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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 333-342, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440309

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Changes in the microcirculation of multiple tissues and organs have been implicated as a possible mechanism in physiological aging. In particular, vascular endothelial growth factor is a secretory protein responsible for regulating angiogenesis via altering endothelial proliferation, survival, migration, extracellular matrix degradation and cell permeability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor in the progression of morphological alterations caused by physiological aging in the heart and kidney and to examine its relation to changes in capillary density. We used two age groups of healthy Wistar rats - 6- and 12-month- old. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was examined through immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and assessed semi-quantitatively. Changes in capillary density were evaluated statistically and correlated with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. We reported stronger immunoreactivity for vascular endothelial growth factor in the left compared to the right ventricle and also observed an increase in its expression in both ventricles in older animals. Contrasting results were reported for the renal cortex and medulla. Capillary density decreased statistically in all examined structures as aging progressed. The studied correlations were statistically significant in the two ventricles in 12-month-old animals and in the renal cortex of both age groups. Our results shed light on some changes in the microcirculation that take place as aging advances and likely contribute to impairment in the function of the examined organs.


Los cambios en la microcirculación de múltiples tejidos y órganos se han implicado como un posible mecanismo en el envejecimiento fisiológico. En particular, el factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular es una proteína secretora responsable de regular la angiogénesis mediante la alteración de la proliferación endotelial, la supervivencia, la migración, la degradación de la matriz extracelular y la permeabilidad celular. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el papel del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular en la progresión de las alteraciones morfológicas causadas por el envejecimiento fisiológico en el corazón y riñón y examinar su relación con los cambios en la densidad capilar. Utilizamos dos grupos de ratas Wistar sanas: 6 y 12 meses de edad. La expresión del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular se examinó mediante inmunohistoquímica e inmunofluorescencia y se evaluó semicuantitativamente. Los cambios en la densidad capilar se evaluaron estadísticamente y se correlacionaron con la expresión del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular. Informamos una inmunorreactividad más fuerte para el factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular en el ventrículo izquierdo en comparación con el derecho y también observamos un aumento en su expresión en ambos ventrículos en animales mayores. Se informaron resultados contrastantes para la corteza renal y la médula. La densidad capilar disminuyó estadísticamente en todas las estructuras examinadas a medida que avanzaba el envejecimiento. Las correlaciones estudiadas fueron estadísticamente significativas en los dos ventrículos en animales de 12 meses y en la corteza renal de ambos grupos de edad. Nuestros resultados arrojan luz sobre algunos cambios en la microcirculación que tienen lugar a medida que avanza el envejecimiento y probablemente contribuyan a un deterioro en la función de los órganos examinados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aging , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Kidney/blood supply , Capillaries/anatomy & histology , Immunohistochemistry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rats, Wistar , Coronary Vessels/physiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/metabolism , Heart/physiology , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/physiology , Microcirculation
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970577

ABSTRACT

This study aims to examine the effect of superfine powder and aqueous extract of Polygonati Rhizomaon on natural perimenopausal syndrome in rats and explore the underlying mechanism. To be specific, a total of 60 female SD rats(14-15 months old) with estrous cycle disorder were screened by the vaginal smear and randomized into model control group, β-estradiol 3-benzoate group(0.1 mg·kg~(-1)), superfine powder of Polygonati Rhizoma group(0.25, 0.5 g·kg~(-1)) and aqueous extract of Polygonati Rhizoma group(0.25, 0.5 g·kg~(-1)), and another 10 female SD rats(14-15 months old) were selected as the youth control group. The administration lasted 6 weeks. Then the perimenopausal syndrome-related indexes such as body temperature, microcirculatory blood flow of face and ear, vertigo period, salivary secretion, grip force, and bone strength were determined and open field test was conducted. The immune system-related indexes such as the wet weight and index of thymus and spleen, percentage of T lymphocytes and subgroups in peripheral blood, and hematological indexes were measured. In addition, the ovary-related indexes such as estrous cycle, the wet weight and index of uterus and ovary, ovarian tissue morphology, and cell apoptosis were determined. Moreover, hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis(HPO)-related indexes such as serum sex hormone levels, cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A member 1(CYP11A1), cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A member 1(CYP19A1), and cytochrome P450 family 17 subfamily A member 1(P450 17A1) in ovarian tissue were measured. The results showed that the superfine powder and aqueous extract of Polygonati Rhizoma significantly decreased body temperature(anal, facial and dorsal temperature), microcirculatory blood flow in the ear, and vertigo period, increased salivary secretion, grip force, bone strength, total distance and total speed in the open field test, wet weight and index of thymus and spleen, lymphocyte ratio, CD3~+ level, and CD4~+/CD8~+ ratio, reduced neutrophil number and ratio, estrous cycle disorder ratio, and number of ovarian apoptotic cells, raised wet weight and index of uterus, wet weight of ovary, levels of inhibin B(INHB), estradiol(E_2), anti-müllerian hormone(AMH), and ovarian CYP11A1 and CYP19A1, decreased follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) and luteinizing hormone(LH) content, and improved ovarian tissue morphology. It is suggested that the superfine powder and aqueous extract of Polygonati Rhizoma can improve the symptoms associated with natural perimenopausal syndrome in rats and enhance ovarian function and immune function. The mechanism is that they regulate HPO axis function by increasing estrogen synthesis.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microcirculation , Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme , Perimenopause , Powders , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
3.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 509-512, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982623

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the correlation between the four limbs perfusion index (PI) and blood lactic acid in patients with neurosis, and evaluate the predictive value of PI on microcirculation perfusion metabolic disorder in patients with neurosis.@*METHODS@#A prospective observational study was conducted. Adult patients admitted to the department of neurological intensive care unit (NICU) of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from July 1 to August 20 in 2020 were enrolled. Under the condition of indoor temperature controlled at 25 centigrade, all patients were placed in the supine position, and the blood pressure, heart rate, PI of both fingers and thumb toes and arterial blood lactic acid were measured within 24 hours and 24-48 hours after NICU. The difference of four limbs PI at different time periods and its correlation with lactic acid were compared. Receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve) was used to evaluate the predictive value of four limbs PI on patients with microcirculatory perfusion metabolic disorder.@*RESULTS@#A total of 44 patients with neurosis were enrolled, including 28 males and 16 females; average age (61.2±16.5) years old. There were no significant differences in PI of the left index finger and the right index finger [2.57 (1.44, 4.79) vs. 2.70 (1.25, 5.33)], PI of the left toe and the right toe [2.09 (0.85, 4.76) vs. 1.88 (0.74, 4.32)] within 24 hours after entering the NICU, and the PI of the left index finger and the right index finger [3.17 (1.49, 5.07) vs. 3.14 (1.33, 5.36)], PI of the left toe and the right toe [2.07 (0.75, 5.20) vs. 2.07 (0.68, 4.67)] at 24-48 hours after NICU admission (all P > 0.05). However, compared to the PI of the upper and lower limbs on the same side, except for the 24-48 hours after ICU of the PI difference between the left index finger and the left toe (P > 0.05), the PI of the toe was lower than that of the index finger at the other time periods (all P < 0.05). The correlation analysis showed that the PI value of four limbs of patients in both time periods were significantly negatively correlated with arterial blood lactic acid (the r values of the left index finger, the right index finger, the left toe and the right toe were -0.549, -0.482, -0.392 and -0.343 respectively within 24 hours after entering the NICU; the r values of the left index finger, the right index finger, the left toe and the right toe were -0.331, -0.292, -0.402 and -0.442 respectively after entering the NICU 24-48 hours, all P < 0.05). Taking lactic acid ≥ 2 mmol/L as the diagnostic standard for metabolic disorder of microcirculation perfusion (total 27 times, accounting for 30.7%). The efficacy of four limbs PI in predicting microcirculation perfusion metabolic disorder were compared. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of left index finger, right index finger, left toe and right toe predicting microcirculation perfusion metabolic disorder were 0.729 (0.609-0.850), 0.767 (0.662-0.871), 0.722 (0.609-0.835), 0.718 (0.593-0.842), respectively. There was no significant difference in AUC compare with each other (all P > 0.05). The cut-off value of PI of right index finger for predicting microcirculation perfusion metabolic disorder was 2.46, the sensitivity was 70.4%, the specificity was 75.4%, the positive likelihood ratio was 2.86, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.30.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are no significant differences in PI of bilateral index fingers, bilateral toes in patients with neurosis. However, unilateral upper and lower limbs showed lower PI in the toe than in the index finger. There is a significantly negatively correlation between PI and arterial blood lactic acid in all four limbs. PI can predict the metabolic disorder of microcirculation perfusion, and its cut-off value is 2.46.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Lactic Acid , Microcirculation , Perfusion Index , Lower Extremity , Area Under Curve , Nervous System Diseases
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981572

ABSTRACT

As one of the standard electrophysiological signals in the human body, the photoplethysmography contains detailed information about the blood microcirculation and has been commonly used in various medical scenarios, where the accurate detection of the pulse waveform and quantification of its morphological characteristics are essential steps. In this paper, a modular pulse wave preprocessing and analysis system is developed based on the principles of design patterns. The system designs each part of the preprocessing and analysis process as independent functional modules to be compatible and reusable. In addition, the detection process of the pulse waveform is improved, and a new waveform detection algorithm composed of screening-checking-deciding is proposed. It is verified that the algorithm has a practical design for each module, high accuracy of waveform recognition and high anti-interference capability. The modular pulse wave preprocessing and analysis software system developed in this paper can meet the individual preprocessing requirements for various pulse wave application studies under different platforms. The proposed novel algorithm with high accuracy also provides a new idea for the pulse wave analysis process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Systems Analysis , Algorithms , Software , Heart Rate , Microcirculation
5.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 155-160, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374719

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Different theories have been proposed on the etiology of tinnitus, including metabolic and audiologic causes. We suggest that mean platelet volume and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio levels change in tinnitus, indicating microcirculatory disturbance and inflammatory process in the etiopathogenesis of tinnitus. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the mean platelet volume and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in patients with tinnitus in comparison to healthy controls. Methods: Retrospective case-control study. Two-hundred and eighty-seven patients aged 18-59 years and diagnosed with tinnitus in the Ear, Nose, and Throat Clinic between December 2014 and May 2017 (patient group) and 275 healthy individuals who applied for a hearing screening within the same time period (control group). Demographics, concomitant diseases, laboratory results, and audiometric data were recorded. Mean platelet volume and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio were the outcome measures. Patients with hearing loss due to presbycusis or another reasons, and patients with anatomical disorders in the external and middle ear were excluded from the study by using physical examinations, pure audio audiometry results and radiological imaging. The upper age limit was set at 59 to exclude presbycusis patients. Results: The ratio of female patients was higher in patient group than control group (58.5%, n = 168 vs. 49.4%, n= 127; respectively; p = 0.033). The mean age of patient group was significantly higher than those of control group (44.89 ± 10.96 years and 38.37 ± 10.65 years, respectively; p = 0.001). The percentage of subjects with high mean platelet volume level was significantly higher in patient group than control group (9.4%, n = 27, and 3.1%, n = 8 respectively; p = 0.008). The mean neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was higher in patients with tinnitus than control group (1.95 ± 1.02 and 1.67 ±0.57, p = 0.012). A neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio level of 2.17 and above is associated with 1.991 times higher risk of tinnitus (odds ratio = 1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.31-3.02). Conclusion: High mean platelet volume and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio values are associated with idiopathic tinnitus, suggesting the role of vascular pathologies in etiology of tinnitus. Tinnitus may be a sign of underlying systemic or local disorders. Therefore, patients with tinnitus should undergo detailed evaluation including hematological indices.


Resumo Introdução: Diferentes teorias já foram propostas sobre a etiologia do zumbido, inclusive causas metabólicas e audiológicas. Acreditamos que os níveis do volume plaquetário médio e da relação neutrófilos/linfócitos se alteram no zumbido, sugerem distúrbio microcirculatório e processo inflamatório na etiopatogenia do zumbido. Objetivo: Avaliar o volume plaquetário médio e a relação neutrófilos/linfócitos em pacientes com zumbido em comparação com controles saudáveis. Método: Estudo de caso-controle retrospectivo, com 287 pacientes entre 18 e 59 anos e diagnosticados com zumbido na Clínica de Otorrinolaringologia entre dezembro de 2014 e maio de 2017 (grupo pacientes) e 275 indivíduos saudáveis que solicitaram uma triagem auditiva no mesmo período (grupo controle). Foram registrados dados demográficos, doenças concomitantes, resultados laboratoriais e dados audiométricos. O volume plaquetário médio e a relação neutrófilos/linfócitos foram as medidas de desfecho. Pacientes com perda auditiva por presbiacusia ou por outros motivos e pacientes com distúrbios anatômicos na orelha externa e média foram excluídos do estudo por meio de exame físico, resultados de audiometria tonal pura e imagens radiológicas. O limite de idade superior foi fixado em 59 anos para excluir pacientes com presbiacusia. Resultados: A proporção de pacientes do sexo feminino foi maior no grupo de pacientes do que no grupo controle (58,5%, n = 168 vs. 49,4%, n = 127; respectivamente; p = 0,033). A média de idade do grupo de pacientes era significantemente maior do que a do grupo controle (44,89 ± 10,96 anos e 38,37 ± 10,65 anos, respectivamente; p = 0,001). A porcentagem de indivíduos com nível alto de volume plaquetário médio foi significantemente maior no grupo de pacientes do que no grupo controle (9,4%, n = 27 e 3,1%, n = 8, respectivamente; p = 0,008). A relação neutrófilos/linfócitos média foi maior nos pacientes com zumbido do que no grupo controle (1,95 ± 1,02 e 1,67 ±0,57, p = 0,012). Um nível de relação neutrófilos/linfócitos de 2,17 e acima está associado a um risco 1,991 vez maior de zumbido (odds ratio = 1,99, Intervalo de Confiança de 95% 1,31 a 3,02). Conclusão: Altos valores de volume plaquetário médio e relação neutrófilos/linfócitos estão associados ao zumbido idiopático, sugerem o papel de doenças vasculares na etiologia do zumbido. O zumbido pode ser um sinal de distúrbios sistêmicos ou locais subjacentes. Portanto, pacientes com zumbido devem ser submetidos a uma avaliação detalhada, inclusive índices hematológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Presbycusis , Tinnitus/diagnosis , Lymphocytes , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Mean Platelet Volume , Microcirculation , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 37(7): e370703, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402969

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine whether dexmedetomidine aggravates hemodynamic, metabolic variables, inflammatory markers, and microcirculation in experimental septic shock. Methods: Twenty-four pigs randomized into: Sham group (n = 8), received saline; Shock group (n = 8), received an intravenous infusion of Escherichia coli O55 (3 × 109 cells/mL, 0.75 mL/kg, 1 hour); Dex-Shock group (n = 8), received bacteria and intravenous dexmedetomidine (bolus 0.5 mcg/kg followed by 0.7 mcg/kg/h). Fluid therapy and/ornorepinephrine were administered to maintain a mean arterial pressure > 65 mmHg. Hemodynamic, metabolic, oxygenation, inflammatory markers, and microcirculation were assessed at baseline, at the end of bacterial infusion, and after 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes. Results: Compared to Shock group, Dex-Shock group presented a significantly increased oxygen extraction ratio at T180 (23.1 ± 9.7 vs. 32.5 ± 9.2%, P = 0.0220), decreased central venous pressure at T120 (11.6 ± 1 vs. 9.61 ± 1.2 mmHg, P = 0.0214), mixed-venous oxygen saturation at T180 (72.9 ± 9.6 vs. 63.5 ± 9.2%, P = 0.026), and increased plasma lactate (3.7 ± 0.5 vs. 5.5 ± 1 mmol/L, P = 0.003). Despite the Dex-Shock group having a better sublingual vessel density at T240 (12.5 ± 0.4 vs. 14.4 ± 0.3 mL/m2; P = 0.0003), sublingual blood flow was not different from that in the Shock group (2.4 ± 0.2 vs. 2.4 ± 0.1 mL/kg, P = 0.4418). Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine did not worsen the hemodynamic, metabolic, inflammatory, or sublingual blood flow disorders resulting from septic shock. Despite inducing a better sublingual vessel density, dexmedetomidine initially and transitorily increased the mismatch between oxygen supply and demand.


Subject(s)
Animals , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Swine/physiology , Dexmedetomidine/analysis , Microcirculation , Biomarkers, Pharmacological/analysis , Hemodynamics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929044

ABSTRACT

The dysfunction of coronary microcirculation is an important cause of coronary artery disease (CAD). The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) is a quantitative evaluation of coronary microcirculatory function, which provides a significant reference for the prediction, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of CAD. IMR also plays a key role in investigating the interaction between epicardial and microcirculatory dysfunctions, and is closely associated with coronary hemodynamic parameters such as flow rate, distal coronary pressure, and aortic pressure, which have been widely applied in computational studies of CAD. However, there is currently a lack of consensus across studies on the normal and pathological ranges of IMR. The relationships between IMR and coronary hemodynamic parameters have not been accurately quantified, which limits the application of IMR in computational CAD studies. In this paper, we discuss the research gaps between IMR and its potential applications in the computational simulation of CAD. Computational simulation based on the combination of IMR and other hemodynamic parameters is a promising technology to improve the diagnosis and guide clinical trials of CAD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Circulation , Microcirculation , Predictive Value of Tests , Vascular Resistance
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939795

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN) in rats.@*METHODS@#Male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into 3 groups using a random number table: the control group, the OIPN group, and the EA (OIPN + EA) group, with 10 rats in each. The time courses of mechanical, cold sensitivity, and microcirculation blood flow intensity were determined. The morphology of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was observed by electron microscopic examination. The protein levels of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and the transient receptor potential (TRP) protein family in DRGs were assayed by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#EA treatment significantly reduced mechanical allodynia and cold allodynia in OIPN rats (P<0.01). Notably, oxaliplatin treatment resulted in impaired microcirculatory blood flow and pathomorphological defects in DRGs (P<0.01). EA treatment increased the microcirculation blood flow and attenuated the pathological changes induced by oxaliplatin (P<0.01). In addition, the expression levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 were down-regulated, and the TRP protein family was over-expressed in the DRGs of OIPN rats (P<0.01). EA increased the expression levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 and decreased the level of TRP protein family in DRG (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#EA may be a potential alternative therapy for OIPN, and its mechanism may be mainly mediated by restoring the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Electroacupuncture/methods , Hyperalgesia/therapy , Microcirculation , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Oxaliplatin/adverse effects , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
9.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 401-407, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936026

ABSTRACT

Microcirculatory dysfunction is an important pathophysiological change of shock. In the last decade, many researches on the mechanism of microcirculatory dysfunction have been involved in areas such as the glycocalyx damage of vascular endothelial cells, macrocirculation- microcirculation discoupling, vascular hyporeactivity, and microcirculation monitoring. Accordingly, this paper discussed how these research findings can be applied to burn patients, with the aim of alerting the clinicians to improving microcirculation, and maintaining hemodynamic coordination during the treatment of burn shock and burn septic shock. In addition, with the development of accurate and reliable microcirculation monitoring techniques, it is necessary to carry out multi-center clinical trials to reveal the clinical significance of target-oriented shock resuscitation protocol combining macrocirculatory and microcirculatory parameters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Burns/therapy , Endothelial Cells , Hemodynamics/physiology , Microcirculation/physiology , Resuscitation , Shock , Shock, Septic/therapy
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927669

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to examine the effects of microcirculatory dysfunction and 654-1 intervention after cardiopulmonary resuscitation on myocardial injury.@*Methods@#Landrace pigs were divided into a sham operation group (S group, n= 6), ventricular fibrillation control group (VF-C group, n= 8) and 654-1 intervention group (VF-I group, n= 8). Hemodynamics was recorded at baseline, at recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h thereafter. Sidestream dark field (SDF) technology was used to evaluate and monitor the microcirculation flow index, total vessel density, perfusion vessel ratio, De-Backer score, and perfusion vessel density in animal viscera at various time points.@*Results@#After administration of 654-1 at 1.5 h post-ROSC, the hemodynamics in the VF-I group, as compared with the VF-C group, was significantly improved. The visceral microcirculation detected by SDF was also significantly improved in the VF-I group. As observed through electron microscopy, significantly less myocardial tissue injury was present in the VF-I group than the VF-C group.@*Conclusion@#Administration of 654-1 inhibited excessive inflammatory by improving the state of visceral microcirculation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Microcirculation , Swine , Ventricular Fibrillation/therapy
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 137-144, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927515

ABSTRACT

Fluid resuscitation is an essential intervention in critically ill patients, and its ultimate goal is to restore tissue perfusion. Critical illnesses are often accompanied by glycocalyx degradation caused by inflammatory reactions, hypoperfusion, shock, and so forth, leading to disturbed microcirculatory perfusion and organ dysfunction. Therefore, maintaining or even restoring the glycocalyx integrity may be of high priority in the therapeutic strategy. Like drugs, however, different resuscitation fluids may have beneficial or harmful effects on the integrity of the glycocalyx. The purpose of this article is to review the effects of different resuscitation fluids on the glycocalyx. Many animal studies have shown that normal saline might be associated with glycocalyx degradation, but clinical studies have not confirmed this finding. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES), rather than other synthetic colloids, may restore the glycocalyx. However, the use of HES also leads to serious adverse events such as acute kidney injury and bleeding tendencies. Some studies have suggested that albumin may restore the glycocalyx, whereas others have suggested that balanced crystalloids might aggravate glycocalyx degradation. Notably, most studies did not correct the effects of the infusion rate or fluid volume; therefore, the results of using balanced crystalloids remain unclear. Moreover, mainly animal studies have suggested that plasma may protect and restore glycocalyx integrity, and this still requires confirmation by high-quality clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Colloids , Crystalloid Solutions/therapeutic use , Fluid Therapy , Glycocalyx , Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives , Isotonic Solutions , Microcirculation , Resuscitation
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922574

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the influence of acupuncture on microcirculation perfusion of the pericardium meridian and heart in acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) rats and evaluate whether acupuncture can simultaneously affect the meridians and corresponding viscera. Additionally, acupoints at different meridians were compared and whether they exert the same effects was discussed.@*METHODS@#Totally 32 Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left anterior descending (LAD) ligation to develop an AMI model. Rats were divided into 4 groups, including AMI, acupuncture Neiguan (PC 6), Lieque (LU 7) and Qiansanli (LI 10) groups (n=8). Eight rats received only thoracotomy (sham-operated group). The rats in the acupuncture groups received manual acupuncture at PC 6, LU 7 and LI 10 acupoints for 15 min, respectively. The microcirculation perfusion of pericardium meridian and heart was monitored by laser speckle perfusion imager (LSPI) before, during and after acupuncture manipulation for 15 min. Subsequently, the perfusion unit (PU) was calculated and analyzed by PSI System.@*RESULTS@#After LAD, compared to pre-acupuncture stage, the heart microcirculation perfusion (HMP) in the AMI group decreased continuously at during-acupuncture (P>0.05) and post-acupuncture stages (P0.05). Compared to pre-acupuncture stage, the PMP and HMP in PC 6 group significantly increased during acupuncture manipulation (both P0.05); however, they were significantly reduced after acupuncture manipulation (both P<0.05). Additionally, HMP of LI 10 group was decreased significantly during acupuncture, especially compared to pre-acupuncture stage (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Acupuncture at PC 6 obviously increased the PMP and HMP in AMI rats, and the effects were superior to at LU 7 and LI 10 acupoints. It was further confirmed that acupuncture promoted qi and blood circulation, indicating that acupoint specificity exists and features a meridian-propagated effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Electroacupuncture , Meridians , Microcirculation , Myocardial Ischemia , Perfusion , Pericardium , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978912

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study compared the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) microangiographic properties [vessel area density (VAD) and blood flux index (BFI)] of unilateral open-angle glaucomatous eyes to contralateral eyes-at-risk, and to eyes of healthy age- and sex-matched subjects.@*Methods@#This was a single-center, case-control study of Filipinos diagnosed with unilateral primary openangle glaucoma (POAG) or normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Mean overall and quadrantal VAD and BFI of the three groups were measured with optical coherence tomography- angiography (OCT-A). Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AROC) was used to measure diagnostic ability.@*Results@#Twenty-two (22) glaucomatous subjects (15 POAG and 7 NTG eyes), 22 contralateral eyes-at-risk, and 22 normal eyes from age- and sex-matched control subjects completed the study. Eyes with glaucoma showed lower mean overall VAD (40%) and BFI (0.37) compared to eyes-at-risk (44.4% and 0.42, respectively; p <0.001) and control eyes (45.6% and 0.44, respectively; p <0.001). Mean VAD and BFI values of eyes-at-risk and control groups did not significantly differ from each other. Overall pRNFL thickness showed highest diagnostic accuracy for glaucoma (AROC = 0.97), followed by VAD (0.94), and BFI (0.88) (p=0.46).@*Conclusion@#VAD and BFI were significantly diminished in unilateral open-angle glaucoma, suggesting that the utility of OCT-A in the detection of glaucoma is comparable to pRNFL thickness.


Subject(s)
Microcirculation , Glaucoma , Angiography
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(5): 959-967, nov. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248915

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Para pacientes com infarto do miocárdio com elevação do segmento ST (IAMCST) que sofrem de obstrução coronariana microvascular funcional e estrutural (OCM) subsequente, nenhuma abordagem terapêutica específica e definitiva de atenuação foi comprovada como válida em testes de larga escala atuais, o que destaca a necessidade de abordar seu reconhecimento precoce. Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar o desempenho de dois escores de risco clínico com uma medida objetiva de OCM durante intervenção coronária percutânea (ICP) em casos de IAMCST Métodos: A medição do índice de resistência microcirculatória (IRM) foi realizada e os parâmetros clínicos e angiográficos basais também foram registrados. Os pacientes foram divididos em entre os grupos OM (obstrução microvascular) e NOM (não-obstrução microvascular), de acordo com o valor de IRM pós-procedimento. O risco de OCM foi avaliado para todos os participantes pelos escores preditivos SAK e ATI, respectivamente. Cada sistema foi calculado somando-se as pontuações de todas as variáveis. As curvas de características do operador receptor (ROC) e a área sob a curva (AUC) de dois modelos de risco foram utilizadas para avaliar o desempenho discriminatório. Um ecocardiograma foi realizado sete dias após o procedimento para avaliar a fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE). Um valor P bicaudal de <0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: Entre os 65 pacientes elegíveis com IAMCST, 48 foram alocados no grupo NOM e 17 no grupo OM, com uma incidência de OCM de 26,15%. Não houve diferença significativa na AUC entre os dois escores. A FEVE avaliada para o grupo NOM foi maior do que para o grupo OM. Conclusão: Os escores SAK e ATI tiveram bom desempenho para estimar o risco de OCM após ICP primário para pacientes com IAMCST.


Abstract Background: For patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) that are suffering from subsequent coronary microvascular functional and structural obstruction (CMVO), no specific and definitive therapeutic approaches of attenuation have been proven valid in up-to-date large-scale tests, which highlights the urge to address its early recognition. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the performance of two clinical risk scores with an objective measurement of CMVO during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with STEMI. Methods: The Index of Microcirculatory Resistance (IMR) measurement was conducted and the baseline clinical and angiographic parameters were also recorded. The patients were divided into MO (Microvascular obstruction) or NMO (Non-microvascular obstruction) groups according to the post-procedure IMR value. The CMVO risk was evaluated for all participants by SAK and ATI predictive scores, respectively. Each system was calculated by summing the scores of all variables. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the curve (AUC) of two risk models were used to evaluate the discriminatory performance. An echocardiography was performed seven days after the procedure to evaluate left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). A two-sided P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Among the 65 eligible STEMI patients, 48 patients were allocated in the NMO group and 17 in the MO group, with a CMVO incidence of 26.15%. There was no significant difference in the AUC between both scores. The LVEF evaluated for the NMO group was higher than that of MO group. Conclusion: Both SAK and ATI scores performed well in estimating CMVO risk after primary PCI for STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Risk Factors , Ventricular Function, Left , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Circulation , Microcirculation
15.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(1): e500, Jan.-Mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149798

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hemodynamic monitoring of a critically ill patient is an indispensable tool both inside and outside intensive care; we currently have invasive, minimally invasive and non-invasive devices; however, no device has been shown to have a positive impact on the patient's evolution; arterial and venous blood gases provide information on the patient's actual microcirculatory and metabolic status and may be a hemodynamic monitoring tool. We aimed to carry out a non-systematic review of the literature of hemodynamic monitoring carried out through the variables obtained in arterial and venous blood gases. A non-systematic review of the literature was performed in the PubMed, OvidSP and ScienceDirect databases with selection of articles from 2000 to 2019. It was found that there are variables obtained in arterial and venous blood gases such as central venous oxygen saturation (SvcO2), venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide pressure (Δpv-aCO2), venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide pressure/arteriovenous oxygen content difference (Δpv-aCO2/ΔCavO2) that are related to cellular oxygenation, cardiac output (CO), microcirculatory veno-arterial flow and anaerobic metabolism and allow to assess tissue perfusion status. In conclusion, the variables obtained by arterial and venous blood gases allow for non-invasive, accessible and affordable hemodynamic monitoring that can guide medical decision-making in critically ill patients.


Resumen El monitoreo hemodinámico de un paciente en estado crítico es una herramienta indispensable tanto dentro como fuera de la terapia intensiva; actualmente se cuenta con dispositivos invasivos, mínimamente invasivos y no invasivos; sin embargo, ningún dispositivo ha demostrado tener impacto positivo en la evolución del paciente; la gasometría arterial y venosa proporcionan información del estado microcirculatorio y metabólico real del paciente pudiendo ser una herramienta de monitoreo hemodinámico. El objetivo de esta revisión fue realizar una revisión no sistemática de la literatura del monitoreo hemodinámico realizado mediante las variables obtenidas en la gasometría arterial y venosa. Se estudiaron las bases de datos de PubMed, OvidSP y ScienceDirect con selección de artículos del 2000 al 2019. Se encontró que hay variables obtenidas en la gasometría arterial y venosa como la saturación venosa central de oxígeno (SvcO2), la diferencia de presión venoarterial de dióxido de carbono (Δpv-aCO2), la diferencia de presión venoarterial de dióxido de carbono/diferencia del contenido arteriovenoso de oxígeno (Δpv-aCO2/ΔCa-vO2) que están relacionadas con la oxigenación celular, con el gasto cardiaco (GC), con el flujo venoarterial microcirculatorio y con el metabolismo anaerobio que permiten realizar una valoración del estado de perfusión tisular. En conclusión, las variables obtenidas por gasometría arterial y venosa permiten realizar un monitoreo hemodinámico no invasivo, accesible y asequible que pueden guiar la toma de decisiones médicas en el paciente en estado crítico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Gas Analysis , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Microcirculation , Carbon Dioxide , Decision Making
16.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(1): 154-166, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289057

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Considera-se que a transfusão de eritrócitos melhora a respiração celular durante o choque séptico. Contudo, seu impacto agudo no transporte e no metabolismo de oxigênio nessa condição ainda é amplamente debatido. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto da transfusão de eritrócitos na microcirculação e no metabolismo do oxigênio em pacientes com sepse e choque séptico. Conduzimos um levantamento nas bases de dados MEDLINE®, Elsevier e Scopus. Incluímos estudos realizados com seres humanos adultos com sepse e choque séptico. Realizamos uma revisão sistemática e metanálise com utilização do modelo de efeitos aleatórios de DerSimonian e Laird. Consideramos significante valor de p < 0,05. Incluíram-se na análise 19 manuscritos, correspondentes a 428 pacientes. As transfusões de eritrócitos se associaram com aumento de 3,7% na média combinada de saturação venosa mista de oxigênio (p < 0,001), diminuição de razão de extração de oxigênio de -6,98 (p < 0,001) e nenhum efeito significante no índice cardíaco (0,02 L/minuto; p = 0,96). Obtiveram-se resultados similares em estudos que incluíram mensurações simultâneas de saturação venosa mista de oxigênio, razão de extração de oxigênio e índice cardíaco. As transfusões de eritrócitos levaram a aumento significante na proporção de pequenos vasos perfundidos (2,85%; p = 0,553), enquanto os parâmetros de oxigenação tissular revelaram aumento significante no índice de hemoglobina tissular (1,66; p = 0,018). Estudos individuais relataram melhoras significantes na oxigenação tissular e nos parâmetros microcirculatórios sublinguais em pacientes com microcirculação alterada na avaliação inicial. A transfusão de eritrócitos pareceu melhorar o metabolismo sistêmico de oxigênio com aparente independência de variações no débito cardíaco. Observaram-se alguns efeitos benéficos para a oxigenação tissular e parâmetros microcirculatórios, em particular em pacientes com alterações iniciais mais graves. São necessários mais estudos para avaliar seu impacto clínico e individualizar as decisões relativas à transfusão.


ABSTRACT Red blood cell transfusion is thought to improve cell respiration during septic shock. Nevertheless, its acute impact on oxygen transport and metabolism in this condition remains highly debatable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of red blood cell transfusion on microcirculation and oxygen metabolism in patients with sepsis and septic shock. We conducted a search in the MEDLINE®, Elsevier and Scopus databases. We included studies conducted in adult humans with sepsis and septic shock. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Nineteen manuscripts with 428 patients were included in the analysis. Red blood cell transfusions were associated with an increase in the pooled mean venous oxygen saturation of 3.7% (p < 0.001), a decrease in oxygen extraction ratio of -6.98 (p < 0.001) and had no significant effect on the cardiac index (0.02L/minute; p = 0,96). Similar results were obtained in studies including simultaneous measurements of venous oxygen saturation, oxygen extraction ratio, and cardiac index. Red blood cell transfusions led to a significant increase in the proportion of perfused small vessels (2.85%; p = 0.553), while tissue oxygenation parameters revealed a significant increase in the tissue hemoglobin index (1.66; p = 0.018). Individual studies reported significant improvements in tissue oxygenation and sublingual microcirculatory parameters in patients with deranged microcirculation at baseline. Red blood cell transfusions seemed to improve systemic oxygen metabolism with apparent independence from cardiac index variations. Some beneficial effects have been observed for tissue oxygenation and microcirculation parameters, particularly in patients with more severe alterations at baseline. More studies are necessary to evaluate their clinical impact and to individualize transfusion decisions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Shock, Septic/therapy , Sepsis/therapy , Oxygen , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Microcirculation
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879463

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore clinical effect of modified transverse tibial bone transfer microcirculation reconstruction in treating end-stage diabetic foot.@*METHODS@#From August 2016 to June 2018, 87 patients with diabetic foot treated with modified tibial transverse bone removal and microcirculation reconstruction, inclduing 54 males and 33 females;aged from 39 to 95 years old with an average of (68.9±11.3) years old;2 patients were grade 2, 37 patients were grade 3 and 50 patients were grade 4 according to Wagner's classification;the courses of diabetic were for 10 to 16 years with an average of (13.0±2.2) years;the courses of diabetic feet were for 21 to 48 days with an avergae of (34.2±8.6) days. Postoperative comlications were observed. Skin temperature, visual analogue scale(VAS) and ankle brachial index(ABI) and wound healing were recorded before and 3 months after operation.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up for 4 to 19 months with an average of (12.6±2.8) months. Two patients occurred subcutaneous tissue liquefaction and seepage under needle passage during bone transfer, and scabed without special treatment. One patient was performed amputation above 5 cm of ankle joint because of severe infection, and 1 patient occurred re-ulceration at 1 year after wound healing, bone transfer was performed again at the same site, and was completely healed at 8 weeks after operation. The healing time of wound ranged from 3 to 24 weeks with an average of (11.9± 3.8) weeks. Foot skin temperature before operation was (28.9±0.91) ℃, and increased to (31.70±0.32)℃ at 3 months after operation(@*CONCLUSION@#Modified lateral tibial bone transfer could effectively reconstruct microvascular network under lower leg, promote recovery of peripheral blood vessels, and promote wound healing of foot, reduce or avoid amputation. At the same time, the improved osteotomy is one of the effective methods for the treatment of diabetic foot which has advantags of less trauma, simple opertaion.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bone Transplantation , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Foot/surgery , Microcirculation , Tibia , Treatment Outcome
18.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 917-925, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921296

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to observe the characteristics of sublingual microcirculation and the changes of humoral factors in healthy people of three different high altitude populations. Three groups of healthy subjects in Guoluo area of Qinghai province (4 100 m) were included: Tibetan group: 30 Tibetans, (45.62 ± 10.15) years old; Han group: 22 two-generation of Han immigrants, (46.23 ± 8.59) years old; migrant group: 23 migrants living at high altitude for 2-5 years, (43.45 ± 8.31) years old. Blood routine test was performed to determine white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), platelet (PLT) count, and neutrophil (NEUT) count. The changes of serum humoral factors including endothelin-1 (ET-1), CD31, CD34, CD105, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nitric oxide (NO) and noradrenaline (NE) were detected by ELISA. Continuous noninvasive hemodynamics monitor was used to continuously measure the changes of systemic circulation indexes: cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), pulse pressure variation (PPV), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Blood oxygen was measured by pulse oximeter. Sublingual microcirculation indexes including total vascular density (TVD), perfused vessel density (PVD), proportion of perfused vessels (PPV), and microvascular flow index (MFI) were determined by sidestream dark field imaging. The results showed that there were no difference in systemic circulation among the 3 groups. Compared with Tibetan group, TVD and PVD of microcirculation in Han group and migrant group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with Tibetan group and Han group, WBC, RBC, HGB and HCT of migrant group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with Han group and Migrant group, PLT of Tibetan group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the Tibetan group, the levels of serum humoral factors CD105 and VEGF were significantly higher in the migrant group (P < 0.05), while compared with Han and migration groups, NO in Tibetan group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). It is suggested that there were significant differences in microcirculation (TVD, PVD), blood routine (WBC, RBC, HGB, HCT) and humoral factors (CD105, VEGF) among different populations in high altitude area. Importantly, the increased microcirculation, erythrocytosis and increased pro-angiogenic factors due to hypoxic environment were observed in long-term residents and migrants, except for permanent residents. These physiological changes have clinical significance in the treatment of septic shock and chronic altitude sickness for different plateau populations.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Altitude , China , Hemoglobins , Hypoxia , Microcirculation , Tibet , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of Danhong Injection (, DH) on the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and myocardial injury in patients with unstable angina undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).@*METHODS@#Seventy-eight patients with unstable angina were randomly divided into DH group (39 cases) and the control group (39 cases) during elective PCI. Randomization was performed using a random-number table. The DH group received DH at a dosage of 40 mL (mixed with 250 mL saline, covered by a light-proof bag, intravenous drip) during PCI and daily for 7 consecutive days, while the control group only received the same dosage of saline. Both groups received standardized treatment. The IMR and fractional flow reserve (FFR) were measured at maximal hyperemia before and after PCI. Myocardial markers, including myoglobin, creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), and coronary troponin T (cTnT) values were measured at baseline and 24 h after PCI.@*RESULTS@#Among the 78 patients enrolled, the baseline and procedural characteristics were similar between the two groups. There was no significant difference in pre-PCI myocardial markers and coronary physiological indexes between the two groups. However, post-PCI CK and CK-MB levels in the DH group were significantly lower than those in the control group (111.97 ± 80.97 vs. 165.47 ± 102.99, P=0.013; 13.08 ± 6.90 vs. 19.75 ± 15.49, P=0.016). Post-PCI myoglobin and cTNT-positive tend to be lower in the DH group than in the control group but did not reach statistical significance (88.07 ± 52.36 vs. 108.13 ± 90.94, P=0.52; 2.56% vs.7.69%, P=0.065). Compared with the control group, the post-IMR levels of the DH group tended to decrease, but there was no statistical difference (20.73 ± 13.15 vs. 26.37 ± 12.31, P=0.05). There were no statistical differences in post-FFR in both groups. The peri-procedural myocardial injury of the DH group was significantly lower than that of the control group (2.56% vs. 15.38%, P=0.025). During the 30-d follow-up period, no major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in either group.@*CONCLUSION@#This study demonstrated benefit of DH in reducing myocardial injury and potential preserving microvascular function in patients with unstable angina undergoing elective PCI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angina, Unstable/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial , Microcirculation , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Pilot Projects , Treatment Outcome
20.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 1191-1197, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941421

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the value of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) combined with two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2D-STI) at rest on evaluating microcirculation dysfunction and left ventricular dysfunction in patients with angina and no obstructive coronary artery disease(ANOCA). Methods: This retrospective study recruited 78 ANOCA patients, who hospitalized in the People's Hospital of Liaoning Province from August 2019 to July 2021. These patients underwent conventional echocardiography examination, including TDI and 2D-STI, to evaluate the left ventricular dysfunction, and adenosine stress echocardiography (SE) to evaluate the coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR). ANOCA patients were divided into coronary microcirculation dysfunction CMD group (CFVR<2) and control group (CFVR≥2) according to CFVR. Clinical data, routine echocardiographic parameters, TDI parameters including isovolumic contraction time (IVCT), isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), ejection time (ET), and STI parameters including global longitudinal peak strain (GLS), time to peak (TTP); peak strain dispersion (PSD) were compared between the two groups. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors of CMD and the predictive value of each parameter to construct a joint prediction model for the diagnosis of CMD in this patient cohort. Results: The mean age was (55.5±11.2) years, 43 (55%) patients were females in this patient cohort, 38 (49%) patienst were didvided into the CMD group and 40 (51%) into the control group. Age, prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and smokers were significantly higher in the CMD group than in the control group (all P<0.05). Tei index was higher, IVCT and TTP were longer, PSD was higher, ET was shorter, and absolute GLS was lower in the CMD group than in the control group (all P<0.05). The results of logistic regression analysis showed that longer IVCT, higher Tei index, higher time to PSD and lower absolute GLS were the independent risk factors of CMD. The ROC curve revealed that the predicting efficacy on CMD was satisfactiory with the combined predictors: AUC=0.884, sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 80%. Conclusions: TDI combined with 2D-STI is associated with a good diagnostic value on the diagnosis of CMD and left ventricular dysfunction in patients with ANOCA, which provides a feasible non-invasive tool for the diagnosis of CMD and risk stratification of patients with ANOCA.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Angina Pectoris , Blood Flow Velocity , Microcirculation , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging
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