução congênita do perímetro cefálico (-3 a -5 DP) e deficiência intelectual não progressiva. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar mutações patogênicas no gene ASPM a fim de compreender a etiologia e o mecanismo molecular da microcefalia primária. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de várias famílias em diferentes áreas remotas do Paquistão de fevereiro de 2017 a maio de 2019, que foram identificadas como afetadas com microcefalia primária. A extração do DNA foi realizada pelo método salting-out; a qualidade e a quantidade de DNA foram avaliadas por espectrofotometria e eletroforese em gel de agarose a 1%, respectivamente, na Universidade de Punjab. A análise de mutação foi realizada por sequenciamento completo do exoma do Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne. O sequenciamento de Sanger foi feito na Universidade do Punjab para confirmar a natureza patogênica da mutação. Uma nova mutação de deleção de 4 bp c.3877_3880delGAGA foi detectada no exon 17 do gene ASPM em duas famílias afetadas por microcefalia primária (A e B), que resultou em uma mutação de frame shift no gene seguida por síntese de proteína truncada (pGlu1293Lysfs * 10), bem como a perda do domínio IQ de ligação à calmodulina e o domínio do tipo Armadillo na proteína ASPM. Usando as ferramentas in-silico Mutation Taster, PROVEAN e PolyPhen, o efeito patogênico dessa nova mutação foi testado; foi previsto ser "causador de doenças", com altos escores de patogenicidade. Uma mutação relatada anteriormente no exon 24 (c.9730C > T) do gene ASPM, resultando em truncamento de proteína (p.Arg3244 *) também foi observada na família C. Mutações no gene ASPM são a causa mais comum de MCPH na maioria dos casos . Portanto, a inscrição de famílias afetadas adicionais de áreas remotas do Paquistão ajudaria a identificar ou mapear novas mutações no gene ASPM da microcefalia primária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Microcephaly/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Pakistan , Consanguinity , Mutation/genetics
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928379

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To identify pathogenic variants in two patients with suspected for Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS).@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the patients and his family members, and gene variants were analysis by Trio-whole exome sequences and copy number variation sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Patient 1 was found to carried a de novo heterozygous c.2769C>A (p.Y923*) nonsense variant of ZEB2 gene. The variant was not found in his healthy parents and sister. Patient 2 carried a de novo heterozygous frameshift variant of the ZEB2 gene, namely c.315delC (p.A105Afs*3), which has not been previously reported. Both variants were predicted to be pathogenic and can lead to premature occurrence of stop codons.@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous c.2769C>A (p.Y923*) and c.315delC (p.A105Afs*3) variants of the ZEB2 gene probably underlay the pathogenesis in the two patients. Gene testing has facilitated confirmation of the diagnosis and genetic counselling.


Subject(s)
DNA Copy Number Variations , Facies , Hirschsprung Disease , Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Microcephaly/genetics , Zinc Finger E-box Binding Homeobox 2/genetics
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921982

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical phenotype and pathogenic variant in a child diagnosed with mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH).@*METHODS@#Clinical phenotype of the child was reviewed. Whole exome sequencing was carried out for the child. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing of the family member.@*RESULTS@#The proband manifested dyskinesia, development delay, cerebellar hypoplasia and bilateral hearing impairment. WES results revealed that the proband has carried a pathogenic c.1641_1644delACAA (p.Thr548Trpfs*69) variant of the CASK gene, which was verified by Sanger sequencing to be a de novo variant.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.1641_1644delACAA (p.Thr548Trpfs*69) variant of the CASK gene probably underlay the MICPCH in the proband. Above finding has provided a basis for genetic counseling. WES should be considered for the diagnosis of neurological dysplasia.


Subject(s)
Cerebellum/abnormalities , Child , Developmental Disabilities , Family , Humans , Mental Retardation, X-Linked , Microcephaly/genetics , Nervous System Malformations
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Two brothes with Seckel's syndrome 1(SCKL1) were reported and a literature review was carried to provide clinical and genetic information of this rare disease.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the two children were collected, and the peripheral blood was extracted for whole exome sequencing. Literature of the disease were reviewed.@*RESULTS@#The two patients were 11 years and 9.5 years old when examined for short stature. They presented with intrauterine growth retardation, intellectual disability, microcephaly, birdhead-like face and coffee au lait spots. The bone age was more than 2 years behind the chronical age and the growth hormone levels were normal. Whole exome sequencing revealed novel compound heterozygous variants c.1A>G (p.M1?) and c.4853-18A>G of ART gene in both children.@*CONCLUSION@#Children with prenatal onset short stature, developmental delay, microcephaly and special facial featuresshould be considered for the possibility of Seckel's syndrome, whole exome sequencing could help to confirm the clinical diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins/genetics , Child , Dwarfism/genetics , Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Male , Microcephaly/genetics , Siblings , Whole Exome Sequencing
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the clinical phenotype and genotype of a Chinese child affected with Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS).@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the patient were collected. The patient was analyzed by whole-exome sequencing (WES) as well as Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The patient was a male infant with recurrent fever and slow growth. He also had characteristic facies, recurrent spasm, and growth retardation. WES revealed that he has carried a heterozygous nonsense c.2609C>G (p.Ser870X) variant of the ZEB2 gene (30% mosaicism). Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards and guidelines, the variant was predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+PS1+PS2+PM2).@*CONCLUSION@#The c.2609C>G variant of the ZEB2 gene probably underlay the MWS in this child. The mosaicism of the variant may explain his mild symptoms.


Subject(s)
Child , Facies , Hirschsprung Disease/genetics , Humans , Infant , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Male , Microcephaly/genetics , Mutation
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879548

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child with ocular anomaly, microcephaly, growth retardation and intrauterine growth restriction.@*METHODS@#The patient underwent ophthalmologic examinations including anterior segment photography, fundus color photography, and fundus fluorescein angiography. The patient and her parents were subjected to whole exome sequencing. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatic analysis.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to have bilateral persistent pupillary membrane and coloboma of inferior iris, in addition with macular dysplasia and radial pigmentation near the hemal arch of the temporal retina. She was found to have carried compound heterozygous missense variants of the PHGDH gene, namely c.196G>A and c.1177G>A, which were respectively inherited from her father and mother. Bioinformatic analysis suggested both variants to be pathogenic.@*CONCLUSION@#The patient was diagnosed with phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency. Above finding has enriched the phenotypic spectrum of the disease with ocular manifestations.


Subject(s)
Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Child , Coloboma , Female , Humans , Microcephaly/genetics , Mutation , Phenotype , Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase/genetics , Psychomotor Disorders/genetics , Seizures/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879505

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical and genetic characteristics of a child featuring developmental delay.@*METHODS@#The child was subjected to whole exome sequencing. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Whole genome sequencing revealed that the child has carried compound heterozygous variants c.2607-1G>C and c.899 + 2dupT of the RAB3GAP1 gene, which were respectively derived from her mother and father.@*CONCLUSION@#A rare case of Warburg micro syndrome type 1 was diagnosed. The phenotype of the child was consistent with the literature, in addition with dysplasia of palatine arch, prominent high palatal arch and tooth dysplasia. Above finding has provided a basis for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for the family.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Adult , Cataract/genetics , Child , Cornea/abnormalities , Female , Humans , Hypogonadism/genetics , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Male , Microcephaly/genetics , Mutation , Optic Atrophy/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing , rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics
8.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381691

ABSTRACT

El examen citogenético, es una herramienta importante para confirmar el diagnóstico, manejo y consejo genético. El objetivo es analizar las características del fenotipo neuroconductual, protocolizar y orientar en la eficaz solicitud del estudio citogenético. Se revisaron las fichas clínicas de los pacientes controlados del policlínico de Neuropediatría del Hospital de Puerto Montt, con cariograma anormal entre los años 2007 y 2012. De 248 pacientes, 12% se identificó una alteración; 58% aberraciones estructurales, 20% aneuploidías, y 20% alteraciones genético - moleculares. Los elementos clínicos que se encontraron fueron microcefalia 48%, retraso mental 67%, historia familiar 67%, hipotonía 70%, convulsiones 41%, alteraciones del SNC 37%.


Cytogenetic examination is an important tool for confirming diagnosis, case management and genetic counseling. The aim is to analyze the characteristics of neurobehavioral phenotypes, formalize and guide the effective application of cytogenetics. The medical records of patients with abnormal karyotype seen between 2007 and 2012 at the Hospital of Puerto Montt's neuropaediatric outpatient clinic were reviewed. Of 248 patients, in 12% an alteration was identified; 58% structural aberrations, 20% aneuploidy, and 20% genetic-molecular alterations. The clinical elements found were 48% microcephaly, 67% mental retardation, 67% family history, 70% hypotonia, 41% seizures, 37% CNS disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cytogenetic Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Phenotype , Karyotype , Aneuploidy , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Microcephaly/diagnosis , Microcephaly/genetics
9.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 133(4): 377-380, July-Aug. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763371

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The autosomal recessive form of microcephaly-chorioretinopathy syndrome is a rare genetic condition that is considered to be an important differential diagnosis with congenital toxoplasmosis.CASE REPORT: Our patient was a seven-year-old white boy who was initially diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis. However, his serological tests for congenital infections, including toxoplasmosis, were negative. He was the first child of young, healthy and consanguineous parents (fourth-degree relatives). The parents had normal head circumferences and intelligence. The patient presented microcephaly and specific abnormalities of the retina, with multiple diffuse oval areas of pigmentation and patches of chorioretinal atrophy associated with diffuse pigmentation of the fundus. Ophthalmological evaluations on the parents were normal. A computed tomography scan of the child's head showed slight dilation of lateral ventricles and basal cisterns without evidence of calcifications. We did not find any lymphedema in his hands and feet. He had postnatal growth retardation, severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy.CONCLUSIONS: The finding of chorioretinal lesions in a child with microcephaly should raise suspicions of the autosomal recessive form of microcephaly-chorioretinopathy syndrome, especially in cases with an atypical pattern of eye fundus and consanguinity. A specific diagnosis is essential for an appropriate clinical evaluation and for genetic counseling for the patients and their families.


CONTEXTO: A forma autossômica recessiva da síndrome de microcefalia-coriorretinopatia é condição genética rara, considerada um importante diagnóstico diferencial com toxoplasmose congênita.RELATO DO CASO: O paciente era um menino branco de sete anos de idade, inicialmente diagnosticado com toxoplasmose congênita. No entanto, suas sorologias para infecções congênitas, incluindo a toxoplasmose, eram negativas. Ele foi o primeiro filho de pais jovens, hígidos e consanguíneos (parentes de quarto grau). Os pais apresentavam perímetro cefálico e inteligência normais. O paciente apresentava microcefalia e anormalidades específicas da retina com áreas ovais de pigmentação múltiplas e difusas, além de manchas de atrofia coriorretiniana associadas à pigmentação difusa do fundo de olho. A avaliação oftalmológica dos pais foi normal. A tomografia computadorizada de crânio da criança mostrou discreta dilatação dos ventrículos laterais e cisternas basais, sem evidência de calcificações. Nós não verificamos a presença de linfedema em suas mãos e pés. Ele possuía retardo do crescimento pós-natal, deficiência mental grave e paralisia cerebral.CONCLUSÃO: O achado de lesões coriorretinianas em uma criança com microcefalia deve aumentar a suspeita da forma autossômica recessiva da síndrome de microcefalia-coriorretinopatia, principalmente em casos com padrão atípico de fundo de olho e consanguinidade. O diagnóstico preciso é essencial para correta avaliação clínica e aconselhamento genético dos pacientes e suas famílias.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Microcephaly/genetics , Retinal Pigment Epithelium/abnormalities , Consanguinity , Cerebral Palsy/genetics , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Pedigree , Syndrome
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(1): 12-17, 01/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732211

ABSTRACT

Objective To present a seven-cases serie of Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS). Method All patients with positive mutation for the ZEB2 were evaluated by a geneticist and a neurologist, with clinical and laboratorial characterization. Results A peculiar facies and mental retardation were present in all patients. The Denver II scale showed intense delay in all aspects, especially fine motor and adaptive. Acquired microcephaly was observed in five patients. Only one patient did not present epilepsy. Epilepsy was focal and predominating in sleep, with status epilepticus in three patients. The initial seizure was associated with fever in most patients (4/6). The EEG showed epileptic focal activity (5/7). The imaging studies revealed total agenesis (4/7) and partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (1/7). Conclusion Physicians who care for patients with mental retardation and epilepsy should be aware of SMW. .


Objetivo Apresentar uma série de sete casos da síndrome de Mowat-Wilson (SMW). Método Todos os pacientes com estudo positivo para a mutação ZEB2 foram avaliados por um geneticista e um neurologista, com a caracterização clínica e laboratorial. Resultados Todos apresentavam fácies peculiar e retardo mental. A escala de Denver II evidenciou intenso atraso em todos os aspectos, sobretudo motor fino e adaptativo. Microcefalia adquirida foi observada em cinco pacientes. Apenas um paciente não apresentava epilepsia, sendo esta focal e predominando no sono, sendo relatado estado de mal em três pacientes. A crise inicial estava associada à febre na maioria dos pacientes (4/6). O EEG evidenciou atividade epiléptica focal na maioria (5/7). Ao estudo de imagem foi observada agenesia total (4/7) e parcial do corpo caloso (1/7). Conclusão Médicos que lidam com pacientes com retardo mental e epilepsia devem saber distinguir as características peculiares da SMW. .


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Hirschsprung Disease/genetics , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Mutation , Microcephaly/genetics , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Facies , Hirschsprung Disease/physiopathology , Intellectual Disability/physiopathology , Microcephaly/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies
12.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2013 Jan; 19(1): 104-107
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147647

ABSTRACT

MICrocephaly, disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH) syndrome, a rare X-linked disorder, generally seen in girls, is characterized by neurodevelopmental delay, microcephaly, and disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia. It is caused by inactivating calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) gene mutations. We report a 2-year-old girl with severe neurodevelopmental delay, microcephaly, minimal pontine hypoplasia, cerebellar hypoplasia, and normal looking corpus callosum, with whom the conventional cytogenetic studies turned out to be normal, and an array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) analysis showed CASK gene duplication at Xp11.4. Our case highlights the importance of using clinico-radiologic phenotype to guide genetic investigation and it also confirms the role of a-CGH analysis in establishing the genetic diagnosis of MICPCH syndrome, when conventional cytogenetic studies are inconclusive.


Subject(s)
Asians , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/genetics , Cerebellar Diseases/congenital , Cerebellar Diseases/epidemiology , Cerebellar Diseases/genetics , Cerebellar Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Chromosomes, Human, X , Comparative Genomic Hybridization/methods , Developmental Disabilities/genetics , Female , Humans , Infant , Microcephaly/epidemiology , Microcephaly/genetics , Microcephaly/diagnostic imaging , Phenotype , Pons/abnormalities , Pons/epidemiology , Pons/genetics , Pons/diagnostic imaging , X Chromosome Inactivation
13.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2012 Jan; 18(1): 130-133
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139461

ABSTRACT

In this case report we describe a child with a de novo deletion in the (q11.2q13) region of chromosome 14. The child presented with dysmorphic features - anophthalmia, microcephaly, and growth retardation. Cytogenetic studies showed mosaicism. The karyotype was 46,XX,del(14)(q11.2;q13) [16] /46,XX [9]. We compared the features observed in this child with that of others with the same deletion reported in scientific literature and found that this is the first report of a child mosaic for this deletion. It is also the first time it has been reported in association with anophthalmia.


Subject(s)
Anophthalmos/genetics , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosome Disorders/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14/genetics , Female , Humans , Infant , Microcephaly/genetics , Mosaicism/genetics
14.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 81(5): 432-436, oct. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-577528

ABSTRACT

Seckel syndrome is an infrequent autosomic recessive genetic disorder. It is characterized by short stature, mental retardation and a typical facies. Nearly 10 families have been reported with two or more affected members. This paper reports two sisters, daughters of non-related parents. The mother presented bilateral fissurate lip. The main traits of this syndrome are highlighted through a literature review.


El síndrome de Seckel es una enfermedad genética de herencia autosómica recesiva de baja ocurrencia, caracterizado por la asociación de talla baja, retardo mental y facies especial, se han reportado cerca de 10 familias con dos o más miembros afectados. Nosotros reportamos dos hermanas hijas de padres no consanguíneas, la madre presenta labio fisurado bilateral. Se describen las características más importantes del síndrome y se hace una revisión de la literatura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Dwarfism/genetics , Microcephaly/genetics , Inheritance Patterns , Syndrome
15.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2009 Dec; 76(12): 1270-1271
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142458

ABSTRACT

Four case records of patients with Seckel Syndrome (SS) were retrieved. Typical of bird headed dwarfism was seen in all. Chromosome 18 deletion was seen in one child with SS. MRI abnormalities were detected in 3 patients. Cytogenetic studies and neuroimaging is likely to provide important diagnostic and prognostic information.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Abnormalities, Multiple/pathology , Child, Preschool , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18 , Craniofacial Abnormalities/genetics , Craniofacial Abnormalities/pathology , Dwarfism/genetics , Dwarfism/pathology , Female , Humans , Infant , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Intellectual Disability/pathology , Male , Microcephaly/genetics , Microcephaly/pathology , Syndrome
16.
Arch. venez. pueric. pediatr ; 71(3): 91-95, jul.-sept. 2008. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-589250

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Wolf-Hirschhorn es un trastorno cromosómico atribuible a una delección parcial del brazo corto del cromosoma 4 (4p-). Está caracterizado por hallazgos craneofaciales típicos en la infancia (“apariencia de guerrero griego” de la nariz, microcefalia, frente alta con glabela prominente, hipertelorismo, cejas muy arqueadas, filtrum corto, boca en carpa, y micrognatia, entre otros), retardo del crecimiento pre y postnatal, hipotonía y retardo del desarrollo. Los pacientes también pueden tener epilepsia y anormalidades que involucran otros órganos. El diagnóstico puede ser realizado por análisis citogenético convencional, el cual detecta la mayoría de los casos. El tratamiento incluye rehabilitación, terapia de lenguaje, drogas antiepilépticas cuando son necesarias, alimentación por gavaje o gastrostomía para las dificultades de la alimentación y terapia de soporte. Femenina de 10 meses de edad, quien presenta anomalías craneofaciales características, pie equinovaro bilateral, hipotonía, reflujo gastroesofágico, epilepsia, retardo del crecimiento y del desarrollo. El diagnóstico fue confirmado por detección de una delección de 4p que involucraba a la región crítica para este síndrome. Esta paciente recibe actualmente rehabilitación, medicación antirreflujo y ácido valproico. Esta condición debe ser reconocida por los pediatras, a fin de poder ofrecer un adecuado manejo a estos pacientes y sus familias.


Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome is a cromosomal disorder attributable to partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4(4p-). It is characterized by typical craneofacial features in infancy (“Greek warrior appearance” of the nose, microcephaly, high forehead with prominent glabella, hypertelorism, highly arched eyebrows, short philtrum, downturned mouth and micrognathia, among others), pre and postnatal growth retardation, hypotonia and developmental delay. Patients can also have epilepsy and abnormalities that involve other organs. Diagnosis can be made by conventional cytogenetic analysis which detects most of the cases. Treatment includes rehabilitation, speech therapy, antiepileptic drugs when necessary, gavage feeding or gastrostomy for feeding difficulties and standard management of other anomalies. 10 month-old female who presents characteristic craniofacial anomalies, clubfeet, hypotonia, gastroesofageal reflux, epilepsy, growth retardation and developmental delay. Diagnosis was confirmed by detection of a deletion of 4p that involved the critical region of the syndrome. This patient receives rehabilitation, antireflux medication and valproic acid. This condition must be recognized by pediatricians in order to offer adecuated management to these patients and their families.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , /ultrastructure , Microcephaly/genetics , Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome/genetics , Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome/therapy , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Exotropia/pathology , Intellectual Disability/genetics
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-46153

ABSTRACT

Meckel- Gruber syndrome is a rare lethal, autosomal disorder. It has been linked to chromosome 17. It consists of a triad of occipital meningoencephalocoele, large polycystic kidneys and post-axial polydactyly. Death is mainly due to pulmonary hypoplasia. We report this rare case which presented with many associated defects.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Multiple/epidemiology , Cardiomegaly/genetics , Cause of Death , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Cryptorchidism/genetics , Encephalocele/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Meningocele/epidemiology , Microcephaly/genetics , Micrognathism/genetics , Nepal/epidemiology , Polycystic Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Polydactyly/epidemiology , Rare Diseases/epidemiology , Retrognathia/genetics , Syndrome
18.
Rev. bras. genét ; 13(2): 347-51, june 1990. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-94207

ABSTRACT

Descreve-se uma menina de quatro anos com deficiência do segmento cromossômico 6q24-qter. Os achados clínicos incluem retardo psicomotor e de desenvolvimento, microcefalia, estrabismo convergente, nariz proeminente, filtro longo, pescoço e cardiopatia


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6 , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Microcephaly/genetics , Strabismus/genetics
19.
Indian J Pediatr ; 1989 Mar-Apr; 56(2): 249-58
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-79553

ABSTRACT

Genetic analysis of 169 mentally retarded (MR) children from Madras, revealed chromosomal abnormalities in 17%. Down syndrome was the major chromosomal anomaly (24/169 = 14.2%). These included three cases of trisomy-21 mosaics, and one case of de novo Robertsonian translocation. MR children with chromosomal abnormalities were either mildly or moderately retarded. Syndromes with known etiology occurred in 3% of the MR cases. Microcephaly, neonatal anoxia, perinatal stress and pharmacological attempt for abortion were found to be important pathogenic factors associated with MR. Most of the microcephalics (11/169 = 6.5%) were severely retarded, whereas those associated with neonatal anoxia and perinatal stress were either mildly or moderately retarded. Birth-order effects were found only among Down syndrome patients. Segregation analysis of the three groups of proband families (viz. mild, moderate and severe MR) indicated that autosomal recessive mode of inheritance is compatible in moderate and severe MR proband families. The proportion of X-linked instances of MR is estimated to be about 22% of the cases.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Chromosome Aberrations/genetics , Chromosome Disorders , Down Syndrome/genetics , Female , Fetal Hypoxia/genetics , Humans , Male , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Microcephaly/genetics , Pregnancy , Sex Chromosome Aberrations/genetics
20.
New Egyptian Journal of Medicine [The]. 1989; 3 (2): 373-376
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-14208

ABSTRACT

Thirty four cases presenting with isolated microcephaly were ascertained from the outpatient clinic of Human Genetics Department [HGD], The National Research Center [NRC] in the last 2 years. Eight cases were familial in 4 families, [2 affected sibs in each], and 26 sporadic cases. Positive consanguinity was found in 64% of all the cases. It was possible to classify our cases according to their etiology into the following: [1] Genetic causes: a- Microcephaly with spastic paraplegia and or quadriplegia: 16 cases [6 familial and 10 sporadic]. b- Microcephaly with eye manifestations [optic atrophy or chorioretinopathy] 6 sporadic cases. c- Metabolic causes [3 cases, 2 familial and 1 sporadic]. 2] Enviromental causes in 9 cases [all sporadic]. This study emphasizes the etiologic heterogeneity of isolated microcephaly, the preponderance of autosomal recessive forms and that consanguinity plays a major role in its etiology in our society


Subject(s)
Microcephaly/genetics
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