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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251289, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355889

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present research was made to determine the micronuclei and cytotoxic capacity of the antidepressant venlafaxine in an in vivo acute and subchronic assays in mouse. In the first study, we administered once 5, 50, and 250 mg/kg of the drug, and included a negative and a daunorubicin treated group. Observations were daily made during four days. The subchronic assay lasted 5 weeks with daily administration of venlafaxine (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) plus a negative and an imipramine administered groups. Observations were made each week. In the first assay results showed no micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE) increase, except with the high dose at 72 h. The strongest cytotoxic effect was found with 250 mg/kg at 72 h (a 51% cytotoxic effect in comparison with the mean control level). In the subchronic assay no MNPE increase was found; however, with the highest dose a significant increase of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes was observed in the last three weeks (a mean of 51% respect to the mean control value). A cytotoxic effect with the two high doses in the last two weeks was observed (a polychromatic erythrocyte mean decrease of 52% respect to the mean control value). Results suggest caution with venlafaxine.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi feita para determinar a capacidade micronuclei e citotóxica do antidepressivo venlafaxina em ensaios agudos e subcrônicos in vivo em camundongos. No primeiro estudo, administramos uma vez 5, 50 e 250 mg/kg do medicamento e incluímos um grupo negativo e um grupo tratado com daunorubicina. As observações foram feitas diariamente durante quatro dias. O ensaio subcrônico durou cinco semanas com administração diária de venlafaxina (1, 5, e 10 mg/kg) mais um grupo negativo e um grupo administrado de imipramina. As observações foram feitas a cada semana. No primeiro ensaio, os resultados não mostraram aumento de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (MNPE), exceto com a dose elevada a 72 h. O efeito citotóxico mais forte foi encontrado com 250 mg/kg a 72 h (um efeito citotóxico de 51% em comparação com o nível médio de controle). No ensaio subcrônico não foi encontrado aumento de MNPE; entretanto, com a dose mais alta, um aumento significativo de eritrócitos normocromáticos micronucleados foi observado nas últimas três semanas (média de 51% em relação ao valor médio de controle). Foi observado um efeito citotóxico com as duas altas doses nas últimas duas semanas (uma diminuição média de 52% em relação ao valor médio de controle dos eritrócitos policromáticos). Os resultados sugerem cautela com a venlafaxina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , DNA Damage , Antineoplastic Agents , Micronucleus Tests , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Erythrocytes , Venlafaxine Hydrochloride/toxicity
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226427, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1393274

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aimed to investigate whether non-ionizing radiation emitted by smartphones is likely to cause genotoxic effects on oral epithelial cells. Methods: Thirty adults were distributed into two groups according to the mobile phone brand used, namely Samsung (Samsung, Seoul, South Korea) and Apple (Apple, California, USA). The material was collected with gentle swabbing of the right and left buccal mucosa using a cervical brush, then the micronucleus test was performed. Results: The Mann-Whitney test with a 5% significance level did not reveal statistically significant differences in micronuclei frequency between the exposed and non-exposed sides (p=0.251). The different brands do not seem to cause risks of inducing genetic damage because there were no statistically significant differences between them (p=0.47). Conclusion: Therefore, our results suggest no correlations of micronuclei frequency in the exposed buccal cells of mobile phone users at the exposure standard levels observed


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Radiation, Nonionizing/adverse effects , Radio Waves , Micronucleus Tests , Epithelial Cells , Smartphone , Mouth Mucosa , Mutagenicity Tests
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 268-277, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153357

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the genotoxicity of lyophilized glycolic extract of Theobroma cacao Linné seeds (TCL), using the micronucleus assay in bone marrow of mice. The interaction between TCL and doxorubicin (DXR) was also analyzed. Experimental groups were evaluated 24-48 h after treatment with N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEU: 50 mg/kg), DXR (5 mg/kg), NaCl (145 mM), TCL (0.5-2 g/kg), and TCL (2 g/kg) in combination with DXR (antigenotoxic assays). Analysis of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) showed no significant differences between all the treatment doses of TCL and NaCl control. Mice experimentally treated with DXR and NEU significantly induced MNPCEs. However, a significant reduction of MNPCEs was also observed when TCL was administered in combination with the chemotherapeutic agent DXR. The analysis of the PCE/NCE ratio revealed no significant differences between the NaCl control, all doses of TCL, and DXR. However, there were significant differences in the PCE/NCE ratio between positive NEU control and all other treatments. The PCE/NCE ratio observed after treatment with TCL and DXR showed significant differences and intermediate values to controls (NaCl and NEU). This study suggests absence of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of TCL, regardless of dose, sex, and time. TCL reduced genotoxic effects induced by DXR, suggesting potential antigenotoxic effects.


Este estudo avaliou a genotoxicidade do extrato glicólico liofilizado de sementes de Theobroma cacao Linné (TCL), usando o ensaio do micronúcleo em medula óssea de camundongos. A interação entre TCL e doxorrubicina (DXR) foi também analisada. Grupos experimentais foram avaliados 24-48 h após tratamento com N-Nitroso-N-etilureia (NEU: 50 mg/kg), DXR (5 mg/kg), NaCl (145 mM), TCL (0,5-2 g/kg), e TCL (2 g/kg) em combinação com DXR (ensaio antigenotóxico). As análises de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (EPCMNs) não mostraram diferenças significantes entre todas as doses de tratamento do TCL e o controle NaCl. Camundongos experimentalmente tratados com DXR e NEU induziram significativamente EPCMNs. Contudo, uma redução significante de EPCMNs foi também observada quando TCL foi administrada em combinação com o agente quimioterapêutico DXR. As análises da relação EPC/ENC (eritrócito policromático/eritrócito normocromático) revelaram ausência de diferenças significantes entre o controle NaCl, todas as doses de TCL e DXR. Contudo, houve diferenças significantes na relação EPC/ENC entre o controle positivo NEU e todos os outros tratamento. A relação ECP/ENC observada após o tratamento com TCL e DXR mostrou diferenças significantes e valores intermediários aos controles (NaCl e NEU). Este estudo sugere ausência de genotoxicidade e citotoxicidade de TCL, independentemente da dose, sexo e tempo. TCL reduziu os efeitos genotóxicos induzidos por DXR, sugerindo potencial efeitos antigenotóxicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , DNA Damage , Cacao/toxicity , Cytotoxins/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Micronucleus Tests , Doxorubicin , Erythrocytes
4.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 28(2): 36-44, Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278221

ABSTRACT

Abstract This research aimed to conduct a systematic review and metanalysis to compare the frequency of cell damage in crack users and nonusers, through Micronucleous (MN) test in buccal mucosa cells. A comprehensive search was carried out on MEDLINE via PubMeb, Web of Science, LILACS and the grey literature without restrictions. It was included case-control studies that report the frequency of micronuclei in the oral mucosa of adult crack users and nonusers. A review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018115672), and conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines for the report of this systematic review. Furthermore, study quality was evaluated using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cross-sectional studies.The original search yielded 27 references, after eligibility criteriaonly five articles were included. The number of micronuclei was higher in crack users compared to nonusers. Also, secondary outcomes: binucleated cells, nuclear buds, pyknosis, karyorrhexis and karyolysis had higher prevalence in crack users.Crack use is associated with genotoxic and mutagenic effects because there is a higher frequency of micronuclei in exfoliated cells of crack users. In addition, MN test proved to be a goodbiomarker to assess the mutagenic impact of crack use in oral epithelium.


Resumen Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo realizar una revisión sistemática y un meta-análisis para comparar la frecuencia de daño celular en usuarios de crack y sin crack, a través de la prueba de micronúcleos (MN) en células de la mucosa bucal. Se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva en MEDLINE a través de PubMeb, Web of Science, LILACS y la literatura gris sin restricciones. Se incluyeron estudios de casos y controles que informaron la frecuencia de micronúcleos en la mucosa oral de usuarios adultos de crack y sin crack. Se registró un protocolo de revisión con PROSPERO (CRD42018115672), y se realizó de acuerdo con las pautas de PRISMA para el informe de esta revisión sistemática. Además, la calidad del estudio se evaluó mediante una escala Newcastle-Ottawa adaptada para estudios transversales. La búsqueda original arrojó 27 referencias, después de los criterios de elegibilidad se incluyeron un total de cinco artículos. El número de micronúcleos fue mayor en los usuarios de crack en compa ración con los usuarios sin crack. Además, los resultados secundarios de células binucleadas, yemas nucleares, picnosis, cario- rrexis y cariólisis tuvieron una mayor prevalencia en los usuarios de crack. El uso de crack se asocia con efectos genotóxicos y mutagénicos porque hay una mayor frecuencia de micronúcleos en las células exfoliadas de los usuarios de crack. Además, la prueba de MN demostró ser un buen biomarcador para evaluar el impacto mutagénico del uso de crack en el epitelio oral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Crack Cocaine , Cocaine-Related Disorders/pathology , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Micronucleus Tests/methods , Mutagens
5.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(3): e201, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150172

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar la frecuencia de micronúcleos (MN) e influencia de los polimorfismos en los genes del metabolismo GSTM1 y GSTT1 como biomarcadores de riesgo de cáncer en pintores de carros (n=152) con respecto a individuos no expuestos (n=152). Métodos Estudio Epidemiológico Molecular, tipo Corte Transversal analítico, interacción gen-ambiente. La evaluación de MNs y polimorfismos genéticos se determinó con pruebas moleculares en linfocitos de los individuos objeto de estudio. Resultados Se determinó que la frecuencia de MNs es 1.6 más alta en el grupo expuesto con relación al grupo referente (1.39±0.92 versus 0,87±0.78, p<0,0001). No se determinó un incremento en la frecuencia de MNs asociado a los polimorfismos en GSTM1 y GSTT1. Conclusiones El incremento de MNs en pintores de carros sirve para alertar al incremento de riesgo de cáncer en esta población expuesta a solventes orgánicos. Estos resultados pueden servir en Programas de Vigilancia Epidemiológica Ocupacional, como estrategia de prevención y en otros países con un amplio sector informal de individuos expuestos a estos químicos para reducir el riesgo de cáncer.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the frequency of micronuclei (MNs) and influence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms as biomarkers of cancer risk in car painters (n=152) compared to unexposed individuals (n=152). Methods Molecular epidemiology study, cross-sectional analysis of gen and environment interaction. The evaluation of MN and genetic polymorphisms was determined by molecular tests in lymphocytes from subjects involved in the study. Results It was determined that the frequency of MNs is 1.6 higher in the exposed group compared to the reference group (1.39 ± 0.92 versus 0.87 ± 0.78, p<0.0001). There was no increase in the frequency of MNs associated with the polymorphisms in GSTM1 and GSTT1. Conclusions The increase of MNs in car painters serves to alert the increased risk of cancer in this population exposed to organic solvents. These results can be used in Occupational Epidemiological Surveillance Programs, as a prevention strategy and policies to regulate and control the use of solvents at a national level and in other countries with a large informal sector of individuals exposed to these chemicals to reduce the risk of cancer.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Solvents/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/prevention & control , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Micronucleus Tests , Epidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
J. nurs. health ; 10(2): 20102010, mai.2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1104139

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a produção científica acerca do teste de micronúcleo como instrumento para detecção de instabilidade genômica e dos fatores de risco para lesão intraepitelial cervical em pacientes com papilomavírus humano. Método: revisão integrativa de publicações dos últimos 10 anos, realizada no período de agosto de 2017 a junho de 2018, através da Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, Literatura Latino-americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde e PubMed Central. Resultados: quatro artigos foram analisados em que o teste de micronúcleo foi utilizado para detectar instabilidade genômica e risco de lesão intraepitelial cervical e seis artigos como biomarcador em diferentes estágios pré-neoplásicos, neoplásicos em lesões intraepiteliais e fatores de risco para o câncer cervical. Conclusões: o teste de micronúcleo é um método simples, rápido, barato e importante para detectar instabilidade genômica em células intraepiteliais cervicais que apresentam lesão sugestiva para o câncer de colo uterino.(AU)


Objective: to analyze the scientific production about the micronucleus test as an instrument for detecting genomic instability and risk factors for cervical intraepithelial injury in patients with human papillomavirus. Method: integrative review of publications from the last 10 years, carried out from August 2017 to June 2018, through Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences and PubMed Central. Results: four articles were analyzed in which the micronucleus test was used to detect genomic instability and risk of cervical intraepithelial injury and in six articles as a biomarker in different pre-neoplastic stages, neoplastic in intraepithelial injuries and risk factors for cervical cancer. Conclusions: the micronucleus test is a simple, fast, inexpensive and important method to detect genomic instability in cervical intraepithelial cells that present lesions suggestive of cervical cancer.(AU)


Objetivo: analizar la producción científica sobre la prueba de micronúcleos como instrumento para detectar la inestabilidad genómica y los factores de riesgo de lesión intraepitelial cervical en pacientes con virus del papiloma humano. Método: revisión integradora de publicaciones de los últimos 10 años, realizada desde agosto de 2017 hasta junio de 2018, a través de la Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud y PubMed Central. Resultados: se analizaron cuatro artículos en los que se utilizó la prueba de micronúcleos para detectar la inestabilidad genómica y el riesgo de lesión intraepitelial cervical y en seis artículos como biomarcador en diferentes etapas preneoplásicas, neoplásico en lesiones intraepiteliales y factores de riesgo de cáncer cervical. Conclusiones: la prueba de micronúcleos es un método simple, rápido, económico e importante para detectar la inestabilidad genómica en células intraepiteliales cervicales que presentan lesiones sugestivas de cáncer cervical.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Papillomaviridae , Uterine Neoplasms/genetics , Micronucleus Tests , Genomic Instability , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Uterine Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Neoplasms/virology , Biomarkers, Tumor , Risk Factors , Mucous Membrane/pathology
7.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1293084

ABSTRACT

La tripanosomiasis americana y la leishmaniasis son problemas de salud pública relevantes en Iberoamérica. Las drogas utilizadas actualmente para el tratamiento de estas enfermedades poseen efectos colaterales tóxicos severos. Varios grupos de investigación están abocados a la búsqueda de productos naturales y sintéticos para encontrar nuevos agentes terapéuticos efectivos que no presenten reacciones colaterales adversas. En la evaluación de compuestos de la especie vegetal Zanthoxylum chiloperone (Rutaceae), se demostró que compuestos aislados del extracto presentaban actividad leishmanicida, tripanocida y antifúngica in vivo. Teniendo como antecedentes estos resultados, en el presente estudio se evaluaron los efectos genotóxico y citotóxico del cantín-6-ona y del 5-metoxicantin-6-ona, moléculas aisladas de la planta, en células de médula ósea de animales tratados. El estudio de los efectos genotóxicos se hizo a través del ensayo de modificaciones en la frecuencia de micronúcleos y el efecto citotóxico por modificaciones en la relación entre eritrocitos policromáticos y eritrocitos normocromáticos. Se realizaron 2 ensayos independientes y en cada ensayo los animales fueron divididos en tres grupos de tratamiento: GRUPO I: control negativo que recibió 200 uL de agua y 2.1% de DMSO, vía oral, GRUPO II: compuesto a ser evaluado (canthin-6-ona o 5-methoxicantin-6-ona) con 2.1% de DMSO, y GRUPO III: control positivo que recibió ciclofosfamida 50mg/kg/peso del animal, vía intraperitoneal. El análisis estadístico mostró que ambos compuestos no presentaron efectos genotóxicos ni citotóxicos. Estos resultados permiten proponer a estas moléculas como candidatas a ser sometidas a estudios más detallados como potenciales fármacos contra estas dos enfermedades


American trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are relevant public health problems in Latin America. The drugs currently used to treat these diseases have severe toxic side effects. Several research groups are dedicated to the search of natural and synthetic products to find new effective therapeutic agents that do not present adverse collateral reactions. In the evaluation of compounds of the plant species Zanthoxylum chiloperone (Rutaceae), it was shown that isolated compounds of the extract had leishmanicidal, trypanocidal and antifungal in vivo activities. Based on these results, the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of canthin-6-one and 5-methoxycanthin-6-one, molecules isolated from the plant, on bone marrow cells of treated mice were evaluated in the present study. The study of genotoxic effects was made through the test of modifications in the frequency of micronuclei and the cytotoxic effects by modifications in the relationship between polychromatic erythrocytes and normochromic erythrocytes. Two independent assays were performed and in each assay the animals were divided into three treatment groups: GROUP I: negative control that received 200 µL of water and 2.1% of DMSO, orally, GROUP II: compound to be evaluated (canthin-6 -one or 5-methoxycanthin-6-one) with 2.1% DMSO, and GROUP III: positive control that received cyclophosphamide 50mg /kg animal weight, intraperitoneal. Statistical analysis showed that both compounds had neither genotoxic nor cytotoxic effects. These results allow these molecules to be proposed as candidates to be subjected to more detailed studies as potential drugs against these two diseases


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Micronucleus Tests , Rutaceae , Animals, Laboratory , Mice , Rats, Inbred Strains , Genotoxicity/adverse effects
8.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(2): 104-110, abr. 30, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151903

ABSTRACT

Background: Micronucleus is a microscopically visible cyto-plasmic chromatin mass in the extranuclear vicinity, originating from aberrant mitosis, which consists of eccentric chromosomes that have failed to reach spindle poles during mitosis. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare cytogenetic changes in the buccal mucosa of smokers and non-smokers based on the occurrence of micronuclei. The study aimed to determine the correlation between the micronuclei count and the frequency and duration of smoking habit. Materials and Methods: Two groups (smokers and non-smokers) of 34 individuals each were examined. Cytological buccal smears were taken from participants using a moistened wooden spatula and stained with standard Papanicolaou stain. Presence of micronuclei was assessed at 40X magnification using a light microscope and a count per 500 cells was determined. The results of the study were analyzed statistically using Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and Student t-test. Result: Smears from smokers showed a significant increase in the total number of micronuclei per 500 cell count compared to non-smokers. There was a strong positive correlation between the occurrence of micronuclei and the frequency and duration of smoking. A age-related increase in older age groups was also observed. Conclusion: The study reveals a strong positive correlation between the occurrence of micronuclei and the frequency and duration of smoking. This observation is vital in the utilization of the micronuclei detection in smears as a prognostic, educational and interventional tool in the management of patients with smoking habits.


Antecedentes: El micronúcleo es una masa de cromatina citoplasmática microscópicamente visible en el área extranuclear, que se origina a partir de la mitosis aberrante, y que consiste en cromosomas excéntricos que no han podido alcanzar los polos del huso durante la mitosis. El presente estudio fue diseñado para evaluar y comparar los cambios citogenéticos en la mucosa bucal de fumadores y no fumadores en función de la aparición de micronúcleos. El estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la correlación entre el recuento de micronúcleos y la frecuencia y duración del hábito de fumar. Materiales and Métodos: Se examinaron dos grupos (fumadores y no fumadores) de 34 individuos cada uno. Se tomaron frotis bucales citológicos de todos los participantes con una espátula de madera humedecida y se tiñeron con la tinción estándar de Papanicolaou. La presencia de micronúcleos se evaluó al microscopio óptico con un aumento de 40X y se determinó un recuento por 500 células. Los resultados del estudio se analizaron estadísticamente utilizando la prueba U de Mann-Whitney, el coeficiente de correlación de rango de Spearman y la prueba t de Student. Resultados: Los frotis de fumadores mostraron un aumento significativo en el número total de micronúcleos por 500 células en comparación con los no fumadores. Hubo una fuerte correlación positiva entre la aparición de micronúcleos y la frecuencia y duración del tabaquismo. También se observó un aumento relacionado con la edad en los grupos de mayor edad. Conclusión: el estudio revela una fuerte correlación positiva entre la aparición de micronúcleos y la frecuencia y duración del tabaquismo. Esta observación es vital en la utilización de la detección de micronúcleos en frotis como una herramienta pronostica, educativa e intervencionista en el manejo de pacientes con hábitos de fumar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Micronucleus Tests , Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective , Tobacco Use/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects , Mouth Mucosa/cytology , In Vitro Techniques , Chromosome Aberrations , Non-Smokers , India
9.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(6): 505-509, dic. 28, 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224479

ABSTRACT

Objectives: A systematic review was conducted to evaluate effectiveness and safety of beta carotenes for the treatment of oral leukoplakia regarding clinical resolution and prevention of malignant transformation. Material and Methods: The systematic search was conducted in three electronic databases and the study's selection was performed according to pre-set eligibility criteria. Four studies evaluating the efficacy of beta carotenes in oral leukoplakia compared to placebo were included in the review; three of which were assigned for quantitative analysis. Data were extracted, tabulated, quality assessed and statistically analyzed. Results: The meta-analysis revealed that when comparing clinical resolution the beta carotene group favored was favored compared to placebo, with statistically significant difference. However, a meta-analysis comparing beta carotene and placebo groups regarding malignant transformation as a primary outcome failed to show any significant benefit. Furthermore, results showed evidence of beta carotene safety. Conclusion: the overall quality of evidence about efficacy of beta carotene in oral leukoplakia treatment was not high. However, given the obvious safety of this agent, data suggests it could have a promising effect in clinical improvement of oral leukoplakia lesions. However, no evidence supporting its benefits in reducing risk of malignant transformation in these lesions was found. Therefore, further long term, well designed randomized clinical trials are highly recommended.


Introducción: el cáncer oral es un problema grave con alta mortalidad y morbilidad, a pesar de la disponibilidad de los mejores tratamientos. Uno de los factores más importantes para una mortalidad tan alta es su diagnóstico tardío. La mejor manera de enfrentar un problema de este tipo es evitar su aparición creando conciencia entre la población y tenendo un diagnóstico más temprano. El cáncer oral es una enfermedad multifactorial, donde el daño genómico tiene un papel. Se ha demostrado que los micronúcleos (MNi) son un biomarcador importante y en este estudio se utilizó como una herramienta para crear conciencia sobre el riesgo de cáncer oral. Objetivo: evaluar y comparar la frecuencia de MNi en fumadores sin ninguna lesión oral visible (Grupo I) y no fumadores sanos (Grupo II). Materiales y métodos: se obtuvieron citoestimuladores de fumadores sauditas (n = 15, Grupo I) sin ninguna lesión oral visible y no fumadores sanos (n = 15, control, Grupo II) y se tiñeron con hemotoxilina y eosina para evaluar la frecuencia de MNi y las observaciones fueron sometidas a análisis estadístico utilizando la prueba t de Student. Resultados: La frecuencia media de MNi en el Grupo I fue significativamente mayor (p<0.05) que en el Grupo II. El estudio ayuda a educar, motivar y crear conciencia, alentando así a los pacientes a dejar de fumar, y evitando así el cáncer oral antes de su inicio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mouth Neoplasms/genetics , Micronucleus Tests , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Saudi Arabia , DNA Damage , Leukoplakia, Oral , Biomarkers , Delayed Diagnosis , Smokers , Non-Smokers
10.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 155-159, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019454

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is known as the fourth most common cancer. Current treatments for cancer have damaged the sensitive tissues of the healthy body, and in many cases, cancer will be recurrent. Therefore, need for treatments that are more effective is well felt. Researchers have recently shifted their attention towards antipsychotic dopamine antagonists to treat cancer. The anticancer activities of aripiprazole remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole on gastric cancer and normal cell lines. METHODS: In this regard, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aripiprazole were investigated in MKN45 and NIH3T3 cell lines by methyl tetrazolium assay and on peripheral blood lymphocytes by micronucleus assay. For this purpose, cells were cultured in 96 wells plate. Stock solutions of aripiprazole and cisplatin were prepared. After cell incubation with different concentrations of aripiprazole (1, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 μL), methyl tetrazolium solution was added. For micronucleus assay fresh blood was added to RPMI culture medium 1640 supplemented, and different concentrations of aripiprazole (50, 100 and 200 μL) were added. RESULTS: The finding of present study showed that the IC50 of aripiprazole in the cancer cell line (21.36 μg/mL) was lower than that in the normal cell line (54.17 μg/mL). Moreover, the micronucleus assay showed that the frequency of micronuclei of aripiprazole at concentrations below 200 μM was much less than cisplatin. CONCLUSION: Aripiprazole can be a good cytotoxic compound and good candidate for further studies of cancer therapy.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O câncer gástrico é conhecido como o quarto câncer mais comum. Os tratamentos atuais para o câncer danificaram os tecidos sensíveis do corpo saudável e, em muitos casos, o cancro será recorrente. Portanto, a necessidade de tratamentos que são mais eficazes é desejada. Recentemente, os pesquisadores mudaram sua atenção para os antagonistas antipsicóticos da dopamina para tratar o câncer. As atividades anticâncer de aripiprazol permanecem desconhecidas. OBJETIVO: Este estudo objetivou avaliar a eficácia e a segurança do aripiprazol no câncer gástrico e nas linhagens celulares normais. MÉTODOS: A este respeito, a citotoxicidade e a genotoxicidade do aripiprazol foram investigadas em linhas celulares MKN45 e NIH3T3 por ensaio de metil tetrazólio e em linfócitos periféricos de sangue por ensaio de micronúcleos. Para este efeito, as células foram cultivadas em 96 placas. As soluções de estoque de aripiprazol e cisplatina foram preparadas. Após incubação celular com diferentes concentrações de aripiprazol (1, 10, 25, 50, 100 e 200 μL), a solução de metil tetrazólio foi adicionada. Para o ensaio do micronúcleo o sangue fresco foi adicionado ao meio de cultura RPMI 1640 suplementado, e as concentrações diferentes de aripiprazole (50, 100 e 200 μL) foram adicionadas. RESULTADOS: O presente estudo mostrou que o IC50 de aripiprazol na linhagem celular cancerosa (21,36 μg/mL) foi menor do que na linha celular normal (54,17 μg/ mL). Além disso, o ensaio de micronúcleos demonstrou que a frequência de micronúcleos de aripiprazol em concentrações inferiores a 200 μM foi muito inferior à cisplatina. CONCLUSÃO: O aripiprazol pode ser um bom composto citotóxico e bom candidato para estudos adicionais da terapia do câncer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Aripiprazole/toxicity , Micronucleus Tests/methods , NIH 3T3 Cells/drug effects , Mutagenicity Tests
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(6): 870-879, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012994

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY This study aimed to assess the prevalence of medical and nonmedical use of psychiatric medication among undergraduate students of health sciences from a public university in Brasil. Another objective was to determine the frequency of nuclear morphological abnormalities in the buccal mucosa of students using psychiatric drugs. A cross-sectional study based on a Web survey was carried out with 375 health sciences undergraduate students from schools of Pharmacy, Physical Education, Nutrition, and Medicine. Additionally, spontaneous genetic damages in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa of 41 individuals by counting micronucleus (MN) and binucleated (BN) cells frequencies were evaluated. The results showed 76 (20.3%) of students reported the use of psychotropic drugs after enrolling in university. The majority of these students were from Pharmacy and Medicine programs, females, aged between 18-25 years old, nonsmokers, alcohol addicts, and with a family history of mental illness. In addition, Medical students, individuals with high-income, who live alone and are in the last period of the program are more likely to use psychotropic drugs. Moreover, exposure to psychiatric medication was able to increase the number of binucleated cells. These results provide evidence that the use of psychoactive drugs is increased in the academic context and may be related to the failure of the cell cycle.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de uso médico e não médico de medicação psiquiátrica entre estudantes de graduação em Ciências da Saúde de uma universidade pública do Brasil. Outro objetivo foi determinar a frequência de anormalidades nucleares morfológicas na mucosa bucal desses estudantes. Realizou-se um estudo transversal baseado na Web com 375 estudantes de graduação em Ciências da Saúde das escolas de Farmácia, Educação Física, Nutrição e Medicina. Adicionalmente, danos genéticos espontâneos em células esfoliadas da mucosa bucal de 41 indivíduos foram analisados para estudo da frequência de micronúcleos e células binucleadas. Os resultados mostraram que 76 (20,8%) dos estudantes relataram que usaram drogas psicotrópicas após se matricularem na universidade. O uso desses medicamentos foi maior entre estudantes de cursos de Farmácia e Medicina, sexo feminino, idade entre 18 e 25 anos, não tabagistas, alcoolistas e histórico familiar de doença mental. Além disso, estudantes de Medicina, indivíduos com alta renda, que moram sozinhos e estão no último período do curso são mais propensos a usar drogas psicotrópicas. Ademais, a exposição à medicação psiquiátrica foi capaz de aumentar o número de células binucleadas. Esses resultados fornecem evidências de que o uso de drogas psicotrópicas aumenta no contexto acadêmico e pode estar relacionado à falha do ciclo celular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Students, Health Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Drug Misuse/statistics & numerical data , Mouth Mucosa/drug effects , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Socioeconomic Factors , Universities , Brazil , Micronucleus Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors
12.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4742, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019812

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the induction of DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with sickle cell disease, SS and SC genotypes, treated with hydroxyurea. Methods The study subjects were divided into two groups: one group of 22 patients with sickle cell disease, SS and SC genotypes, treated with hydroxyurea, and a Control Group composed of 24 patients with sickle cell disease who were not treated with hydroxyurea. Peripheral blood samples were submitted to peripheral blood mononuclear cell isolation to assess genotoxicity by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay, in which DNA damage biomarkers - micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds - were counted. Results Patients with sickle cell disease treated with hydroxyurea had a mean age of 25.4 years, whereas patients with sickle cell disease not treated with hydroxyurea had a mean age of 17.6 years. The mean dose of hydroxyurea used by the patients was 12.8mg/kg/day, for a mean period of 44 months. The mean micronucleus frequency per 1,000 cells of 8.591±1.568 was observed in the Hydroxyurea Group and 10.040±1.003 in the Control Group. The mean frequency of nucleoplasmic bridges per 1,000 cells and nuclear buds per 1,000 cells for the hydroxyurea and Control Groups were 0.4545±0.1707 versus 0.5833±0.2078, and 0.8182±0.2430 versus 0.9583±0.1853, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between groups. Conclusion In the study population, patients with sickle cell disease treated with the standard dose of hydroxyurea treatment did not show evidence of DNA damage induction.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o efeito da indução de danos ao DNA em células monocelulares do sangue periférico de pacientes com doença falciforme, genótipos SS e SC, tratados com hidroxiureia. Métodos Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram divididos em dois grupos: um de 22 pacientes com doença falciforme genótipos SS e SC tratados com hidroxiureia, e o outro controle, composto por 24 pacientes com doença falciforme que não eram tratados com o fármaco. As amostras de sangue periférico foram submetidas ao isolamento de células mononucleares do sangue periférico para avaliação da genotoxicidade pelo ensaio de micronúcleo citoma com bloqueio da citocinese, tendo sido quantificados os biomarcadores de danos ao DNA - micronúcleos, pontes nucleoplasmáticas e brotamento nuclear. Resultados Os pacientes com doença falciforme tratados com hidroxiureia apresentaram média de idade de 25,4 anos, enquanto aqueles com doença falciforme não tratados com hidroxiureia tiveram média de idade de 17,6 anos. A dose média de hidroxiureia utilizada pelos pacientes foi de 12,8mg/kg/dia, por período médio de 44 meses. A frequência média de micronúcleos por 1.000 células de 8,591±1,568 foi observada no Grupo Hidroxiureia e de 10,040±1,003 no Grupo Controle. Adicionalmente, a frequência média de pontes nucleoplasmáticas por 1.000 células e brotamento nuclear por 1.000 células para o Grupo Hidroxiureia e Controle foi de 0,4545±0,1707 versus 0,5833±0,2078, e de 0,8182±0,2430 versus 0,9583±0,1853, respectivamente. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos. Conclusão Na população estudada de pacientes com doença falciforme com tratamento em dose padrão de hidroxiureia, não houve evidência de indução de danos ao DNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , DNA Damage/drug effects , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxyurea/pharmacology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics , DNA Damage/genetics , Micronucleus Tests , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/adverse effects , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cytokinesis , Hydroxyurea/adverse effects , Hydroxyurea/therapeutic use , Anemia, Sickle Cell/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Mutagenicity Tests , Mutation/drug effects
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180523, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055386

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The Paranhana River, located in Southern Brazil, is one of the major tributaries of the Sinos River basin and receives mainly industrial and domestic effluents. In the present study, water physicochemical and microbiological analyses, condition factor, micronucleus test, gill histopathology and metal bioaccumulation in the muscle of the native fish Bryconamericus iheringii collected at two sites (S1 and S2) of the Paranhana River under different degrees of anthropogenic pressures were assessed in four sampling campaigns. Data from water quality parameters, condition factor, mucous cells proliferation in fish gills and bioaccumulation of chromium and manganese in muscle evidenced higher impacts at S2, whereas a higher genotoxic potential was observed at S1. Gill histopathological alterations were found in fish captured at both sampling sites. Temporal variations in all biomarkers analyzed and bioaccumulation of manganese and nickel were observed at S1, whereas only variations in condition factor, gill alterations and bioaccumulation of manganese and aluminum were found at S2. Our study evidences that S1 is under minor anthropogenic impacts and that the high urbanization at S2 reflects in a poor water quality. Nonetheless, the human consumption of fish from the Paranhana River should be avoided given the high concentrations of cadmium, chromium and lead.


Subject(s)
Water/analysis , Biomarkers , Bioaccumulation , Brazil , Micronucleus Tests/instrumentation
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776552

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To clarify the genotoxicity induced by acute exposure of ozone with different concentrations on pulmonary cells in rats.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (filtered air exposure) and ozone exposure group (0.12 ppm, 0.5 ppm, 1.0 ppm, 2.0 ppm, 4.0 ppm) with 6 in each group. After rats were exposed to different concentrations of ozone for 4 h, lung tissues were taken and single cells were isolated. Then, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was quantitatively detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Comet assay, micronucleus test and DNA- protein cross-linking assay were used to analyze DNA and chromosome damages.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the content of 8-OHdG in lung tissue was increased significantly from the ozone exposure concentration of 0.12 ppm, reaching the highest value at 0.5 ppm. With the increase of ozone exposure concentration, the tail rate of comets was increased gradually, and there was a significant dose-effect relationship. The cross-linking rate of DNA- protein was increased first and then was decreased with a maximum value at 2.0 ppm group. Although the micronucleus rate of lung cells showed an upward trend, there was no significant difference compared with the control group.@*CONCLUSION@#Acute exposure of ozone at low concentrations (0.12 ppm) could lead to DNA damage in the pulmonary cells of rats, while no significant chromosome damage was found even in the group with ozone concentration reached to 4 ppm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Comet Assay , DNA Damage , Lung , Cell Biology , Pathology , Micronucleus Tests , Ozone , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 1-12, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888851

ABSTRACT

Abstract Handroanthus impetiginosus has long been used in traditional medicine and various studies have determined the presence of bioactive chemical compounds and potential phytotherapeutics. In this study, the genotoxicity of the lyophilized tincture of H. impetiginosus bark (THI) was evaluated in mouse bone marrow using micronucleus assays. The interaction between THI and genotoxic effects induced by the chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (DXR), was also analyzed. Experimental groups were evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment with N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEU; 50 mg/kg), DXR (5 mg/kg), sodium chloride (NaCl; 150 mM), and THI (0.5-2 g/kg). Antigenotoxic assays were carried out using THI (0.5 g/kg) in combination with NEU or DXR. Analysis of the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) indicated no significant differences between treatment doses of THI (0.5-2 g/kg) and NaCl. Polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) to normochromatic erythrocyte (NCE) ratios did not indicate any statistical differences between DXR and THI or NaCl, but there were differences between THI and NaCl. A significant reduction in MNPCEs and PCE/NCE ratios was observed when THI was administered in combination with DXR. This study suggested the absence of THI genotoxicity that was dose-, time-, and gender-independent and the presence of moderate systemic toxicity that was dose-independent, but time- and gender-dependent. The combination of THI and DXR also suggested antigenotoxic effects, indicating that THI reduced genotoxic effects induced by chemotherapeutic agents.


Resumo Handroanthus impetiginosus tem sido usada durante um longo período pela medicina tradicional e vários estudos têm demonstrados a presença de compostos químicos e potencial fitoterapêutico. Esta pesquisa avaliou a genotoxicidade da tintura da casca liofilizada de H. impetiginosus (THI) usando o ensaio do micronúcleo em medula óssea de camundongos. A interação entre THI e os efeitos genotóxicos induzidos pelo quimioterápico doxorrubicina (DXR) também foram analisados. Grupos experimentais foram analisados a 24-48 h após o tratamento com N-Nitroso-N-etiluréia (NEU; 50 mg/kg), DXR (5 mg/kg), NaCl (150 mM) e THI (0,5-2 g/kg). O ensaio antigenotóxico foi conduzido utilizando THI (0,5 g/kg) em combinação com NEU ou DXR. A análise de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (EPCMNs) não mostrou diferenças significativas entre as doses de tratamento (0,5-2 g/kg) e NaCl. As proporções de eritrócitos policromáticos (EPC)/eritrócitos normocromáticos (ENC) não revelaram diferenças estatísticas entre DXR e THI ou NaCl, porém houve diferenças entre THI e NaCl. Uma redução significativa em EPCMNs e na razão EPC/ENC foi observada quando THI foi administrado em combinação com DXR. Essa pesquisa sugere ausência de genotoxicidade de THI, dose-, tempo- e sexo-independente, e moderada toxicidade sistêmica dose-independente, mas tempo- e sexo-dependente. A associação do THI e DXR também sugere efeitos antigenotóxicos. Por conseguinte, THI pode reduzir os efeitos genotóxicos induzidos pelo quimioterapêutico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , DNA Damage/drug effects , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Bone Marrow Cells/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Doxorubicin/toxicity , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Micronucleus Tests , Cells, Cultured , Tabebuia/chemistry
16.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2657-2662, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886836

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the high consumption of sucrose on the levels of DNA damage in blood, hippocampus and bone marrow of rats. Male Wistar rats were treated for 4 months with sucrose (10% for 60 initial days and 34% for the following 60 days) in drinking water, and then, glycemia and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) were measured. Levels of DNA damage in blood and hippocampus were evaluated by the comet assay. The micronucleus test was used to evaluate chromosomal damages in the bone marrow. The sucrose treatment significantly increased (p<0.01) the serum glucose levels (~20%) and A1C (~60%). The level of primary DNA damage was significantly increased (p<0.05) in hippocampal cells (~60%) but not in peripheral blood leukocytes (p>0.05). Additionally, it was observed a significative increase (p<0.05) in the markers of chromosomal breaks/losses in bone marrow, as indicated by the micronucleus test. This is the first study that evaluated DNA damage induced by high sucrose concentration in the hippocampus and bone marrow of rats. Sucrose-induced DNA damage was observed in both tissues. However, the mechanism of sucrose toxicity on DNA remains unknown.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Bone Marrow/drug effects , DNA Damage , Hippocampus/drug effects , Bone Marrow/pathology , Micronucleus Tests , Rats, Wistar , Dietary Sucrose/adverse effects , Comet Assay , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/pathology
17.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 39(3): 275-282, July-Sept. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-859951

ABSTRACT

The Brazilian semiarid region presents some adverse environmental conditions for the settled population such as a restricted water availability and the presence of radon and metal natural sources that can contaminate the water reservoirs and consequently become a concern for human health. The present study evaluated the water quality of the Riacho das Cachoeiras Dam located in the urban area of Lajes Pintadas (state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil) as source for human consumption. An analysis of Physicochemical parameters, heavy metal content and Radon in water samples was performed along with the assessment of the water mutagenic potential through Micronucleus Test (MN) on Tradescantia pallida and Oreochromis niloticus. The content of metals in water for Al, Cd, and Ni were above water quality guidelines for human consumption. Moreover, high levels of Pb along with dissolved Radon were found. An acute and chronic mutagenic water capability was observed. These findings demonstrated that the water quality is unsuitable for human consumption due to the presence of high levels of contaminants mainly from geogenic origin and its deleterious effect on living systems.


A região semiárida brasileira apresenta condições ambientais adversas para população local, como a escassez na disponibilidade de água e a presença de fontes naturais de radônio e de metais que podem contaminar os reservatórios de água e, consequentemente, tornar-se um problema de saúde humana. O estudo avaliou a qualidade da água do Açude do Riacho das Cachoeiras localizado na área urbana de Lajes Pintadas (Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil) como fonte para o consumo humano. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas, de conteúdo de metais e de radônio em amostras de água em conjunto com a avaliação do potencial mutagênico da água por meio do teste de micronúcleos (MN) em Tradescantia pallida e Oreochromis niloticus. Os metais Al, Cd, e Ni estavam acima das diretrizes de qualidade da água para o consumo humano. Além disso, foram encontrados altos níveis de Pb dissolvido, juntamente com o radônio. Observou -se um potencial de indução de efeito mutagênico nas amostras de água testadas, tanto na exposição aguda quanto na crônica. Estes resultados demonstram que a qualidade da água do Açude está imprópria para o consumo humano devido à presença de elevados níveis de contaminantes de origem geogênica, com capacidade de exercer efeito deletério sobre os organismos.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollution , Lead , Micronucleus Tests , Mutagenicity Tests , Radiation , Semi-Arid Zone , Water Quality
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 405-414, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-897551

ABSTRACT

ResumenLa producción agrícola de monocultivo permanente de banano y plátano en la parte media del Río Grande (Turbo - Antioquia) requiere de la aplicación de diferentes plaguicidas. Prácticas inapropiadas en la producción y cultivos de plátano realizadas en esta región a menudo conllevan a contaminación con agroquímicos que llegan a este cuerpo de agua por procesos de lixiviación y escorrentía. Los peces son los vertebrados más utilizados como especies bioindicadoras de la calidad del agua porque son muy sensibles a la presencia de contaminantes en el ambiente. El objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar la frecuencia de eritrocitos micronucleados (EMN) en sangre periférica de ejemplares de peces sabaleta (Brycon henni) procedentes de dos estaciones del Río Grande que difieren en su grado de contaminación por agroquímicos. Se evaluó la frecuencia de EMN en sangre periférica de peces B. henni procedentes de cada estación durante dos épocas de lluvia de 2010 y dos época secas de 2011. Las muestras de sangre fueron obtenidas de la vena caudal, fijadas durante 24 horas y luego teñidas con Giemsa. La frecuencia de EMN fue significativamente mayor en el área impactada por agroquímicos. La frecuencia media de EMN fue mayor en la estación con impacto directo de agroquímicos (0.15±0.18) que en la estación poco alterada (0.06±0.08). Además, la frecuencia de EMN en B. henni fue significativamente mayor en la época seca. Los resultados de este estudio indican que el análisis de las EMN en B. henni puede ser recomendada como un método adecuado para la detección in situ de agentes genotóxicos en el ambiente.


Abstract:The permanent monoculture of bananas and plantains farming in the middle of Río Grande (Turbo - Antioquia) requires the application of a variety of pesticides. Inappropriate banana production practices in this region, have often led to waterbody pollution by agrochemicals from leachate and runoff processes. Currently, fish are the most common vertebrates used as bioindicators of water quality, because they are very sensitive to the presence of contaminants. Our main goal with this study was to compare the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in peripheral blood specimens of fish Brycon henni, from two locations (polluted and unpolluted) in the Rio Grande. We evaluated the frequency of MNE in peripheral blood samples of fish B. henni from each location during two rainy seasons in 2010 and two dry seasons in 2011. Blood samples were collected, fixed for 24 h, and then were stained with Giemsa. Among results, we found that the median frequency of MNE was higher in the polluted site by agrochemical discharges (0.15±0.18), than in the unimpacted site (0.06±0.08). Furthermore, the frequency of MNE in B. henni during the dry season was highly significant for both locations. The results of this study indicated that the analysis of MNE in B. henni could be recommended as a suitable method for in situ detection of environmental genotoxins. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 405-414. Epub 2017 March 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Water Pollution, Chemical/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Rivers/chemistry , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Characidae/blood , Pesticides/toxicity , Seasons , Time Factors , Micronucleus Tests , Colombia , Statistics, Nonparametric
19.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 231-236, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101376

ABSTRACT

Among three representative species of Angelica found in Asian countries, including Korea, China, and Japan, Angelica acutiloba (AA) has been used as traditional herbal medicine with antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and anti-diabetes activities. In this study, the potential genotoxicity and mutagenicity of the AA extract were examined in a battery of in vitro and in vivo tests (bacterial reverse mutation assay, in vitro chromosomal aberrations assay, and in vivo micronucleus assay) in accordance with the test guidelines for toxicity testing developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Upon testing in the bacterial mutation assay (Ames test) using five Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535 and TA1537, no significant increase the number of revertant colonies in the metabolic activation system and non-activation system was noted in the AA extract groups. Also, in the chromosome aberration test, the AA extract did not cause chromosomal aberration with or without metabolic activation by S9 mix. A bone marrow micronucleus test of mice demonstrated that the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the AA extract groups (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg BW) was equivalent to that of the negative control group. Based on these results from a standard battery of assays, the AA extract was concluded to have no genotoxic at the proper dose.


Subject(s)
Activation, Metabolic , Angelica , Animals , Asians , Bone Marrow , China , Chromosome Aberrations , Erythrocytes , Herbal Medicine , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Incidence , Japan , Korea , Medicine, Traditional , Mice , Micronucleus Tests , Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development , Salmonella typhimurium , Toxicity Tests
20.
Anon.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 24(3): 193-199, dic. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-837866

ABSTRACT

O Rio dos Sinos está localizado na região sul do Brasil, possui aproximadamente 190 km de extensão e fornece água para atividades agrícolas, industriais e para o consumo de mais de um milhão de habitantes. Este rio é considerado um dos mais poluídos do Brasil e, portanto, estudos para avaliar a qualidade da água ao longo de sua extensão são necessários. O teste de micronúcleos em eritrócitos de peixes tem sido utilizado com sucesso para detectar a presença de poluentes mutagênicos nos ambientes aquáticos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a qualidade da água do Rio dos Sinos por meio do teste de micronúcleos em Cyprinus carpio bem como de análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas. Foram coletadas amostras de água nos trechos superior (Caraá), médio (Parobé) e inferior (Novo Hamburgo) do Rio dos Sinos em dezembro de 2013. As amostras foram transportadas para o laboratório para análise de 14 parâmetros de qualidade da água bem como para a exposição de espécimes de C. carpio por 72h em aquários. Não foram verificadas diferenças significativas na frequência de micronúcleos e anormalidades nucleares nos grupos expostos a água do rio em comparação ao grupo controle. Apenas um parâmetro de qualidade da água foi observado em desacordo com a legislação no trecho superior do rio, enquanto que nos trechos médio e inferior foram seis e cinco parâmetros, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que o Rio dos Sinos apresenta redução da qualidade da água ao longo de sua extensão e indicam ausência de potencial genotóxico no período amostrado.


The Sinos River is located in South of Brazil, it has about 190 km of extension and provides water for agricultural and industrial activities, and for consumption of more than one million inhabitants. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil; therefore, studies aiming to evaluate the water quality along its course are necessary. The micronucleus test in fish erythrocytes has been successful used to detect mutagenic pollutants in the aquatic environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the water quality of the Sinos River by the micronucleus test in Cyprinus carpio, as well as physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Water samples were collected in the upper (Caraá municipality), middle (Parobé municipality) and lower (Novo Hamburgo municipality) sections of the Sinos River, in December 2013. The samples were transported to the laboratory for analysis of 14 water quality parameters and for exposure of C. carpio for 72 hours in aquaria. Significant differences in micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities frequencies were not found between the control and the exposed groups. Only one parameter of water quality exceeded the limit of the legislation in the upper section of the river, while in the middle and lower sections, six and five parameters, respectively. These results show that the Sinos River presents a reduction in water quality along its extension and indicates the absence of genotoxic potential in the sampled period.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carps/abnormalities , Micronucleus Tests/statistics & numerical data , Rivers/microbiology , Water Quality , Brazil/epidemiology , Genotoxicity/analysis , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Chemical Phenomena/methods , River Pollution/analysis , Water Samples
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